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Ann. Health Res. (Onabanjo Univ. Teach. Hosp.) ; 8(1): 49-62, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1362843


Background:The co-existence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) has been rising globally with subclinical atherosclerotic complications. These vascular changes can be detected using carotid ultrasonography. Objectives: To determine and compare the carotid arterial structural wall changes and blood flow velocities of adults with co-existing DM and HTN with age-and sex-matched non-diabetic, non-hypertensive controls. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study of 300 participants comprising 200 adults with co-existing DM and HTN and 100 age-and sex-matched controls was done. Their carotid arteries were examined bilaterally for plaques, carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and flow velocities ­peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), pulsatility index (PI) and resistive index (RI) using 4­12MHz linear array transducer. Visceral obesity and serum lipids were also assessed. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 56.13 ± 6.93 years; they comprised 38% males and 62% females. The subjects' CIMT was statistically significantly higher (p = 0.001) with a three-fold mean increase (45.5%) compared to the controls (13.7%). Lower flow velocities but higher indices were also observed in the subjects. Strong and significant correlations were observed between EDV and PI r =-0.663, p=>0.001), EDV and RI (r = -0.661, p=>0.001) and PI and RI (r =0.988, p= >0.001)among the subjects. Conclusion: Significant reduction in flow velocities with increased CIMT may be an early indication of subclinical atherosclerosis. Therefore, carotid ultrasonography should be mandatory in individuals at risk for early detection and possible prevention of atherosclerotic complications.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Blood Flow Velocity , Carotid Artery Diseases , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypertension
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(3): 503-512, out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131314


Resumo Fundamento O grau de fluxo TIMI e a contagem quadro a quadro TIMI corrigida (CTFC) são métodos amplamente utilizados para avaliar o fluxo sanguíneo coronariano angiográfico. A medição do fluxo sanguíneo coronariano (FSC) na coronariografia (CAG) padrão despertou grande interesse recentemente, tentando combinar o conceito de CTFC com novos métodos para pós-angioplastia e avaliação da síndrome cardíaca X. Além disso, o fluxo coronariano lento é considerado um critério importante para a angina microvascular. Objetivo Explorar uma nova abordagem de medição angiográfica quantitativa do FSC com base na detecção densitométrica de contraste na CAG offline, usando um software acessível para obter uma avaliação mais precisa e confiável do FSC. Métodos Trinta pacientes foram estudados e divididos em 2 grupos: fluxo sanguíneo coronariano normal (FN) e fluxo sanguíneo coronariano lento (FL), de acordo com a definição da CTFC. O MD foi aplicado à amostra do estudo para diferenciar entre FN e FL. A estatística não paramétrica foi usada para avaliar diferenças entre os grupos com p<0,05. Resultados O valor de referência normal do MD obtido para o fluxo sanguíneo coronariano foi de 9 [5-10] quadros. Os grupos FN vs. FL foi comparado e expresso como mediana [intervalo interquartil], para a artéria descendente anterior esquerda: 10 [7-11] vs. 21 [8-33]; p=0,016; artéria circunflexa: 9 [4-13] vs. 14 [11-30]; p=0,012 e artéria coronária direita: 5 [3-11] vs. 13 [8-26]; p=0,009. Conclusão O MD mostrou a viabilidade de medir o fluxo sanguíneo coronariano com precisão, consistência e reprodutibilidade em um angiograma coronariano padrão, mostrando a capacidade adicional de diferenciar FN de FL em pacientes com dor precordial e artérias coronárias normais. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(3):503-512)

Abstract Background TIMI flow grade and corrected TIMI frame count (CTFC) are widely used methods to evaluate angiographic coronary blood flow. Measurement of coronary blood flow (CBF) on standard coronary angiography (CAG) has aroused great interest recently, trying to combine the CTFC concept with new methods for post-angioplasty and for cardiac syndrome X assessment. Additionally, coronary slow flow it is now considered a major criterion for microvascular angina. Objective Explore a new approach of quantitative angiographic measurement of CBF based on densitometric contrast detection in CAG off-line, using an accessible software to obtain a more precise and reliable CBF assessment. Methods Thirty patients were studied and divided in 2 groups, normal coronary blood flow (NF) and slow coronary blood flow (SF), according to CTFC definition. The DM was applied to the study sample to differentiate between NF and SF. Non-parametric statistics was used to assess differences between groups at p<0.05. Results The DM normal reference value obtained for coronary blood flow was 9 [5-10] frames. NF vs SF group were compared and expressed as median [interquartile range], for the left anterior descending: 10 [7-11] vs 21 [8-33];p= 0.016; circumflex: 9 [4-13] vs 14 [11-30]; p= 0.012 and right coronary artery: 5 [3-11] vs 13 [8-26]; p=0.009. Conclusion The DM showed the feasibility of measuring coronary blood flow with precision, consistency and reproducible in a standard coronary angiogram, showing the additional capability to differentiate between NF and SF in chest pain patients with normal coronary arteries. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(3):503-512)

Humans , Microvascular Angina , Coronary Circulation , Blood Flow Velocity , Coronary Angiography , Hemodynamics
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(10): 630-633, Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144162


Abstract Objective Primary dysmenorrhea occurs due to abnormal levels of prostanoids, uterine contractions, and uterine blood flow. However, the reasons for pain in primary dysmenorrhea have not yet been clarified. We examined the blood flow alterations in patients with primary dysmenorrhea and determined the relationship between ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) levels, as an ischemia indicator, and primary dysmenorrhea. Methods In the present study, 37 patients who had primary dysmenorrhea and were in their luteal and menstrual phase of their menstrual cycles were included. Thirty individuals who had similar demographic characteristics, who were between 18 and 30 years old and did not have gynecologic disease were included as control individuals. Their uterine artery Doppler indices and serum IMA levels were measured. Results Menstrual phase plasma IMA levels were significantly higher than luteal phase IMA levels, both in the patient and in the control groups (p < 0.001). Although the menstrual phase IMA levels of patients were significantly higher than those of controls, luteal phase IMA levels were not significantly different between the two groups. Menstrual uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) of primary dysmenorrhea patients were significantly different when compared with luteal uterine artery PI and RI levels. There was a positive correlation between menstrual phase IMA and uterine artery PI and RI in the primary dysmenorrhea. Conclusion Ischemia plays an important role in the etiology of the pain, which is frequently observed in patients with primary dysmenorrhea. Ischemia-modified albumin levels are considered as an efficient marker to determine the severity of pain and to indicate ischemia in primary dysmenorrhea.

Humans , Female , Arteries/physiology , Dysmenorrhea/physiopathology , Blood Flow Velocity , Pulsatile Flow , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Dysmenorrhea/blood , Serum Albumin, Human
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(5): 417-423, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131620


ABSTRACT Purposes: To evaluate changes in ocular blood flow and subfoveal choroidal thickness in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis after carotid artery stenting. Methods: We included 15 men (mean age, 63.6 ± 9.1 years) with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis and 18 healthy volunteers (all men; mean age, 63.7 ± 5.3 years). All participants underwent detailed ophthalmologic examinations including choroidal thickness measurement using enhanced depth-imaging optic coherence tomography. The patients also underwent posterior ciliary artery blood flow measurements using color Doppler ultrasonography before and after carotid artery stenting. Results: Patients lacked ocular ischemic symptoms. Their peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities increased to 10.1 ± 13.1 (p=0.005) and 3.9 ± 6.3 (p=0.064) cm/s, respectively, after the procedure. Subfoveal choroidal thicknesses were significantly thinner in patients with carotid artery stenosis than those in the healthy controls (p=0.01). But during the first week post-procedure, the subfoveal choroidal thicknesses increased significantly (p=0.04). The peak systolic velocities of the posterior ciliary arteries increased significantly after carotid artery stenting (p=0.005). We found a significant negative correlation between the mean increase in peak systolic velocity values after treatment and the mean preprocedural subfoveal choroidal thickness in the study group (p=0.025, r=-0.617). Conclusions: In patients with carotid artery stenosis, the subfoveal choroid is thinner than that in healthy controls. The subfoveal choroidal thickness increases after carotid artery stenting. Carotid artery stenting treatment increases the blood flow to the posterior ciliary artery, and the preprocedural subfoveal choroidal thickness may be a good predictor of the postprocedural peak systolic velocity of the posterior ciliary artery.

RESUMO Objetivos: Avaliar alterações no fluxo sanguíneo ocular e na espessura da coroide subfoveal em pacientes com estenose sintomática da artéria carótida, após implante de stent nessa artéria. Métodos: Foram incluídos 15 homens (idade média de 63,6 ± 9,1 anos) com estenose sintomática da artéria carótida e 18 voluntários saudáveis (todos homens; idade média de 63,7 ± 5,3 anos). Todos os participantes foram submetidos a exames oftalmológicos detalhados, incluindo d medição da espessura da coroide, usando tomografia de coerência óptica com imagem de profundidade aprimorada. Os pacientes também foram submetidos a medidas do fluxo sanguíneo das artérias ciliares posteriores, usando ultrassonografia com Doppler colorido, antes e após o implante do stent na artéria carótida. Resultados: Os pacientes não apresentaram sintomas isquêmicos oculares. O pico de velocidade sistólica e diastólica final aumentou para 10,1 ± 13,1 (p=0,005) e 3,9 ± 6,3 (p=0,064) cm/s, respectivamente, após o procedimento. As espessuras da coroide subfoveais foram significativamente mais finas nos pacientes com estenose da artéria carótida do que nos controles saudáveis (p=0,01). Porém, durante a primeira semana pós-procedimento, as espessuras das coroides subfoveais aumentaram significativamente (p=0,04). O pico de velocidade sistólica das artérias ciliares posteriores aumentou significativamente após o stent na artéria carótida (p=0,005). Encontramos uma correlação negativa significativa entre o aumento médio dos valores máximos de velocidade sistólica após o tratamento e a espessura da coroide subfoveal pré-procedimento média no grupo de estudo (p=0,025, r=-0,617). Conclusões: Em pacientes com estenose da artéria carótida, a coroide subfoveal é mais fina que a dos controles saudáveis. A espessura da coroide subfoveal aumenta após o stent na artéria carótida. O tratamento com stent na artéria carótida aumenta o fluxo sanguíneo para a artéria ciliar posterior, e a espessura coroidal subfoveal pré-procedimento pode ser um bom preditor da velocidade sistólica de pico pós-procedimento da artéria ciliar posterior.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Ophthalmic Artery , Blood Flow Velocity , Carotid Arteries , Choroid , Regional Blood Flow , Stents , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Choroid/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(5): 289-296, May 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137828


Abstract Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with poor perinatal prognosis and a higher risk of stillbirth, neonatal death, and cerebral palsy. Its detection and the evaluation of its severity by new Doppler velocimetric parameters, such as aortic isthmus (AoI), are of great relevance for obstetrical practice. The AoI is a vascular segment that represents a point of communication between the right and left fetal circulations. It is considered to be a functional arterial shunt that reflects the relationship between the systemic and cerebral impedances, and has recently been proposed as a tool to detect the status of hemodynamic balance and prognosis of IUGR in fetuses. In the present review, we noticed that in healthy fetuses, the AoI net flow is always antegrade, but in fetuses with IUGR the deterioration of placental function leads to progressive reduction in its flow until it becomes mostly retrograde; this point is associated with a drastic reduction in oxygen delivery to the brain. The more impaired the AoI flow is, the greater is the risk of impairment in the Doppler velocimetry of other vessels; and the alterations of the AoI Doppler seem to precede other indicators of severe hypoxemia. Although there seems to be an association between the presence of retrograde flow in the AoI and the risk of long-term neurologic disability, its role in the prediction of perinatal morbi-mortality remains unclear. The AoI Doppler seems to be a promising tool in the management of fetuses with IUGR, but more studies are needed to investigate its employment in clinical practice.

Resumo O crescimento intrauterino restrito (CIUR) está associado a um prognóstico perinatal adverso, com maior risco de óbito intrauterino e neonatal, bem como de paralisia cerebral. Assim, sua detecção e a determinação de sua gravidade por novos parâmetros Dopplervelocimétricos, como o istmo aórtico (IAo), são de fundamental importância na prática obstétrica. O IAo é um segmento vascular que representa um ponto de comunicação entre os sistemas circulatórios fetais esquerdo e direito. É considerado um shunt arterial funcional, capaz de refletir a relação entre as impedâncias dos circuitos cerebral e sistêmico, e foi proposto como uma ferramenta para detecção do status do equilíbrio hemodinâmico e do prognóstico de fetos com CIUR. Na presente revisão, observou-se que, em fetos saudáveis, o fluxo predominante no IAo é sempre anterógrado; mas em fetos com CIUR a deterioração do estágio de insuficiência placentária acarreta reduções progressivas no fluxo ístmico até este apresentar sentido predominantemente retrógrado e levar a uma drástica redução no aporte de oxigênio ao sistema nervoso central. Quanto mais alterado estiver o fluxo no IAo, maior a chance de haver alteração na Dopplervelocimetria de outros vasos; e as alterações no Doppler do IAo parecem preceder outros indicadores de hipoxemia severa. Embora o fluxo retrógrado no IAo pareça se correlacionar com maior risco de alteração no desenvolvimento neurológico a longo prazo, ainda não está claro o seu papel na predição de morbimortalidade perinatal. O Doppler do IAo parece ser um parâmetro promissor no manejo do CIUR; entretanto, mais estudos são necessários para avaliar seu emprego na prática clínica.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Aorta, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Fetal Growth Retardation/diagnostic imaging , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , Aorta, Thoracic/physiopathology , Blood Flow Velocity , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Fetal Growth Retardation/physiopathology , Fetus/blood supply
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828198


This paper describes how to develop a practical new type of atherosclerosis detection device, which can realize real-time measurement and analysis of human atherosclerosis. According to the mechanism of human atherosclerosis, the design objectives of the system are formulated to determine the construction of the platform. The system calculates the pulse wave velocity by measuring the pulse wave of human fingers and toes, adds four blood pressure measurements to the system design, calculates the ankle-brachial index, and comprehensively measures and analyses the degree of human arteriosclerosis.

Ankle , Atherosclerosis , Blood Flow Velocity , Blood Pressure , Brachial Artery , Humans , Pulse Wave Analysis
Clinics ; 75: e1212, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055876


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the findings of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) in patients with a clinical diagnosis of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI). METHOD: From our outpatient neurotology clinic, we selected patients (using the criteria proposed by Grad and Baloh) with a clinical diagnosis of VBI. We excluded patients with any definite cause for vestibular symptoms, a noncontrolled metabolic disease or any contraindication to MRA or TCD. The patients in the study group were sex- and age-matched with subjects who did not have vestibular symptoms (control group). Our final group of patients included 24 patients (study, n=12; control, n=12). RESULTS: The MRA results did not demonstrate significant differences in the findings between our study and control groups. TCD demonstrated that the systolic pulse velocity of the right middle cerebral artery, end diastolic velocity of the basilar artery, pulsatility index (PI) of the left middle cerebral artery, PI of the right middle cerebral artery, and PI of the basilar artery were significantly higher in the study group than in the control group, suggesting abnormalities affecting the microcirculation of patients with a clinical diagnosis of VBI compared with controls. CONCLUSION: MRA failed to reveal abnormalities in patients with a clinical diagnosis of VBI compared with controls. The PI of the basilar artery, measured using TCD, demonstrated high sensitivity (91%) and specificity (91%) for detecting clinically diagnosed VBI.

Humans , Basilar Artery/diagnostic imaging , Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial/methods , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Blood Flow Velocity , Microcirculation
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(6): 1072-1081, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055073


Abstract Background: Arterial compliance reduction has been associated with aging and hypertension in supine position. However, the dynamic effects of orthostatism on aortic distensibility has not been defined. Objective: We sought to determine the orthostatic influence and the interference of age, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) on the great arteries during gravitational stress. Methods: Ninety-three healthy volunteers (age 42 ± 16 years). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) assumed as aortic stiffness was assessed in supine position (basal phase), during tilt test (TT) (orthostatic phase) and after return to supine position (recovery phase). Simultaneously with PWV acquisition, measures of BP and HR rate were recorded. Results: PWV during TT increased significantly compared to the basal and recovery phases (11.7 ± 2.5 m/s vs. 10.1 ± 2.3 m/s and 9.5 ± 2.0 m/s). Systolic BP (r = 0.55, r = 0.46 and r = 0.39) and age (r = 0.59, r = 0.63 and r = 0.39) correlated with PWV in all phases. The significance level for all tests was established as α = 0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that there is a permanent increase in PWV during orthostatic position that was returned to basal level at the recovery phase. This dynamic pattern of PWV response, during postural changes, can be explained by an increase in hydrostatic pressure at the level of abdominal aorta which with smaller radius and an increased elastic modulus, propagates the pulse in a faster way. Considering that it could increase central pulse reflection during the orthostatic position, we speculate that this mechanism may play a role in the overall adaptation of humans to gravitational stress.

Resumo Fundamento: A redução da complacência arterial tem sido associada ao envelhecimento e à hipertensão na postura supina. Entretanto, os efeitos dinâmicos do ortostatismo na distensibilidade aórtica não foram definidos. Objetivo: Determinar a influência ortostática e a interferência da idade, pressão arterial (PA) e frequência cardíaca (FC) sobre as grandes artérias durante o estresse gravitacional. Métodos: Noventa e três voluntários saudáveis (idade de 42 ± 16 anos). A velocidade da onda de pulso carotídeo-femoral (VOP), assumida como rigidez aórtica, foi avaliada na posição supina (fase basal) durante o teste de inclinação (TT) (fase ortostática) e após o retorno à posição supina (fase de recuperação). Simultaneamente à aquisição da PWV, registrou-se as medidas de PA e FC. Resultados: A VOP durante o TT aumentou significativamente em comparação com as fases basal e de recuperação (11,7 ± 2,5 m/s vs. 10,1 ± 2,3 m/se 9,5 ± 2,0 m/s). PA sistólica (r = 0,55, r = 0,46 e r = 0,39) e idade (r = 0,59, r = 0,63 e r = 0,39) correlacionaram-se com a VOP em todas as fases. O nível de significância para todos os testes foi estabelecido como = 0,05. Conclusão: Observou-se um aumento permanente da VOP durante a postura ortostática, que retornou ao nível basal na fase de recuperação. Esse padrão dinâmico de resposta da VOP, durante as alterações posturais, pode ser explicado pelo aumento da pressão hidrostática no nível da aorta abdominal que, com raio menor e aumento do módulo de elasticidade, propaga o pulso de maneira mais rápida. Considerando-se que poderia aumentar a reflexão do pulso central durante a posição ortostática, podemos especular que esse mecanismo pode desempenhar um papel na adaptação global do humano ao estresse gravitacional.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Arteries/physiology , Baroreflex/physiology , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Pulse Wave Analysis , Heart Rate/physiology , Hypotension, Orthostatic , Posture , Stress, Physiological , Blood Flow Velocity , Adaptation, Physiological , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Body Mass Index , Gravitation
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(5): 495-500, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038504


ABSTRACT Objectives The differentiation between the various etiologies of thyrotoxicosis, including those with hyperthyroidism (especially Graves' disease [GD], the most common cause of hyperthyroidism) and without hyperthyroidism (like thyroiditis), is an important step in planning specific therapy. Technetium-99m (99mTc) pertechnetate thyroid scanning is the gold standard in differentiating GD from thyroiditis. However, this technique has limited availability, is contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation, and is not helpful in cases with history of recent exposure to excess iodine. The aim of this study was to identify the diagnostic value of the peak systolic velocity of the inferior thyroid artery (PSV-ITA) assessed by color-flow Doppler ultrasound (CFDU) and compare the sensitivity and specificity of this method versus 99mTc pertechnetate thyroid uptake. Subjects and methods We prospectively analyzed 65 patients (46 with GD and 19 with thyroiditis). All patients were evaluated with clinical history and physical examination and underwent 99mTc pertechnetate scanning and measurement of TRAb levels and PSV-ITA values by CFDU. The diagnosis was based on findings from signs and symptoms, physical examination, and 99mTc pertechnetate uptake. Results Patients with GD had significantly higher mean PSV-ITA values than those with thyroiditis. At a mean PSV-ITA cutoff value of 30 cm/sec, PSV-ITA discriminated GD from thyroiditis with a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 89%. Conclusion Measurement of PSV-ITA by CFDU is a good diagnostic approach to discriminate between GD and thyroiditis, with sensitivity and specificity values comparable to those of 99mTc pertechnetate thyroid uptake.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Thyroid Gland/diagnostic imaging , Thyroiditis/diagnostic imaging , Graves Disease/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Gland/blood supply , Blood Flow Velocity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m , Diagnosis, Differential
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(2): 87-95, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042601


RESUMEN: Antecedentes: La presión media arterial pulmonar (PMAP) es una variable hemodinámica indispensable para el diagnóstico, clasificación y pronóstico de la Hipertensión Pulmonar (HP). Su cuantificación se realiza en forma invasiva por cateterismo cardíaco derecho (CCD) y no invasivamente por ecocardiografía Doppler. Masuyama propuso su medición mediante el gradiente transvalvular pulmonar diastólico derivado de la velocidad máxima inicial de la regurgitación pulmonar (∆RPi2) correspondiendo cercanamente a la medición invasiva. Objetivos: Revalidar 3 métodos ecocardiográficos que estiman la PMAP y valorar la utilidad del método de Chemla en el Test de Reactividad Vascular Pulmonar (TRVP). Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, observacional, doble ciego divido en dos etapas. A) o I) 30 pacientes se realizó ecocardiografía Doppler diagnóstica en nuestro centro. Se midieron regurgitación tricuspídea (RT) y tiempo de aceleración pulmonar (TAP) para derivar las siguientes ecuaciones: 1) 0.61xPSAP+1.95 (Chemla) 2) Gradiente presión media RT (∆PmRT) +PAD (presión-aurícula derecha) (Aduen) y 3) 79-0.45xTAP o 90-0.60xTAP, según sea el valor del TAP. B) o II) 10 pacientes enrolados para realizar el TRVP comparando la medición ecocardiográfica (Chemla) con CCD. Resultados: En la primera parte del estudio se encontró alta correlación entre las 3 ecuaciones: ChemlaAduen, R2=0.91; Chemla-Kitabatake, R2=0.87; Aduen-Kitabatake, R2=0,91. En la segunda parte comparando la PMAP-Chemla y Cateterismo derecho (CD) obtuvimos alta correlación: en tiempo 0, 30 min y recuperación:(R2=0.87, 0.99, 0.98, respectivamente). Ambas partes del estudio mostraron límites de concordancia satisfactoria con valor medio de la diferencia entre los métodos cercano a 1 en el t30 y tR del TRVP. Conclusión: los métodos dependientes de la medición de la RT son efectivos y confiables para estimar la PMAP. El método de Chemla es útil en el TRVP.

ABSTRACTS: Background: Mean Pulmonary arterial pressure (PMAP)is an indispensable hemodynamic variable for the diagnosis, classification and prognosis of Pulmonary Hypertension (PH). Its quantification is performed invasively by cardiac catheterization and non-invasively by Doppler echocardiography. Masuyama proposed its measurement by the transvalvular diastolic pulmonary gradient derived from the initial maximum velocity of pulmonary regurgitation(ΔPRi2) corresponding closely to the invasive measurement. Objectives: to compare 3 known echocardiographic methods to estimate MPAP and demonstrate the usefulness of the Chemla method in the Pulmonary Vascular Reactivity Test (PVRT). Methods: prospective, observational, double-blind study divided into two stages. A) 30 patients underwent diagnostic Doppler echocardiography. Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and pulmonary acceleration time (PAT) were measured to derive the equations: 1) 0.61xSPAP + 1.95 (Chemla) 2) Gradient mean pressure TR (ΔPmTR) + RAP (right atrium pressure) (Aduen).3) 79-0.45xPAT o 90-0.60xPAT depending on the value of PAT. B) 10 patients enrolled to PVRT comparing the echocardiographic measurement (Chemla) with right catheterization. Results: in the first part of the study a high correlation between the 3 equations was found : ChemlaAduen, R2 = 0.91; Chemla-Kitabatake, R2=0.87; Aduen-Kitabatake, R2=0.91. In the second part comparing the MPAP-Chemla and RHC we obtained a high correlation in time 0, 30 min and recovery: (R2=0.87,0,99,0.98, respectively). Both parts of the study showed satisfactory limits concordance with mean value of the difference between the methods close to 1 in the t30 and tR of the TRVP. Conclusion: the methods dependent on the measurement of the TR are effective and reliable for estimating MPAP. The Chemla method is useful in the PVRT.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Artery/physiology , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Circulation/physiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Vascular Resistance , Blood Flow Velocity , Cardiac Catheterization , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Linear Models , Double-Blind Method , Statistical Analysis , Prospective Studies , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Acceleration , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Lung/physiology , Lung/blood supply
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774214


Vena cava filter is a filter device designed to prevent pulmonary embolism caused by thrombus detached from lower limbs and pelvis. A new retrievable vena cava filter was designed in this study. To evaluate hemodynamic performance and thrombus capture efficiency after transplanting vena cava filter, numerical simulation of computational fluid dynamics was used to simulate hemodynamics and compare it with the commercialized Denali and Aegisy filters, and in vitro experimental test was performed to compare the thrombus capture effect. In this paper, the two-phase flow model of computational fluid dynamics software was used to analyze the outlet blood flow velocity, inlet-outlet pressure difference, wall shear stress on the wall of the filter, the area ratio of the high and low wall shear stress area and thrombus capture efficiency when the thrombus diameter was 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm and thrombus content was 10%, 20%, 30%, respectively. Meanwhile, the thrombus capture effects of the above three filters were also compared and evaluated by in vitro experimental data. The results showed that the Denali filter has minimal interference to blood flow after implantation, but has the worst capture effect on 5 mm small diameter thrombus; the Aegisy filter has the best effect on the trapping of thrombus with different diameters and concentrations, but the low wall shear stress area ratio is the largest; the new filter designed in this study has a good filtering and capture efficiency on small-diameter thrombus, and the area ratio of low wall shear stress which is prone to thrombosis is small. The low wall shear stress area of the Denali and Aegisy filters is relatively large, and the risk of thrombosis is high. Based on the above results, it is expected that the new vena cava filter designed in this paper can provide a reference for the design and clinical selection of new filters.

Blood Flow Velocity , Hemodynamics , Humans , Software , Thrombosis , Therapeutics , Vena Cava Filters , Vena Cava, Inferior
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776279


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the characteristics of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and cerebral blood flow velocity in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension, and to evaluate the effects of acupuncture on carotid IMT and blood flow velocity of middle cerebral artery and vertebral-basilar artery.@*METHODS@#A total of 240 patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension who met the inclusion criteria were treated with acupuncture method proposed by academician . The acupoints of Renying (ST 9), Quchi (LI 11), Hegu (LI 4), Zusanli (ST 36) and Taichong (LR 3) were selected. The treatment was given once a day, five times a week for 3 months. The carotid ultrasonography and transcranial color Doppler were performed before treatment and 3 months after treatment to evaluate the improvements of carotid IMT and brain blood flow velocity.@*RESULTS@#Among 175 patients, 94.3% suffered from impaired carotid IMT. After acupuncture intervention, 7.7%-10.9% patients had improved IMT but 4.6%-6.3% had aggravated carotid IMT. There was no significant difference of carotid IMT before and after treatment (>0.05). About 50% patients had abnormal intracranial blood flow velocity; after acupuncture intervention, 27.4%-33.3% patients who had the abnormal blood flow velocity had normal one, but 27.0%-52.5% patients who had normal blood flow velocity had abnormal one. After acupuncture intervention, the low-speed blood flow of MCA, VA and BA in female patients aged 41-60 years and the low-speed blood flow of MCA and VA in female patients aged 61-70 years were significantly improved (all <0.05); the high-speed blood flow of MCA and VA in male patients aged 61-70 years and the high-speed blood flow of VA and BA in female patients aged 41-60 years were significantly decreased (all <0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Nearly 95% of patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension had carotid IMT, and about 50% had abnormal blood flow velocity of intracranial artery. The present study failed to found significant effects of acupuncture on carotid IMT, but it shows acupuncture can generally improve the low blood flow velocity in women with mild-to-moderate hypertension.

Acupuncture Therapy , Adult , Aged , Blood Flow Velocity , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Male , Middle Aged
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 37(3): 194-200, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042595


Resumen: Los modelos experimentales de falla cardíaca con fracción de eyección disminuida en murinos son pocos. Uno de estos modelos es el de coartación de la aorta torácica en el arco aórtico (COA) en ratones. Un aspecto importante en su desarrollo es la evaluación precoz del procedimiento y su relación con la función sistólica posterior. En este sentido, las velocidades de flujo carotídeo y la relación entre ambos flujos (derecho, pre-coartación; izquierdo post coartación) pueden permitir evaluar tempranamente la precisión del procedimiento y relacionarse más tardíamente con la función sistólica VI. Nuestro objetivo fue comparar precozmente (semana 2 post operatoria) las velocidades de flujo en ambas carótidas (Doppler continuo) y tardíamente (semana 5 postoperatoria) la función sistólica VI (Ecocardiograma de superficie) en ratones seudocoartados o sham (n= 6) vs ratones COA (n = 12). Se confirmó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la relación de velocidades de flujo entre ambas carótidas medida precozmente entre los ratones sham y COA (1,1 ± 0,1 vs 2,5 ± 0,5, p< 0,001), lo que se correlacionó con un deterioro significativo de la función sistólica del ventrículo izquierdo evaluada a las 5 semanas en los ratones COA. Conclusión: En este modelo preclínico de falla cardíaca por sobrecarga de presión con fracción de eyección VI disminuida en ratón, el aumento precoz de la velocidad de flujo en la arteria carótida derecha (pre-coartación en el modelo COA) y sobre todo de la relación entre las velocidades de flujo carotídeo entre ambas carótidas se asocia a deterioro importante de la función sistólica VI cinco semanas después de efectuada la COA, lo que permite predecir la efectividad del procedimiento en este modelo experimental.

Abstract: There are few experimental models of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction in murines. One of these models is transverse aortic coarctation (TAC) in mice. However, an important challenge in its development is the early evaluation of the procedure and its relationship with late systolic LV function. In this sense, carotid flow velocities and the relationship between both (right, precoarctation, left post-coarctation) may allow early evaluation of the accuracy of the procedure and be related to late LV systolic function. The aim was to compare early (week 2 post-operative) flow velocities determined in both carotid arteries (by continuous Doppler) with late (week 5 postoperative) LV systolic function (by echocardiogram) in sham (n= 6) vs. TAC (n: 12) mice. We confirmed a statistically significant difference in the early ratio of carotid flow velocities (left/right common carotid velocity ratio) between sham and TAC mice (1.1 ± 0.1 vs 2.5 ± 0.5, p< 0.001) and this correlated well with a deteriorated left ventricular function in the TAC mice after 5 weeks. In this preclinical model of cardiac failure due to pressure overload with reduced LV ejection fraction in the mouse, the early increase in right carotid flow velocity (precoarctation) and especially the relationship between precoarctation/postcoarctation carotid flow velocities is associated with significant impairment of LV systolic function five weeks after the TAC, which allows to predict the effectiveness of the procedure in this experimental model.

Animals , Mice , Aortic Coarctation/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Heart Failure, Systolic/physiopathology , Aortic Coarctation/surgery , Regional Blood Flow , Stroke Volume , Blood Flow Velocity , Echocardiography/methods , Carotid Arteries/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Failure, Systolic/surgery , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(5): 443-447, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977454


Abstract Introduction: Various surgical procedures for minimally invasive cardiac surgery have been described in recent decades as alternatives to median sternotomy. Cardiopulmonary bypass via femoral arterial and venous cannulation is the foundation of these procedures. In this study, we evaluated the mid-term outcomes of femoral cannulation performed with U-suture technique in patients undergoing robotic heart surgery. Methods: A total of 216 patients underwent robotic-assisted cardiac surgery between January 2013 and April 2017. Cardiopulmonary bypass was performed via femoral artery, jugular, and femoral vein cannulation, and a Chitwood clamp was used for aortic occlusion. A total of 192 patients attended the outpatient follow-up, and femoral arterial and venous flow pattern was examined using Doppler ultrasound (DUS) in 145 patients. Results: Hospital mortality occured in 4 of the 216 (1.85%) cases, but there was no late mortality in this patient group. Postoperatively, seroma (n=9, 4.69%) and cannulation site infection (n=3, 1.56%) were managed with outpatient treatment. DUS in 145 patients revealed triphasic flow pattern in the common femoral arteries in all patients except for 2 (1.38%). These patients were determined to have asymptomatic arterial stenosis. Chronic recanalized thrombus in the common femoral vein was also detected in 2 (1.38%) patients. Conclusion: Femoral artery cannulation with the U-suture technique can be successfully performed in robotic-assisted cardiac surgery, with good mid-term results.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/surgery , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Blood Flow Velocity , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Femoral Artery , Femoral Vein
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(5): 435-442, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977452


Abstract Objective: To report the results of four mock femoral venous cannulas and the hydrodynamical superiority of one of them, which is the completely punched (CP) model, upon the other three. Methods: Four simulated femoral venous cannulas (single-stage, two-stage, multi-stage, and CP model) were designed from a 1/4" x 1/16" x 68 cm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing line for testing. Holes on the PVC tubes were opened by a 5 mm aortic punch. In order to evaluate the cannulas' drainage performance, gelofusine was used as fluid. The fluid was drained for 60 seconds by gravitation and then measured for each model separately. Results: Mean drained volumes of single-stage, two-stage, and multi-stage cannulas were 2.483, 2.561, and 2.603 mL, respectively. However, the CP cannula provided us a mean drained volume of 2.988 mL. There were significant differences among the variables of the CP cannula and the other three mock cannulas concerning the drained fluid flow (P<0.01). Conclusion: In our study, the measured mean volumes showed us that more drainage surface area provides better fluid drainage.

Blood Flow Velocity , Materials Testing/methods , Catheterization/instrumentation , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Cannula/standards
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 26(4): 35-44, out.- dez. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-996090


Recentemente cresceu o número de pesquisas sobre o exercício de força (EF) de baixa intensidade (20-50% de 1RM) combinado à restrição do fluxo sanguíneo (RFS), mostrando adaptações semelhantes ao EF de alta intensidade. Entretanto, muitas questões sobre essa metodologia necessitam ser investigadas. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar a resposta aguda da pressão arterial em repouso e durante o EF combinado à RFS. Dezesseis jovens (22±2 anos de idade), ativos e de ambos os sexos, realizaram o EF em duas diferentes condições, separadas por um intervalo de 48h: 1) Exercício isolado (EF) e 2) Exercício combinado à RFS (EF+RFS, 100 mmHg, porção proximal da coxa, mantida durante o exercício). Ambos realizaram 3 séries no exercício leg press com o membro dominante, à 30% de 1RM, 1 minuto de descanso, duração de 90 segundos cada série e cadência de 2 segundos, totalizando 22 repetições para a fase concêntrica e 23 para a fase excêntrica do movimento. Foram avaliadas a pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), diastólica (PAD), frequência cardíaca (FC), duplo produto (DP) e lactato sanguíneo nos momentos: repouso e imediatamente após o exercício. Foi observado apenas aumento significativo da PAS e do DP em repouso e da PAS durante o EF+RFS. O lactato sanguíneo não se alterou em nenhuma condição avaliada. Concluindo que o exercício de força com restrição de fluxo sanguíneo apresentou maiores respostas de pressão arterial sistólica em repouso e durante o exercício em sujeitos jovens ativos...(AU)

Recently, the number of researches about the strength exercise (SE) of low intensity (20- 50% of 1RM) combined to the blood flow restriction (BFR) increased, showing similar adaptations to the high-intensity SE. However, many questions about this methodology need be investigated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the acute response of blood pressure at rest and during SE combined with BFR. Sixteen young subjects (22 ± 2 years old), actives and of both sexs, underwent SE in two different conditions, separated by an interval of 48h: 1) isolated strength exercise (SE) and 2) strength exercise combined to BFR (SE+BFR, 100 mmHg, proximal portion of the thigh, maintained throughout the exercise session). Both conditions performed 3 sets on the leg press exercise with the dominant leg, with 30% of 1RM, 1 minute of rest, each series with 90 seconds of the duration and movement cadence of the 2 seconds, totaling 22 repetitions in the concentric phase and 23 in the eccentric phase of movement. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), double product (DP) and blood lactate were evaluated on rest and immediately after exercise moments. It was observed only significant increase in SBP and DP at rest and SBP during SE+BFR condition. Blood lactate did not change in any condition evaluated. Concluding that strength exercise with blood flow restriction showed higher responses of systolic blood pressure at rest and during exercise in active young subjects...(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Physical Education and Training , Blood Flow Velocity , Arterial Pressure
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(3): 224-232, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958406


Abstract Objective: Hemodilution is a concern in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Using a smaller dual tubing rather than a single larger inner diameter (ID) tubing in the venous limb to decrease prime volume has been a standard practice. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these tubing options. Methods: Four different CPB circuits primed with blood (hematocrit 30%) were investigated. Two setups were used with two circuits for each one. In Setup I, a neonatal oxygenator was connected to dual 3/16" ID venous limbs (Circuit A) or to a single 1/4" ID venous limb (Circuit B); and in Setup II, a pediatric oxygenator was connected to dual 1/4" ID venous limbs (Circuit C) or a single 3/8" ID venous limb (Circuit D). Trials were conducted at arterial flow rates of 500 ml/min up to 1500 ml/min (Setup I) and up to 3000 ml/min (Setup II), at 36°C and 28°C. Results: Circuit B exhibited a higher venous flow rate than Circuit A, and Circuit D exhibited a higher venous flow rate than Circuit C, at both temperatures. Flow resistance was significantly higher in Circuits A and C than in Circuits B (P<0.001) and D (P<0.001), respectively. Conclusion: A single 1/4" venous limb is better than dual 3/16" venous limbs at all flow rates, up to 1500 ml/min. Moreover, a single 3/8" venous limb is better than dual 1/4" venous limbs, up to 3000 ml/min. Our findings strongly suggest a revision of perfusion practice to include single venous limb circuits for CPB.

Humans , Oxygenators/standards , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/instrumentation , Cannula/standards , Pediatrics/instrumentation , Reference Standards , Temperature , Time Factors , Venous Pressure/physiology , Blood Flow Velocity/physiology , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Equipment Design , Equipment Safety , Hemodilution , Models, Cardiovascular
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(2): 362-369, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892975


ABSTRACT Purpose Non-palpable isolated septal plaques of the penis are likely present in a significant number of patients affected by erectile dysfunction (ED) and penile pain without deformity or curvature. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound (US) patterns observed in patients investigated for ED or penile pain without curvature. Materials and Methods We reviewed the medical records of 386 patients who underwent an initial colour-Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) of the penis for DE and/or penile pain without curvature. After satisfying inclusion criteria, 41 patients were individualized. All patients had a non-palpable plaque with involvement of the penile septum. Three US patterns were identified: focal hyperecoic thickening of the intercavernosum septum (IS) with acoustic shadow (pattern 1), non-calcified thickening (isoechoic or slightly hyperechoic (pattern 2), and microcalcifications in the IS without associated acoustic shadow (pattern 3). Results Patients' mean age was 51.3±16.7. ED was the predominant disorder in 73.2% of patients, followed by penile pain and length loss in 19.5% and 7.3% of patients, respectively. 32(78.1%) patients showed the pattern 1, 6 (14.6%) pattern 2, and 3 (7.3%) pattern 3. Plaques size varied from 3 to 13 mm. The penile hemodynamic response to CDU reported abnormal findings distally to the septal plaques in 20 patients (<25cm/sec). Median left and right cavernosum artery flows measured a peak systolic velocity of 31cm/sec and 33 cm/sec, respectively. Conclusions We believe that an US study with CDU provides a way to characterize, localize, and deliver treatment choice in patients with Peyronie's Disease.

Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Penile Induration/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color , Penile Induration/physiopathology , Penis/blood supply , Penis/diagnostic imaging , Blood Flow Velocity , Risk Factors , Middle Aged
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(2): 132-139, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888019


Abstract Background: Simplified projected aortic valve area (EOAproj) is a valuable echocardiographic parameter in the evaluation of low flow low gradient aortic stenosis (LFLG AS). Its widespread use in clinical practice is hampered by the laborious process of flow rate (Q) calculation. Objetive: This study proposes a less burdensome, alternative method of Q calculation to be incorporated in the original formula of EOAproj and measures the agreement between the new proposed method of EOAproj calculation and the original one. Methods: Retrospective observational single-institution study that included all consecutive patients with classic LFLG AS that showed a Q variation with dobutamine infusion ≥ -15-% by both calculation methods. Results: Twenty-two consecutive patients with classical LFLG AS who underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography were included. Nine patients showed a Q variation with dobutamine infusion calculated by both classical and alternative methods ≥ -15-% and were selected for further statistical analysis. Using the Bland-Altman method to assess agreement we found a systematic bias of 0,037 cm2 (95% CI 0,004 - 0,066), meaning that on average the new method overestimates the EOAproj in 0,037 cm2 compared to the original method. The 95% limits of agreement are narrow (from -0,04 cm2 to 0,12 cm2), meaning that for 95% of individuals, EOAproj calculated by the new method would be between 0,04 cm2 less to 0,12 cm2 more than the EOAproj calculated by the original equation. Conclusion: The bias and 95% limits of agreement of the new method are narrow and not clinically relevant, supporting the potential interchangeability of the two methods of EOAproj calculation. As the new method requires less additional measurements, it would be easier to implement in clinical practice, promoting an increase in the use of EOAproj.

Resumo Fundamento: A área valvular aórtica projetada simplificada (AEOproj) é um parâmetro ecocardiográfico valioso na avaliação da estenose aórtica de baixo fluxo e baixo gradiente (EA BFBG). Sua utilização na prática clínica é limitada pelo trabalhoso processo de cálculo da taxa de fluxo (Q). Objetivos: Este estudo propõe um método alternativo, menos complexo, para o cálculo da Q para ser incorporado na fórmula original da AEOproj, e mede a concordância entre o novo método proposto para o cálculo da AEOproj em comparação ao método original. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, observacional, unicêntrico que incluiu todos os pacientes com AE BFBG clássica com variação da Q com infusão de dobutamina ≥ -15-% por ambos os métodos. Resultados: Foram incluídos 22 pacientes consecutivos com AE BFBG clássico, que se submeteram à ecocardiografia sob estresse com dobutamina. Nove pacientes apresentaram uma variação da Q com infusão de dobutamina calculada tanto pelo método clássico como pelo método alternativo ≥ -15-%, e foram selecionados para análise estatística. Utilizando método Bland-Altman para avaliar a concordância, encontramos um viés sistemático de 0,037 cm2 (IC 95% 0,004 - 0,066), o que significa que, em média, o novo método superestima a AEOproj em 0m037 cm2 em comparação ao método original. Os limites de concordância de 95% são estreitos (de -0,04 cm2 a 0,12 cm2), o que significa que para 95% dos indivídios, a AEOproj calculada pelo novo método estaria entre 0,04 cm2 menos a 0,12 cm2 mais que a AEOproj calculada pela equação original. Conclusão: O viés e os limites de 95% de concordância do novo método são estreitos e não são clinicamente relevantes, o que corrobora a intercambialidade dos dois métodos de cálculo da AEOproj. Uma vez que o novo método requer menos medidas, seria mais fácil de ser implementado na prática clínica, promovendo um aumento na utilização da AEOproj.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Valve/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Valve Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Stress/methods , Aortic Valve/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Blood Flow Velocity , Infusions, Intravenous , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Dobutamine/administration & dosage , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Agonists/administration & dosage , Hemodynamics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813179


To study the blood flow parameters for 2 anatomical segments of posterior cerebral artery (PCA) in normal singleton fetal.
 Methods: The blood flow velocity parameters peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), time-average maximum velocity (TAMAXV), velocity time integral (VTI) and resistance parameters systolic peak velocity and end diastolic velocity ratio (S/D), pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI) for 2 anatomical segments in PCA were recorded. The first segment of the PCA (PCAS1) was recorded between the origin of PCA and the proximal part of the posterior communicating artery. The second segment of the PCA (PCAS2) was recorded at the distal part of the posterior communicating artery. The blood parameters in both PCAS1 and PCAS2 were analyzed by using Pearson correlation and multiple curves fitting with gestational age (GA). Paired student's t test was performed to compare the difference in blood parameter between PCAS1 and PCAS2.
 Results: The blood flow velocity parameters in both PCAS1 and PCAS2 were increased with the GA (P0.05). Resistance parameters in PCAS1 were higher than those in PCAS2 (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: The blood flow velocity parameters in both PCAS1 and PCAS2 are increased with GA. The resistance parameters in both PCAS1 and PCAS2 do not change with GA. Study on the velocities and resistance in these 3 arterial branches provides a more comprehensive evaluation on the process of brain circulation.

Blood Flow Velocity , Physiology , Diastole , Physiology , Female , Gestational Age , Hemodynamics , Physiology , Humans , Posterior Cerebral Artery , Physiology , Pregnancy , Systole , Physiology