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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928346

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To systematically evaluate the hemostatic efficacy of tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA).@*METHODS@#Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and retrospective case-control studies about tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid for the comparison of THA or TKA were searched electronically in PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, VIP from the time of building databases to July 2020. Two investigators carried out literature screening and data extraction according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria respectively. The methodological quality of the included randomized controlled studies was evaluated through the Cochrane Handbook, and the methodological quality of the included retrospective case-control studies was evaluated through the NOS scale. Blood loss, the incidence of thrombosis complications, per capita input of hemoglobin were Meta-analyzed by Review Manager 5.3 software.@*RESULTS@#A total of 6 articles were included, including 4 RCTs and 2 retrospective case-control studies. A total of 3 174 patients, including 1 353 in the tranexamic acid group and 1 821 in the ε-aminocaproic acid group. Meta-analysis results showed that there were no difference statistical significance in blood loss [MD=-88.60, 95%CI(-260.30, 83.10), P=0.31], blood transfusion rate [OR=1.48, 95%CI(0.96, 2.27), P=0.08], thrombotic complications [OR=0.80, 95%CI(0.07, 8.83), P=0.85], per capita hemoglobin input [MD=0.04, 95%CI(-0.02, 0.10), P=0.18] between tranexamic acid group and ε-aminocaproic acid group during THA. While in TKA, the blood loss of the tranexamic acid group was less than that of the ε-aminocaproic acid group [MD=-147.13, 95%CI(-216.52, -77.74), P<0.0001], the difference was statistically significant. The blood transfusion rate [OR=1.30, 95%CI(0.74, 2.28), P=0.37], thrombotic complications [OR=0.95, 95%CI(0.38, 2.36), P=0.92], per capita hemoglobin input [MD=-0.00, 95%CI(-0.05, 0.06), P=0.48], tourniquet time [MD=1.54, 95%CI(-2.07, 5.14), P=0.40] were similar between two groups, the difference was not statistically significant.@*CONCLUSION@#In THA, tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid have similar hemostatic effects, while in TKA, tranexamic acid can effectively reduce the patient's blood loss and has a better hemostatic effect. Tranexamic acid is recommended as one of the first choice hemostatic drugs for TKA.


Subject(s)
Aminocaproic Acid/therapeutic use , Antifibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/methods , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/methods , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Hemoglobins , Hemostatics , Humans , Tranexamic Acid/therapeutic use
2.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(4): 311-317, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137208

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Tranexamic acid was studied in four different dosage regimens and their efficacy was compared for perioperative blood loss reduction, blood transfusion requirements and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) complication. Methods: Two hundred patients undergoing major orthopedic procedures were divided into five groups containing 40 patients each: Placebo, low dose (bolus 10 mg kg-1), low dose + maintenance (bolus 10 mg kg-1 + maintenance 1 mg kg-1 hr-1), high dose (bolus 30 mg kg-1) and high dose + maintenance (bolus 30 mg kg-1 + maintenance 3 mg kg-1 hr-1). Surgical blood loss was measured intraoperatively and drains collection in the first 24 hours postoperatively. Blood transfusion was done when hematocrit falls less than 25%. DVT screening was done in the postoperative period. Results: The intraoperative blood loss was 440 ± 207.54 mL in the placebo group, 412.5 ± 208.21 mL in the low dose group, 290 ± 149.6 ml in the low dose plus maintenance group, 332.5 ± 162.33 mL in the high dose group and 240.7 ± 88.15 mL in the high dose maintenance group (p < 0.001). The reduction in postoperative blood loss in the drain for first 24 hours was 80 ± 44.44 mL in the placebo group, 89.88 ± 44.87 mL in the low dose group, 56.7 ± 29.12 mL in the low dose plus maintenance group, 77.9 ± 35.74 mL in the high dose group and 46.7 ± 19.9 mL in the high dose maintenance group (p < 0.001). DVT was not encountered in any patient. Conclusion: Tranexamic acid was most effective in reducing surgical blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in a low dose + maintenance group.


Resumo Justificativa: O ácido tranexâmico foi avaliado em quatro esquemas com diferentes posologias, comparando-se a eficácia de cada esquema quanto a redução na perda sanguínea perioperatória, necessidade de transfusão sanguínea e ocorrência de Trombose Venosa Profunda (TVP). Método: Duzentos pacientes submetidos a procedimentos ortopédicos de grande porte foram divididos em cinco grupos de 40 pacientes de acordo com o esquema de administração de ácido tranexâmico: grupo placebo, grupo baixa dose (bolus de 10 mg.kg-1, grupo baixa dose e manutenção (bolus de 10 mg.kg-1 + manutenção de 1 mg.kg-1.h-1), grupo alta dose (bolus de 30 mg.kg-1), e grupo alta dose e manutenção (bolus de 30 mg.kg-1 + manutenção de 3 mg.kg-1.h-1). A perda sanguínea cirúrgica foi medida no intraoperatório. Além disso, nas primeiras 24 horas pós-operatórias, foi medido o volume de sangue coletado no dreno. Era realizada transfusão de sangue se o valor do hematócrito fosse inferior a 25%. Foi realizada avaliação quanto à ocorrência de TVP no pós-operatório. Resultados: A perda sanguínea intraoperatória foi de 440 ± 207,54 mL no grupo placebo, 412,5 ± 208,21 mL no grupo baixa dose, 290 ± 149,6 mL no grupo baixa dose e manutenção, 332,5 ± 162,33 mL no grupo alta dose, e 240,7 ± 88,15 mL no grupo alta dose e manutenção (p < 0,001). A redução na perda sanguínea pós-operatória pelo dreno nas primeiras 24 horas foi de 80 ± 44,44 mL no grupo placebo; 89,88 ± 44,87 mL no grupo baixa dose, 56,7 ± 29,12 mL no grupo baixa dose e dose de manutenção, 77,9 ± 35,74 mL no grupo alta dose e 46,7 ± 19,9 mL no grupo alta dose e manutenção (p < 0,001). TVP não foi observada em nenhum paciente. Conclusão: O ácido tranexâmico administrado em baixa dose combinado à manutenção foi mais eficaz em reduzir a perda sanguínea cirúrgica e a necessidade de transfusão de sangue.


Subject(s)
Tranexamic Acid/administration & dosage , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Orthopedic Procedures/methods , Antifibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , Drug Administration Schedule , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Postoperative Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Middle Aged
4.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(1): 63-68, mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099203

ABSTRACT

Las cirugías de cabeza y cuello presentan un alto riesgo de sangrado que puede significar el uso de transfusiones sanguíneas. Existen casos en las que éstas son rechazadas, como sucede con los Testigos de Jehová. Se expone el caso de una paciente Testigo de Jehová con un tumor rinosinusal con alto riesgo de sangrado que consultó por epistaxis recurrente. Se evidencia un tumor ocluyendo la fosa nasal derecha de aspecto vascular a la rinoscopía y la tomografía computarizada. Múltiples aferencias de la arteria esfenopalatina y etmoidales se observaron en una angiografía cerebral. Previo a la resección, se embolizó la arteria maxilar. Durante la cirugía, se contó con un sistema de recuperación de sangre autóloga, hemodilución e infusión de ácido tranexámico. Se ligó la arteria etmoidal anterior derecha vía externa con apoyo endoscópico y luego se resecó el tumor vía endoscópica. La biopsia reveló un carcinoma sinonasal escamoso. Existen alternativas terapéuticas en pacientes que rechacen el uso de hemoderivados. Destacan medidas preoperatorias como la embolización endovascular, intraoperatorias como el uso de agentes hemostáticos, técnicas quirúrgicas y anestésicas. Es importante analizar todas las opciones disponibles de forma multidisciplinara y junto con el paciente, para determinar la conducta más adecuada a seguir.


Head and neck surgeries have a high risk of bleeding, and therefore could require the use of blood transfusions. There are cases for which blood transfusions are not an acceptable option, as is the case for Jehovah's Witnesses. We present the case of a Jehovah's Witness with a sinonasal tumor with a high risk of bleeding, who presented with recurrent epistaxis. Rhinoscopy and computed tomography revealed a vascular-like tumor occluding the right nasal cavity. Cerebral angiography showed afferents of the sphenopalatine and ethmoidal arteries leading to the tumor. Prior to the resection, the maxillary artery was embolized. During surgery, we relied on an autologous blood recovery system, hemodilution and tranexamic acid. Right anterior ethmoidal artery ligation was performed by an endoscopic assisted external approach. The tumor was resected endoscopically The biopsy revealed a squamous sinonasal carcinoma. There are therapeutic alternatives for patients who cannot receive blood products. There are preoperative measures such as endovascular embolization, intraoperative measures such as the use of hemostatic agents and specific surgical or anesthetic techniques. It's important to analyze all of the available options in a multidisciplinary team approach, and to take into consideration the patient's preferences, in order to determine the best surgical conduct.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Nose Neoplasms/surgery , Jehovah's Witnesses , Religion and Medicine , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Nose Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Treatment Refusal , Embolization, Therapeutic , Hemodilution
5.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 111-118, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089362

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Tranexamic acid is a hemostatic agent, which inhibits fibrin degradation, which may be beneficial in controlling bleeding during surgery. Objectives The purpose of this study was to provide a meta-analysis and review of the effects of tranexamic acid on hemorrhage and surgical fields and side effects on patients during endoscopic sinus surgery. Methods Two authors independently searched six databases (Medline, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Cochrane library) from the start of article collection until July 2018. Postoperative complications such as intraoperative bleeding, operative time, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, and coagulation profile were included in the analysis of tranexamic acid (Treatment Group) and placebo (Control Group) during the operation. Results The amount of blood loss during surgery was statistically lower in the treatment group compared to the placebo group, and the surgical field quality was statistically higher in the treatment group than in the placebo group. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in operation time, hemodynamics, or coagulation profile between groups. In addition, tranexamic acid had no significant effect on vomiting and thrombosis compared to the Control Group. Conclusion This meta-analysis has shown that topical administration of tranexamic acid can reduce the amount of bleeding during surgery and improve the overall quality of the surgery. Hemodynamic instability during surgery, vomiting after surgery, or abnormal clotting profile were not reported. Additional studies are needed to confirm the results of this study because there are fewer studies.


Resumo Introdução O ácido tranexâmico é um agente hemostático, que inibe a degradação da fibrina e pode ser benéfico no controle do sangramento durante a cirurgia. Objetivos Fazer uma metanálise e revisão dos efeitos do ácido tranexâmico na hemorragia e nos campos cirúrgicos e efeitos colaterais em pacientes durante a cirurgia endoscópica do seio nasal. Método Dois autores realizaram independentemente uma busca em seis bancos de dados (Medline, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar e Cochrane) desde o início da coleta de artigos até julho de 2018. Complicações pós-operatórias como sangramento intraoperatório, tempo operatório, hipotensão, náusea, vômitos e perfil de coagulação foram incluídos na análise do ácido tranexâmico (grupo de tratamento) e placebo (grupo controle) durante a cirurgia. Resultados A quantidade de perda de sangue durante a cirurgia foi estatisticamente menor no grupo de tratamento comparado com o grupo placebo e a qualidade do campo cirúrgico foi estatisticamente maior no grupo de tratamento do que no grupo placebo. Por outro lado, não houve diferença significante no tempo cirúrgico, hemodinâmica ou perfil de coagulação entre os grupos. Além disso, o ácido tranexâmico não teve efeito significante na ocorrência de vômitos e trombose em comparação ao grupo controle. Conclusão Esta metanálise mostrou que a administração tópica de ácido tranexâmico pode reduzir a quantidade de sangramento durante a cirurgia e melhorar a qualidade geral dela. Instabilidade hemodinâmica durante a cirurgia, vômitos após a cirurgia ou perfil de coagulação anormal não foram relatados. Estudos adicionais são necessários para confirmar os resultados desta pesquisa, porque há poucos estudos na literatura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tranexamic Acid/pharmacology , Epistaxis/drug therapy , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Intraoperative Complications/drug therapy , Antifibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Tranexamic Acid/administration & dosage , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Administration, Topical , Endoscopy/adverse effects , Nasal Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Intraoperative Complications/etiology , Anesthesia, General , Antifibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage
6.
Acta ortop. mex ; 34(1): 6-9, ene.-feb. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345077

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La artroplastía total de cadera (ATC) puede causar una pérdida considerable de sangre. Para reducir la necesidad de transfusión de sangre se utilizan diversas técnicas preoperatorias como la administración de ácido tranexámico (ATX). Objetivo: Demostrar que el uso de ATX disminuye la necesidad de transfusión de sangre alogénica en pacientes operados de ATC. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo, observacional, descriptivo, utilizado para observar la tasa de transfusión de sangre alogénica en pacientes a quienes se les practicó ATC primaria unilateral de Mayo de 2016 a Diciembre de 2017. A los pacientes incluidos en el estudio se les aplicó ATX preoperatoriamente, a las 24 horas se tomó una biometría hemática y se valoró la necesidad de transfusión sanguínea. Resultados: Se incluyó un total de 70 pacientes en el estudio. La Hb promedio postquirúrgica 11.7 mg/dl con un rango de 9.2 a 14.9 mg/dl y un Hto promedio de 37.1% con un rango de 30.2 a 44.2%. Ninguno de los pacientes requirió de transfusión de sangre alogénica. Conclusiones: En este estudio se demuestra cómo el ATX es una estrategia transoperatoria para reducir la necesidad de transfusión de sangre alogénica en pacientes a quienes se realiza una ATC primaria.


Abstract: Introduction: ATC can cause considerable blood loss. To reduce the need for blood transfusion, various preoperative techniques such as administration of tranexamic acid (ATX) are used. Objective: to demonstrate that the use of ATX decreases the need for allogeneic blood transfusion in patients operated on ATC. Material and methods: Prospective, observational, descriptive study, used to observe the allogeneic blood transfusion rate in patients who underwent unilateral primary ATC from May 2016 to December 2017. ATX was applied preoperatively and after 24 hours a blood count was taken and the need for blood transfusion was assessed. Results: A total of 70 patients were included in the study. The average postoperative Hb 11.7 mg/dl with a range of 9.2 to 14.9 mg/dl and an average Ht of 37.1% with a range of 30.2 to 44.2%. None of the patients required allogeneic blood transfusión. Conclusions: This study demonstrates how ATX is a transoperative strategy to reduce the need for allogeneic blood transfusion in patients undergoing primary ATC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tranexamic Acid/therapeutic use , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Antifibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Transfusion , Prospective Studies , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879354

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid on blood loss and blood transfusion rate after minimally invasive unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.@*METHODS@#From January 2015 to September 2017, 90 patients underwent minimally invasive unicompartmental knee arthroplasty were divided into tranexamic acid group and control group, 45 cases in each group. In the tranexamic acid group, there were 22 males and 23 females, aged 62 to 69 (66.1±2.4) years;in the control group, 20 males and 25 females, aged 63 to 71(68.5±5.2) years. The amount of bleeding in the drainage ball at 48 hours after operation was recorded, and the blood transfusion rate and hematocrit level duringthe perioperative period were recorded. The factors influencing perioperative blood loss included gender, age and body mass index (BMI).@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up for 12.5 to 28.3 (22.8±7.9) months. During the follow-up, the wounds of the two groups healed well, and no deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism occurred. There was no significant difference in postoperative blood loss between the tranexamic acid group and the control group. The postoperative bleeding volume in the tranexamic acid group was (110.0±52.1) ml, and that in the control group was (123.0±64.5) ml (P=0.39). There was no blood transfusion in the two groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Intra articular injection of tranexamic acid can not significantly reduce the postoperative blood loss in patients with minimally invasive unicompartment.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antifibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Female , Hemostatics , Humans , Injections, Intra-Articular , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Hemorrhage , Tranexamic Acid
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879348

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy and safety of local application of tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing perioperative blood loss in total hip arthroplasty via direct anterior approach (DAA).@*METHODS@#From July 2013 to September 2018, 46 patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head were divided into tranexamic acid group (@*RESULTS@#The incision healed well and no obvious complications occurred in the two groups. All patients were followed up for 12 to 59 months(averaged 31.11 months). No hip pain was found in the follow-up patients. Hip joint function was improved effectively and no prosthesis loosening occurred. The total perioperative blood loss in tranexamic acid group and normal saline group was(740.09±77.14) ml and (1 069.07±113.53) ml respectively, 24 hours after operation, the drainage volume was (87.61±9.28) ml, (233.83±25.62) ml, the hidden blood loss was (409.65±38.01) ml and (588.33±57.16) ml. the difference of hemoglobin before and after operation was (24.78±2.19) g / L and (33.57±2.95) g / L, the difference was statistically significant (@*CONCLUSION@#local application of tranexamic acid in total hip arthroplasty through direct anterior approach can safely and effectively reduce perioperative blood loss, and does not increase the risk of thrombosis, and does not affect the normal recovery of joint function.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antifibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Female , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Safety , Tranexamic Acid/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
9.
Clinics ; 74: e946, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011912

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Women with invasive placentation (IP) are at high risk of life-threatening hemorrhage. In the last two decades, less invasive surgical approaches combined with endovascular procedures have proven to be safe. Most case series describe the use of temporary balloon occlusion and embolization, either combined or not. Concerning hemorrhage rates, each separate interventional approach performs better than surgery alone does, yet it is not clear whether the combination of multiple interventional techniques can be beneficial and promote a lower incidence of intrapartum bleeding. We aim to evaluate whether combining temporary balloon occlusion of the internal iliac artery and uterine artery embolization promotes better hemorrhage control than do other individual interventional approaches reported in the scientific literature in the context of cesarean birth followed by hysterectomy in patients with IP. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of patients with confirmed IP who underwent temporary balloon occlusion and embolization of the internal iliac arteries followed by puerperal hysterectomy. We compared patient results to data extracted from a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of the current literature that focused on interventional procedures in patients with IP. RESULTS: A total of 35 patients underwent the procedure during the study period in our institution. The mean volume of packed red blood cells and the estimated blood loss were 487.9 mL and 1193 mL, respectively. Four patients experienced complications that were attributed to the endovascular procedure. CONCLUSION: The combination of temporary balloon occlusion and uterine artery embolization does not seem to promote better hemorrhage control than each procedure performed individually does.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Uterine Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Uterus/surgery , Balloon Occlusion/methods , Uterine Artery Embolization/methods , Hysterectomy/adverse effects , Aorta, Abdominal , Placentation , Uterus/blood supply , Cesarean Section , Retrospective Studies , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Combined Modality Therapy , Endovascular Procedures , Iliac Artery
10.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(6): 588-596, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977474

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate if lower activated coagulation time (ACT) value after neutralization than preoperative ACT value was effective in reducing bleeding, operative times, and post-operative transfusions in patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: Retrospective selection of 398 patients from January 2014 to May 2017. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to final ACT after neutralization: A - final ACT lower than preoperative ACT; and B - final ACT higher than or equal to preoperative ACT. Hemostatic time, intraoperative blood loss, ACT after final neutralization, mediastinal blood loss, and transfusion requirements were observed. Results: The hourly blood loss in the Group A was generally lower than in the Group B at first 3 hours, which has significant difference (P<0.05). However, there was no difference after 3 hours between the two groups. Operative time, intraoperative blood loss, mediastinal blood loss, transfusion requirements, and drainage in the first postoperative 12 hours in the Group A were lower than in Group B, which has significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion: As a result, final ACT values lower than pre-heparinization ACT values are safe and lead to lower operative times, bleeding, and post-operative transfusions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Heparin/administration & dosage , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Postoperative Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Postoperative Period , Whole Blood Coagulation Time , Retrospective Studies , Blood Loss, Surgical/physiopathology , Operative Time , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. chil. cir ; 70(6): 510-516, dic. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978023

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las resecciones hepáticas mayores pueden presentar una alta morbimortalidad en relación al sangrado intraoperatorio. La utilización de la maniobra de Pringle permite disminuir esta complicación a costa de un daño por isquemia-reperfusión. Una estrategia para minimizarla es el uso de corticoides perioperatorios. Objetivo: Evaluar el uso de metilprednisolona en dosis bajas (< 500 mg) en pacientes sometidos a resección hepática mayor con maniobra de Pringle en la incidencia de daño por isquemiareperfusión, morbilidad y mortalidad perioperatoria. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo utilizando la base de datos de hepatectomías entre los años 2000 y 2015. De un total de 171 resecciones hepáticas mayores, 62 utilizaron clampeo vascular. Se establecieron dos grupos: (A) aquellos que recibieron metilprednisolona inmediatamente previo al clampeo (n = 27) y (B) pacientes sin metilprednisolona (n = 35). Se evaluó el daño por isquemia-reperfusión por alteración de las pruebas hepáticas en los días 1, 3 y 5. Resultados: Los pacientes del grupo A tuvieron mayor tiempo de isquemia (43 + 3,3 vs 27 + 2,1 min, p < 0,05) que el grupo B, con una significativamente menor elevación de las fosfatasas alcalinas y bilirrubina en los días 1 y 5 poshepatectomía. No se observó diferencias en la magnitud del sangrado y no hubo diferencias en morbimortalidad. Conclusiones: La utilización de dosis bajas de metilprednisolona parece disminuir el impacto del DIR relacionado a la resección hepática bajo clampeo vascular, evitando los efectos adversos de la administración de esteroides en dosis altas.


Introduction: Liver resections may be associated with high morbidity and mortality due to intraoperative bleeding. Pringle maneuver reduces this complication at the expense of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Current strategies to minimize reperfusion injury include the use of perioperative corticosteroids. Objective: To assess the use of methylprednisolone in low doses (< 500 mg) in patients submitted to major hepatic resection under Pringle maneuver in the incidence of ischemia-reperfusion injury, peri-operative morbidity, and mortality. Material and Methods: Retrospective study from the liver resections database undertaken between the years 2000-2015 in our center. One hundred and seventy-one major liver resections were done, in 62 under Pringle maneuver. Two groups were established: (A) Patients administered methylprednisolone immediately before Pringle maneuver (n = 27) and (B) those without steroid (n = 35). We assessed ischemia-reperfusion injury by measuring liver tests on days 1, 3 and 5. Results: Patients in group A had longer ischemia time (43 ± 3.3 vs. 27 ± 2.1 min, p < 0.05) than those of group B, and significantly lower elevation of serum phosphatase alkaline and bilirubin on days 1 and five post-hepatectomy. We did not observe any difference in bleeding magnitude, and there were no differences in morbidity or mortality. Conclusions: The use of low doses of methylprednisolone seems to diminish the impact of ischemia-reperfusion injury related to major hepatic resection under Pringle maneuver avoiding the adverse side effects of high dose steroid.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Hepatectomy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Hepatectomy/adverse effects
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(7): 649-657, July 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976833

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the harmonic scalpel compared to the conventional technique in patients submitted to total thyroidectomy. METHOD: This is a systematic review with inclusion of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared both techniques. An electronic search was carried out in the Medline and Lilacs databases until June 2017. The outcomes analysed were operation time, intraoperative bleeding, surgical morbidity, and costs. RESULTS: Data from 31 primary studies were included. The use of the harmonic scalpel correlates to a shorter operation time (p <0.001) and a lower volume of intraoperative bleeding (p <0.001). There were no differences in the risk of transient (p = 0.53) and permanent (p = 0.70) hypocalcaemia, transient (p = 0.61) and permanent (p = 0.50) dysfunctions of the inferior laryngeal nerve and hematoma (p = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Total thyroidectomy using a harmonic scalpel is effective and safe compared to the conventional technique.


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgical Instruments/economics , Thyroidectomy/instrumentation , Ultrasonic Surgical Procedures/instrumentation , Hemostasis, Surgical/instrumentation , Thyroidectomy/economics , Ultrasonic Therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Operative Time , Hemostasis, Surgical/economics
13.
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 83(1): 5-11, mar. 2018. []
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-896283

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El reemplazo total de rodilla es un procedimiento que puede generar una gran perdida de sangre durante el periodo posoperatorio. El acido tranexamico es un agente sintetico antifbrinolitico que, en los ultimos anos, se ha administrado por via intravenosa, con buenos resultados, al reducir el sangrado asociado al reemplazo total de rodilla. Sin embargo, existe escasa experiencia con su uso topico. Materiales y Métodos: Se llevo a cabo un estudio comparativo retrospectivo de 117 reemplazos totales de rodilla primarios, para comparar los resultados obtenidos en 63 cirugias con el uso topico de acido tranexamico y en 54 reemplazos sin acido tranexamico. Se compararon la tasa de transfusion, las concentraciones de hemoglobina y hematocrito a las 24 y 48 h, las curaciones requeridas, las comorbilidades y las complicaciones. Resultados: En el grupo con acido tranexamico topico, se redujo un 43,9% la tasa de transfusiones cuando se lo comparo con el otro grupo. Ademas, se registro una disminucion de 0,2-1,3 g/dl en la caida de la hemoglobina a las 24 h de la cirugia. No se detectaron complicaciones. Conclusiones: El uso topico de acido tranexamico en reemplazos totales primarios de rodilla disminuye los requerimientos de transfusiones, sin incrementar el riesgo de complicaciones. Nivel de Evidencia: III


Introduction: Total knee replacement is associated with extensive postoperative blood loss. Tranexamic acid is a synthetic antifibrinolytic agent that, in the last few years, has been successfully used intravenously to reduce bleeding after total knee replacement. However, topical application of tranexamic acid in total knee replacement remains largely unexplored. Methods: A retrospective study of 117 primary total knee replacements was conducted: 63 surgeries with topical tranexamic acid and 54 replacements without tranexamic acid. A comparison analysis was made, capturing results of blood transfusion rates, postoperative hemoglobin levels (24 and 48 hours), number of changed bandages, comorbidities and complications. Results: Tranexamic acid reduced blood transfusion rate by 43.9% when compared with the group without tranexamic acid. A lower decline in postoperative hemoglobin levels (24 hours) by 0.2-1.3 g/dL was also observed in this same group. There were no complications in both groups. Conclusions: Topically applied tranexamic acid was effective in reducing the need for blood transfusion following total knee replacement, without additional adverse effects. Level of Evidence: III


Subject(s)
Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Tranexamic Acid/therapeutic use , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/methods , Antifibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Administration, Topical , Treatment Outcome
14.
Rev. chil. cir ; 70(1): 40-45, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899654

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo Los pacientes intervenidos de cirugía cardíaca presentan riesgo elevado de ser transfundidos con sangre durante el postoperatorio, debido al descenso de sus cifras de hemoglobina y hematocrito. Una de las alternativas a la transfusión sanguínea es el uso del recuperador celular intraquirúrgico. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar si el uso del recuperador celular intraquirúgico disminuye la tasa transfusional durante el postoperatorio inmediato. También se ven las complicaciones postquirúrgicas inmediatas en ambos grupos. Material y Métodos Estudio analítico, prospectivo con dos cohortes de pacientes distribuidos en grupo control (162) y grupo intervención (162). Se analizarón variables sociodemográficas, de sus diagnósticos y tratamientos quirúrgicos, tiempos de isquemia cardíaca, hemoglobina, hematocrito, transfusión sanguínea y hemorragias, así como variables propias del recuperador celular. Las complicaciones estudiadas fueron; hemoglobinuria, fiebre, náuseas y vómitos. Se obtuvo el consentimiento informado de todos los pacientes y se sometió los datos al paquete estadístico SPSS versión 22.0. Resultados Las cifras de hemoglobina y hematocrito de los pacientes después de ser intervenido quirúrgicamente, fueron diferentes entre los grupos respectivamente (GC, 8,3 g/dL, 22,8%. GI,10,4 g/dL, 31,1%). Coincidiendo que los mayores transfundidos fueron los del grupo control (18,2%) frente al grupo intervención (3,9%). El grupo que presentó mayor complicación fue el grupo intervención (13,6%) que eran los que utilizaron el recuperador celular. Siendo la hemoglobinuria (82%) la mayor complicación. Conclusiones Los pacientes que utilizaron el recuperador celular disminuyeron la necesidad transfusional, sin embargo, fueron los que mayor incidencia de hemoglobinuria padecieron.


Objetive Patients undergoing cardiac surgery are at high risk of being transfused with blood during the postoperative period, due to the decrease in haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. One of the alternatives to blood transfusion is the use of the intraoperative cell saver. The objective of this study was to identify whether the use of the intra-uremic cell saver decreases the transfusional rate during the immediate postoperative period. The immediate postoperative complications were also demonstrated in both groups. Material and Methods Analytical, prospective study with two cohorts of patients distributed in control group (162) and intervention group (162). Sociodemographic variables, their diagnoses and surgical treatments, time of cardiac ischemia, haemoglobin, haematocrit, blood transfusion and haemorrhages, as well as variables specific to the cell saver were analyzed. The complications studied were; haemoglobinuria, fever, nausea and vomiting. The informed consent of all the patients was obtained and the data was submitted to the statistical package SPSS version 22.0. Results The haemoglobin and haematocrit values of patients after surgery were different between groups (GC, 8.3 g/dl, 22.8%, GI, 10.4 g/dl, 31.1 g %). Coinciding that the major transfused were those of the control group (18.2%) versus the intervention group (3.9%). The group that presented the greatest complication was the intervention group (13.6%) who were those who used the cell saver. Hemoglobinuria (82%) being the major complication. Conclusions Patients who used the cell saver decreased the need for transfusion, but were the ones with the highest incidence of hemoglobinuria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Blood Transfusion, Autologous/methods , Blood Transfusion , Prospective Studies , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome , Operative Blood Salvage/methods , Observational Study , Intraoperative Period
15.
Clinics ; 73: e264, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890740

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the associations between preoperative treatment with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors and the risks of blood transfusion during transurethral resection of the prostate and blood clot evacuation or emergency department visits for hematuria within 1 month after surgery. METHODS: We used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database in this population-based cohort study. A total of 3,126 patients who underwent first-time transurethral resection of the prostate from 2004 to 2013 were identified. Adjusted odds ratios estimated by multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the independent effects of the preoperative use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors on the risks of perioperative hemorrhagic events after adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety-seven (9.4%) patients were treated with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors for <3 months, and 65 (2.1%) patients were treated for ≥3 months prior to undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate. The blood transfusion rates for patients who were not treated with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (controls), patients who were treated with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors for <3 months, and patients who were treated with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors ≥3 months were 9.5%, 8.8%, and 3.1%, respectively. 5-alpha reductase inhibitors tended to decrease the risk of blood transfusion; however, this association was not statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio=0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.02-1.01). Age ≥80 years, coagulopathy, and a resected prostate tissue weight >50 g were associated with significantly higher risks of blood transfusion than other parameters. CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide study did not show that significant associations exist between 5-alpha reductase inhibitor use before transurethral resection of the prostate and the risks of blood transfusion and blood clot evacuation or emergency visits for hematuria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Hyperplasia/surgery , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Transurethral Resection of Prostate/adverse effects , 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Blood Transfusion , Preoperative Care/methods , Logistic Models , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hematuria/etiology , Hematuria/prevention & control
16.
Medwave ; 18(1): e7134, 2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-909743

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La resección transuretral es el método de elección para la resolución endoscópica de la uropatía obstructiva baja por hiperplasia benigna de la próstata menor a 80cc. Tradicionalmente esta ha sido realizada con asas de resección que utilizan energía monopolar. El uso de energía bipolar ha desplazado la tecnología precedente en el último tiempo. Se dispone a evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de ambas tecnologías para la técnica. MÉTODOS: Para responder esta pregunta utilizamos Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, reanalizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Identificamos 13 revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen 32 estudios primarios, de los cuales 31 corresponden a ensayos aleatorizados. Concluimos que, si bien podrían no existir diferencias de eficacia entre ambas técnicas, la utilización de energía bipolar disminuye la incidencia de síndrome post resección transuretral y probablemente disminuye el riesgo de sangrado que requiere transfusión.


INTRODUCTION: Transurethral resection is currently considered as standard endoscopic treatment for lower urinary tract obstruction due to benign hyperplasia under 80 cc. Monopolar resection loops has been traditionally used but bipolar energy has recently displaced precedent technology. The purpose of this summary is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of both technologies. METHODS: To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified 13 systematic reviews including 32 primary studies, among them 31 randomized trials. We concluded although there may be no difference in terms of efficacy among both techniques, the use of bipolar energy reduces the incidence of transurethral resection syndrome and probably reduces the risk of bleeding that requires red blood cell transfusion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prostatic Hyperplasia/surgery , Transurethral Resection of Prostate/methods , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/surgery , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Databases, Factual , Treatment Outcome
17.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 45(5): e1900, 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-976933

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A hemostasia tem papel crítico e importância fundamental em todos os procedimentos cirúrgicos. Seu manejo possui diversos pontos chaves, que se iniciam por boa técnica operatória e adequado suporte anestésico. Determinadas situações, como hemorragias graves resultantes de trauma penetrante, por exemplo, não dependem exclusivamente do controle da equipe cirúrgica e necessitam do apoio de novas soluções que diminuam ou controlem a hemorragia. Desde os tempos antigos, um marco da medicina é atuar no controle da hemorragia e, mais recentemente, na facilitação da hemostasia pela aplicação de agentes tópicos, seja por compressão manual ou agentes modernos. Na última década, o número de diferentes agentes hemostáticos tópicos cresceu drasticamente. Para que o cirurgião moderno escolha o agente correto no momento correto, é essencial que conheça o mecanismo de ação, entenda a eficácia e os possíveis efeitos adversos relacionados a cada agente. Assim, a grande variedade de hemostáticos tópicos, somada à ausência de um artigo de revisão na literatura nacional sobre este tópico, nos estimulou a elaborar este manuscrito. Aqui relatamos uma revisão detalhada sobre os agentes hemostáticos tópicos mais comumente utilizados nas especialidades cirúrgicas.


ABSTRACT Hemostasis plays a critical and fundamental role in all surgical procedures. Its management has several key points that start with good operative technique and adequate anesthetic support. Certain situations, such as severe bleeding resulting from penetrating trauma, do not depend exclusively on the control of the surgical team and require the support of new solutions that decrease or control bleeding. Since ancient times, a hallmark of medicine has been to act in the control of hemorrhage, and more recently, in the facilitation of hemostasis by the application of topical agents by either manual compression or modern agents. In the last decade, the number of different topical hemostatic agents has grown dramatically. For the modern surgeon to choose the right agent at the right time, it is essential that he/she understands the mechanisms of action, the effectiveness and the possible adverse effects related to each agent. Thus, the great variety of topical hemostatics, coupled with the absence of a review article in the national literature on this topic, stimulated us to elaborate this manuscript. Here we report a detailed review of the topical hemostatic agents most commonly used in surgical specialties.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hemostatics/administration & dosage , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Hemostasis, Surgical/methods , Administration, Topical
18.
Rev. chil. cir ; 69(4): 310-314, ago. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899607

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La disminución de la presión venosa central (PVC) a menos de 5mmHg ha sido recomendada para disminuir el sangrado durante la cirugía hepática. No se conoce el efecto de esto en el llenado ventricular e índice cardíaco (IC). Objetivo: Medir el efecto en el volumen de fin de diástole del ventrículo izquierdo indexado (VFDVII) e IC de la disminución a 3-4mmHg de la PVC. Método: Se estudiaron pacientes sometidos a cirugía general en los cuales se monitorizó presión arterial directa, PVC, y ecocardiografía transesofágica (ETE). Posterior a la inducción anestésica, y después de 5min de estabilidad hemodinámica, se midieron VFDVII e IC, los cuales se repitieron 5 min después de disminuir la PVC a 3-4 mmHg. Resultados: Se estudiaron 32 pacientes; 12 cumplían criterios de disfunción diastólica (DD). Los valores basales y posteriores a la reducción de la PVC de VFDVII e IC fueron respectivamente 49,4 ± 13 y 40,1 ±13 ml/m², y 2,8 ± 0,56 y 2,5 ± 0,7 l/m² (ambos p < 0,01). Todas las variaciones fueron mayores en los pacientes con DD. Conclusiones: La disminución de la PVC a los niveles recomendados para disminuir el sangrado produce una moderada pero significativa reducción del IC. Esto debe ser considerado en pacientes con condiciones que pudieran hacer más importante el efecto de la disminución de la PVC.


Introduction: The reduction of central venous pressure (CVP) below 5mmHg has been recommended to decrease bleeding during hepatic surgery. The effect of this practice on cardiac function has not been quantified. Objective: To measure the repercussion of the decrease of CVP on left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV) and cardiac index (CI). Method: Patients undergoing general anaesthesia for major surgery were studied. Monitoring included direct arterial pressure, CVP, and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). During a stable period of anaesthesia, all of these parameters were measured before and after lowering CVP to 3-4mmHg. Results: Thirty-two patients were studied. Twelve patients met TEE diagnostic criteria for diastolic dysfunction (DD). Basal and post CVP reduction values of LVEDVI and CI were 49.4 ± 13 and 40.1 ±13ml/m², 2.8±0.56 and 2.5±0.7l/m² respectively (both P< .01). All these variations were greater in patients with DD. Conclusions: Reduction of CVP produced a moderate but significant decrease in LVEDV and CI This should be considered in patients with conditions that may increase the effect of decreasing the CVP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Cardiac Output/physiology , Central Venous Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Hemodynamics , Monitoring, Physiologic
19.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(8): 673-679, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886232

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To analyze the use of this sponge in pediatric patients undergoing split-liver transplantation. Methods: Retrospective study, including 35 pediatric patients undergoing split-liver transplantation, divided into two groups according to the use of the sponge: 18 patients in Group A (no sponge) and 17 in Group B (with sponge). Results: The characteristics of recipients and donors were similar. We observed greater number of reoperation due to bleeding in the wound area in Group A (10 patients - 55.5%) than in Group B (3 patients - 17.6%); p = 0.035. The median volume of red blood cells transfused in Group A was significantly higher (73.4 ± 102.38 mL/kg) than that in Group B (35.1 ± 41.67 mL/kg); p = 0.048. Regarding bile leak there was no statistical difference. Conclusion: The use of the human fibrinogen and thrombin sponge, required lower volume of red blood cell transfusion and presented lower reoperation rates due to bleeding in the wound area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Fibrinogen/therapeutic use , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Thrombin/therapeutic use , Surgical Sponges , Liver Transplantation/methods , Hemostasis, Surgical/methods , Reoperation , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surgical Wound/drug therapy , Hepatectomy/methods , Liver/surgery
20.
Rev. chil. cir ; 68(3): 265-272, jun. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-787084

ABSTRACT

Las transfusiones sanguíneas alogénicas han tenido un rol central en el desarrollo de la medicina, principalmente como terapia de soporte en pacientes críticos, cirugía mayor, trauma y trastornos hematopoyéticos. Sin embargo, su utilización no está exenta de importantes efectos adversos y de altos costos asociados. Además, los productos sanguíneos son un recurso limitado que no debe ser desperdiciado. Por otro lado, la cirugía en pacientes que rehúsan la utilización de hemoderivados ha mostrado igual o mejores resultados que los pacientes que aceptan transfusiones. Esto ha llevado a buscar un manejo apropiado de la sangre en todos nuestros pacientes, evitando los riesgos y costos innecesarios de las transfusiones, pero permitiéndolos cuando se cree que los beneficios serán mayores que los riesgos. En este trabajo se presentan 3 pilares esenciales. El primero es el diagnóstico y manejo apropiado de la anemia preoperatoria, disminuyendo los riesgos perioperatorios, ya que la anemia por sí sola es un factor de morbimortalidad. El segundo pilar está constituido por diversas técnicas, que están disponibles en la actualidad, para minimizar el sangrado perioperatorio. Finalmente, el tercer pilar es mejorar la tolerancia a la anemia. El uso en conjunto de diversas técnicas descritas en este trabajo ha mostrado ser efectivo en disminuir el sangrado perioperatorio, la necesidad de transfusiones alogénicas y las unidades de sangre utilizadas, lo cual podría permitir mejores resultados clínicos en nuestros pacientes.


Allogeneic blood transfusions have played a central role in the development of medicine, mainly as a support therapy in critically ill patients, major surgery, trauma and hematopoietic disorders. However, their use is not without significant adverse effects and associated high costs. Moreover, blood products are a limited resource that should not be wasted. Furthermore, surgery in patients who refuse the use of blood products has shown equal or better results than patients who accept transfusions. This has led to seek an appropriate blood management in all our patients, avoiding unnecessary costs and risks of transfusions, but allowing them when they believe the benefits outweigh the risks. In this paper three essential pillars are presented. The first is the appropriate diagnosis and management of pre-operative anaemia decreasing perioperative risk, since anaemia itself is a factor of morbidity and mortality. The second pillar is formed by various techniques that are available today to minimize bleeding perioperative. Finally, the third pillar is to improve tolerance to anaemia. The joint use of various techniques described in this paper has proven effective in decreasing perioperative bleeding, the need for allogeneic transfusions and blood units used, which may allow better clinical outcomes in our patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Transfusion, Autologous/methods , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Anemia/therapy , Preoperative Care , Anemia/physiopathology , Intraoperative Complications/prevention & control
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