Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.333
Filter
1.
Rev. colomb. neumol ; 34(2): 59-79, July-Dec. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1412779

ABSTRACT

La evaluación del estado ácido base y de la oxigenación de un paciente es fundamental en cualquier escenario clínico, sea en consulta externa, en un servicio de urgencias, hospitalización, en cirugía o en la unidad de cuidado intensivo. El conocimiento de las bases fisiopatológicas es de suma importancia para el entendimiento y adecuada interpretación de estas condiciones. El objetivo de esta revisión es proveer las bases de conocimiento necesarias para el abordaje adecuado de los gases arteriovenosos y proponer un modelo para la compresión e interpretación de estos. Este artículo aborda las bases fisiopatológicas de las alteraciones ácido base, los modelos existentes en su compresión, el modelo propuesto para su abordaje diagnóstico, sus diagnósticos diferenciales, el enfoque de la hipoxemia, la interpretación de los gases arteriovenosos y las variables que se pueden obtener de estos, el enfoque de la acidosis láctica y unos ejemplos del modelo propuesto.


The evaluation of the acid-base status and the oxygenation of a patient is fundamental in any clinical setting, be it in an outpatient clinic, in an emergency service, hospitalization, in surgery or in the intensive care unit. Knowledge of the pathophysiological bases is of the utmost importance for the understanding and adequate interpretation of these conditions. The objective of this review is to provide the necessary knowledge for the adequate understanding of arteriovenous gases and to propose a model for their comprehension and interpretation. This article addresses the pathophysiological bases of acid-base disorders, the existing models in their comprehension, the model proposed for their diagnostic approach, their differential diagnoses, the diagnostic approach to hypoxemia, the interpretation of arteriovenous gases and the variables that can be obtained from them, the diagnostic approach of lactic acidosis and some examples of the proposed model.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygenation , Blood Gas Analysis
2.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 373-377, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936021

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the application effects of feedforward control theory in the rollover bed treatment of mass patients with burn-explosion combined injury. Methods: A retrospective observational research was conducted. From June 13 to 14, 2020, 15 patients with severe burn-explosion combined injury caused by liquefied natural gas tank car explosion and conforming to the inclusion criteria were admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. There were 13 males and 2 females, aged 33-92 (66±17) years. All the patients were treated with rollover bed from 48 h post admission, and the feedforward control theory was introduced, including establishing a special feedforward control management team for rollover bed, clarifying the duties of the medical staff in the rollover bed treatment of patients, implementing the cooperation strategy of multidisciplinary physician, training and examining for 80 nurses in the temporarily organized nurse team in the form of "rollover bed workshop", and formulating the checklist and valuation list of rollover bed treatment for continuous quality control. The frequency and the total number of turning over, and successful rate of one-time posture change with the rollover bed of patients within 30 days of admission were recorded, the occurrences of adverse events caused by improper operation for the rollover bed during the treatment were observed, including respiratory and cardiac arrests, treatment interruption, unplanned extubation, bed falling, and skin graft displacement. The lowest levels of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), the number of patients with oxygenation index>300 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa), and the occurrence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of patients within 2 days of admission and on the 30th day of admission were recorded. Results: Within 30 days of admission, the patients were turned over with the rollover bed for 2 to 6 times each day, with a total of 1 320 turning over operations, the successful rate of one-time posture change reached 99.9% (1 319/1 320), and no adverse event occurred. Within 2 days of admission, the lowest levels of PaO2 and PaCO2 of the patients were (100±19) and (42±4) mmHg, respectively, and the number of patients with mild, moderate, and severe ARDS were 10, 2, and 3, respectively, and none of the patients had oxygenation index>300 mmHg. On the 30th day of admission, the lowest levels of PaO2 and PaCO2 of the patients were (135±28) and (37±8) mmHg, respectively, 3 patients developed moderate ARDS, 1 patient developed severe ARDS, and 11 patients had oxygenation index>300 mmHg. Conclusions: The introduction of feedforward control theory in the treatment of rollover bed of mass patients with burn-explosion combined injury can ensure safe and successful completion of turning over with the rollover bed, promote the repair of burn wound, and improve respiratory function, and therefore improve the treatment quality of patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Gas Analysis , Burns/therapy , Explosions , Female , Humans , Male , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Retrospective Studies
3.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(3): e720, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1351985

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las alteraciones del equilibrio ácido-base pueden ser de carácter primario. En la mayoría de los casos dependen de la complicación de una enfermedad preexistente. La frecuencia de estos trastornos es elevada, especialmente, en enfermos hospitalizados en las unidades de atención al paciente grave. Su aparición conlleva implicaciones pronósticas significativas. Objetivo: Sistematizar sobre el estado actual del manejo del equilibrio ácido-base. Método: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en la que se utilizaron las herramientas del método científico. Se examinó toda la bibliografía disponible publicada en los últimos cinco años y así, elaborar una síntesis crítica, acorde al criterio y las competencias de los autores sobre la temática. Resultados: Se expone la importancia de la evaluación clínica, que unida a los niveles de PCO2, y de exceso o déficit de bases en una gasometría arterial, permiten identificar el trastorno ácido base existente. Igualmente, se destaca que el CO2 tiene una función clave en el control de la ventilación, así como las modificaciones que produce al flujo sanguíneo cerebral, el pH y el tono adrenérgico. Otro aspecto importante fue la reciente práctica clínica de la "hipercapnia permisiva" para reducir el metabolismo tisular y de esta manera, mejorar la función del surfactante e impedir la nitración de las proteínas. Conclusiones: El manejo de los desequilibrios ácido-base debe ser del dominio de todos los profesionales vinculados a la asistencia médica, pues el retraso de su diagnóstico puede empeorar la evolución y el pronóstico de los pacientes graves(AU)


Introduction: Acid-base balance alterations can be of a primary nature. In most cases, they depend on the complication of a pre-existing disease. The frequency of these disorders is high, especially in patients hospitalized in critical care units. Its appearance carries significant prognostic implications. Objective: To systematize the current state of acid-base balance management. Method: A bibliographic review was carried out, for which the tools of the scientific method were used. All the available bibliography, published in the last five years, was examined; thus, a critical synthesis was prepared, according to the criteria and competences of the authors regarding the subject. Results: The importance of the clinical evaluation is exposed, which, together with PCO2 levels as well as excess or deficit of bases in an arterial blood gas, allow to identify the existing acid-base disorder. Likewise, it is highlighted that CO2 has a key function in ventilation control, together with the modifications it produces on cerebral blood flow, pH and adrenergic tone. Another important aspect was the recent clinical practice of "permissive hypercapnia" to reduce tissue metabolism and thus improve surfactant function and prevent protein nitration. Conclusions: The management of acid-base imbalances should be mastered by all professionals associated to medical care, since any delay in its diagnosis can worsen the evolution and prognosis of seriously ill patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Acid-Base Equilibrium , Acid-Base Imbalance , Blood Gas Analysis/methods , Critical Care , Medical Care , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
4.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(6): 473-481, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354772

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en las grandes altitudes, el intercambio gaseoso suele estar deteriorado; en la altitud moderada de la Ciudad de México esto no está aún plenamente definido. Objetivo: caracterizar el intercambio gaseoso en la altitud moderada de la Ciudad de México. Material y métodos: mediante un estudio transversal analítico se estudiaron sujetos nacidos y habitantes de la Ciudad de México, de ambos géneros, con edades de 20 a 59 años sin enfermedad cardiopulmonar. Se registraron sus variables demográficas, espirometría simple y de gasometría arterial. Las diferencias en las variables se calcularon con ANOVA de una vía para grupos independientes y ajuste de Bonferroni. Una p < 0.05 se aceptó como significativa. Resultados: se estudiaron 335 sujetos, de los cuales 168 (50.15%) fueron hombres, la edad grupal fue de 45 ± 11 años, con índice de masa corporal 22.97 ± 1.54 Kg/m2. La relación volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo/Capacidad vital forzada (VEF1/CVF) de 91.58 ± 12.86%. La presión arterial de oxígeno fue de 66 ± 5.02 mmHg, el bióxido de carbono: 32.07 ± 2.66 mmHg, la saturación arterial de oxígeno: 93.03 ± 1.80% y la hemoglobina: 14.07 ± 1.52 gr/dL. Conclusiones: la presión arterial de oxígeno y del bióxido de carbono están disminuidos a la altura de la Ciudad de México.


Background: At high altitude the gas exchange is impaired, in the moderate altitude of Mexico City they are not yet defined. Objective: To characterize the gas exchange in the moderate altitude of Mexico City. Material and methods: Through an analytical cross-sectional study, subjects born and inhabitants of Mexico City, both genders, aged 20 to 59 years without cardiopulmonary disease, were studied. Their demographic variables, simple spirometry and arterial blood gas were recorded. Differences in variables were calculated with one-way ANOVA for independent groups and Bonferroni adjustment. p < 0.05 was accepted as significant. Results: 335 subjects were studied, 168 (50.15%) men. Group age 45 ± 11 years old, body mass index 22.97 ± 1.54 Kg/m2. Forced expiratory volume ratio in the first second / Forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) 91.58 ± 12.86%. The arterial oxygen pressure was: 66 ± 5.02 mmHg, carbon dioxide: 32.07 ± 2.66 mmHg, arterial oxygen saturation: 93.0 3 ± 1.80%, and hemoglobin: 14.07 ± 1.52 gr/dL. Conclusions: The arterial oxygen pressure and carbon dioxide are lowered at the Mexico City altitude.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pulmonary Heart Disease , Blood Gas Analysis , Arterial Pressure , Respiratory Function Tests , Spirometry , Forced Expiratory Volume , Pulmonary Circulation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena
5.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(4): 537-543, out.-dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357190

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar o comportamento dos índices de troca gasosa conforme o uso de alvos de oxigenação liberais em comparação a conservadores em pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo moderada a grave secundária à COVID-19 e em uso de ventilação mecânica; avaliar a influência da FiO2 elevada na mecânica do sistema respiratório. Métodos: Foram incluídos prospectivamente pacientes consecutivos com idades acima de 18 anos, diagnóstico de COVID-19 e síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo moderada e grave. Para cada paciente, aplicou-se aleatoriamente dois protocolos de FiO2 para obter SpO2 de 88% a 92% ou 96%. Avaliaram-se os índices de oxigenação e a mecânica do sistema respiratório. Resultados: Foram incluídos 15 pacientes. Todos seus índices foram significantemente afetados pela estratégia de FiO2 (p < 0,05). A proporção PaO2/FiO2 deteriorou, o PA-aO2 aumentou e o Pa/AO2 diminuiu significantemente com a utilização de FiO2 para obter SpO2 96%. Opostamente, a fração de shunt funcional foi reduzida. A mecânica respiratória não foi afetada pela estratégia de FiO2. Conclusão: Uma estratégia com alvos liberais de oxigenação deteriorou significantemente os índices de troca gasosa, com exceção do shunt funcional, em pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo relacionada à COVID-19. A mecânica do sistema respiratório não foi alterada pela estratégia de FiO2. Registro Clinical Trials: NCT04486729.


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare gas exchange indices behavior by using liberal versus conservative oxygenation targets in patients with moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to COVID-19 under invasive mechanical ventilation. We also assessed the influence of high FiO2 on respiratory system mechanics. Methods: We prospectively included consecutive patients aged over 18 years old with a diagnosis of COVID-19 and moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. For each patient, we randomly applied two FiO2 protocols to achieve SpO2 88% - 92% or 96%. We assessed oxygenation indices and respiratory system mechanics. Results: We enrolled 15 patients. All the oxygenation indices were significantly affected by the FiO2 strategy (p < 0.05) selected. The PaO2/FiO2 deteriorated, PA-aO2 increased and Pa/AO2 decreased significantly when using FiO2 to achieve SpO2 96%. Conversely, the functional shunt fraction was reduced. Respiratory mechanics were not affected by the FiO2 strategy. Conclusion: A strategy aimed at liberal oxygenation targets significantly deteriorated gas exchange indices, except for functional shunt, in COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome. The respiratory system mechanics were not altered by the FiO2 strategy. Clinical Trials Register: NCT04486729.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Blood Gas Analysis , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 834-842, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285262

ABSTRACT

Urolithiasis has a high incidence among confined sheep. It is multifactorial and may cause economic damage. Our aim was to determine the capacity of urinary acidification using ammonium chloride in sheep. Twenty-five 3-month-old male sheep were confined and randomly divided into three groups; the G200 and G500 groups received 200mg/kg/GW and 500mg/kg/GW of ammonium chloride daily for 56 consecutive days, respectively, whereas the CG group did not receive ammonium chloride. Sampling times and clinical evaluation were performed weekly, starting from the 14th day of confinement (M1 or immediately before administering ammonium chloride) until the 17th day (M9) of the feedlot. Hemogasometry, biochemical examination of serum urea and creatinine concentration and ultrasound evaluation of the urinary tract were performed. The urinalysis indicated a higher incidence of ammonium magnesium phosphate crystals at the beginning of the study, showing a migration to urate crystal formation, mainly in the G500 group because of urinary acidification. No hemogasometric, serum biochemistry, ruminal fluid, or ultrasonographic changes were observed. Urinary acidification was achieved and maintained after M7 during the administration of ammonium chloride in the G500 group, but not in the other study groups.(AU)


A urolitíase apresenta alta incidência em ovinos confinados, etiologia multifatorial, e pode causar prejuízo econômico. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a capacidade da acidificação urinária mediante o uso de cloreto de amônio em ovinos. Foram utilizados 25 ovinos de três meses de idade, confinados e divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos: grupo CG (controle) não recebeu cloreto de amônio; grupo G200 (200mg/kg/PV) recebeu cloreto de amônio por 56 dias consecutivos; grupo G500 (500mg/kg/PV) recebeu cloreto de amônio por 56 dias consecutivos, administrados diariamente por via oral. Os momentos (M) de colheita de amostras e de avaliação clínica foram realizados com intervalo de sete dias, sendo M1 (imediatamente antes do cloreto de amônio), M2 (sete dias após) até M9, totalizando 70 dias de confinamento. Foram realizadas hemogasometria, concentração sérica de ureia e creatinina e avaliação ultrassonográfica do trato urinário. Na urinálise, houve uma maior incidência de cristais de fosfato amônio magnesiano no início do estudo, com migração para formação de cristais de urato, principalmente no G500, devido à acidificação urinária. Não houve alterações hemogasométricas, na bioquímica sérica, no líquido ruminal, ou alterações ultrassonográficas. A acidificação urinária foi obtida e mantida a partir do M7 durante a administração do cloreto de amônio no grupo G500, não ocorrendo nos outros grupos de estudo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/physiology , Lithiasis/veterinary , Urolithiasis/veterinary , Ammonium Chloride/administration & dosage , Blood Gas Analysis/veterinary , Urinalysis/veterinary
7.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(1): 51-56, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284309

ABSTRACT

La gasometría arterial es fundamental en el diagnóstico y manejo del medio interno. El objetivo es caracterizar los valores de gasometría arterial en gestantes sanas con embarazo normoevolutivo residentes a 4 150 metros sobre el nivel del mar. Serie de casos llevada a cabo durante la gestión 2019, la cual incluye pacientes sin clínica ni antecedentes de enfermedades cardiopulmonares o hematológicas, así como ausencia de tabaquismo y residencia de al menos los últimos 6 meses. Se incluye 30 pacientes, media de edad 25.23 años (desvío estándar 3.69), con edad gestacional media de 26 semanas (desvío estándar 5.5). El valor de pH tiende a ser más alto, así como los valores de PaO2, PaCO2, HCO3 y SatpO2% son más bajos, incluso en comparación con adultos sanos residentes de la misma altitud. Existe cierta tendencia positiva hacia el incremento progresivo del pH mientras la edad gestacional avanza. La gasometría arterial en la altura, debe ser interpretada con suma precaución en relación a las condiciones barométricas, proporcionándose así, valiosa información con aplicación a la obstetricia crítica a muy alta altitud.


Arterial blood gases analysis is essential in the diagnosis and management of pathologies. The objective is to characterize arterial blood gases values in healthy pregnant residents at 4150 meters above sea level. Series case performed during 2019, including patients without a clinical features or antecedents of cardiopulmonary or hematological diseases as well as absence of smoking and residence for at least the last 6 months. Thirty patients are included, mean age 25.23 years (standard deviation 3.69), with average gestational age of 26 weeks (standard deviation 5.5). The pH tends to be higher, as well as the values of PaO2, PaCO2, HCO3 and SatpO2% are lower, even compared to healthy adults living at the same altitude. There is some positive trend towards progressive pH is higher such as gestational age progresses. Arterial gas blood analysis at altitude, should be interpreted with extreme caution in relation to barometric conditions, thus providing, valuable information to critical care obstetrics at very high altitude


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Blood Gas Analysis , Atmospheric Pressure , Gestational Age , Sea Level , Pregnant Women , Obstetrics
8.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(2): 261-265, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289084

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar a existência de associação entre os valores de driving pressure e mechanical power e do índice de oxigenação no primeiro dia de ventilação mecânica com a mortalidade de pacientes vítimas de trauma sem diagnóstico de síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Métodos: Foram incluídos pacientes ventilados em modo de pressão ou volume controlado, com coleta de dados 24 horas após sua intubação orotraqueal. O acompanhamento do paciente foi realizado por 30 dias para obter o desfecho clínico. Os pacientes estiveram internados em duas unidades de terapia intensiva do Hospital de Pronto Socorro de Porto Alegre, no período de junho a setembro de 2019. Resultados: Foram avaliados 24 pacientes. Os valores de driving pressure, mechanical power e do índice de oxigenação foram similares entre os pacientes que sobreviveram e os que tiveram desfecho de óbito, sem diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos. Conclusão: Os valores de driving pressure, mechanical power e índice de oxigenação obtidos no primeiro dia de ventilação mecânica não demonstraram ter associação com a mortalidade de pacientes vítimas de trauma sem síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo.


ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the possible association between driving pressure and mechanical power values and oxygenation index on the first day of mechanical ventilation with the mortality of trauma patients without a diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Methods: Patients under pressure-controlled or volume-controlled ventilation were included, with data collection 24 hours after orotracheal intubation. Patient follow-up was performed for 30 days to obtain the clinical outcome. The patients were admitted to two intensive care units of the Hospital de Pronto Socorro de Porto Alegre from June to September 2019. Results: A total of 24 patients were evaluated. Driving pressure, mechanical power and oxygenation index were similar among patients who survived and those who died, with no statistically significant difference between groups. Conclusion: Driving pressure, mechanical power and oxygenation index values obtained on the first day of mechanical ventilation were not associated with mortality of trauma patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Respiration, Artificial , Blood Gas Analysis , Prospective Studies , Intensive Care Units
9.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(1): e500, Jan.-Mar. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149798

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hemodynamic monitoring of a critically ill patient is an indispensable tool both inside and outside intensive care; we currently have invasive, minimally invasive and non-invasive devices; however, no device has been shown to have a positive impact on the patient's evolution; arterial and venous blood gases provide information on the patient's actual microcirculatory and metabolic status and may be a hemodynamic monitoring tool. We aimed to carry out a non-systematic review of the literature of hemodynamic monitoring carried out through the variables obtained in arterial and venous blood gases. A non-systematic review of the literature was performed in the PubMed, OvidSP and ScienceDirect databases with selection of articles from 2000 to 2019. It was found that there are variables obtained in arterial and venous blood gases such as central venous oxygen saturation (SvcO2), venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide pressure (Δpv-aCO2), venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide pressure/arteriovenous oxygen content difference (Δpv-aCO2/ΔCavO2) that are related to cellular oxygenation, cardiac output (CO), microcirculatory veno-arterial flow and anaerobic metabolism and allow to assess tissue perfusion status. In conclusion, the variables obtained by arterial and venous blood gases allow for non-invasive, accessible and affordable hemodynamic monitoring that can guide medical decision-making in critically ill patients.


Resumen El monitoreo hemodinámico de un paciente en estado crítico es una herramienta indispensable tanto dentro como fuera de la terapia intensiva; actualmente se cuenta con dispositivos invasivos, mínimamente invasivos y no invasivos; sin embargo, ningún dispositivo ha demostrado tener impacto positivo en la evolución del paciente; la gasometría arterial y venosa proporcionan información del estado microcirculatorio y metabólico real del paciente pudiendo ser una herramienta de monitoreo hemodinámico. El objetivo de esta revisión fue realizar una revisión no sistemática de la literatura del monitoreo hemodinámico realizado mediante las variables obtenidas en la gasometría arterial y venosa. Se estudiaron las bases de datos de PubMed, OvidSP y ScienceDirect con selección de artículos del 2000 al 2019. Se encontró que hay variables obtenidas en la gasometría arterial y venosa como la saturación venosa central de oxígeno (SvcO2), la diferencia de presión venoarterial de dióxido de carbono (Δpv-aCO2), la diferencia de presión venoarterial de dióxido de carbono/diferencia del contenido arteriovenoso de oxígeno (Δpv-aCO2/ΔCa-vO2) que están relacionadas con la oxigenación celular, con el gasto cardiaco (GC), con el flujo venoarterial microcirculatorio y con el metabolismo anaerobio que permiten realizar una valoración del estado de perfusión tisular. En conclusión, las variables obtenidas por gasometría arterial y venosa permiten realizar un monitoreo hemodinámico no invasivo, accesible y asequible que pueden guiar la toma de decisiones médicas en el paciente en estado crítico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Gas Analysis , Hemodynamic Monitoring , Microcirculation , Carbon Dioxide , Decision Making
10.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(1): 20-24, 20210000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148493

ABSTRACT

El trauma continúa siendo una de las primeras causas de muertes prevenibles en nuestro país. A pesar de la disminución del trauma militar, la incidencia que abarca todas las formas de trauma continúa siendo alta y congestiona los servicios de urgencias, por eso es fundamental el adecuado enfoque inicial para disminuir la mortalidad. Tradicionalmente, se han utilizado marcadores, como los signos vitales, para la identificación del choque hemorrágico, pero estudios observacionales de gran escala han demostrado cómo estos muchas veces no logran identificar a los pacientes con choque hemorrágico, haciendo necesario usar marcadores más objetivos, como los gases arteriales, con la medición del lactato y el déficit de base, que según literatura tienen mejor predicción de mortalidad, identificación temprana del choque y activación temprana de protocolos transfusionales


Trauma continues to be one of the lead causes of preventable deaths in our country. Even with the decrease of military trauma, the incidence of trauma remains high, dominating the emergency room. The initial approach is fundamental to decrease mortality. Traditionally, vital signs have been used as a marker of hemorrhage shock, but observational studies of high volumes of patients showed how those often can't identify patients with hemorrhage shock, which makes necessary more objective markers such as the blood gas with the measure of lactate and base deficit, which has proven useful in the prediction of mortality, early identification of shock and a faster activation of transfusion protocols


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Gas Analysis , Wounds and Injuries , Lactic Acid , Emergencies
11.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 25: e1392, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1346848

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo foi mapear o conhecimento sobre o uso da solução de glicose 25% no alívio da dor de recém-nascidos durante a punção arterial e venosa. Trata-se de uma revisão de escopo. Realizada busca em oito fontes de dados (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, SciVerse Scopus, Web of Science, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Cochrane Library, Catálogo de Teses e Dissertações) e em buscador eletrônico no mês de agosto de 2020. Foram selecionados 11 estudos, que corroboram a utilização da glicose 25% como medida não farmacológica para redução da dor em Recém-nascidos, evidenciando seu efeito analgésico a partir da redução da pontuação nas escalas que avaliam a dor. Quanto à utilização, notou-se que a maioria utilizou 2 mL dessa solução, por via oral, dois minutos antes do procedimento. As medidas não farmacológicas são de fácil uso e baixo custo. A glicose 25% é vista como um método padrão-ouro para o alívio da dor de Recém-nascidos. Este estudo possibilitou mais embasamento científico ao mostrar que o uso da solução de glicose 25% é benéfico no alívio da dor de recém-nascidos durante a punção arterial e venosa, principalmente quando associada a outras técnicas. O estudo elucida as ações de saúde para o manejo da dor neonatal e contribui para o fomento da visibilidade e relevância científica ao tema.


RESUMEN El objetivo fue mapear el conocimiento sobre el uso de una solución de glucosa al 25% para el alivio del dolor en recién nacidos durante la punción arterial y venosa. Esta es una revisión del alcance. Se buscaron ocho fuentes de datos (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, SciVerse Scopus, Web of Science, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Cochrane Library, Tesis y disertaciones Catálogo) y en un buscador electrónico en agosto de 2020. Se seleccionaron once estudios, que corroboran el uso de glucosa al 25% como medida no farmacológica para reducir el dolor en Recién Nacido, mostrando su efecto analgésico a partir de la reducción de puntuaciones en escalas que evalúan el dolor. En cuanto al uso, se notó que la mayoría utilizó 2 mL de esta solución, por vía oral, dos minutos antes del procedimiento. Las medidas no farmacológicas son fáciles de usar y económicas. La glucosa al 25% se considera un método de referencia para el alivio del dolor Recién Nacido. Este estudio proporcionó una base más científica al demostrar que el uso de una solución de glucosa al 25% es beneficioso para aliviar el dolor de los recién nacidos durante la punción arterial y venosa, especialmente cuando se asocia con otras técnicas. El estudio dilucida acciones de salud para el manejo del dolor neonatal y contribuye a promover la visibilidad y relevancia científica del tema.


ABSTRACT The objective was to map knowledge about the use of a 25% glucose solution in pain relief in newborns during arterial and venous puncture. This is a scoping review. It was conducted during August 2020 in eight data sources (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, SciVerse Scopus, Web of Science, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Cochrane Library, and Theses and Dissertations Catalog), as well as in an electronic search engine. Eleven studies were selected, which corroborate the use of 25% glucose as a non-pharmacological measure to reduce pain in Newborns, evidencing its analgesic effect from the reduction of the scores in the scales that assess pain. Regarding use, it was noticed that most employed 2 mL of this solution, via oral route, two minutes before the procedure. The non-pharmacological measures are low-cost and easy to use. The 25% glucose solution is seen as a gold-standard method for pain relief in Newborns. This study provided additional scientific basis by showing that the use of a 25% glucose solution is beneficial in relieving pain in newborns during arterial and venous puncture, especially when associated with other techniques. The study elucidates the health actions for the management of neonatal pain and contributes to fostering scientific visibility and relevance regarding the theme.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Pain Management/methods , Glucose/therapeutic use , Analgesia , Blood Gas Analysis
12.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 39: e2019275, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155475

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be a devastating condition in children with cancer and alveolar recruitment maneuvers (ARMs) can theoretically improve oxygenation and survival. The study aimed to assess the feasibility of ARMs in critically ill children with cancer and ARDS. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 31 maneuvers in a series of 12 patients (median age of 8.9 years) with solid tumors (n=4), lymphomas (n=2), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=2), and acute myeloid leukemia (n=4). Patients received positive end-expiratory pressure from 25 up to 40 cmH20, with a delta pressure of 15 cmH2O for 60 seconds. We assessed blood gases pre- and post-maneuvers, as well as ventilation parameters, vital signs, hemoglobin, clinical signs of pulmonary bleeding, and radiological signs of barotrauma. Pre- and post-values were compared by the Wilcoxon test. Results: Median platelet count was 53,200/mm3. Post-maneuvers, mean arterial pressure decreased more than 20% in two patients, and four needed an increase in vasoactive drugs. Hemoglobin levels remained stable 24 hours after ARMs, and signs of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, or subcutaneous emphysema were absent. Fraction of inspired oxygen decreased significantly after ARMs (FiO2; p=0.003). Oxygen partial pressure (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio increased significantly (p=0.0002), and the oxygenation index was reduced (p=0.01), but all these improvements were transient. Recruited patients' 28-day mortality was 58%. Conclusions: ARMs, although feasible in the context of thrombocytopenia, lead only to transient improvements, and can cause significant hemodynamic instability.


RESUMO Objetivo: A síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo (SDRA) pode ser uma condição devastadora em crianças com câncer e as manobras de recrutamento alveolar (MRA) podem melhorar a oxigenação e a sobrevida. O objetivo foi avaliar a viabilidade das MRA em crianças gravemente doentes com câncer e SDRA. Métodos: Analisamos retrospectivamente 31 manobras em 12 pacientes (idade mediana de 8,9 anos), com tumores sólidos (n=4), linfomas (n=2) e leucemias linfoide (n=2) e mieloide agudas (n=4). Os pacientes receberam pressão expiratória final positiva de 25 a 40 cmH20, com delta de pressão de 15 cmH2O por 60 segundos. Gasometrias foram analisadas pré e pós-manobras, bem como os parâmetros de ventilação, sinais vitais, hemoglobina, sinais clínicos de sangramento pulmonar e sinais radiológicos de barotrauma. Valores foram comparados com o teste de Wilcoxon. Resultados: A contagem mediana de plaquetas era de 53.200/mm3. Após as manobras, em dois pacientes, a pressão arterial média declinou mais de 20%, e quatro necessitaram de aumento de drogas vasoativas. A hemoglobina permaneceu estável 24 horas após a MRA, sem sinais de pneumotórax, pneumomediastino ou enfisema subcutâneo. Houve diminuição significativa nas frações inspiradas de oxigênio (FiO2; p=0,003). A relação pressão arterial de oxigênio (PaO2)/FiO2 aumentou (p=0,002), e o índice de oxigenação caiu (p=0,01), mas essas melhoras foram transitórias. A mortalidade em 28 dias foi de 58%. Conclusões: As MRA, embora viáveis no contexto da trombocitopenia, levam apenas a melhorias transitórias e podem causar instabilidade hemodinâmica significativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Neoplasms/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Blood Gas Analysis , Feasibility Studies , Retrospective Studies , Positive-Pressure Respiration/adverse effects , Health Services Accessibility
13.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1816, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363860

ABSTRACT

Blood transfusion is a tool capable of saving lives. Patients undergoing blood transfusion usually present several alterations in the acid-base and electrolyte balance, aggravating the condition of critically ill patients. Some studies have demonstrated haematological alterations in certain species that received whole blood transfusions, however, few studies have evaluated acid base and electrolyte changes in dogs undergoing whole blood haemotherapy. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical, hematological, blood gas and electrolyte changes in anemic dogs after whole blood transfusion. Twenty nine dogs transfused due to anemia were enrolled in the study. Donors blood was collected in a transfusion bag containing citrate phosphate adenine dextrose and stored up to 24 h. Blood collections and evaluations were made before and 24 h after the transfusion. Data distribution normality was tested by the Shapiro Wilk Test. The means of the variables were compared by paired t-test. It was observed an increase in diastolic blood pressure and a reduction in heart rate (P < 0.05). There was a not significant increase in systolic blood pressure, temperature, and a reduction in respiratory rate per minute. Erythrocyte, haemoglobin and haematocrit averages were significantly increased after blood transfusion (P < 0.05). It was observed a reduction in the mean values of pH (P < 0.05), potassium (P > 0.05) and ionized calcium (P > 0.05) and an increase in the mean partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 ) (P < 0.001), bicarbonate (P > 0.05) and sodium (P < 0.05). The probable cause of anemia was monocytic ehrlichiosis (14/29), visceral leishmaniasis (1/29), babesiosis (1/29), co-infection of Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum (2/29), co-infection of E. canis and Babesia vogeli (1/29). It was not possible to determine the etiology of the anemia in ten dogs. Heart rate significantly reduced after transfusion, probably because of the increase in hematocrit, hemoglobin and erythrocyte values. It may be justified by the displacement of extravascular fluid to the intravascular space. Mean values of systolic blood pressure were slightly elevated before transfusion and remained elevated afterwards, while diastolic and mean arterial pressure increased significantly after transfusion. These changes may be due to the morbid condition and may be influenced by many other factors. Haematocrit, haemoglobin and erythrocyte values increased significantly after transfusion, according to what was observed in other studies. The significant reduction in pH and increase in pCO2 reflects the compensatory mechanism for metabolic acidosis to increase ventilation, leading to pCO2 reduction and changes in pH. The reduction in pH due to the contact of the collected blood with conservative solutions is one of the main changes thar occurs during blood storage. It was described significantly lower pH in dogs' whole blood samples stored for more than 24 h in vacutainer plastic containing CPDA-1. We may assume there was no intense pH reduction in the present study because the bags were stored for up to 24 h. Although not statistically significant, the increase of pO2 mean reflects the improvement of tissue oxygen perfusion. It was observed a significant increase in sodium ions. The mean sodium ion concentration before transfusion was very close to the maximum reference value. Hyperkalaemia was not observed, nor was there significant reduction of potassium ions after transfusion. Several studies report hyperkalaemia and transfusion-associated cardiac arrests in humans, associated with infusion of large volumes of blood. Whole blood transfusion increased erythrogram values and did not negatively affect the electrolyte or acid-base status, representing a safe and useful tool in the intensive care of small animals.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Water-Electrolyte Balance , Blood Transfusion/veterinary , Dog Diseases/blood , Transfusion Reaction/veterinary , Anemia/veterinary , Blood Gas Analysis/veterinary , Dogs
14.
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(4): 478-481, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154635

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The control of metabolic acidosis in dialysis patients focuses on the supply of bicarbonate during the dialysis session, and it is not standard in all hemodialysis to assess serum bicarbonate concentrations. Bicarbonate expressed in blood gas analysis is the most sensitive standard of analysis and it is measured indirectly, using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. There are no studies in this population evaluating the concordance between the calculated bicarbonate with the direct method of biochemical analysis. The aim of this study was to analyze the concordance between the measured and calculated serum bicarbonate levels using blood gas analysis. Methods: We analyzed blood samples from chronic kidney patients undergoing hemodialysis, using the same sample of bicarbonate analysis by biochemistry and gasometry. The concordance was assessed using the Bland-Altman method. Results: 51 samples were analyzed. The analysis revealed a high correlation (r = 0.73) and a mean difference (bias) of 1.15 ± 3 mmol/L. The median time between collection and examination was 241 minutes. Discussion: We can conclude that the biochemical bicarbonate analysis compared to that calculated from blood gas analysis in chronic renal patients was consistent. For greater concordance between the data, it is important that the time between the collection of the samples and the referral to the laboratory for carrying out the dosages does not exceed four hours. The serum bicarbonate dosage can result in cost savings when compared to that of bicarbonate in blood gas analysis.


Resumo Introdução: O controle da acidose metabólica em pacientes dialíticos está voltado, principalmente, para o suprimento de bicarbonato durante a sessão de diálise, não sendo padrão em todas as hemodiálises avaliar as concentrações séricas do bicarbonato. O bicarbonato expresso na gasometria é considerado o padrão mais sensível de análise e é medido indiretamente por meio da equação de Henderson-Hasselbalch. Não há estudos nessa população avaliando a concordância do bicarbonato calculado com o método direto de análise bioquímica. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a concordância entre o bicarbonato sérico medido e o calculado por meio da gasometria. Métodos: Foram analisadas amostras de sangue de pacientes renais crônicos em hemodiálise sendo feito na mesma amostra de análise do bicarbonato pela bioquímica e análise pela gasometria. A concordância foi avaliada pelo método de Bland-Altman. Resultados: Foram analisados um total de 51 amostras. A análise de correlação revelou alta correlação (r = 0.73) e a diferença média (bias) de 1.15 ± 3 mmol/L. O tempo mediano entre a realização da coleta e do exame foi de 241 minutos. Discussão: Podemos concluir que a realização da dosagem bioquímica do bicarbonato comparada com a calculada a partir da gasometria em pacientes renais crônicos foi concordante. Para maior concordância entre os dados, é importante que o tempo entre a coleta das amostras e o encaminhamento ao laboratório para a realização das dosagens não exceda quatro horas. A dosagem do bicarbonato sérico pode resultar numa economia de custos comparada à do bicarbonato da gasometria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acidosis , Bicarbonates , Blood Gas Analysis , Renal Dialysis , Kidney
15.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(4): 337-345, 20201230. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223688

ABSTRACT

Em humanos, o pH sanguíneo é mantido em uma faixa estreita, entre 7,35 e 7,45. Diferentes mecanismos bioquímicos, de forma harmônica, atuam para a manutenção do pH fisiológico. Múltiplos processos patológicos podem promover alterações no pH e nos gases sanguíneos, caracterizando acidose (pH <7,35) ou alcalose (pH >7,45). A ruptura da homeostasia do pH é identificada pela medição do pH, pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono (pCO2), concentração do bicarbonato (HCO3-) e, adicionalmente, com a pressão de oxigênio (pO2) em sangue arterial, processo descrito como gasometria arterial. Este artigo revisa os principais elementos associados a compreensão das alterações e tem como objetivo central apresentar uma abordagem didática e intuitiva para a caracterização destes distúrbios; e também comenta sobre ferramentais digitais destinadas a interpretações das alterações da gasometria arterial que também são abordados, como programas para computadores em ambiente web e aplicativos para telefonia móvel.


In humans, blood pH is kept in a narrow range, between 7.35 to 7.45. Different biochemical mechanisms, in a harmonic way, act to maintain the physiological pH. Multiple pathological processes can promote changes in pH and blood gases, characterizing acidosis (pH <7.35) or alkalosis (pH> 7.45). The rupture of pH homeostasis is identified by measuring pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), bicarbonate concentration (HCO3 - and, in addition, with the pressure of oxygen (pO2) in arterial blood, a process described as gasometry arterial. This article reviews the main elements associated with the understanding of acid-base changes and aims to present a didactic and intuitive approach to the characterization of these disorders; and also comments on digital tools for the interpretation of alterations in arterial blood gases are also covered, such as programs for computers in a web environment and applications for mobile phone.


Subject(s)
Reference Values , Acid-Base Imbalance , Blood Gas Analysis , Software , Mobile Applications
16.
Rev. colomb. nefrol. (En línea) ; 7(2): 85-97, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251568

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Alterations in the acid-base balance are studied in all medical specialties. Although most cases derive from a preexisting pathology, they can also manifest themselves in a primary context. The proper identification of the acid-base disorder allows the pathological process to be characterized. The correct interpretation of the blood gasometry as a technique for monitoring the ventilatory status, oxygenation and acid-base balance of a patient requires the integration of various physicochemical approaches in order to specify a diagnosis, quantify a therapeutic response, and monitor the severity or the progression of a pathological process. Methodology: A literature review was conducted in the PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct databases. The articles were selected according to the title and the abstract and sorted by topics relevant by pathophysiology, divergences, clinical approach, diagnosis, and management. Results: A guide the clinical correlation of the critical patient with the blood gasometry parameters to characterize the acid-base disorder through the proposition of a diagnostic algorithm. Conclusion: The incorporation of the three theories in a diagnostic algorithm facilitates a greater understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms and allows us to identify a more precise therapeutic objective to correct the underlying disorder in the different clinical contexts of the patient.


Resumen Introducción: las alteraciones del equilibrio ácido-base se estudian en todas las especialidades médicas. Aunque la mayoría de los casos derivan de una patología preexistente, también pueden manifestarse en un contexto primario, por lo que la identificación adecuada del trastorno ácido-base permite caracterizar su proceso patológico. La correcta interpretación de la gasometría sanguínea como técnica para monitorizar el estado ventilatorio, la oxigenación y el equilibrio ácido-base de un paciente requiere la integración de varios enfoques fisicoquímicos para precisar un diagnóstico, cuantificar una respuesta terapéutica y monitorizar la gravedad o la progresión de un proceso patológico. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión de la literatura en las bases de datos PubMed, Scopus y ScienceDirect. Los artículos fueron seleccionados según el título y el resumen, y ordenados por tópicos relevantes por fisiopatología, divergencias, abordaje clínico, diagnóstico y manejo. Resultados: en la literatura consultada se evidenció que el uso de un enfoque lógico y sistemático es necesario para interpretar adecuadamente los parámetros de la gasometría sanguínea e identificar oportunamente el trastorno ácido-base. Conclusión: la incorporación de las tres teorías en un algoritmo diagnóstico facilita una mayor comprensión de los mecanismos fisiopatológicos y permite identificar un objetivo terapéutico más preciso para corregir el trastorno de base en los diferentes contextos clínicos del paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Acid-Base Imbalance , Pathology , Blood Gas Analysis , Algorithms , Colombia , Diagnosis
17.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(4): 318-321, 20201230.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223487

ABSTRACT

Gasometria arterial (GA) é um exame que permite avaliar a condição respiratória e metabólica do paciente, sendo uma das formas mais comuns de investigação clínica em casos emergenciais e de cuidados críticos. É utilizada para medir as concentrações de oxigênio e também para avaliação do distúrbio do equilíbrio ácido-base, da oxigenação do sangue arterial e da ventilação alveolar. O presente estudo tem como objetivo apontar e avaliar os princípios da técnica de gasometria arterial, fases analíticas, principais doenças em que se utiliza o exame e inovações da técnica ao longo dos anos, baseado em dados de artigos científicos e banco de dados do Scielo (Scientific Eletronic Library Online) e Lilacs (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde). A coleta de sangue arterial para gasometria ocorre através de um procedimento invasivo realizado por intermédio de uma punção arterial. Tal procedimento é executado pelo profissional enfermeiro e exige qualificações técnicas e científicas. O estudo mostrou que as informações acerca do exame constituem uma importante ferramenta para que se possam compreender a complexidade da técnica bem como os distúrbios ácido-base envolvidos na clínica do paciente.


Arterial blood gas (GA) is an exam that allows the assessment of respiratory and metabolic condition, being one of the most common forms of clinical investigation in emergency cases and critical care. It is used to measure oxygen concentrations, as well as for evaluation of acid-base balance disorder, arterial blood oxygenation and alveolar ventilation. This study aims to point out and evaluate the principles of arterial blood gas technique, analytical phases, main diseases in which the examination is used and innovations of the technique over the years, based on data from scientific articles and SciELO database (Scientific Electronic Library Online) and Lilacs (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature). The collection of arterial blood for blood gas analysis occurs through an invasive procedure in which an arterial puncture is performed. Such procedure is performed by the professional nurse and requires technical and scientific qualifications. The study showed that the information about the exam is an important tool to understand the complexity of the technique, as well as the acid-base disorders involved in the patient's clinic.


Subject(s)
Pulse , Acid-Base Equilibrium , Blood Gas Analysis
18.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 484-490, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143953

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Cardiac surgery can produce persistent deficit in the ratio of Oxygen Delivery (DO2) to Oxygen Consumption (VO2). Central venous oxygen Saturation (ScvO2) is an accessible and indirect measure of DO2/VO2 ratio. Objective: To monitor perioperative ScvO2 and assess its correlation with mortality during cardiac surgery. Methods: This prospective observational study evaluated 273 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Blood gas samples were collected to measure ScvO2 at three time points: T0 (after anesthetic induction), T1 (end of surgery), and T2 (24 hours after surgery). The patients were divided into two groups (survivors and nonsurvivors). The following outcomes were analyzed: intrahospital mortality, length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and hospital stay (LOS), and variation in ScvO2. Results: Of the 273 patients, 251 (92%) survived and 22 (8%) did not. There was a significant perioperative reduction of ScvO2 in both survivors (T0 = 78% ± 8.1%, T1 = 75.4% ± 7.5%, and T2 = 68.5% ± 9%; p< 0.001) and nonsurvivors (T0 = 74.4% ± 8.7%, T1 = 75.4% ± 7.7%, and T2 = 66.7% ± 13.1%; p < 0.001). At T0, the percentage of patients with ScvO2< 70% was greater in the nonsurvivor group (31.8% vs. 13.1%; p= 0.046) and the multiple logistic regression showed that ScvO2 is an independent risk factor associated with death, OR = 2.94 (95% CI 1.10−7.89) (p= 0.032). The length of ICU and LOS were 3.6 ± 3.1 and 7.4 ± 6.0 days respectively and was not significantly associated with ScvO2. Conclusions: Early intraoperative ScvO2 < 70% indicated a higher risk of death. A perioperative reduction of ScvO2 was observed in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, with high intraoperative and lower postoperative levels.


Resumo Justificativa: A cirurgia cardíaca pode produzir déficit persistente na razão entre oferta de oxigênio (DO2) e consumo de oxigênio (VO2). A Saturação venosa central de Oxigênio (SvcO2) é uma medida acessível e indireta da razão DO2/VO2. Objetivo: Monitorar a SvcO2 perioperatória e avaliar sua correlação com a mortalidade em cirurgia cardíaca. Método: Este estudo observacional prospectivo avaliou 273 pacientes submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca. Coletamos amostras de sangue para medir a SvcO2 em três momentos: T0 (após indução anestésica), T1 (final da cirurgia) e T2 (24 horas após a cirurgia). Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos (sobreviventes e não sobreviventes). Os seguintes desfechos foram analisados: mortalidade intra-hospitalar, tempo de permanência na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) e de internação hospitalar, e variação na SvcO2. Resultados: Dos 273 pacientes, 251 (92%) sobreviveram e 22 (8%) não. Houve queda significante da SvcO2 perioperatória nos sobreviventes (T0 = 78% ± 8,1%, T1 = 75,4% ± 7,5% e T2 = 68,5% ± 9%; p< 0,001) e nos não sobreviventes (T0 = 74,4% ± 8,7%, T1 = 75,4% ± 7,7% e T2 = 66,7% ± 13,1%; p< 0,001). No T0, a porcentagem de pacientes com SvcO2< 70% foi maior no grupo não sobrevivente (31,8% vs. 13,1%; p = 0,046) e a regressão logística múltipla mostrou que a SvcO2 é um fator de risco independente associado ao óbito, OR = 2,94 (95% IC 1,10 − 7,89) (p = 0,032). O tempo de permanência na UTI e de hospitalização foi de 3,6 ± 3,1 e 7,4 ± 6,0 dias, respectivamente, e não foi significantemente associado à SvcO2. Conclusões: Valores precoces de SvcO2 intraoperatória < 70% indicaram maior risco de óbito em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. Observamos redução perioperatória da SvcO2, com altos níveis no intraoperatório e mais baixos no pós-operatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Oxygen/blood , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Hospital Mortality , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality , Time Factors , Blood Gas Analysis , Prospective Studies , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1231-1240, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131500

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar diferentes modalidades ventilatórias em cães de diferentes idades submetidos à fração inspirada de oxigênio (FiO2) de 40% e 100%. Foram utilizados 36 cães de três grupos etários (GJ: 0-5; GA: 5-10 e GG: 10-15 anos), sem padronização de peso, sexo, raça e procedimento cirúrgico. Foram pré-medicados com acepromazina e morfina (0,02 e 0,5mg/kg), induzidos à anestesia geral com propofol dose-efeito, manutenção do plano anestésico com isoflurano em 1,3 V% e fornecimento de oxigênio conforme a FiO2 estabelecida para o grupo. Os animais foram submetidos a quatro diferentes modalidades ventilatórias: ventilação espontânea (VE), ventilação ciclada a volume (VCV), ventilação ciclada a pressão (VCP) e ventilação ciclada a pressão com PEEP (VCPP), e permaneceram 30 minutos em cada modalidade. Os parâmetros cardiovasculares mantiveram-se estáveis para todas as FiO2, modalidades ventilatórias e idades. Com relação aos parâmetros ventilatórios, na FiO2 100%, foram observados PaCO2 de 45mmHge e 29% de shunt, enquanto a FiO2 40% apresentou PaCO2 de 43 mmHg e 13% de shunt. Em relação às diferentes idades, os animais adultos e geriátricos apresentaram maiores valores de shunt (26% e 22%) e PaCO2 (44mm/Hg e 46mm/Hg). Conclui-se que a fração inspirada de 40% e a modalidade ventilatória ciclada a volume mostraram-se mais eficientes.(AU)


The objective was to evaluate different ventilatory modalities in dogs of different ages submitted to the inspired fraction of oxygen (FiO2) of 40% and 100%. Thirty-six dogs from three age groups (GJ 0-5, GA 5-10 and GG 10-15 years) were used, without standardization of weight, gender, race and surgical procedure. They were premedicated with acepromazine and morphine (0.02 and 0.5mg/kg), induced to general anesthesia with propofol dose/effect, maintenance of the anesthetic plane with isoflurane in 1.3V% and oxygen supply according to FiO2 established for the group. The animals were submitted to 4 different ventilation modalities, spontaneous ventilation (VS), volume-cycled ventilation (VCV), pressure-cycled ventilation (VCP) and pressure-cycled ventilation with PEEP (VCPP) and remained 30 minutes in each modality. The cardiovascular parameters remained stable for all FiO2, ventilatory modalities and ages. Regarding ventilatory parameters, in FiO2 and PaCO2 of 45mmHg and 29% of shunt, in FiO2 100%, PaCO2 of 43mmHg and 13% of shunt were observed. Regarding the different ages, adult and geriatric animals presented higher values of Shunt (26 and 22%) and PaCO2 (44 and 46mmHg). It was concluded that the inspired fraction of 40% and the volume-cycled ventilatory modality were more efficient.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Respiration, Artificial/veterinary , Blood Gas Analysis/veterinary , Inspiratory Capacity , Age Factors
20.
Univ. salud ; 22(2): 102-111, mayo-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115959

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La cánula nasal de alto flujo en adultos ofrece un tratamiento alternativo a la oxigenoterapia convencional. Objetivo: Establecer el comportamiento clínico y gasométrico de pacientes con falla respiratoria aguda que habitan a 2.600 msnm, tratados con cánula nasal de alto flujo en cuidado intensivo adulto. Materiales y métodos: Estudio piloto cuasi experimental pretest-postest intrasujeto, tamaño de muestra 14 pacientes calculado a través de Epidat. Tipo de muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia, durante catorce meses. Resultados: El 78% de los pacientes fueron mujeres, la edad promedio fue 68 años, y el diagnóstico principal fue enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) en el 71,42% de los casos. Se administró un flujo de oxígeno promedio de 30 Lt/min para pacientes con (EPOC), para el resto de diagnósticos se programaron flujos mayores. El trabajo respiratorio disminuyó posterior al uso de cánula nasal de alto flujo, la presión arterial de oxígeno mejoró paulatinamente en pacientes con falla hipoxémica y el índice de oxigenación incrementó progresivamente en los dos tipos de falla respiratoria. Conclusiones: La cánula nasal de alto flujo es una opción terapéutica útil en el manejo de la falla respiratoria aguda a 2.600 msnm, permitiendo mejoría de la oxigenación y disminución del trabajo respiratorio.


Introduction: High-flow nasal cannula offers an alternative treatment approach to conventional oxygen therapy in adults. Objective: To establish the clinical and gasometric behavior of patients with acute respiratory failure who live at 2,600 m.a.s.l. and are treated with high-flow nasal cannula in an adult intensive care unit. Materials and methods: Quasi-experimental pilot study with a pretest-posttest within-subject design and a sample size of 14 patients calculated through Epidat. A non-probabilistic convenience sampling was conducted for fourteen months. Results: 78% of the patients were women and their average age was 68 years. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) was diagnosed in 71.42% of the cases. An oxygen flow rate of 30 L/min was administered to patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, while higher rates were used for the rest of the diagnoses. Nasal cannula treatment led to (i) a decreased respiratory function, (ii) a gradually improved arterial blood pressure in patients with hypoxemic failure, (iii) and a progressively increased oxygenation rate. Conclusions: High-flow nasal cannula is a useful therapeutic option in the management of patients with acute respiratory failure living at 2,600 m.a.s.l. because it improves oxygenation and reduces respiratory function.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Insufficiency , Cannula , Blood Gas Analysis , Work of Breathing , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL