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1.
S. Afr. med. j ; 112(2): 102-107, 2022.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1358375

ABSTRACT

Background. Bloodstream infections are an important cause of mortality in children. Blood cultures (BCs) remain the primary means of identifying organisms and their antibiotic susceptibility profiles. A shortcoming of BCs is that up to 56% of positive cultures will represent contaminants. Poor adherence to standard practices applicable to BC sampling could explain an unacceptable contamination rate. Objectives. To determine: (i) the BC contamination rate in the departments of paediatrics and child health at two tertiary hospitals in central South Africa; and (ii) BC sampling practices among paediatric clinicians. Methods. The author determined the prevalence of BC contamination by analysis of laboratory data for the period 1 May - 27 August 2019, and assessed possible factors contributing to BC contamination by surveying paediatric medical staff with a self-administered BC practices questionnaire. Results. Of the 244 BCs reviewed, 25.4% were positive. The most commonly isolated pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (33.3%), Escherichia coli (22.2%), Enterococcus faecium (16.7%) and Acinetobacter baumannii (11.1%). In total, 15.2% of the BCs yielded contaminants and 2.9% had polymicrobial growth. The most common contaminant was CoNS. Approximately 68% of clinicians were not aware of BC sampling guidelines, and even among those who were aware of the guidelines, non-compliance was reported. Conclusions. The BC contamination rate was higher than internationally accepted rates. Educating clinicians on specific BC sampling guidelines is strongly recommended to decrease the high rate of contamination observed in this study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Pediatrics , Blood , Child Health , Blood Culture , Blood Safety , Tertiary Care Centers
2.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(3): 1-8, 30 de diciembre del 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352439

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La identificación de los microorganismos patógenos es un elemento clave la toma de decisiones clínicas y de formulación de estrategias para la prevención y control de los procesos infecciosos que aquejan a la población pediátrica. El objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar un perfil epidemiológico microbiológico en un hospital pediátrico de Quito-Ecuador. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio observacional retrospectivo de informes microbiológicos de niños atendidos en el Hospital Gineco-Obstétrico Pediátrico Luz Elena Arismendi de Quito entre enero y diciembre del año 2020. Resultados: Ingresaron al estudio 102 reportes de cultivos positivos de la población pediátrica. Enterococcus faecalis 16/102 casos (15.69%), Staphylococcus aureus 16/102 casos (15.69%), Escherichia coli 14/102 casos (13.72%), Klebsiella pneumonia 13/102 casos (12.75%), Staphylococcus epidermidis 13/102 casos (12.75%) explicaron la mayor prevalencia del grupo. Los meses de mayores reportes microbiólógicos fueron Junio y Noviembre. Fueron 51 hemocultivos positivos, 14 por Enterococcus faecalis, 10 por Staphylococcus aureus 10 casos, Diversas morfmorfologías coagulasa 9 casos. A nivel de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron 11 reportes positivos con una prevalencia de Staphylococcus epidermidis en 7 casi y Staphylococcus aures en 4 casos. A nivel de urocultivos 12 casos fueron positivos, Escherichia coli 4 casos, Klebsiella oxytoca 3 casos y Klebsiella pneumoniae 3 casos. Conclusión: El presente reporte tiene similitudes con reportes latinoamericanos en prevalencia de Staphylococcus y Escherichia coli. Se requiere continuidad en ente reporte. No existieron casos multiresistentes


Introduction: The identification of pathogenic microorganisms is a key element in making clinical decisions and formulating strategies for the prevention and control of infectious processes that affect the pediatric population. The objective of the present study was to carry out a microbiological epidemiological profile in a pediatric hospital in Quito-Ecuador. Methods: This is a retrospective observational study of microbiological reports of children treated at the Luz Elena Arismendi Pediatric Gyneco-Obstetric Hospital in Quito between January and December 2020. Results: A total of 102 reports of positive cultures from the pediatric population were included in the study. Enterococcus faecalis 16/102 cases (15.69%), Staphylococcus aureus 16/102 cases (15.69%), Escherichia coli 14/102 cases (13.72%), Klebsiella pneumonia 13/102 cases (12.75%), and Staphylococcus epidermidis 13/102 cases (12.75%) explained the higher prevalence of the group. The months with the highest microbiological reports were June and November. There were 51 positive blood cultures, 14 for Enterococcus faecalis, 10 for Staphylococcus aureus, 10 cases, and 9 cases of various coagulase morphologies. At the level of cerebrospinal fluid, there were 11 positive reports with a prevalence of Staphylococcus epidermidis in almost 7 cases and Staphylococcus aureus in 4 cases. At the level of urine cultures, 12 cases were positive: Escherichia coli, 4 cases; Klebsiella oxytoca, 3 cases; and Klebsiella pneumoniae, 3 cases. Conclusion: This report has similarities with Latin American reports in the prevalence of Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli. Continuity is required in the entire report. There were no multi-resistant cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Microbiological Techniques , Blood Culture , Epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Urine Specimen Collection
3.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(3): 252-257, 20210930. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368619

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Avaliar a prevalência de bactérias não fermentadoras em amostras de hemoculturas provenientes das Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI's) adulto e neonatal e da Unidade Coronariana (UC); definir o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos das cepas bacterianas prevalentes. Métodos: Foram coletados dados de todas as hemoculturas positivas das UTIs Adulto, Neonatal e UC de um hospital privado, em Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de janeiro de 2017 a janeiro de 2019. Resultados: Foram analisados 3.535 resultados de amostras de hemoculturas onde 2.464 (69,7%) foram negativas e 1.071 (30,3%) positivas para algum microrganismo. Dentre as amostras positivas foram encontrados 77 bastonetes Gram-negativos não fermentadores (6,9%), com a prevalência de Acinetobacter baumannii (51,9%) seguido de Pseudomonas aeruginosa (32,5%). As cepas de A. baumannii foram resistentes aos carbapenêmicos e às quinolonas. Quanto às cepas de P. aeruginosa, as drogas testadas que apresentaram maior resistência foram a ampicilina, ampicilina com tazobactam, as cefalosporinas de segunda e terceira geração, exceto ceftazidima; e a tigeciclina. As drogas que apresentaram boa atividade na inibição do crescimento das cepas analisadas foram tigeciclina para A. baumannii e colistina para ambas as cepas. Conclusão: o presente estudo alerta para a resistência a múltiplas classes de antimicrobianos das cepas advindas das UTIs e UC, demonstrando um cenário preocupante e a necessidade de desenvolvimento de novas drogas e novas medidas de controle.


Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of non-fermenting bacteria in blood culture samples from the adult and neonatal intensive care units (ICUs) and the Coronary Care Unit (UC); define the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of prevalent bacterial strains. Methods: Data were collected on all positive blood cultures from the Adult, Neonatal and UC ICUs of a private hospital in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from January 2017 to January 2019. Results: 3535 results of blood culture samples were analyzed, where 2464 (69.7%) were negative and 1071 (30.3%) positive for some microorganism. Among the positive samples, 77 non-fermenting Gram negative rods (6.9%) were found, with the prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii (51.9%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (32.5%). A. baumannii strains were resistant to carbapenems and quinolones. As for strains of P. aeruginosa, the drugs tested that showed greater resistance were ampicillin, ampicillin with tazobactam, second and third generation of cephalosporins, except ceftazidime; and tigecycline. The drugs that showed good activity in inhibiting the growth of the strains analyzed were tigecycline for A. baumannii and colistin for both strains. Conclusion: the present study warns of resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobial strains from the ICUs and UC, demonstrating a worrying scenario and the need to develop new drugs and new control measures.


Subject(s)
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Sepsis , Blood Culture , Drug Resistance, Microbial
4.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 11(2): [1-13], abr.-jun. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362763

ABSTRACT

Justification and Objectives: Circulating blood is sterile and the presence of microorganisms can be of clinical interest, especially in the hospital environment, being able to cause infectious processes and substantially increase morbidity and mortality. The objective of this work was to characterize the isolates of the genus Staphylococcus spp. from bloodstream infections as to the production of bacterial biofilm and resistance to the main antimicrobials used in clinical practice. Methods: Blood cultures were collected with an indication of positivity for bacterial growth from multiple sectors of the study hospital, which were subsequently processed to identify the bacterial genus through the use of phenotypic tests for Gram positive bacteria. The verification of the resistance profile was performed following the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion. The identification of the production and quantification of the bacterial biofilm occurred following the protocol described by O'toole (2010). Results: The most frequent clinical isolate was Coagulase negative Staphylococci 38 (54.29%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus 32 (45.71%). Resistance to erythromycin, norfloxacin, levofloxacin and azithromycin was observed in most isolates (70%). Regarding methicillin, more MRSA (59.38%) than MR-CONS (47.37%) were isolated. The ICU was the place where the formation of the biofilm showed indicative data of greater adherence, which was associated with MRSA strains. Conclusion: The bacterial isolates associated with bloodstream infections showed high resistance to antimicrobials. The presence of MRSA and MR-CONS with strong and/or moderate biofilm production capacity represents a greater risk to the health of patients affected by infections caused by these agents.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: O sangue circulante é estéril e a presença de microrganismos pode ter interesse clínico, especialmente no ambiente hospitalar, sendo capaz de causar processos infecciosos e aumentar substancialmente a morbimortalidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar os isolados do gênero Staphylococcus spp. oriundos de infecções de corrente sanguínea quanto à produção de biofilme bacteriano e resistência aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados na prática clínica. Métodos: Foram coletadas hemoculturas com indicação de positividade para o crescimento bacteriano de múltiplos setores do hospital de estudo, as quais posteriormente foram processadas para identificação do gênero bacteriano através da utilização de testes fenotípicos para bactérias Gram positivas. A verificação do perfil de resistência foi realizada seguindo a metodologia de disco difusão de Kirby-Bauer. A identificação da produção e quantificação do biofilme bacteriano ocorreu seguindo o protocolo descrito por O'toole (2010). Resultados: O isolado clínico mais frequente foi o Staphylococcus coagulase negativo 38 (54,29%), seguido pelo Staphylococcus aureus 32 (45,71%). A resistência à eritromicina, norfloxacina, levofloxacina e azitromicina foi observada na maioria dos isolados (70%). Em relação à meticilina, foram isolados mais Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA) (59,38%) que Staphylococcus coagulase negativa resistente à meticilina (MR-CONS) (47,37%). A UTI foi o local onde a formação do biofilme apresentou dados indicativos de maior aderência, sendo essa associada às cepas MRSA. Conclusão: Os isolados bacterianos associados às infecções da corrente sanguínea apresentaram elevada resistência aos antimicrobianos. A presença de MRSA e MR-CONS com forte e/ou moderada capacidade de produção de biofilme representa maior risco à saúde dos pacientes acometidos por infecções causadas por estes agentes.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: la sangre circulante es estéril y la presencia de microorganismos puede ser de interés clínico, especialmente en el entorno hospitalario, ya que puede causar procesos infecciosos y aumentar sustancialmente la morbilidad y la mortalidad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar los aislamientos del género Staphylococcus spp. de infecciones del torrente sanguíneo en cuanto a la producción de biopelículas bacterianas y la resistencia a los principales antimicrobianos utilizados en la práctica clínica. Métodos: Se recogieron hemocultivos con una indicación de positividad para el crecimiento bacteriano de múltiples sectores del hospital de estudio, que posteriormente se procesaron para identificar el género bacteriano mediante el uso de pruebas fenotípicas para bacterias Gram positivas. La verificación del perfil de resistencia se realizó siguiendo la metodología de difusión de disco de Kirby-Bauer. La identificación de la producción y cuantificación de la biopelícula bacteriana se produjo siguiendo el protocolo descrito por O'toole (2010). Resultados: El aislado clínico más frecuente fue Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo 38 (54.29%), seguido de Staphylococcus aureus 32 (45.71%). Se observó resistencia a la eritromicina, norfloxacina, levofloxacina y azitromicina en la mayoría de los aislamientos (70%). Con respecto a la meticilina, se aislaron más MRSA (59,38%) que MR-CONS (47,37%). La UCI fue el lugar donde la formación de la biopelícula mostró datos indicativos de una mayor adherencia, que se asoció con las cepas de MRSA. Conclusión: los aislamientos bacterianos asociados con infecciones del torrente sanguíneo mostraron una alta resistencia a los antimicrobianos. La presencia de MRSA y MR-CONS con una capacidad de producción de biopelículas fuerte y / o moderada representa un mayor riesgo para la salud de los pacientes afectados por infecciones causadas por estos agentes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Biofilms , Blood Culture , Anti-Infective Agents , Cross Infection
5.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(3): 129-134, 20210000. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1359534

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad por arañazo de gato (EAG) es una zoonosis emergente causada por Bartonella henselae. Puede presentarse de forma atípica, incluyendo meningitis, neuroretinitis, endocarditis y compromiso hepatoesplénico, lo cual es poco frecuente en adultos inmunocompetentes. Su manejo terapéutico es controvertido dada la ausencia de ensayos aleatorizados al respecto. Se describen 5 casos de EAG con compromiso hepato-esplénico, donde la correcta anamnesis epidemiológica permitió la sospecha diagnóstica, evitando la realización de procedimientos invasivos en la mayoría de los casos. La posibilidad de realización de PCR y serología para Bartonella spp. fueron de vital importancia


Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an emerging zoonosis caused by Bartonella henselae. It can occur atypically including meningitis, neuroretinitis, endocarditis and hepatosplenic involvement, a rare occurrence in immunocompetent adults. Therapeutic management is controversial, supported by case series and retrospective data published literature. Five cases of CSD with hepatosplenic involvement are described. The correct clinical and epidemiological anamnesis allow the diagnostic and avoid the performance of invasive procedures in most cases. The possibility of performing Bartonella spp PCR and serology is crucial


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Cat-Scratch Disease/diagnosis , Cat-Scratch Disease/therapy , Ultrasonography , Immunocompromised Host , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Blood Culture , Duration of Therapy , Liver Abscess/therapy
6.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(2): e3675, mar.-abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251797

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Endocarditis infecciosa sigue desafiando a la Medicina moderna a pesar de no ser una entidad frecuente. Objetivo: Se presenta un caso con una lesión valvular previa no diagnosticada antes, y sin síntomas, y que se consideró el diagnóstico tempranamente de endocarditis en el nivel hospitalario. Presentación del caso: Paciente de 20 años, mujer, con antecedentes de salud referidos, fumadora. Ingresa en sala del Servicio de Medicina el 21 de enero de 2020 por fiebres que se mantienen todo el día de 38-38,50 C, con picos que alcanzan los 400 C con escalofríos en determinados momentos. Desde hace un mes presenta esta sintomatología. Ruidos cardiacos rítmicos, taquicárdicos, de buena intensidad. Clic sistólico con arrastre sistólico fuerte de regurgitación IV/VI audible en foco mitral con frémito que se irradia a la axila, anemia, VSG acelerada, leucocitosis con desviación izquierda, hemocultivos negativos y en ecocardiograma prolapso de válvula mitral, valva anterior y posterior, con regurgitación que ocupa toda la aurícula izquierda hasta el techo de la misma. Múltiples vegetaciones en cara auricular de valva posterior de válvula mitral, la mayor de 7 x 3 mm. Conclusiones: El método clínico es fundamental en el proceso diagnóstico en la práctica clínica secundado por los medios diagnósticos como en la enfermedad que nos ocupa(AU)


Introduction: Infective endocarditis continues to be a great challenge for modern medicine although it is not a frequent entity. Objective: We present a case of an undiagnosed previous valve lesion without symptoms. The early diagnosis of endocarditis was made at the hospital level. Case Presentation: A 20-year-old woman, smoker, with previous history of good health was admitted to the medical ward on January 21, 2020. The patient reported continuous fever (38-38,50 C) throughout the day, with spikes up to 400 C and intermittent chills. She has been having these symptoms for a month. Rhythmic heart sounds and high intensity tachycardia and systolic click with strong systolic displacement of regurgitation grade IV/VI audible in mitral area with fremitus radiating to the armpit were heard. Anemia, accelerated ESR, leukocytosis with left deviation, and negative blood cultures were confirmed. The echocardiogram showed a mitral valve prolapse with regurgitation of anterior and posterior valves that occupies all the left atrium until its top. There was multiple vegetation in the atrial side of the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve; the greatest is 7 x 3 mm. Conclusions: The clinical method is essential in the diagnostic process performed in clinical practice supported by diagnostic means, as in the current case(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Mitral Valve Prolapse/diagnosis , Mitral Valve Prolapse/prevention & control , Early Diagnosis , Endocarditis/diagnosis , Blood Culture/methods
7.
Oncol. (Guayaquil) ; 31(1): 75-85, Abril 30, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222727

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La neutropenia febril es una complicación que predispone a infecciones bacterianas de etiología diversa y aumenta la mortalidad en los pacientes con leucemia. El objetivo general del presente trabajo determinó la frecuencia de la etiología bacteriana, en los objetivos específicos se cuantificó en porcentaje los tipos de bacterias encontradas, se identificó la susceptibilidad y la resistencia antimicrobiana, además de sus infecciones, se estableció los factores de alto riesgo de mal pronóstico más frecuentes. Métodos: En el presente descriptivo de tipo transversal se revisaron historias clínicas del servicio de oncología clínica del Instituto Oncológico Nacional "Dr. Juan Tanca Marengo" Solca_Guayquil. El período estudio fue del 1ro de enero del 2013 al 31 de diciembre del 2014. El cálculo muestral fue probabilístico de 60 casos. Se incluyeron pacientes con leucemia en curso de quimioterapia y que evolucionaron con leucopenia febril, adicionalmente se incluyeron los pacientes con focos infecciosos evidentes y cultivos positivos. Las variables fueron demográficas características clínicas de la leucemia, estudio bacteriológico, tratamiento antibiótico y comorbilidades. Se utiliza estadística descriptiva. Resultados: Ingresaron al estudio 58 pacientes, fueron 30/58 mujeres (51%). La mayoría con edades de 17 a 20 años 15/58 casos (25.9%). 35/58 casos (60%) correspondieron a leucemias linfobásticas y 23/58 casos (40%) a miloides. El foco infeccioso más frecuentemente fue gastrointestinal 18 %(n=27), la piel y tejidos blandos con un 17 %(n=26). Se realizaron 98 cultivos, con el 52% de culti-vos positivos, 25 % BLEE, 4% BLAC. La etiología fue E. Coli 26% aislada de sangre. La sensibilidad fue 100 % amikacina, 100 %, imipenem ,100 meropenem, 100 % tigeciclina, 90 % piperazilina tazobactam, 18 %, cefepime, 50% clindamicina y 50% oxacilina. El máximo tiempo de neutropenia fue 30 días, con una mediana de neutrófilos 230 u/ul, con un promedio de 3 días de fiebre. Los factores de riesgo fueron 17% desnutrición ,15% hepatopatías %, 6% hipertensión y diabetes. Conclusiones: La etiología bacteriana más frecuente fue E. Coli. Existe una sensibilidad antibiótica baja para los gram negativos en todas las cefalosporinas de primera hasta cuarta generación en los antibiogramas del estudio. Hay un perfil de baja resistencia a los antibióticos carbapenémicos junto a amikacina con piperacilina tazobactam. La vancomicina y el linezolid no tienen resistencia bacteriana la presentación etológica para gram positivos, el más prevalente fue el estafilococo aureus meticilino resistente tipo BLAC.


Introduction: Febrile neutropenia is a complication that predisposes to bacterial infections of diverse etiology and increases mortality in patients with leukemia. The general objective of this work determined the frequency of bacterial etiology, in the specific objectives the types of bacteria found were quantified in percentage, susceptibility and antimicrobial resistance were identified, in addition to their infections, factors were established high risk of poor prognosis more frequent. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional type, clinical records of the clinical oncology service of the National Oncological Institute "Dr. Juan Tanca Marengo "Solca_Guayquil. The study period was from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014. The sample calculation was probabilistic of 60 cases. Patients with leukemia undergoing chemotherapy and who evolved with febrile leukopenia were included, additionally patients with obvious infectious foci and positive cultures were included. The variables were demographic, clinical characteristics of the leukemia, bacteriological study, antibiotic treatment, and comorbidities. Descriptive statistics are used. Results: 58 patients entered the study, 30/58 were women (51%). The majority aged 17 to 20 years 15/58 cases (25.9%). 35/58 cases (60%) corresponded to lymphoblastic leukemias and 23/58 cases (40%) to myloids. The most frequent infectious focus was gastrointestinal 18% (n = 27), skin and soft tissues with 17% (n = 26). 98 cultures were performed, with 52% positive cultures, 25% ESBL, 4% BLAC. The etiology was E. Coli 26% isolated from blood. The sensitivity was 100% amika-cin, 100%, imipenem, 100 meropenem, 100% tigecycline, 90% tazobactam piperazilin, 18%, ce-fepime, 50% clindamycin, and 50% oxacillin. The maximum time of neutropenia was 30 days, with a neutrophil average of 230 u / ul, with an average of 3 days of fever. The risk factors were 17% malnutrition, 15% liver disease, 6% hypertension and diabetes. Conclusions: The most frequent bacterial etiology was E. Coli. There is a low antibiotic sensitivity for gram negatives in all first through fourth generation cephalosporins in the study antibiograms. There is a profile of low resistance to carbapenemic antibiotics together with amikacin with piperacillin tazobactam. Vancomycin and linezolid do not have bacterial resistance in the ethological presentation for gram positives, the most prevalent was methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus BLAC type.


Subject(s)
Leukemia , Chemotherapy-Induced Febrile Neutropenia , Blood Culture , Febrile Neutropenia , Neutropenia
8.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(1): 69-73, 20210330. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291554

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: A sepse está envolvida com as principais causas de morbidade e mortalidade em pacientes internados em unidades hospitalares. Esses pacientes são vulneráveis a esse tipo de infecção devido a vários fatores como tempo de internamento, procedimentos invasivos, infecções recorrentes e terapias prolongadas por uso de antibióticos. Portanto, este estudo teve como objetivo identificar o perfil microbiológico e de resistência nas hemoculturas positivas de pacientes internados no Pronto-Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco (Procape) no ano de 2017. Métodos: Foram analisadas hemoculturas do período de janeiro a dezembro de 2017. As amostras de hemoculturas foram processadas no equipamento de automação BACT/ALERT® 3D sistemas de detecção microbiana e depois identificada pelo Vitek 2 compact da Biomerieux®. Resultados: Do total de 3.323 amostras de hemoculturas enviadas ao Laboratório do Hospital, foi verificada a prevalência de positividade de 120 (3,62%), das quais houve a prevalência de K. pneumoniae 18 (15%), seguido de S. haemolyticus 17 (14,16%), logo após, S. epidermidis 16 (13,33%). Várias bactérias apresentaram perfil de multirresistência como E. cloacae, A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus e Staphylococcus coagulase negativa. Conclusão: Os resultados demonstraram a presença de bactérias resistentes e multirresistentes, com diferentes perfis de resistência. É importante conhecer o perfil de resistência bacteriano, visando o tratamento adequado de pacientes com quadro de sepse, prevenindo infecções hospitalares.


Objective: Sepsis is involved with the main causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. These patients are vulnerable to this type of infection due to various factors such as length of stay, invasive procedures, recurrent infections, and antibiotic therapy prolonged. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the microbiological and resistance profile in positive blood cultures of patients admitted to the Cardiac Emergency of Pernambuco (Procape) in 2017. Methods: Blood cultures from January to December 2017 were analyzed. Blood cultures were processed on BactT/Alert® 3D automation equipment, microbial detection systems and then identified by Biomerieux® Vitek 2 compact. Results: From a total of 3,323 blood culture samples sent to the Hospital Laboratory, the prevalence of positivity of 120 (3.62%) samples was verified, of which there was the prevalence of K. pneumoniae 18 (15%), followed for S. haemolyticus 17 (14.16%), shortly after, S. epidermidis 16 (13.33%). Several bacteria showed multiresistance profile such as E. cloacae, A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conclusion: Results demonstrated the presence of resistant and multiresistant bacteria, with different resistance profiles. It is important to know bacterial resistance profile, aiming at the adequate treatment of patients with sepsis, preventing hospital infections.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Sepsis , Blood Culture
9.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 80(Único): 1-8, dez. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1359216

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus spp. vem ganhando destaque em infecções na corrente sanguínea (ICS), apresentando alta prevalência, multirresistência e considerável poder de letalidade. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a prevalência e traçar o perfil de sensibilidade das espécies de Staphylococcus spp. isoladas de amostras de hemoculturas positivas obtidas de um hospital de atenção terciária da rede pública do Ceará, no período de janeiro de 2015 a dezembro de 2018. Dos 3292 exames de hemocultura realizados, apenas 15,88% tiveram resultado positivo, dos quais 24,85% eram cocos Gram positivos. S. aureus representou 1,53% das hemoculturas positivas com 50% das cepas resistentes à oxacilina. Os isolados de Staphylococcus sp. coagulase negativo obtiveram prevalência de 10,89%, representados por: S. epidermidis (n=23), S. haemolyticus (n=17), S. hominis (n=13), S. saprophyticus (n=2) e S. warneri (n=2). Verificou-se multirresistência em diversos isolados analisados, apresentando variações intra e interespécies. Portanto, nossos achados melhoram o entendimento da epidemiologia das ICS causadas por Staphylococcus spp., na instituição de estudo, bem como seu perfil de sensibilidade. A identificação precoce do agente infeccioso auxilia na escolha adequada do tratamento, aumentando as chances de cura e reduzindo o tempo de internação do paciente. (AU)


Staphylococcus spp. has been highlighted among bloodstream infections (BI), presenting high prevalence, multidrug resistance and considerable lethality. The present study aimed to analyze the prevalence and the susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from positive blood cultures from a tertiary care public hospital of Ceará, from January 2015 to December 2018. Of the 3292 blood cultures performed during this period, only 15.88% were positive, of which 24.85% were Gram positive cocci. S. aureus represented 1.53% of positive blood cultures, of which 50% were oxacilin resistant. Isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. showed a prevalence of 10.89%, represented by: S. epidermidis (n = 23), S. haemolyticus (n = 17), S. hominis (n = 13), S. saprophyticus (n = 2) and S. warneri (n = 2). Multiresistance occurrence was verified in several of the analyzed isolates, presenting intra and inters species variations. Therefore, our findings improve the understanding of the epidemiology of BI caused by Staphylococcus spp. in the studied institution, as well as its susceptibility profile. Early identification of the infectious agent might aid in the appropriate choice of treatment, increasing the chance of cure and reducing the patient length stay in hospital. (AU)


Subject(s)
Staphylococcal Infections , Bacteremia , Blood Culture , Hospitals, Public , Anti-Infective Agents , Staphylococcus , Health Profile
10.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1): 93-103, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1352961

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades infecciosas son un problema de salud que a pesar de los avances médicos siguen cobrando vi-das en todo el mundo; como las septicemias. La presente investigación tuvo por objetivo diseñar, estandarizar e implementar un protocolo inexistente en Guatemala, para el diagnóstico rutinario de hemocultivos positivos dentro de las instalaciones del Laboratorio Clínico del Hospital General San Juan de Dios, lugar en donde se encuentra el único espectrómetro de masas de tipo Maldi-tof (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of flight-mass spectrometry).Se utilizaron 240 muestras de pacientes de los diferentes servicios. El diagnóstico se realizó compa-rando las identificaciones obtenidas a partir de cultivos microbiológicos puros con muestras directas de botellas con caldo BHI(Brain Heart Infusion).Los resultados de las dos metodologías fueron evaluados con el diseño estadístico "apareado o emparejado en grupo". La comparación no evidenció discordancia en las identificaciones; pero sí en los tiempos de respuesta. La reducción de tiempo fue de 42.9 h para bacterias Gram positivo, 45.0 h para bacterias Gram negativo y 126.2 h para levaduras, todos a favor de identificaciones a partir de muestras directas. Con esta investigación se pretende ofrecer una nueva alternativa que permitirá brindar un diagnóstico rápido, confiable y certero a la población guatemalteca. También permitirá reducir la morbimortalidad de los pacientes con septicemias, promover el ahorro de insumos hospitalarios, disminuir el tiempo de estancia hospitalaria, ahorrar el consumo de antibióticos innecesarios y contribuir indirectamente a combatir la resistencia antimicrobiana; un problema actual de gran importancia a nivel mundial.


Infectious diseases are a health problem that despite medical advances in terms of diagnosis continue to take lives worldwide, such is the case of sepsis. The purpose of this research was to design, standardize and implement a non-existent protocol in Guatemala, for the routine diagnosis of positive blood cultures, within the facilities of the clinical laboratory of the San Juan de Dios General Hospital; where the only Maldi-tof (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorp-tion Ionization-Time of flight-mass spectrometry) type mass spectrometer is located. For this, 240 samples of positive blood cultures were used, coming from patients of the different services. The microbiological diagnosis was made by comparing the identification data obtained from pure microbiological cultures and direct samples of BHI broth (Brain Heart Infusion) bottles. The results of the two methodologies were evaluated based on "paired or matched in groups" statistical design. The Maldi-tof technique did not show disagreement regarding identification between the two types of samples; but it did in the response time. The time reduction was 42.9 h for Gram positive bacteria, 45.0 h for Gram negative and 126.2 h for yeasts, supporting identification from direct samples. This research aims to provide a new diagnostic alternative that will allow access to fast, reliable, and accurate results for the Guatemalan population. It will also help to reduce e morbidity and mortality rates of patients with sepsis, to promote hospital supplies savings, decrease the patient length of stay, save unnecessary antibiotics and indirectly contribute to combating antimicrobial resistance; a critical problem faced by the world today.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization/instrumentation , Blood Culture/methods , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Sepsis/blood
11.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 17-26, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1145877

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: verificar a demanda de hemoculturas, aspirados traqueais e uroculturas realizadas no HU-UNIVASF/ EBSERH e a prevalência dos microrganismos identificados no período de janeiro a junho de 2016. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo documental com abordagem quantitativa. Resultados: o setor de microbiologia realizou 488 hemoculturas, 427 uroculturas e 197 aspirados traqueais. A positividade de hemoculturas mostrou-se entre 10,9 à 25,7%, e o percentual de contaminações variou de 6,8 à 14,0%. Os microrganismos mais prevalência nas hemoculturas foram Staphylococcus epidermidis (23,7%), Staphylococcus aureus (19,3%) e Klebisiella pneumoniae (9,6%). Nas uroculturas foram Klebisiella pneumoniae (23,1%), Candida sp. (13,5%) e Escherichia coli (12,5%). Nos aspirados traqueais foram Acinetobacter baumannii (29,2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26,6%) e Staphylococcus aureus (16,2%). Conclusão: a cultura mais solicitada foi hemocultura. A bactéria mais prevalente nas hemoculturas foi Staphylococcus epidermidis, nos aspirados traqueais Acinetobacter baumannii e nas uroculturas Klebisiella pneumoniae


Objective: the study's purpose has been to verify the demand for blood cultures, tracheal aspirates and urine cultures performed at a University Hospital from the Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco (HU-UNIVASF/EBSERH), as well as the predominance of microorganisms identified over the period from January to June 2016. Methods: it is a retrospective documentary study with a quantitative approach. Results: the microbiology sector carried out 488 blood cultures, 427 urine cultures and 197 tracheal aspirates. The positivity of blood cultures was between 10.9 and 25.7%, and the percentage of contaminations ranged from 6.8 to 14.0%. The most prevalent microorganisms in blood cultures were Staphylococcus epidermidis (23.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (19.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.6%). In urine cultures were Klebsiella pneumoniae (23.1%), Candida sp. (13.5%) and Escherichia coli (12.5%). In tracheal aspirates were Acinetobacter baumannii (29.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (16.2%). Conclusion: the most requested culture was blood culture. The most prevalent bacterium in blood cultures was Staphylococcus epidermidis, in tracheal aspirates was Acinetobacter baumannii, and in urine cultures was Klebsiella pneumoniae


Objetivo: el propósito del trabajo es verificar la demanda de hemocultivos, aspirados traqueales y urocultivos realizados en el Hospital Universitário de la Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco (HU-UNIVASF/ EBSERH) y la prevalencia de los microorganismos identificados en el período de enero a junio de 2016. Métodos: este trabajo es un estudio retrospectivo documental con abordaje cuantitativo. Resultados: el sector de microbiología realizó 488 hemocultivos, 427 urocultivos y 197 aspirados traqueales. La positividad de hemocultivos se mostró entre el 10,9 al 25,7%, y el porcentaje de contaminaciones varía de 6,8 a 14,0%. Los microorganismos más prevalentes en los hemocultivos fueron Staphylococcus epidermidis (23,7%), Staphylococcus aureus (19,3%) y Klebsiella pneumoniae (9,6%). En los urocultivos fueron Klebisiella pneumoniae (23,1%), Candida sp. (13,5%) y Escherichia coli (12,5%). En los aspirados traqueales fueron Acinetobacter baumannii (29,2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26,6%) y Staphylococcus aureus (16,2%). Conclusión: la cultura más solicitada fue hemocultivo. La bacteria más prevalente en los hemocultivos fue Staphylococcus epidermidis, en los aspirados traqueales, Acinetobacter baumannii y en los urocultivos, Klebisiella pneumoniae


Subject(s)
Urine/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Blood Culture , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Prevalence , Acinetobacter baumannii , Escherichia coli , Hospitals, University , Klebsiella pneumoniae
12.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(supl.6): 44-47, dic. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250318

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has strained the world's health systems, highlighting the need to optimize its clinical management and treatment. The usefulness of blood cultures in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia has not been proved. We aim to describe the diagnostic yield of early blood cultures in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in a public hospital in Buenos Aires City. This descriptive observational study included all adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the Internal Medicine ward of Hospital Durand between April 1, 2020 and July 30, 2020, who had blood cultures drawn within 5 days from hospital admission. Among 267 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia, 38 had early blood cultures drawn. No clinically relevant microorganism was isolated from blood and contaminant microorganisms were recovered in 7 (18.4%) patients. This study found no evidence of bacteremia in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Furthermore, the rate of contaminated blood cultures nearly doubles the reported in patients with community acquired pneumonia (10%), which may be explained by unfamiliarity of additional personal protective equipment worn by healthcare workers. Our results advocate against the routine indication of blood cultures upon admission to the Internal Medicine Ward of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. We suggest that blood cultures could only be useful in case of clinical deterioration or suspected hospital-acquired infection.


Resumen La pandemia por COVID-19 ha puesto en jaque a los sistemas de salud del mundo, priorizando la necesidad de optimizar su manejo clínico. Aunque los protocolos de varios hospitales de nuestro país para COVID-19 incluyen hemocultivo al ingreso, no se ha demostrado su utilidad en pacientes con neumonía por COVID-19. Nuestro objetivo fue describir el rédito diagnóstico de los hemocultivos tempranos en pacientes con neumonía por COVID-19 en un hospital público de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Este estudio observacional descriptivo incluyó todos los pacientes adultos ingresados en la sala de Clínica Médica del Hospital Durand entre el 1 de abril y el 30 de julio de 2020, con neumonía por COVID-19 y hemocultivos realizados dentro de los 5 días del ingreso. De los 267 pacientes con neumonía por COVID-19, a 38 se les realizó hemocultivos tempranos. No se aisló ningún microorganismo clínicamente relevante en ninguno de ellos y se recuperaron microorganismos contaminantes en 7 (18.4%). Este estudio no encontró evidencia de bacteriemia en pacientes con neumonía por COVID-19. Además, la tasa de hemocultivos contaminados casi duplicó la tasa en pacientes con neumonía adquirida en la comunidad, lo que probablemente se deba a la falta de familiaridad de equipos de protección personal adicional utilizado por el personal de salud. Nuestros resultados abogan en contra de la realización rutinaria de hemocultivos al ingreso de pacientes con neumonía por COVID-19. Sugerimos que los hemocultivos solo sean utilizados ante el deterioro clínico o la sospecha de infección intrahospitalaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Pneumonia/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Blood Culture , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(11): 903-913, Nov. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1155024

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a patient's unregulated response to an infectious process. In veterinary medicine, the exact incidence of sepsis is unknown. Early recognition of sepsis in critically ill patients is essential for rapid and effective therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to apply the criteria of an adapted sepsis assessment protocol based on the Second International Consensus Definition for Sepsis and Septic Shock or Sepsis-2 of human medicine, in canine patients with suspected systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and/or organ dysfunction, and to identify infectious agents as well as their antimicrobial resistance profile in the focus of infection, in the bloodstream and colonizing the rectal mucosa. Patients were evaluated for survival and severity of sepsis. Of the 37/42 dogs that met the sepsis criteria, six presented septic shock, 26 (70.2%) had at least two signs of SIRS, and sepsis with organ dysfunction was diagnosed in 27 (73%) dogs. The primary dysfunctions observed were decreased level of consciousness in 21/37 (56.8%), hyperlactatemia in 19/37 (51.4%), and hypoalbuminemia in 18/37 (48.6%). Two or more SIRS signs associated with hypotension and hypoalbuminemia were related to more than half of the deaths. The most frequent infectious focus was skin and soft tissue in 20/37 (54%), followed by organs and cavities in 8/37 (21.6%). The survival rate was 56.7%. Blood culture confirmed bacteremia in nine patients (24.3%), with a predominance of Gram-positive microorganisms (Staphylococcus intermedius, Streptococcus spp.) in 66.6% of dogs and one yeast (Candida glabrata). The most frequent bacteria in the focus of infection were gram-negative bacteria (46.2%), mainly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in 19.5%, 14.6%, and 12.1%, respectively. We observed colonization by gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli-ESBL (31.5%), K. pneumoniae-ESBL (15.7%), and P. aeruginosa (15.7%), and the presence of ESBL bacteria was more associated with death when compared with other microorganisms. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) were isolated from rectal mucosa in four dogs. Gram-negative microorganisms were the most frequent in both infections and colonization, and most of them were resistant to fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and cephalosporins. Based on this information, it can be concluded that mortality due to sepsis in dogs was high. Due to the presence of multi-resistant bacteria, the use of antimicrobials should be judicious, suggesting the implementation of the same precautions used in human hospitals to prevent the spread of multi-resistant microorganisms.(AU)


A sepse é uma disfunção orgânica ameaçadora à vida, causada por uma resposta desregulada do hospedeiro à infecção e na medicina veterinária sua incidência exata é desconhecida. O reconhecimento precoce da sepse nos pacientes críticos é essencial para que a intervenção terapêutica seja rápida e eficaz. Assim, os objetivos do presente estudo foram aplicar os critérios de um protocolo de avaliação da sepse adaptado com base no Segundo Consenso Internacional para Sepse e Choque Séptico, ou Sepse-2, da medicina humana, em pacientes caninos com suspeita de infecção e/ou Síndrome da Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica e/ou disfunção orgânica e identificar os agentes infecciosos bem como seu perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos no foco de infecção, na corrente sanguínea e colonizando a mucosa retal. Os pacientes foram avaliados quanto à sobrevivência e severidade da sepse. Dos 37/42 cães que se enquadraram nos critérios de sepse, seis estavam em choque séptico, 26 (70,2%) apresentaram pelo menos dois sinais de SIRS, e a sepse com disfunção orgânica foi diagnosticada em 27 (73%) cães. As principais disfunções verificadas foram diminuição do nível de consciência em 21/37 (56,8%), hiperlactatemia em 19/37 (51,4%) e hipoalbuminemia em 18/37 (48,6%). A presença de dois ou mais sinais de SIRS associados com hipotensão e hipoalbuminemia estiveram relacionadas com mais da metade dos óbitos. O foco infeccioso mais frequente foi pele e partes moles em 20/37 (54%) seguido por órgãos e cavidades em 8/37 (21,6%). A taxa de sobrevivência foi de 56,7%. Na hemocultura confirmou-se bacteremia em nove pacientes (24,3%), com predominância de microrganismos gram-positivos (Staphylococcus intermedius, Streptococcus spp.) em 66,6% dos cães e uma levedura (Candida glabrata). As bactérias mais frequentes no foco de infecção foram as gram-negativas (46,2%) principalmente Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Pseudomonas aeruginosa, em 19,5%, 14,6% e 12,1% respectivamente. Foi constatada colonização por bactérias gram-negativas como E. coli-ESBL (31,5%), K. pneumoniae-ESBL (15,7%) e P. aeruginosa (15,7%), sendo que a colonização de cães por bactérias ESBL foi associada ao óbito quando comparada com outros microrganismos. Foram também isolados da mucosa retal Enterococcus resistentes à vancomicina (VRE) em quatro cães. Os microrganismos gram-negativos foram os mais frequentes, tanto nas infecções quanto nas colonizações e a maioria apresentava resistência à fluorquinolonas, sulfonamidas, tetraciclinas e cefalosporinas. Com base nestas informações, conclui-se que a mortalidade em decorrência da sepse em cães foi alta, e devido à presença de bactérias multirresistentes, o uso de antimicrobianos deve ser criterioso, sugerindo-se ainda a implantação das mesmas precauções utilizadas em hospitais humanos para evitar disseminação de microrganismos multirresistentes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Bacteremia , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/microbiology , Sepsis/veterinary , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Blood Culture/veterinary
14.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 553-560, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138670

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las infecciones graves son la principal causa de ingreso a cuidados intensivos pediátricos. El panel FilmArray BCID permite identificar rápidamente a microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias. OBJETIVO: evaluar la eficacia de la identificación rápida de microorganismos asociado a un Programa de Uso Racional de Antibióticos (URA) en reducir los tiempos de terapias antibióticas, en un hospital pediátrico. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo, que incluyó 100 pacientes, en su primer episo dio de bacteriemia, divididos en 2 grupos de 50 cada uno: Intervención (FilmArray BCID y programa URA) y Controles históricos pareados para la misma especie del microrganismo identificado (microbiología convencional). Las variables evaluadas fueron los tiempos de identificación microbiana, latencia de la terapia dirigida y de desescalar antibióticos. RESULTADOS: Los grupos fueron comparables en características demográficas, foco de infección y etiología de bacteriemia. El tiempo promedio de identificación de microorganismos fue de 23 h (IC 95% 12,4-26,7) en el grupo intervención, y 70,5 h (IC 95% 65,2-78,6) en el control (p < 0,05), mientras que la latencia de inicio de terapia dirigida fue de 27,9 h (IC 95% 22,3-32,8) y 71,9 h (IC 95% 63,2-77,8) respectivamente (p < 0,05). El tiempo de desescalar o suspender antibióticos fue de 6,4 h (IC 95% 2,76-9,49) y 22 h (IC 95% 6,74-35,6) en los grupos mencionados (p > 0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: El panel FilmArray BCID articulado a un programa URA, contribuye a la identificación de los microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias en menor tiempo que los métodos convencionales, siendo una herramienta que optimiza las terapias antibióti cas en niños críticamente enfermos.


INTRODUCTION: Severe infections are the leading cause of admission to pediatric intensive care. The FilmArray BCID panel quickly identifies microorganisms that cause bacteremia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the rapid identification of the microorganisms that cause bacteremia, along with a Rational Use of Antibio tics (RUA) Program, allows optimizing the time of antibiotic therapy in a pediatric hospital. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective study which included 100 patients presenting their first episode of bacteremia, divided into 2 groups of 50 each. The first one was Intervention (FilmArray BCID and RUA program) and the second one was Historical Controls (conventional automated ID/AST). The variables evaluated were the time required for microbial identification, duration of appropriate therapy, and antibiotic de-escalation. RESULTS: The groups were comparable in terms of demographic characteristics, focus of infection, and etiology of bacteremia. The average time of microorganisms' identification of the control group was 70.5 hours (IC 95% 65.2-78.6) and 23.0 hours (IC 95% 12.4 -26.7) in the intervention one (p < 0.05). The average time of targeted therapy onset was shorter in the intervention group (27.9 h [IC 95% 22.3-32.8]) than that of the control one (71.9 h [IC 95% 63.2-77.8]) (p < 0.05). Finally, the time to de-escalate or discontinue antibiotics in the intervention group and the control one was 6.4 hours (IC 95% 2.76-9.49) hours and 22.0 hours (IC 95% 6.74-35.6 h) respectively (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The FilmArray panel along with the RUA Program allows the identification of the microorganisms causing bacteremia faster than conventional methods, which positions it as a tool that optimizes antibiotic therapy of critical patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Molecular Typing/methods , Blood Culture/methods , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Retrospective Studies , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Coluna/Columna ; 19(2): 123-126, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133565

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To correlate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings with the microbiological and anatomopathological diagnosis of spinal infection. Methods A retrospective, cohort review of online medical records (laboratory, anatomopathology and diagnostic imaging sector) of patients diagnosed with spondylodiscitis, who underwent a full spine MR scan between January 2014 and July 2018 at the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Results Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly found etiological agent (57%). Blood culture was positive in 76% of cases and 82% of the patients who underwent biopsy had a spondylodiscitis diagnosis. Pain was the most prevalent clinical symptom and the lumbosacral spine was the most frequent site of infection. T1 hyposignal, T2/STIR hypersignal, and terminal plate destruction were verified in almost all MR scans. Conclusions No direct correlation was found between MR findings and any specific etiological agent. Blood culture and biopsy are important diagnostic tools that should be used for accurate diagnosis of the infectious agent . Level of evidence IV; Diagnostic Study.


RESUMO Objetivo Correlacionar os achados de ressonância magnética (RNM) com o diagnóstico microbiológico e anatomopatológico de infecção na coluna vertebral. Métodos Estudo de coorte retrospectivo de revisão de prontuários online (laboratório, anatomopatológico e setor de diagnóstico por imagem) de pacientes com diagnóstico de espondilodiscite, submetidos ao exame de RNM da coluna vertebral e acompanhados pelo Departamento de Ortopedia e Traumatologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, entre janeiro de 2014 e julho de 2018. Resultados O agente etiológico mais comum encontrado foi o S. aureus (57%). A hemocultura mostrou-se positiva em 76% dos casos e 82% dos pacientes submetidos à biópsia apresentaram diagnóstico de espondilodiscite. A dor foi o achado clínico mais prevalente e a coluna lombossacra foi o sítio mais frequente de infecção. No exame de RNM, a presença de hipossinal em T1, hipersinal em T2/STIR e destruição das placas terminais foram identificados em quase todos os casos. Conclusões Não houve correlação direta dos achados na RNM com um agente etiológico específico na espondilodiscite. A hemocultura e a biópsia são ferramentas diagnósticas importantes que devem ser utilizadas para o diagnóstico preciso do agente infeccioso. Nível de evidência IV; Estudo diagnóstico.


RESUMEN Objetivo Correlacionar los hallazgos de resonancia magnética (RNM) con el diagnóstico microbiológico y anatomopatológico de infección de la columna vertebral. Métodos Un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo de revisión de prontuarios en línea (laboratorio, anatomopatológico y sector de diagnóstico por imagen) de pacientes con diagnóstico de espondilodiscitis, sometidos al examen de RNM de la columna vertebral y acompañados por el Departamento de Ortopedia y Traumatología de la Universidad Federal de São Paulo, entre enero de 2014 y julio de 2018. Resultados El agente etiológico más común encontrado fue el S. aureus (57%). El hemocultivo se mostró positivo en 76% de los casos y 82% de los pacientes sometidos a biopsia presentaron diagnóstico de espondilodiscitis. El dolor fue el hallazgo clínico más prevalente y la columna lumbosacra fue el sitio más frecuente de infección. En el examen de RNM, la presencia de hiposeñal en T1, hiperseñal en T2/STIR y destrucción de las placas terminales fueron identificadas en casi todos los casos. Conclusiones No hubo correlación directa de los hallazgos de la RNM con un agente etiológico específico en la espondilodiscitis. El hemocultivo y la biopsia son herramientas diagnósticas importantes, que deben ser utilizadas para el diagnóstico preciso del agente infeccioso. Nivel de evidencia IV; Estudio Diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Discitis , Spine , Biopsy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Blood Culture
17.
Infectio ; 24(2): 98-102, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114848

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La artritis séptica (AS) se define como la infección del espacio articular que afecta cualquier articulación, es más frecuente en niños menores de 5 años y su principal causa es la diseminación hematógena. El diagnóstico etiológico es difícil en niños, logrando aislamiento en menos de la mitad de los casos. Se evaluó el rendimiento diagnóstico de la botella de hemocultivo (BHC) como medio alternativo para la siembra del líquido sinovial comparado con los medios convencionales (MC). Metodología: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo realizado en centro de tercer nivel de 2011-2016, niños de 0 a 12 años con diagnóstico clínico de artritis séptica y disponibilidad de las dos muestras tomadas en cirugía. Resultados: Ingresaron 60 pacientes, masculinos 56%, mediana de edad 48 meses y tiempo de síntomas 58 horas (48-192); 33,3% con antecedente de trauma; 30% recibieron antibióticos previos. Articulaciones afectadas: cadera 44%, rodilla 28% y tobillo 18%. En 39 pacientes (65%) se tomaron hemocultivos; de estos 19 (49%) fueron positivos, todos para S. aureus. Se obtuvo confirmación en líquido sinovial por cualquier método en 27 pacientes (45%), positivos en ambos 21,6%, en MC 13,3% y en BHC 10%, los microorganismos más frecuentes SAMS 21,6%, SAMR 8,3%, S. pyogenes 3,3%, SEMR 3,3%, S. pneumoniae 1,6%, N. meningitidis 1,6%, no se aisló K. kingae. El tratamiento antibiótico más utilizado fueron los betalactamicos, mediana de estancia 18(12-25,5) días, mortalidad del 3,3%. Conclusión: Las BHC son un complemento al medio sólido convencional y aumentaron la confirmación etiológica de artritis séptica del 35% al 45%.


Abstract Introduction: Septic arthritis (SA) is defined as the infection of any joint space; it is more common in children under 5 years and its main cause is hematogenous dissemination. The etiological diagnosis is difficult in children, achieving isolation in less than half of the cases. The diagnostic performance of the blood culture bottle (BCB) was evaluated as an alternative medium for seeding synovial fluid compared to conventional media (CM). Methods: A prospective cohort survey was conducted in a third-level center from 2011-2016, in children aged 0 to 12 years with a clinical diagnosis of septic arthritis and availability of the two samples taken in surgery. Results: 60 patients were admitted, being 56% male, with a median age of 48 months and symptom time of 58 hours (48-192); 33.3% had a history of trauma; 30% received previous antibiotics. Affected joints: hip (44%), knee (28%), and ankle (18%). Blood cultures were taken in 39 patients (65%); of these, 19 (49%) were positive, all for S. aureus. Confirmation in synovial fluid was obtained by any method in 27 subjects (45%), positive in both: 21.6%, 13.3% in CM, and 10% in BCB. The most frequent microorganisms were: MSSA (21.6%), MRSA (8.3%), S. pyogenes (3.3%), MRSE (3.3%), S. pneumoniae (1.6%), N. meningitidis (1.6%). K. kingae was not isolated. The most commonly used antibiotic treatment was beta-lactams. The median of stay was 18 days (12-25.5), with a mortality of 3.3%. Conclusion: BCB are a complement to the conventional solid medium and increased the etiological confirmation of septic arthritis from 35 to 45%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Arthritis, Infectious , Pediatrics , Child , Microbiological Techniques , Blood Culture
18.
Med. infant ; 27(1): 3-9, Marzo de 2020. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1118423

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones bacterianas son una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad en los niños con cáncer. Nuestro objetivo fue describir y comparar las características clínicas y los microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias con su sensibilidad antimicrobiana en niños con diagnóstico de LLA y LMA. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo entre julio-2016 y junio-2018. Se incluyeron todos los episodios de bacteriemia (EpB) en pacientes de 0 a 18 años con diagnóstico de LLA y LMA. Se documentaron datos epidemiológicos y demográficos de los pacientes y datos microbiológicos de los aislamientos de hemocultivos positivos. Se utilizó stata13. Se incluyeron 258 EpB en 167 pacientes; el 55% eran varones. La mediana de edad fue 81 meses (RIC 39-130). En 215 EpB (83%) se registró la presencia de algún tipo de catéter; neutropenia en 193 EpB (75%), neutropenia severa en 98/258 EpB (38%). Se pudo determinar el foco clínico en 152 EpB (59%). Ciento diez pacientes tenían LLA y 57 LMA. En LLA predominaron las enterobacterias, en LMA los cocos gram positivos. Se observó asociación entre LMA y estreptococos del grupo Viridans (p<0,01) y entre LLA y P.aeruginosa (p 0,01). Con respecto a la sensibilidad hubo 11% y 17% de bacilos negativos multirresistentes en LLA y LMA respectivamente. Todos los estafilococos coagulasa negativos fueron meticilino resistentes. La mayoría de los pacientes tenía algún tipo de catéter y neutropenia. Se observó un predominio de enterobacterias con bajos niveles de resistencia antibiótica. Estos resultados son importantes para conocer la epidemiología local y establecer tratamientos empíricos adecuados (AU)


Bacterial infections are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children with cancer. Our aim was to describe and compare the clinical features and bacteremia-causing microorganisms together with their antimicrobial sensitivity in acute lymphocytic (ALL) and acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). A descriptive observational study was conducted between July 2016 and June 2018. All episodes of bacteremia (EpB) in patients between 0 and 18 years of age with ALL and AML were included. All epidemiological and demographic data of the patients and microbiological information of the isolates of the positive blood cultures were recorded. For statistical analysis stata13 was used. Overall 258 EpB in 167 patients were included; 55% were boys. Median age was 81 months (IQR 39-130). In 215 EpB (83%) some type of catheter was involved; neutropenia was observed in 193 EpB (75%) and severe neutropenia in 98/258 EpB (38%). A clinical focus could be determined in 152 EpB (59%). Of all patients, 110 had ALL and 57 AML. The predominant micro-organisms were enterobacteria in ALL and gram-positive cocci in AML. An association was observed between AML and the viridans group of streptococci (p<0.01) and between ALL and P. aeruginosa (p 0.01). Regarding sensitivity, there were 11% and 17% of multiresistant negative bacilli in ALL and AML, respectively. All coagulase-negative staphylococci weer methicillin resistant. The majority of patients had some type of catheter and neutropenia. Predominance of enterobacteria with low levels of resistance to antibiotics was observed. These results are important to understand the local epidemiology and establish adequate empirical therapies (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Blood Culture , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies
19.
Infectio ; 23(4): 364-370, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1040007

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: evaluar la utilidad de la identificación directa de microorganismos en muestras de orina y hemocultivos empleando la tecnología MALDI-TOF MS, mediante el análisis de concordancia en la identificación, tiempo necesario para la obtención de un resultado y costos asociados a cada método de identificación. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo de febrero de 2017 a octubre de 2017. Se seleccionaron a conveniencia 180 muestras de orinas y 129 hemocultivos de pacientes de la Clínica El Rosario, Medellín, se realizó identificación del microorganismo directamente de la muestra y a partir del cultivo por MALDI-TOF (Vitek® MS‚ bioMérieux). Se analizaron los costos y tiempo, para determinar la utilidad de esta tecnología en los procesos del laboratorio de microbiología. Resultados: En el 79,6% de las orinas positivas y en el 76% de los hemocultivos se obtuvo una identificación de microorganismos directamente por MALDI-TOF MS. El tiempo de identificación directa tuvo una media de 6 horas y por cultivo una media de 29 horas. El costo total por aislamiento identificado de forma directa (sin incluir el valor del equipo) fue de $8.200 (2,58 USD) en muestras de orina y de $9.720 (3,06 USD) en hemocultivos positivos. El equipo introduce un costo variable en cada identificación de acuerdo con el número de identificaciones que se realicen en el laboratorio. Conclusiones: Estos resultados confirman la utilidad del MALDI-TOF MS para generar identificaciones más rápidas cuando se utiliza directamente en muestras clínicas, sin embargo, tiene un bajo desempeño en la identificación directa de bacterias gram positivas, siendo necesario evaluar otros protocolos que mejoren la identificación directa. El costo de los consumibles es bajo, pero la adquisición de esta tecnología introduce un costo variable que depende del volumen de muestras identificadas en el laboratorio.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the utility of the direct identification of microorganisms in urine and blood cultures samples, using MALDI-TOF by evaluating concordance for identification, time to obtain an identification result and associated costs. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study from February to October 2017 in 180 urine samples and 129 positive blood cultures samples of patients from the El Rosario Clinic in Medellin- Colombia. The clinical samples were processed directly for microorganisms identification by using MALDI-TOF (Vitek® MS‚ bioMérieux). This result was compared with the result obtained with Maldi tof -MS done for the cultured microorganism. An analysis of cost and time to achieve an identification result was made to determinate the utility of this technology in the laboratory procedures. Results: 79,6 % of positive urines and the 76 % of blood cultures were identified directly from the sample by MALDI-TOF. MALDI-TOF applied directly had a mean time for obtaining an identification of 6 hours compared to 29 hours to obtain an identification from cultures. The cost of direct identification was $8.200 (2,58 USD) in urine samples and $9.720 (3,06 USD) in blood cultures (without including the equipment cost). This cost is variable depending of the number of identifications that the laboratory performs. Conclusions: These results support the usefulness of MALDI-TOF for getting rapid identification results using the direct methodology in clinical samples. However, the capability to identify gram positive bacteria needs to be improved. The incorporation of this methodology in microbiology laboratories may improve the opportunity in the etiological diagnosis and should have a positive impact on patient care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteria , Urine , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Blood Culture , Mass Spectrometry , Cost Control
20.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 48(4): e340, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126651

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El estafilococo dorado es una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad en el mundo. En Cuba, es un germen a tener en cuenta como causa de infección intrahospitalaria. Objetivo: Caracterizar, clínica y epidemiológicamente, una muestra de pacientes con infecciones causadas por estafilococo dorado. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en el Hospital Militar "Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy" de Matanzas, durante el período de enero a diciembre del año 2014. La población estuvo constituida por la totalidad de los pacientes hospitalizados con el diagnóstico de infección por estafilococo dorado (120 casos), identificados por el departamento de Microbiología; luego se revisaron las historias clínicas de las cuales se obtuvo la información. Resultados: Existió un predominio del sexo masculino (64,2 por ciento), los mayores de 60 años fueron los más afectados (36,7 por ciento). La diabetes mellitus fue la enfermedad asociada más frecuente (40,8 por ciento) y la mayoría de las infecciones fueron de origen comunitario (67,5 por ciento). Los aislamientos predominaron en las muestras tomadas de las lesiones en piel y los hemocultivos con un 50,8 por ciento y 19,2 por ciento, respectivamente. Se evidenció baja sensibilidad a la vancomicina (49,2 por ciento) y al cotrimoxazol (38,3 por ciento). Conclusiones: Las infecciones por estafilococo dorado fueron más frecuentes en pacientes masculinos geriátricos de su origen extrahospitalario. El germen presentó alta resistencia a los antibióticos y de estos, los aminoglucósidos mostraron la mayor sensibilidad antimicrobiana(AU)


Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. In Cuba, it is a germ to be taken into account as a cause of nosocomial infection. Objective: To characterize, clinically and epidemiologically, a sample of patients with infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted at the Military Hospital "Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy "of Matanzas, during the period from January to December of the year 2014. The population was constituted by all the patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of infection by Staphylococcus aureus (120 cases), identified by the department of Microbiology; then the medical records from which the information was obtained were reviewed. Results: There was a predominance of males (64.2 percent) those over 60 were the most affected (36.7 percent). Diabetes mellitus was the most frequent associated disease (40.8 percent) and the majority of infections were of community origin (67.5 percent). Positivity predominated in samples taken from skin lesions and blood cultures with 50.8 percent and 19.2 percent, respectively. Low sensitivity to vancomycin (49.2 percent) and cotrimoxazole (38.3 percent) was evidenced. Conclusions: Staphylococcus aureus infections were more frequent in geriatric male patients of out-of-hospital origin. The germ showed high resistance to antibiotics and of these, the aminoglycosides showed the highest antimicrobial sensitivity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Staphylococcal Infections/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Blood Culture , Aminoglycosides/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Observational Study
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