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1.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 37-42, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279071

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La identificación de portadores del virus de la hepatitis B en donantes de sangre es imperativo para evitar la transmisión de la enfermedad a través de transfusiones sanguíneas. Objetivo: Determinar si los donantes de sangre con resultados positivos de los marcadores serológicos HbsAg y anti-HBc eran portadores de ADN del virus de la hepatitis B. Métodos: Se recolectaron 12 745 muestras de seis bancos de sangre ecuatorianos, las cuales fueron analizadas con pruebas serológicas para identificar los marcadores infecciosos HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs mediante prueba ELISA automatizada. Todas las muestras positivas para uno, dos o los tres marcadores fueron analizadas con técnica molecular para determinar la presencia de ADN viral. Resultados: Se identificó que 27.5 % de las muestras reactivas solo a anti-HBc y 100 % de las muestras con resultados positivos de HBsAg/anti-HBc-IgM/IgG presentaron ADN del virus de la hepatitis B (p = 0.001). Conclusiones: La elección de los marcadores de infección y los métodos de detección definen los resultados. Es importante la realización de dos pruebas serológicas y una molecular para identificar a los portadores del virus de la hepatitis B y evitar su transmisión.


Abstract Introduction: Identification of hepatitis B virus carriers in blood donors is imperative in order to avoid transmission of the disease via blood transfusion. Objective: To determine if blood donors with positive results for serological markers HBsAg and anti-HBc were hepatitis B virus DNA carriers. Methods: 12,745 samples were collected from six Ecuadorian blood banks and analyzed for HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs infectious markers by automated ELISA. All samples that tested positive for one, two or all three markers were analyzed with molecular techniques to determine the presence of viral DNA. Results: 27.5 % of the samples that were reactive for anti-HBc alone and 100 % of those with positive results for HbsAg and IgM/IgG anti-HBc were identified to contain hepatitis B virus DNA (p = 0.001). Conclusions: The selection of infection markers, as well as the detection methods define the results. Performing two serological and one molecular test is important in order to identify hepatitis B virus carriers and prevent its transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , DNA, Viral/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Blood Banks , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Biomarkers/blood , Carrier State/diagnosis , Carrier State/virology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Ecuador
2.
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(2): 133-140, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1337575

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A doação de sangue é um ato capaz de salvar vidas. Quando a triagem sorológica é positiva, a bolsa de sangue é descartada. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de descarte de bolsas de sangue em razão da positividade dos testes de triagem para sífilis. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo epidemiológico observacional, com avaliação transversal e da tendência temporal da positividade do VDRL de acordo com as variáveis epidemiológicas, a partir de dados coletados no banco de sangue do Hemocentro de Sergipe das doações ocorridas de 1 de janeiro de 2007 a 31 de dezembro de 2018. Resultados: Do total de 308.953 doações de sangue, 4.594 bolsas (1,48%) foram descartadas devido a positividade para sífilis. A positividade foi significativamente maior no sexo masculino (OR = 1,14). Houve aumento significativo da prevalência com o aumento da faixa etária, de 0,63% (IC95% 0,51-0,760 em menores de 20 anos até 4,54% (IC95% 3,88-5,30) em pessoas com 60 anos e mais. Entre o período de 2007-2011 foi identificada uma tendência de crescimento da soroprevalência para sífilis (APC = 31,4) seguida pela estabilização do número de descarte de bolsas nos últimos anos. Discussão: O estudo identifica que, apesar de ter havido um aumento significativo no período inicial, a tendência foi de estabilidade nos últimos anos avaliados. É importante destacar a falta de um exame que indique concretamente a presença ativa da sífilis, pois todos os testes podem permanecer como cicatrizes por longos períodos, mesmos em pessoas com o tratamento adequado. (AU)


Introduction: Blood donation is an act that can save lives. When serological screening is positive, the blood bag is discarded. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of blood bag disposal due to positive screening tests for syphilis. Methods: An observational epidemiological study was carried out, with cross-sectional temporal trend assessment of VDRL positivity according to epidemiological variables, based on data collected in the blood bank of the Sergipe Blood Center, from the donations that occurred from 1 st January, 2007 to December 31 st , 2018. Results: Of the total of 308,953 blood donations, 4,594 bags (1.48%) were discarded due to positive serology for syphilis. Positivity was significantly higher in males (odds ratio = 1.14). There was a significant increase in prevalence with age, from 0.63% (95% CI 0.51-0.76) in individuals under 20 years old to 4.54% (95% CI 3.88-5.30) in those with 60 years and over. Between 2007-2011, a trend of increase in seroprevalence for syphilis was identified (annual percent change = 31.4), followed by stabilization in the disposal of bags in recent years. Discussion: Despite the increase in syphilis reported in society, the study identified that, although there was a significant increase in the initial period, it has been followed by stability in the last years evaluated. What is important is the lack of a test that in fact indicates the active presence of syphilis, since all tests can identify serological scars that remain for long periods, even in people with proper treatment. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Blood Banks , Syphilis/epidemiology , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data
3.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(2): e1104, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149901

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los sistemas sanguíneos ABO, Rh y Kell son lo más relevantes desde el punto de vista clínico por su inmunogenicidad y ser los principales causantes de reacciones hemolíticas. Objetivo: Determinar las frecuencias de los grupos sanguíneos ABO y Rh, y la frecuencia del antígeno Kell en pacientes y donantes de Costa Rica. Métodos: Durante el periodo de 2009 al 2018 se obtuvo de las bases de datos de los bancos de sangre de tres hospitales de adultos de Costa Rica, las frecuencias de los grupos sanguíneos ABO, Rh y Kell en muestras de donantes y pacientes. Para contrastar las frecuencias de cada grupo sanguíneo se realizó una prueba de independencia de variables Chi cuadrado, con el 95 por ciento de confianza. Los datos se analizaron con el paquete estadístico SPSS versión 23. Resultados: Las frecuencias de los grupos ABO en las muestras de donantes y pacientes mostraron diferencias pequeñas pero significativas. La frecuencia del fenotipo Rh D negativo fue más alta en pacientes (8,0 por ciento) que en donantes (6,1 por ciento). Se estimaron las frecuencias de los antígenos C (67,8 por ciento), c (80,5 por ciento), E (41,4 por ciento), e (94,4 por ciento) y K (3,1 por ciento) a partir de las muestras de los donantes. Conclusiones: Las estrategias de reclutamiento de donantes de sangre aumentan la frecuencia del fenotipo Rh negativo en donantes con respecto a los pacientes. Las estadísticas recopiladas demuestran un aumento en la frecuencia del grupo O en comparación con los últimos estudios relacionados. Finalmente, los otros antígenos presentaron pocas variaciones en comparación a estudios previos(AU)


Introduction: The ABO, Rh and Kell blood systems are the most relevant from the clinical point of view, due to their immunogenicity and because they are the main causes of hemolytic reactions. Objective: To determine the frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups, and the frequency of the Kell antigen in patients and donors from Costa Rica. Methods: During the period from 2009 to 2018, the frequencies of ABO, Rh and Kell blood groups in donor and patient samples were obtained from the blood bank databases of three adult hospitals in Costa Rica. To contrast the frequencies of each blood group, a chi-square test of independence of variables was performed, with 95 percent confidence interval. The data were analyzed with the statistical package SPSS version 23. Results: The frequencies of ABO groups in donor and patient samples showed small but significant differences. The frequency of the negative Rh D phenotype was higher in patients (8.0 percent) than in donors (6.1 percent). The frequencies of the antigens C (67.8 percent), c (80.5 percent), E (41.4 percent), e (94.4 percent), and K (3.1 percent) were estimated from donor samples. Conclusions: Blood donor recruitment strategies increase the frequency of negative Rh phenotype in donors compared to patients. The statistics collected demonstrate an increase in the frequency of the O group compared to recent related studies. Finally, the other antigens did not show as much variation compared to previous studies(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Blood Group Antigens/analysis , Blood Banks/statistics & numerical data , Costa Rica/epidemiology
4.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 69, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1127233

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 among blood donors in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS Data were collected on 2,857 blood donors from April 14 to 27, 2020. This study reports crude prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, population weighted prevalence for the state, and prevalence adjusted for test sensitivity and specificity. Logistic regression models were used to establish the correlates of SARS-CoV-2 prevalence. For the analysis, we considered collection period and site, sociodemographic characteristics, and place of residence. RESULTS The proportion of positive tests for SARS-Cov-2, without any adjustment, was 4.0% (95%CI 3.3-4.7%), and the weighted prevalence was 3.8% (95%CI 3.1-4.5%). We found lower estimates after adjusting for test sensitivity and specificity: 3.6% (95%CI 2.7-4.4%) for the non-weighted prevalence, and 3.3% (95%CI 2.6-4.1%) for the weighted prevalence. Collection period was the variable most significantly associated with crude prevalence: the later the period, the higher the prevalence. Regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the younger the blood donor, the higher the prevalence, and the lower the education level, the higher the odds of testing positive for SARS-Cov-2 antibody. We found similar results for weighted prevalence. CONCLUSIONS Our findings comply with some basic premises: the increasing trend over time, as the epidemic curve in the state is still on the rise; and the higher prevalence among both the youngest, for moving around more than older age groups, and the less educated, for encountering more difficulties in following social distancing recommendations. Despite the study limitations, we may infer that Rio de Janeiro is far from reaching the required levels of herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Regression Analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Middle Aged
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190476, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101453

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION This study investigated the prevalence of blood donors' test-seeking behavior and related factors among health sciences undergraduate students. METHODS A total of 750 students were invited. Data regarding sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, blood donation practices, and test-seeking behavior were collected. RESULTS: Of the invited students, 341 (45.5%) agreed to participate and answered questions regarding test-seeking behavior. The sample comprised 83.1% females, 96.8% singles, 87.2% heterosexuals, and 32.6% of them had previously donated blood. A high prevalence of blood donor test-seeking behavior (14.4%; 95% CI: 10.8%-18.5%) was observed and associated with blood donation practices. CONCLUSIONS: Test-seeking behavior was common among the interviewed students, thereby highlighting the importance of developing a better understanding of its determinants to prevent this behavior in key populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Health Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200047, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101586

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Objective: To clarify that one of the causes for the decrease in blood donation (BD) rates was the introduction of the 400 ml BD program in 1986. Method: BP rates were monitored over 48 years (1965-2012) and were divided into pre- and post-intervention periods prior to analysis. An interrupted time series analysis was performed using annual data on BD rates, and the impact of the 400 ml BD program was investigated. Results: In a raw series, autoregressive integrated moving average analysis revealed a significant change in slope between the pre- and post-intervention periods in which the intervention factor was the 400 ml BD program. The parameters were as follows: intercept (initial value) = 0.315, confidence interval (CI) = (0.029, 0.601); slope (pre-intervention) = 0.316, CI = (0.293, 0.340); slope difference = -0.435, CI = (-0.462, -0.408); slope (post-intervention) = -0.119, CI = (-0.135, -0.103); all, p = 0.000; goodness-of-fit, R2 = 0.963. After adjusting for stationarity and autocorrelation, the parameters were as follows: intercept (initial value) = -0.699, CI = (-0.838, -0.560); slope (pre-intervention) = 0.136, CI = (0.085, 0.187); slope difference = -0.165, CI = (-0.247, -0.083); slope (post-intervention) = -0.029, CI = (-0.070, 0.012); all, p = 0.000 (except for slope (post-intervention), p = 0.170); goodness-of-fit, R2 = 0.930. Conclusion: One of the causes for decrease in BD rates may be due to the introduction of the 400 ml BD program in Japan.


RESUMO: Objetivo: Esclarecer que uma das causas para a diminuição das taxas de doação de sangue (BP) foi a introdução do programa de doação de sangue BP de 400 mL em 1986. Método: As taxas de BP foram monitoradas ao longo de 48 anos (1965-2012) e divididas em períodos pré e pós-intervenção antes da análise. Uma análise de séries temporais interrompidas foi realizada usando dados anuais sobre as taxas de BP, e investigamos o impacto do programa de BP de 400 mL. Resultados: Em uma série bruta, a análise integrada autorregressiva de médias móveis revelou uma mudança significativa na inclinação entre os períodos pré e pós-intervenção em que o fator de intervenção foi o programa de 400 mL da BP. Os parâmetros foram os seguintes: intercepto (valor inicial) = 0,315, intervalo de confiança (IC) = (0,029, 0,601); inclinação (pré-intervenção) = 0,316, IC = (0,293, 0,340); diferença de inclinação = -0,435, IC = (- 0,462, -0,408); inclinação (pós-intervenção) = -0,119, IC = (-0,135, -0,103); todos, p = 0,000; poder explicativo do modelo, R2 = 0.963. Após o ajuste para estacionariedade e autocorrelação, os parâmetros foram os seguintes: intercepto (valor inicial) = -0,699, CI = (-0,838, -0,560); inclinação (pré-intervenção) = 0,136, IC = (0,085, 0,187); diferença de inclinação = -0,165, IC = (-0,247, -0,083); inclinação (pós-intervenção) = -0,029, IC = (-0,070, 0,012); tudo, p = 0,000 (com exceção da inclinação (pós-intervenção), p = 0,170); poder explicativo do modelo, R2 = 0.930. Conclusão: Uma das causas para a diminuição das taxas de BP pode ser devido à introdução do programa de doação de sangue BP de 400 ml no Japão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Reference Values , Time Factors , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Japan
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200026, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136800

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has a single-stranded RNA genome and expresses specific proteins that have oncogenic potential. Approximately 15 to 20 million people worldwide have been infected by this virus. Changes in protein or gene expression are the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) gene. The function and efficacy of signal transduction also lead to modified immune responses. The present study aimed to investigate the association of SNPs within TLR3 (rs3775291 and rs3775296) with susceptibility to HTLV-1 infection in Iranian asymptomatic blood donors. METHODS: This study was performed on 100 HTLV-1-infected asymptomatic blood donors and 118 healthy blood donors. Genomic DNA from all participants was purified and then amplified using specific PCR primers. SNPs within TLR3 were evaluated using the restriction fragmentation length polymorphism technique, and the results were analyzed using SPSS software (version 22). RESULTS: The frequencies of the TLR3 (rs3775296) CC, CA, AA genotypes were 70%, 24%, and 6% in the patient group, and 50.8%, 44.9%, and 4.2% in the control group, respectively. There was a significant difference in the frequency distribution of TLR3 (rs3775296) genotypes and alleles, but not in the frequency distribution of TLR3 (rs3775291) genotypes between the patient and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: The TLR3 SNP rs3775296 was significantly associated with HTLV-1 infection and may be a protective factor against this viral infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/genetics , HTLV-I Infections/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , HTLV-I Infections/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Iran , Middle Aged
8.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(3): 323-330, set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038102

ABSTRACT

El rastreo de anticuerpos anti-eritrocitarios es una de las pruebas pretransfusionales más importantes en medicina transfusional por su aporte en la prevención de reacciones adversas luego de la administración de hemocomponentes. Sin embargo, no todos los bancos de sangre ecuatorianos han incluido esta prueba en sus protocolos de trabajo. Para demostrar su importancia se realizó el presente estudio cuyo propósito fue alertar al sistema nacional de salud sobre la existencia de aloinmunización en la población de donantes de sangre. Se estableció una prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-eritrocitarios del 0,27% y se identificó una mayor frecuencia en el género femenino. Los anticuerpos identificados estuvieron relacionados con los sistemas eritrocitarios Rh (RH), Kell (KEL), Duffy (FY) y Kidd (JK). Una de las limitaciones para la inclusión de esta prueba en los bancos de sangre y servicios de medicina transfusional es el elevado costo de los reactivos y la falta de paneles de células eritrocitarias de composición homocigota y heterocigota para la identificación de anticuerpos anti-eritrocitarios nativos, situación que constituye una oportunidad para que el Ministerio de Salud Pública del Ecuador promueva mejores estrategias para la importación de reactivos, reducción de costos y disponibilidad de paneles de células.


The screening of anti-erythrocyte antibodies is one of the most important pretransfusion tests in transfusion medicine because of its contribution to the prevention of adverse reactions after the administration of blood components, however not all blood banks in Ecuador have included this test in their work protocols. This study has the purpose to alert the national health system about the existence of alloimmunization in the blood donour population. A prevalence of anti-erythrocyte antibodies of 0.27% was established, with a higher frequency being found in the female gender. The identified antibodies are related to the erythrocyte systems Rh (RH), Kell (KEL), Duffy (FY) and Kidd (JK). One of the limitations for the inclusion of this test in blood banks and transfusion medicine services is the excessive cost of serological and gel methodology reagents, and the lack of homozygous and heterozygous erythrocyte cell panels for the identification of native anti-erythrocyte antibodies. That situation constitutes an opportunity for the Ministry of Public Health of Ecuador to promote better strategies for the imports of reagents, cost reduction and availability in the country.


O rastreamento de anticorpos anti-eritrocitários é um dos testes pré-transfusão mais importantes na medicina transfusional pela sua contribuição na prevenção de reações adversas após a administração de componentes sanguíneos. No entanto, nem todos os bancos de sangue do Equador tem incluído esse teste em seus protocolos de trabalho. Para demonstrar a sua importância, foi realizado o presente estudo que teve como objetivo alertar o sistema nacional de saúde sobre a existência de aloimunização na população de doadores de sangue. Foi estabelecida uma prevalência de anticorpos anti-eritrocitários de 0,27%, identificando maior frequência no sexo feminino. Os anticorpos identificados estiveram relacionados com os sistemas eritrocitários Rh (RH), Kell (KEL), Duffy (FY) e Kidd (JK). Uma das limitações para a inclusão destes testes em bancos de sangue e serviços de medicina da transfusão é o alto custo dos reagentes, além da falta de painéis de células eritrocitárias de composição homozigótica e heterozigótica para a identificação de anticorpos anti-eritrocitários nativos, situação que constitui uma oportunidade para que o Ministério da Saúde Pública do Equador promova melhores estratégias para a importação de reagentes, redução de custos e disponibilidade de painéis de células.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Antibodies/blood , Blood Transfusion , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Ecuador , Erythrocytes
9.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 35(2): e929, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093268

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los anticuerpos irregulares corresponden a aquellos distintos a los anticuerpos naturales anti-A o anti-B, los cuales pueden aparecer en respuesta a la exposición a un antígeno eritrocitario extraño (transfusión o trasplante) o por incompatibilidad materno-fetal. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los donantes con rastreo de anticuerpos irregulares positivo de un banco de sangre de Montería, Colombia, durante el periodo 2012-2015. Métodos: Estudio transversal y retrospectivo, con fuente de información secundaria, basada en los resultados del rastreo de anticuerpos en los donantes de un banco de sangre de Montería, Colombia, entre los años 2012 y 2015. La población estuvo conformada por todos los donantes voluntarios registrados en el tiempo del estudio (35 248 donantes), a quienes se les realizó rastreo de anticuerpos. Como muestra, se seleccionaron todos los casos que tuvieron resultados positivos (71 donantes). Los datos fueron organizados en tablas y analizados en el software SPSS 21.0, Microsoft Excel y en Epidat versión 3.1. Resultados: El 0,2 por ciento de la población presentó un rastreo de anticuerpos positivo con un intervalo de confianza entre 0,15 y 0,25 por ciento. Los anticuerpos irregulares fueron más frecuentes en los hombres y en donantes O Rh positivo. Se encontraron Ac irregulares con 13 especificidades diferentes, con predomino de anti-M, anti-Lea, anti-D y anti-E y porcentajes respectivos de 27,78 por ciento, 20,83 por ciento, 9,72 por ciento y 8,33 por ciento. El 50 por ciento de los donantes tenía 30,5 años o menos, el 49,3 por ciento había donado previamente y el 9,9 por ciento recibió al menos una transfusión en algún momento de su vida. Conclusión: La frecuencia de donantes con rastreo de anticuerpos irregulares positivo fue baja, el sexo masculino presentó mayor porcentaje, se detectó principalmente en el grupo sanguíneo O y dentro de los anticuerpos irregulares, anti-M presentó una mayor frecuencia(AU)


Introduction: Irregular antibodies correspond to those other than natural anti-A or anti-B antibodies, which may appear in response to exposure to a foreign erythrocyte antigen (transfusion or transplantation) or due to maternal-fetal incompatibility. Objective: To characterize the donors with positive irregular antibody screening of a blood bank in Monteria, Colombia during the period 2012-2015. Methods: Cross-sectional and retrospective study, with secondary information source, based on the results of the antibody screening in donors of a blood bank in Monteria, Colombia from 2012 to 2015. The population consisted of all voluntary donors registered in the study time (35 248 donors), who were screened for antibodies. As a sample, all cases that had positive results (71 donors) were selected. The data was organized in tables and analyzed in the software SPSS 21.0, Microsoft Excel and in Epidat version 3.1. Results: 0.2 percent of the population presented a positive antibody screen with a confidence interval between 0.15 and 0.25 percent Irregular antibodies were more frequent in men and in O Rh positive donors. Thirteen types of irregular antibodies were found, with predominance of anti-M, anti-Lea, anti-D and anti-E and respective percentages of 27.78 percent, 20.83 percent, 9.72 percent and 8.33 percent. 50 percent of the donors were 30.5 years old or less, 49.3 percent had previously donated and 9.9 percent received at least one transfusion at some point in their lives. Conclusion: The frequency of donors with irregular positive antibody screening was low, the male sex had a higher percentage, it was detected mainly in blood group O and within the irregular antibodies, anti-M showed a higher frequency(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Isoantibodies/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Colombia , Antibodies
10.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1264369

ABSTRACT

Background: About half of the population in Nigeria is medically fit for blood donation but only four in one thousand are voluntary donors. The low level of blood donation has been attributed to poor knowledge, misconceptions, myths, bias, poverty, fear, malnutrition among the population. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge of blood donation among adults in two selected North Central States of Nigeria. Methods: It was a descriptive cross-sectional study. A total of 3104 respondents comprising of adults between 18 and 60 years were involved in the study. A multistage sampling technique was used and the research tool was interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data generated were entered into the computer and subjected to appropriate statistical analysis using EPI INFO computer software package (version 3.5.3). Pearson Chi Square (χ2) was used to test statistical significance and p-value was set at < 0.05. Results: Majority of the respondents 2565 (82.5%) knew that blood donation save lives. More than three-quarters, 2468 (79.5%), knew where to go for voluntary blood donation. About one-third, (37.1%), demonstrated good knowledge of voluntary blood donation. Older respondents (>60 years) had poor knowledge of blood transfusion compared with younger age groups (p<0.001). Respondents' occupation and educational status were significantly associated with knowledge of blood transfusion (p<0.001). Conclusion: Periodic awareness programme on voluntary blood donation in rural and urban areas across Nigeria is needed. In addition, sensitization of the informal sector on the significance of non-remunerated voluntary blood donation should be given priority


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Donors , Blood Donors/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Knowledge , Nigeria
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190146, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013302

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD) affects 5.7-7.0 million individuals worldwide, and its prevalence reached 25.1% in the state of Bahia, Brazil. There is an association between the prevalence of CD, the socioeconomic status of the population, and the risk of re-emergence due to non-vectorial transmission, such as blood transfusion. This study determined the seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection among blood donors in the state of Bahia, located in northeastern Brazil, and their epidemiological profile during a 10-year period. METHODS: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study involving a database review. Data were collected from patients with non-negative results for T. cruzi infection during a 10-year period. RESULTS: A total of 3,084 (0.62%) samples were non-negative for T. cruzi infection in an initial serological screening, and 810 (0.16%) samples were non-negative in the second screening. The correlation between infection and age (30 years or older) and between infection and lower educational level (12 years or less) in the first and second screening was statistically significant. The seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection was higher in men in the first screening. In addition, 99.52% of the municipalities of Bahia had at least one case of CD. Livramento de Nossa Senhora and Salvador presented the highest disease prevalence and recurrence, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in these populations was lower than that found in other studies in Brazil but was comparatively higher in densely-populated areas. The demographic characteristics of our population agreed with previous studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chagas Disease/blood , Chagas Disease/transmission , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution
12.
West Indian med. j ; 67(3): 218-225, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045854

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine what factors acting in close temporal proximity to the day of a university campus blood drive are associated with university student blood donation. Methods: An incidence density case-control study was conducted at St George's University, Grenada, West Indies. Cases (69) were students interviewed while donating blood at blood drives (February to April 2010). Controls (437) were non-donating students interviewed on the same days as cases. Exposures of interest were: sources of knowledge of the blood drive, the presence or lack of academic deadlines within a week of the blood drive, and the number of hours of classes on the day of the blood drive. Data were analysed using logistic regression with adjusted odds ratios approximating risk ratios (RRs). Results: Associations with blood donation were higher for electronic and/or personal (RREmail = 5.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7, 9.6; RRFacebook = 4.3; 95% CI: 2.1, 9.0; RRPersonalReminder = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.6, 5.4) than for impersonal (RRClassAnnouncement = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.8) sources of knowledge of the blood drive. Additionally, students with classes only in the morning (RRAMonly = 1.5; 95% CI: 0.7, 2.9) or only in the afternoon (RRPMonly = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.2) and those with no academic deadlines within a week of the blood drive were more likely to donate blood. Conclusion: University student blood donation showed a stronger association with personal and/or electronic advertising than with impersonal and/or non-electronic advertising. University blood drives should target students with similar timetables at times of reduced academic stress using personal and electronic modes of advertising.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Determinar qué factores próximos al día de la campaña de donación de sangre en una universidad se asocian con la donación de sangre de los estudiantes universitarios. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles con muestreo por densidad de incidencia en la donación de sangre en la Universidad de Saint George, Granada, Antillas. Los casos (69) eran estudiantes entrevistados durante la campaña de donación (febrero a abril de 2010). Los controles (437) eran estudiantes no donantes entrevistados en los mismos días que los casos. Las manifestaciones de interés fueron: las fuentes de la información sobre la campaña de donación, la presencia o ausencia de fechas topes de tareas académicas en el plazo de una semana antes y después de la campaña de donación, y el número de horas de clases en el día de la donación. Los datos se analizaron usando la regresión logística con razones de posibilidades (odds ratios) ajustados aproximados a las razones de riesgo (RRs). Resultados: Las asociaciones con la donación de sangre eran más altas para las fuentes electrónicas y/o personales de información de la campaña (RRCorreo electrónico = 5.1; 95% intervalo de confianza (IC): 2.7, 9.6; RRFacebook = 4.3; 95%IC: 2.1, 9.0; RRrecordaorio personal = 2.9; 95%IC: 1.6, 5.4) que para las fuentes impersonales (RRanuncios en clase = 2.4; 95% IC: 1.3, 4.8). Además, los estudiantes con clases sólo en la mañana (RRAMsólo = 1.5; 95% IC: 0.7, 2.9) o sólo por la tarde (RRPMsólo = 1.9; 95%: 1.2, 3.2) y aquellos sin fechas topes para tareas académicas en el plazo de una semana antes y después de la campaña de la donación de sangre fueron más propensos a donar sangre. Conclusión: La donación de sangre de los estudiantes de la Universidad demostró una asociación más fuerte con la publicidad personal y/o electrónica que con la publicidad impersonal y/o no-electrónica. Las campañas de donación de sangre en la Universidad deben dirigirse a los estudiantes con horarios similares en los períodos de menos tensión académica usando modos personales y electrónicos de publicidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Students/statistics & numerical data , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Universities , Case-Control Studies , Grenada , Health Promotion
14.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(6): 475-480, dic. 2017. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894524

ABSTRACT

Se estudió la prevalencia de anticuerpos anti Toxoplasma gondii a los dadores voluntarios de sangre que concurrieron durante el primer cuatrimestre de los años 1997, 2007 y 2017 al Servicio de Hemoterapia del Hospital Alemán de Buenos Aires y se compararon los resultados con el estudio efectuado en el año 1967. Los sueros fueron procesados con el Sabin Feldman Dye Test. La seroprevalencia promedio en 1967 fue 67.0% (IC95%, 64.4%-69.6%), en 1997, 35% (IC95%, 33.3%-38.3%), en 2007, 31.9 % (IC95%, 29.6%-34.2%) y en 2017, 21.2% (IC95%, 19.0%-23.3%). En los cincuenta años que abarca el estudio la disminución de la prevalencia fue de 45.8%, que representa una declinación anual promedio del 0.9%. El descenso fue estadísticamente significativo entre los años 1967 y 1997 y entre 2007 y 2017. En los cuatro estudios se observó un incremento de la prevalencia de infección en función de la edad. La tasa de infección calculada para el año 1967 fue 1.0% y disminuyó en los estudios posteriores, a 0.8% en 1997, 0.7% en 2007 y 0.5% en 2017. Los donantes del último estudio respondieron una encuesta que mostró una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre seroprevalencia de anticuerpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii y la carencia de agua corriente, estudios secundarios no concluidos o la residencia en zona oeste o sur del conurbano bonaerense. No se encontró una asociación significativa con tener un gato como mascota, consumo de carne poco cocida o práctica de jardinería.


A prevalence study of antibodies anti Toxoplasma gondii in voluntary blood donors who attended the hemotherapy service at the Hospital Alemán during the first four months of the years 1997, 2007 and 2017 was carried out and the results were compared to the study carried out in 1967. The sera where processed with the Sabin Feldman Dye Test. The global average seroprevalence in 1967 was 67.0% (CI95%, 64.4%-69.6%); in 1997, 35.0% (CI95%, 33.3%-38.3%); in 2007, 31.9% (CI95%, 29.6%-34.2%) and in 2017, 21.2% (CI95%, 19.0%-23.3%). In the fifty years covered by the study the decline in prevalence was 45.8%, which represents an average annual decline of 0.9%.The decline was statistically significant between 1967 and 1997, and between 2007 and 2017. The four studies demonstrate that infection prevalence increased depending on age. The infection rate for 1967 was 1.0% per year and declined in the next studies to 0.8% in 1997, 0.8% in 2007, and 0.5% in 2017. Donors from the last study responded to a survey that showed a statistically significant correlation between seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and lack of tap water, unfinished secondary studies or residence in the western or southern part of the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. No significant association was found with having a cat as a pet, the consumption of undercooked meat or the practice of gardening.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cats , Young Adult , Toxoplasma/immunology , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors
15.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(6): 458-464, dic. 2017. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894521

ABSTRACT

El consumo excesivo de hierro (Fe) en portadores de mutaciones en el gen HFE puede resultar en sobrecarga. Para evaluar el riesgo de sobrecarga de Fe fueron investigados 166 varones adultos donantes de sangre de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Se estimó la ingesta diaria de Fe (IFe), de Fe hemínico y de Fe proveniente de harinas enriquecidas con SO4Fe. Se determinó ferritina sérica y porcentaje de saturación de transferrina (criterio de sobrecarga de Fe: ferritina sérica > 300 ng/ml y saturación de transferrina ≥ 50%). Las mutaciones C282Y, H63D y S65C fueron investigadas en sangre mediante PCR-RFLP. Todos los participantes cubrieron ampliamente el requerimiento estimado promedio de Fe (6 mg Fe/día) y 3.0% superó el máximo tolerable (45 mg Fe/día). El Fe hemínico correspondió al 9.4% de la IFe y el de harinas enriquecidas al 47.7%. Se observó una asociación entre el aumento de IFe y el de ferritina sérica (p = 0.0472), y el 2.3% de los donantes presentaron ferritina sérica > 300 ng/ml y saturación de transferrina ≥ 50%. El 29.3% de los donantes eran portadores de los genotipos H63D, S65C o C282Y, asociados a hemocromatosis hereditaria, y tenían valores de saturación de transferrina significativamente mayores a los de los donantes wild type (p = 0.0167). Si bien la incidencia clínica de hemocromatosis hereditaria fue baja en el grupo estudiado (1.2%), el consumo excesivo de Fe plantea un riesgo potencial para la salud de individuos que ignoran sus antecedentes familiares de sobrecarga de Fe.


Excess iron (Fe) intake in subjects carrying certain mutations in the HFE gene may result in Fe overload. To estimate risk of Fe overload, 166 male blood donors (19-65 years) from Buenos Aires city were investigated. Daily Fe intake (FeI), hem Fe intake, and Fe intake from SO4Fe enriched flours were estimated (SARA Computer Program and Food Composition Table, USDA). Serum ferritin and transferrin saturation were determined; criteria for Fe overload was serum ferritin > 300 ng/ml and transferrin saturation ≥ 50%. HFE genotypes C282Y, H63D and S65C were analyzed by PCR-RFLP in blood samples. No participant presented FeI lower than the estimated average requirement (6 mg Fe/day) and 3.0% was over the upper level (45 mg Fe/day). Hem Fe and Fe from flour enrichment were 9.4% and 47.7% of daily Fe intake, respectively. A significant association was observed between the increase in serum ferritin (ng/ml) and the increase in FeI (p = 0.0472); 2.3% of the donors presented serum ferritin > 300 ng/ml and transferrin saturation ≥ 50%. Genotypes associated with hereditary hemochromatosis (H63D, S65C and C282Y) were found in 29.3% of the donors. The percentage of transferrin saturation was higher in subjects carrying mutation than in wild type subjects (p = 0.0167). Although penetrance of hereditary hemochromatosis in the studied group was only 1.2%, an excessive Fe intake could enhance adverse effects in individuals unaware of any family history of Fe overload.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Iron, Dietary/administration & dosage , Ferritins/blood , Hemochromatosis Protein/genetics , Hemochromatosis/genetics , Hemochromatosis/chemically induced , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Transferrin/analysis , Genotype , Iron/blood , Mutation
16.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(5): 535-539, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888907

ABSTRACT

Abstract Brazil is a non-endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection with seroprevalence from 1% to 4% in blood donors and the general population. However, data on seroprevalence of HEV in the country are still limited. This study evaluated the prevalence of past or present HEV infection in a group of blood donors representative of the general population of the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 500 blood donors were tested from July to September 2014 by serological and molecular methods. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 49 (9.8%) subjects and categorized age groups revealed an age-dependent increase of HEV seroprevalence. Among the anti-HEV IgG positive subjects, only 1 had anti-HEV IgM while none tested positive for HEV-RNA. The present data demonstrate a higher seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG than previously reported in the region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Hepatitis E/diagnosis
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(4): 481-483, July-Aug. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039199

ABSTRACT

Abstract A Zika virus seroepidemiology study was performed in 1084 blood donors collected from August to October 2015 in six sites of Cameroon representing a large panel of eco-environments. Samples were tested using an anti-NS1 IgG ELISA detection kit and positives were further confirmed by seroneutralization. The observed global seroprevalence was low (around 5%, peaking at 10% and 7.7% in Douala and Bertoua, respectively) with risk factors associated with seropositivity pointing to the existence of a local (peri-)sylvatic cycle of transmission. These results call attention to the potential introduction and subsequent spread in African urban areas of Asian genotype Zika virus currently circulating in the Americas and adapted to transmission by peri-domestic mosquitoes. They should leverage reinforced surveillance efforts in Africa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Cameroon/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Zika Virus/immunology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
18.
Rev. saúde pública ; 51: 40, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-845876

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the HCV cascade of care and to identify the factors associated with loss or absence to follow-up of patients identified as infected with hepatitis C through blood donation. METHODS Blood donors from 1994 to 2012, identified with positive anti- HCV by enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot tests were invited to participate in the study, through letters or phone calls. Patients who agreed to participate were interviewed and their blood samples were collected for further testing. The following variables were investigated: demographic data, data on comorbidities and history concerning monitoring of hepatitis C. Multiple regression analysis by Poisson regression model was used to investigate the factors associated with non-referral for consultation or loss of follow-up. RESULTS Of the 2,952 HCV-infected blood donors, 22.8% agreed to participate: 394 (58.2%) male, median age 48 years old and 364 (53.8%) Caucasian. Of the 676 participants, 39.7% did not receive proper follow-up or treatment after diagnosis: 45 patients referred not to be aware they were infected, 61 did not seek medical attention and 163 started a follow-up program, but were non-adherent. The main reasons for inadequate follow-up were not understanding the need for medical care (71%) and health care access difficulties (14%). The variables showing a significant association with inadequate follow-up after multiple regression analysis were male gender (PR = 1.40; 95%CI 1.15–1.71), age under or equal to 50 years (PR = 1.36; 95%CI 1.12–1.65) and non-Caucasians (PR = 1.53; 95%CI 1.27–1.84). CONCLUSIONS About 40.0% of patients did not receive appropriate follow-up. These data reinforce the need to establish strong links between primary care and reference centers and the need to improve access to specialists and treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis C/therapy , Risk Factors
19.
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(1): 11-17, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-833269

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Blood donation should be voluntary, anonymous and altruistic, and the donor should not, directly or indirectly, receive any remuneration or benefit by virtue of donating blood. Like any other therapeutic method, transfusion procedures are not risk free and can expose the patient to a several complications. Serological screening is of great importance to ensure transfusion safety. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of serological ineligibility among blood donors from a Hemotherapy Center in Caxias do Sul (RS). Method: An exploratory, descriptive and quantitative study was conducted on data from July 2010 to December 2015 collected at a Hemotherapy Center in Caxias do Sul (RS). Results: During the study period, 14,267 blood donors attended the Hemotherapy Center, of which 9,332 (65.40%) were males and 4,935 (34.60%) were female. Considering only the suitable donors, 12,702 blood donations were performed, 144 (1.13%) presented positive serological tests. The most prevalent positive serology was for hepatitis B (anti-HBc) with 98 cases (0.77%), followed by syphilis with 19 cases (0.15%); Chagas disease, with 10 (0.08%); hepatitis C, with nine (0.07%); and HIV and HTLV, with four (0.03%) reactive samples each. Conclusion: The results presented are important for health surveillance and make it possible to take measures to ensure safe blood stocks (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control , Communicable Diseases/blood , Chagas Disease/blood , Deltaretrovirus Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis Antibodies , HIV Seropositivity/blood , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Syphilis Serodiagnosis
20.
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(4): 275-280, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-876562

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hemotherapy consists of therapeutic treatments performed through blood transfusion. Clinical and serological screening of donors is an essential strategy to avoid transmission of infectious agents in blood transfusion. The objective of this study is to assess the seroprevalence of HIV infection, syphilis and syphilis/HIV coinfection in blood donors from a blood bank in Porto Alegre from 2014 to 2016. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all blood donors registered on a software for managing hemotherapy services (Hemodot) of the Blood Bank in the Marques Pereira Laboratory, Porto Alegre / RS, from 2014 to 2016. Results: Of the 28,173 users of the hemotherapy service during the study period, 198 (0.70%) were positive for syphilis, HIV infection, or syphilis/HIV co infection. The prevalence of positive results for syphilis was 0.3%, 0.57% and 0.70% in 2014, 2015 and 2016, respectively, and for HIV infection was 0.18%, 0.14%, and 0.16% for the same period. However, the prevalence of syphilis/HIV coinfection was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The prevalence of syphilis increased significantly from 2014 to 2016. Hovever, this did not occur with HIV infection or with coinfection. This finding may reflect the requirement of the nucleic acid technique (NAT) for HIV screening in blood banks, a procedure that has been increasing transfusion safety and reducing the window period. Further studies may shed new light on the combined use of serological tests and NAT assays in blood banks to diagnose HIV cases and syphilis/HIV coinfection (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Syphilis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Coinfection , HIV Infections/blood , Retrospective Studies , Syphilis/blood
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