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4.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 620-626, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155779

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives Day-case pediatric sedation is challenging. Dexmedetomidine is a sedative analgesic that does not induce respiratory depression. We compared dexmedetomidine to propofol when it was added to ketamine for sedation during pediatric endoscopy, regarding recovery time and hemodynamic changes. Methods We enrolled 120 patients (2−7 years in age) and randomly assigned them into two groups. Each patient received intravenous (IV) ketamine at a dose of 1 mg.kg-1 in addition to either propofol (1 mg.kg-1) or dexmedetomidine (0.5 µg.kg-1). The recovery time was compared. Hemodynamics, oxygen saturation, need for additional doses, postoperative complications and endoscopist satisfaction were monitored. Results There was no significant difference in hemodynamics between the groups. The Propofol-Ketamine (P-K) group showed significantly shorter recovery times than the Dexmedetomidine-Ketamine (D-K) group (21.25 and 29.75 minutes, respectively, p < 0.001). The P-K group showed more oxygen desaturation. Eleven and 6 patients experienced SpO2 < 92% in groups P-K and D-K, respectively. A significant difference was noted regarding the need for additional doses; 10% of patients in the D-K group needed one extra dose, and 5% needed two extra doses, compared to 25% and 20% in the P-K group, respectively (p = 0.001). The P-K group showed less post-procedure nausea and vomiting. No statistically significant difference between both groups regarding endoscopist satisfaction. Conclusions The P-K combination was associated with a shorter recovery time in pediatric upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, while the D-K combination showed less need for additional doses. Registration number Clinical trials.gov (NCT02863861).


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos A sedação ambulatorial pediátrica é um desafio. A dexmedetomidina é um analgésico sedativo que não induz à depressão respiratória. Comparamos a dexmedetomidina ao propofol quando associados à cetamina para sedação durante endoscopia pediátrica, quanto ao tempo de recuperação e às alterações hemodinâmicas. Métodos Foram recrutados 120 pacientes (2−7 anos de idade) que foram aleatoriamente alocados em dois grupos. Cada paciente recebeu cetamina IV na dose de 1 mg.kg‐1, além de propofol (1 mg.kg‐1) ou dexmedetomidina (0,5 µg.kg‐1). Comparamos o tempo de recuperação. A hemodinâmica, saturação de oxigênio, necessidade de doses adicionais, complicações pós‐operatórias e satisfação do endoscopista foram monitoradas. Resultados Não houve diferença significante entre os grupos no que diz respeito à hemodinâmica. O grupo Propofol‐Cetamina (P‐C) apresentou tempos de recuperação significantemente mais curtos do que o grupo Dexmedetomidina‐Cetamina (D‐C) (21,25 e 29,75 minutos respectivamente, p < 0,001). Observou‐se frequência maior de dessaturação de oxigênio no grupo P‐C. Onze e 6 pacientes apresentaram SpO2 < 92% nos grupos P‐C e D‐C, respectivamente. Uma diferença significante foi observada em relação à necessidade de doses adicionais; 10% dos pacientes no grupo D‐C precisaram de uma dose extra e 5% precisaram de duas doses extras, em comparação com 25% e 20% no grupo P‐C, respectivamente (p = 0,001). O grupo P‐C apresentou menos náuseas e vômitos após o procedimento. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos em relação à satisfação do endoscopista. Conclusões A combinação P‐C foi associada a tempo mais curto de recuperação na endoscopia digestiva alta pediátrica, enquanto a combinação D‐C mostrou menor necessidade de doses adicionais. Número de registro Clinical trials.gov (NCT02863861).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Propofol/administration & dosage , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Combined/administration & dosage , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Oxygen/blood , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Heart Rate/drug effects , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Hypotension/chemically induced , Ketamine/administration & dosage
5.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 605-612, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155767

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives Preoperative use of flurbiprofen axetil (FA) is extensively adopted to modulate the effects of analgesia. However, the relationship between FA and sedation agents remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of different doses of FA on the median Effective Concentration (EC50) of propofol. Methods Ninety-six patients (ASA I or II, aged 18-65 years) were randomly assigned into one of four groups in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Group A (control group) received 10 mL of Intralipid, and groups B, C and D received 0.5 mg.kg−1, 0.75 mg.kg−1 and 1 mg.kg−1 of FA, respectively, 10 minutes before induction. The depth of anesthesia was measured by the Bispectral Index (BIS). The "up-and-down" method was used to calculate the EC50 of propofol. During the equilibration period, if BIS ≤ 50 (or BIS > 50), the next patient would receive a 0.5 µg.mL−1-lower (or -higher) propofol Target-Controlled Infusion (TCI) concentration. The hemodynamic data were recorded at baseline, 10 minutes after FA administration, after induction, after intubation and 15 minutes after intubation. Results The EC50 of propofol was lower in Group C (2.32 µg.mL−1, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.85-2.75) and D (2.39 µg.mL−1, 95% CI 1.91-2.67) than in Group A (2.96 µg.mL−1, 95% CI 2.55-3.33) (p = 0.023, p = 0.048, respectively). There were no significant differences in the EC50 between Group B (2.53 µg.mL−1, 95% CI 2.33-2.71) and Group A (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in Heart Rate (HR) among groups A, B and C. The HR was significantly lower in Group D than in Group A after intubation (66 ± 6 vs. 80 ± 10 bpm, p < 0.01) and 15 minutes after intubation (61 ± 4 vs. 70 ± 8 bpm, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences among the four groups in Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) at any time point. The MAP of the four groups was significantly lower after induction, after intubation, and 15 minutes after intubation than at baseline (p < 0.05). Conclusion High-dose FA (0.75 mg.kg−1 or 1 mg.kg−1) reduces the EC50 of propofol, and 1 mg.kg−1 FA reduces the HR for adequate anesthesia in unstimulated patients. Although this result should be investigated in cases of surgical stimulation, we suggest that FA pre-administration may reduce the propofol requirement when the depth of anesthesia is measured by BIS.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos A administração pré‐operatória de Flurbiprofeno Axetil (FA) é amplamente usada para a modulação da analgesia. No entanto, a relação entre FA e fármacos sedativos permanece obscura. Neste estudo, nosso objetivo foi investigar os efeitos de diferentes doses de FA na Concentração Efetiva mediana (CE50) do propofol. Métodos Noventa e seis pacientes (ASA I ou II, com idades de 18-65 anos) foram alocados aleatoriamente em quatro grupos na proporção de 1:1:1:1. Dez minutos antes da indução, o Grupo A (grupo controle) recebeu 10 mL de Intralipid, enquanto os grupos B, C e D receberam FA na dose de 0,5 mg.kg‐1; 0,75 mg.kg‐1 e 1 mg.kg‐1, respectivamente. A profundidade da anestesia foi medida pelo Índice Bispectral (BIS). O método up‐and‐down foi usado para calcular a CE50 do propofol. Durante o período de equilíbrio, se o valor do BIS fosse ≤ 50 ou BIS > 50, o próximo paciente tinha a infusão de propofol ajustada para uma concentração alvo‐controlada 0,5 µg.mL‐1 inferior ou superior, respectivamente. Os dados hemodinâmicos foram registrados no início do estudo, 10 minutos após a administração de FA, após a indução, após a intubação e 15 minutos após a intubação. Resultados A CE50 do propofol foi menor no Grupo C (2,32 µg.mL‐1, Intervalo de Confiança de 95% [95% IC] 1,85-2,75) e D (2,39 µg.mL‐1, 95% IC 1,91-2,67) do que no Grupo A (2,96 µg.mL‐1; 95% IC 2,55-3,33) (p = 0,023, p = 0,048, respectivamente). Não houve diferenças significantes na CE50 entre o Grupo B (2,53 µg.mL‐1, 95% IC 2,33-2,71) e o Grupo A (p > 0,05). Não houve diferenças significantes na Frequência Cardíaca (FC) entre os grupos A, B e C. A FC foi significantemente menor no grupo D do que no grupo A após a intubação (66 ± 6 vs. 80 ± 10 bpm, p < 0,01) e 15 minutos após a intubação (61 ± 4 vs. 70 ± 8 bpm, p < 0,01). Não houve diferenças significantes entre os quatro grupos na Pressão Arterial Média (PAM) em qualquer momento. A PAM dos quatro grupos foi significantemente menor após a indução, após a intubação e 15 minutos após a intubação do que na linha de base (p < 0,05). Conclusão FA em altas doses (0,75 mg.kg‐1 ou 1 mg.kg‐1) reduz a CE50 do propofol, e 1 mg.kg‐1 de FA reduz a FC durante níveis adequados de anestesia em pacientes não estimulados. Embora esse resultado deva ser investigado na presença de estimulação cirúrgica, sugerimos que a pré‐administração de FA pode reduzir a necessidade de propofol durante anestesia cuja profundidade seja monitorada pelo BIS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Propofol/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Flurbiprofen/analogs & derivatives , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Anesthesia , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Phospholipids/administration & dosage , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Soybean Oil/administration & dosage , Drug Administration Schedule , Confidence Intervals , Flurbiprofen/administration & dosage , Elective Surgical Procedures , Electroencephalography/drug effects , Emulsions/administration & dosage , Fat Emulsions, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Remifentanil/administration & dosage , Heart Rate/drug effects , Analgesics, Opioid , Middle Aged
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 295-303, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088850

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Cigarette smoking is usually associated with hypertension and may modify vasoconstrictor response. Objective: The present study aimed to analyze and compare the interaction of passive cigarette smoking and hypertension on epinephrine and felypressin blood pressure effects after intravascular injection. Method: 45-day male Wistar rats had the main left renal artery partially constricted and the right kidney removed (1K1C model). Rats were placed in the chamber for exposition to passive cigarette smoking (10 cigarettes) during 10 min (6 days a week). Hypertensive rats received atenolol (90 mg/kg/day) by gavage for two weeks. Hypotensive and hypertensive response, response duration and heart rate were recorded from direct blood pressure values. The significance level was 5%. Results: Passive cigarette smoking increased maximal hypertensive response to epinephrine in normotensive and 1K1C-atenolol treated rats and to felypressin only in 1K1C-atenolol treated rats; it also reduced epinephrine hypotensive response. Epinephrine increased heart rate in normotensive and hypertensive passive smokers or non-smoker rats. Comparing the two vasoconstrictors, epinephrine showed greater hypertensive response in normotensive smokers, 1K1C-atenolol treated smokers and non-smokers. However, in normotensive-nonsmoker rats, felypressin showed a greater and longer hypertensive effect. Conclusions: Our results suggest that passive cigarette smoking may reduce epinephrine vasodilation and increase hypertensive response when compared to felypressin. Therefore, felypressin may be safe for hypertensive patients to avoid tachycardia and atenolol interaction, but for normotensive and non-smoker patients, epinephrine may be safer than felypressin.


Resumo Fundamento: O tabagismo geralmente está associado à hipertensão e pode modificar a resposta vasoconstritora. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar e comparar a interação do tabagismo passivo e hipertensão sobre os efeitos da epinefrina e felipressina na pressão arterial após injeção intravascular. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos de 45 dias tiveram a artéria renal principal esquerda parcialmente obstruída e o rim direito removido (modelo 1K1C). Os ratos foram colocados na câmara para exposição ao tabagismo passivo (10 cigarros) durante 10 minutos (6 dias por semana). Ratos hipertensos receberam atenolol (90 mg/kg/dia) por gavagem durante duas semanas. A resposta hipotensora e hipertensiva, a duração da resposta e a frequência cardíaca foram registradas a partir da medida dos valores diretos da pressão arterial. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: O tabagismo passivo aumentou a resposta hipertensiva máxima à epinefrina em ratos normotensos e ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol e à felipressina apenas em ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol; também reduziu a resposta hipotensiva à epinefrina. A epinefrina aumentou a frequência cardíaca em ratos fumantes passivos ou não-fumantes, normotensos e hipertensos. Comparando os dois vasoconstritores, a epinefrina apresentou maior resposta hipertensiva em fumantes normotensos, ratos 1K1C fumantes e não fumantes tratados com atenolol. No entanto, em ratos normotensos e não fumantes, a felipressina apresentou um efeito hipertensivo maior e mais prolongado. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que o tabagismo passivo pode reduzir a vasodilatação da epinefrina e aumentar a resposta hipertensiva quando comparado à felipressina. Portanto, a felipressina pode ser segura para pacientes hipertensos, com o objetivo de evitar a interação entre taquicardia e atenolol, mas para pacientes normotensos e não-fumantes, a epinefrina pode ser mais segura que a felipressina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Atenolol/pharmacology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Felypressin/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypotension
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(1): e8645, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055484

ABSTRACT

Data about the feasibility and safety of thoracoscopic surgery under non-intubated anesthesia and regional block are limited. In this prospective study, 57 consecutive patients scheduled for thoracoscopic surgery were enrolled. Patients were sedated with dexmedetomidine and anesthetized with propofol and remifentanil. Ropivacaine was used for intercostal nerve and paravertebral block. Lidocaine was used for vagal block. The primary outcomes were mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation, and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (ETCO2) at T0 (pre-anesthesia), T1 (immediately after laryngeal mask/nasopharyngeal airway placement), T2 (immediately after skin incision), T3 (10 min after opening the chest), T4 (end of surgery), and T5 (immediately after laryngeal mask/nasopharyngeal airway removal). One patient required conversion to intubation, 15 developed intraoperative hypotension, and two had hypoxemia. MAP at T0 and T5 was higher than at T1-T4; MAP at T3 was lower (P<0.05 vs other time points). HR at T0 and T5 was higher (P<0.05 vs other time points). ETCO2 at T2 and T3 was higher (P<0.05 vs other time points). Arterial pH, PCO2, and lactic acid at T1 differed from values at T0 and T2 (P<0.05). The Quality of Recovery-15 (QoR-15) score at 24 h was lower (P<0.05). One patient experienced dysphoria during recovery. Thoracoscopic surgery with regional block under direct thoracoscopic vision is a feasible and safe alternative to conventional surgery under general anesthesia, intubation, and one-lung ventilation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Thoracoscopy/methods , Laryngeal Masks , Anesthesia, General/methods , Nerve Block/methods , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Propofol/administration & dosage , Feasibility Studies , Prospective Studies , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Remifentanil/administration & dosage , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart Rate/physiology
8.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(6): 537-545, nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057471

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objective: Remifentanil is used to attenuate maternal hemodynamic response to intubation and surgical stress during Induction-Delivery period of cesarean section. The goal was to compare the effects of two remifentanil dosing regimens on oxidative stress level, in correlation with its hemodynamic and neonatal effects. Methods: Fifty-one patients, 17 per group, enrolled for elective cesarean section were randomly divided by computer-generated codes into three parallel groups: (A) patients received a 1 µg.kg-1 remifentanil bolus immediately before induction, followed by 0.15 µg.kg-1.min-1 infusion, that was stopped after skin incision; (B) patients received a 1 µg.kg-1 remifentanil bolus immediately before induction; (C) (control), patients did not receive remifentanil until delivery. Maternal venous blood samples were taken at basal time, at extraction and 30 minutes after the end of operation for spectrophotometrical determination of malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein products concentration. The same was conducted for umbilical venous sample. Results: Systolic blood pressure and heart rate remained significantly lower in group A compared to B and C during entire Induction-Delivery period (p < 0.001, p = 0.02 after intubation; p = 0.006, p = 0.03 after skin incision; p = 0.029, p = 0.04 after extraction; respectively). Malondialdehyde concentration was lower at time of extraction in maternal blood in group A compared to B and C (p = 0.026). All neonatal Apgar scores were ≥ 8 and umbilical acid-base values within normal range. Conclusions: The remifentanil dosing regimen applied in group A significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation and maternal hemodynamic response during entire I-D period, without compromising neonatal outcome.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivo: O remifentanil é usado para atenuar a resposta hemodinâmica materna à intubação e ao estresse cirúrgico durante o intervalo indução-parto cesariana. O objetivo foi comparar os efeitos de dois regimes posológicos de remifentanil sobre o nível de estresse oxidativo, em correlação com seus efeitos na hemodinâmica materna e no neonato. Métodos: Mediante códigos gerados por computador, 51 pacientes (17 por grupo) programadas para cesariana eletiva foram randomicamente divididas em três grupos paralelos (A, B e C). No Grupo A, as pacientes receberam remifentanil em bolus de 1 µg.kg-1 imediatamente antes da indução, seguido por infusão de 0,15 µg.kg-1.min-1 que foi interrompida após a incisão da pele; no Grupo B, as pacientes receberam remifentanil em bolus de 1 µg.kg-1 imediatamente antes da indução; no Grupo C (controle), as pacientes não receberam remifentanil até o parto. Amostras de sangue venoso materno foram colhidas no momento basal, na extração do feto e 30 minutos após o término da operação para determinar espectrofotometricamente as concentrações do malondialdeído e dos produtos proteicos de oxidação avançada. O mesmo foi feito para a coleta das amostras de sangue venoso umbilical. Resultados: A pressão arterial sistólica e a frequência cardíaca permaneceram significativamente menores no Grupo A, comparado aos grupos B e C, durante todo o intervalo indução-parto (p < 0,001, p = 0,02 após a intubação; p = 0,006, p = 0,03 após a incisão da pele; p = 0,029, p = 0,04 após a extração do feto, respectivamente). No momento da extração do feto, a concentração do malondialdeído foi menor no sangue materno do Grupo A, comparado aos grupos B e C (p = 0,026). Todos os escores de Apgar neonatais foram ≥ 8 e os valores da avaliação ácido-base do cordão umbilical estavam dentro da faixa normal. Conclusões: O regime posológico de remifentanil aplicado ao Grupo A atenuou de modo significativo a peroxidação lipídica e a resposta hemodinâmica materna durante todo o intervalo indução-parto, sem comprometer o desfecho neonatal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Cesarean Section/methods , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Remifentanil/administration & dosage , Apgar Score , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , Remifentanil/pharmacology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hemodynamics/drug effects
10.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 492-500, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056600

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a major complication of hemodialysis, with a prevalence of about 25% during hemodialysis sessions, causing increased morbidity and mortality. Objective: To study the effects of sertraline to prevent IDH in hemodialysis patients. Methods: This was a double-blind, crossover clinical trial comparing the use of sertraline versus placebo to reduce intradialytic hypotension. Results: Sixteen patients completed the two phases of the study during a 12-week period. The IDH prevalence was 32%. A comparison between intradialytic interventions, intradialytic symptoms, and IDH episodes revealed no statistical difference in the reduction of IDH episodes (p = 0.207) between the two intervention groups. However, the risk of IDH interventions was 60% higher in the placebo group compared to the sertraline group, and the risk of IDH symptoms was 40% higher in the placebo group compared to the sertraline group. Survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier estimator supported the results of this study. Sertraline presented a number needed to treat (NNT) of 16.3 patients to prevent an episode from IDH intervention and 14.2 patients to prevent an episode from intradialytic symptoms. Conclusion: This study suggests that the use of sertraline may be beneficial to reduce the number of symptoms and ID interventions, although there was no statistically significant difference in the blood pressure levels.


Resumo Introdução: A hipotensão intradialítica (HID) é uma das principais complicações da hemodiálise, com uma prevalência de cerca de 25% durante as sessões de hemodiálise, causando aumento da morbimortalidade. Objetivo: Estudar os efeitos da sertralina na prevenção da HID em pacientes em hemodiálise. Métodos: Este foi um ensaio clínico duplo-cego, cruzado, comparando o uso de sertralina versus placebo para reduzir a hipotensão intradialítica. Resultados: Dezesseis pacientes completaram as duas fases do estudo durante um período de 12 semanas. A prevalência de HID foi de 32%. Uma comparação entre intervenções intradialíticas, sintomas intradialíticos (ID) e episódios de HID não revelou diferença estatística na redução dos episódios de HID (p = 0,207) entre os dois grupos de intervenção. No entanto, o risco de intervenções para HID foi 60% maior no grupo placebo em comparação com o grupo Sertralina, e o risco de sintomas ID foi 40% maior no grupo placebo em comparação com o grupo Sertralina. A análise de sobrevida utilizando o estimador de Kaplan-Meier corroborou os resultados deste estudo. A sertralina apresentou um número necessário para tratar (NNT) de 16,3 pacientes para prevenir um episódio de intervenção de HID e 14,2 pacientes para prevenir um episódio de sintomas intradialíticos. Conclusão: Este estudo sugere que o uso de sertralina pode ser benéfico para reduzir o número de sintomas e intervenções de HID, embora não tenha havido diferença estatisticamente significante nos níveis pressóricos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sertraline/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Hypotension/physiopathology , Placebos/administration & dosage , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Double-Blind Method , Prevalence , Renal Dialysis/mortality , Cross-Over Studies , Renal Insufficiency/complications , Hypotension/prevention & control , Hypotension/epidemiology
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(5): 925-932, Nov. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055040

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: D-limonene (DL) is a monoterpene and is the major component in the essential oil of citrus fruit. It presents antihyperglycemic and vasodilatation activities. Objectives: This study evaluated the cardiovascular effects and potential antiarrhythmic of DL in rats. Methods: Hemodynamic and electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters were measured in male Wistar rats, which under anesthesia had been cannulated in the abdominal aorta and lower vena cava and had electrodes subcutaneously implanted. In the in vitro approach, the heart was removed and perfused using the Langendorff technique. The significance level adopted was 5% (p < 0.05). Results: DL, in doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg (i.v), produced intense and persistent bradycardia associated with hypotension. Bradycardia with prolonged QTc was observed in the ECG in vivo recording. In the in vivo model of arrhythmia induced by Bay K8644, DL (10 mg/kg) decreased the arrhythmia score from 15.33 ± 3.52 to 4.0 ± 2.64 u.a (p < 0.05, n = 4). In isolated perfused hearts, DL (10-3 M) promoted significant reductions in heart rate (from 228.6 ± 8.5 ms to 196.0 ± 9.3 bpm; p < 0.05) and left ventricular development pressure (from 25.2 ± 3.4 to 5.9 ± 1.8 mmHg; n = 5, p < 0.05). Conclusions: DL produces bradycardia and antiarrhythmic activity in rat heart.


Resumo Fundamento: O D-limoneno (DL) é um monoterpeno e o principal componente do óleo essencial de frutas cítricas. Ele apresenta atividades anti-hiperglicêmicas e vasodilatadoras. Objetivos: Este estudo avaliou os efeitos cardiovasculares e antiarrítmicos potenciais do DL em ratos. Métodos: Os parâmetros hemodinâmicos e eletrocardiográficos (ECG) foram mensurados em ratos Wistar machos que, sob anestesia, tiveram a aorta abdominal e a veia cava inferior canuladas e receberam eletrodos implantados subcutaneamente. Na abordagem in vitro, o coração foi removido e perfundido utilizando a técnica de Langendorff. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5% (p < 0,05). Resultados: DL, nas doses de 10, 20 e 40 mg/kg (i.v), produziu bradicardia intensa e persistente associada à hipotensão. A bradicardia com QTc prolongado foi observada no registro in vivo do ECG. No modelo in vivo de arritmia induzida por Bay K8644, DL (10 mg / kg) houve diminuição do escore da arritmia de 15,33 ± 3,52 para 4,0 ± 2,64 u.a (p < 0,05, n = 4). Em corações perfundidos isolados, o DL (10-3 M) promoveu reduções significativas na frequência cardíaca (de 228,6 ± 8,5 ms para 196,0 ± 9,3 bpm; p < 0,05) e na pressão desenvolvida do ventrículo esquerdo (de 25,2 ± 3,4 para 5,9 ± 1,8 mmHg; n = 5, p < 0,05). Conclusões: O DL produz bradicardia e atividade antiarrítmica no coração de ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Bradycardia/drug therapy , Limonene/therapeutic use , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Bradycardia/diagnosis , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Pressure/drug effects , Models, Animal , Electrocardiography , Isolated Heart Preparation , Limonene/pharmacology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Hypotension , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/pharmacology
12.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(5): 414-422, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059097

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Obese adolescents are at higher risk of development of cardiovascular risk factors and obesity in later life. Dietary intake of antioxidants, particularly curcumin, as an active ingredient of turmeric extract, may have noticeable effects on obesity and its important complications such as cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of curcumin supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese female adolescents. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial; Pediatric Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan, Iran. METHODS: 60 adolescent girls (aged 13-18 years) were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or intervention. The adolescents were asked to consume one 500 mg tablet per day, containing either standardized 95% turmeric extract or placebo, and to undergo a weight maintenance or a mild weight loss diet for 10 weeks. Anthropometric and biochemical indices were assessed at the baseline and the end of the intervention. RESULTS: Curcumin supplementation had beneficial effects on body mass index (P = 0.019), waist circumference (P = 0.008), hip circumference (P = 0.030), high-density lipoprotein levels (P = 0.042) and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein ratio (P = 0.021). However, in univariate analysis of covariance, no significant differences were found between the intervention and placebo groups after 10 weeks of supplementation (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prescription of curcumin supplementation along with use of a slight weight loss diet might have beneficial effects on some cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese female adolescents. Larger clinical trials with higher curcumin doses and longer duration are needed to confirm the results from the current study. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: IRCT20171107037302N1


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Body Composition/drug effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Curcumin/administration & dosage , Overweight/metabolism , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Exercise/physiology , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Diet, Reducing , Waist Circumference , Lipids/blood , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(2): 218-228, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019401

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Studies have persuasively demonstrated that citrulline has a key role in the arginine-nitric oxide system, increasing nitric oxide bioavailability, an important mediator of peripheral vasodilation. Objective: To analyze the inter-individual post-exercise hypotension responsiveness following acute citrulline supplementation in hypertensives. Methods: Forty hypertensives were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental groups (control-placebo, control-citrulline, exercise-placebo, and exercise-citrulline). They ingested placebo or citrulline malate [CM] (6 grams). During the exercise session, individuals performed 40 minutes of walking/running on a treadmill at 60-70% of HR reserve. For the control session, the individuals remained seated at rest for 40 minutes. Office blood pressure (BP) was taken every 10 minutes until completing 60 minutes after the experimental session. The ambulatory BP device was programmed to take the readings every 20 minutes (awake time) and every 30 minutes (sleep time) over the course of 24 hours of monitoring. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Results: Unlike the other experimental groups, there were no "non-responders" in the exercise/citrulline (EC) for "awake" (systolic and diastolic BP) and "24 hours" (diastolic BP). The effect sizes were more consistent in the EC for systolic and diastolic ambulatorial BP response. The effects were "large" (> 0.8) for "awake", "asleep", and "24 hours" only in the EC for diastolic BP. Conclusion: CM supplementation can increase the post-exercise hypotensive effects in hypertensives. In addition, the prevalence of non-responders is lower when associated with aerobic exercise and CM supplementation.


Resumo Fundamento: Estudos demonstraram de maneira persuasiva que a citrulina tem um papel fundamental no sistema arginina-óxido nítrico, aumentando a biodisponibilidade do óxido nítrico, um importante mediador da vasodilatação periférica. Objetivo: Analisar a responsividade interindividual da hipotensão pós-exercício após suplementação aguda com citrulina em hipertensos. Métodos: Quarenta hipertensos foram aleatoriamente designados para um dos quatro grupos experimentais (controle-placebo, controle-citrulina, exercício-placebo e exercício-citrulina). Eles ingeriram placebo ou citrulina malato [CM] (6 gramas). Durante a sessão de exercício, os indivíduos realizaram 40 minutos de caminhada/corrida em esteira a 60-70% da FC de reserva. Para a sessão de controle, os indivíduos permaneceram sentados em repouso por 40 minutos. A medida da pressão arterial (PA) no consultório foi realizada a cada 10 minutos até completar 60 minutos após a sessão experimental. O dispositivo ambulatorial de PA foi programado para fazer as leituras a cada 20 minutos (tempo de vigília) e a cada 30 minutos (tempo de sono) ao longo de 24 horas de monitoramento. A significância estatística foi definida como p < 0,05. Resultados: Diferentemente de outros grupos experimentais, não houve "não respondedores" no exercício/citrulina (EC) para "acordado" (PA sistólica e diastólica) e "24 horas" (PA diastólica). Os tamanhos de efeito foram mais consistentes no EC para a resposta sistólica e diastólica da PA ambulatorial. Os efeitos foram "grandes" (> 0,8) para "acordado", "dormindo", e para "24 horas" apenas no EC para a PA diastólica. Conclusão: A suplementação com CM pode aumentar os efeitos hipotensivos pós-exercício em hipertensos. Além disso, a prevalência de "não respondedores" é menor quando associada ao exercício aeróbico e à suplementação com CM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Exercise/physiology , Citrulline/analogs & derivatives , Post-Exercise Hypotension/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Malates/pharmacology , Arginine/metabolism , Reference Values , Time Factors , Placebo Effect , Anthropometry , Double-Blind Method , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Citrulline/pharmacology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Exercise Test , Hypertension/therapy , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 739-743, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002287

ABSTRACT

La preeclampsia (PE) es un trastorno hipertensivo inducido por el embarazo donde se reduce la presión de la perfusión uterina. Investigaciones avalan el uso de dosis baja de aspirina (DBAAS) y su utilidad en la prevención de PE en gestantes con factores de riesgo. Sus beneficios en modelos animales sometidos a esta reduccción no están determinados. El objetivo de la investigación fue analizar la presión arterial sistémica y los hallazgos morfológicos a nivel renal en fetos de ratas con reducción de la presión de perfusión uterina (RPPU) expuestas a DBAAS en comparación a las no expuestas. Se conformaron cuatro grupos de ratas hembras preñadas Sprague Dawley (n=5). A los 14,5 días post-concepción (dpc), vía quirúrgica se indujo RPPU, ligando arterias uterinas, conformándose el grupo RPPU y el grupo RPPU+DBAAS al que se le administró 5 mg/kg/día de aspirina vía oral. El grupo control lo conformaron las no operadas y el grupo DBAAS se le administró aspirina en igual dosis desde el 14,5 dpc. A los 18,5 dpc, previo a la eutansia se midió la presión arterial sistémica con pletismógrafo caudal Insight v2.11 y se extrajeron los fetos. Se midió la longitud céfalo-caudal (LCC), se procesaron y tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina, describiéndose cortes histológicos transversales a nivel renal. Se determinó que en la presión arterial media, hubo diferencias significativas entre el grupo RPPU y RPPU+DBAAS (p<0,05). El tamaño de los fetos fue menor en el grupo RPPU (p<0,0001), donde 1 feto presentó hernia umbilical congénita. La cuantificación de vesículas renales también fue menor (p<0,005). En conclusión, la administración de DBAAS disminuye los efectos inducidos por la RPPU en cuanto al tamaño fetal, morfología renal y malformaciones congénitas como hernia umbilical. En cuanto a la presión arterial sistémica, tendría efectos sólo en presión arterial media.


Preeclampsia (PE) is a hypertensive disorder induced by pregnancy where there is a reduction in the uterine perfusion pressure. Research supports the use of low dose aspirin (LDAAS) and its usefulness in the prevention of PE in pregnant women with risk factors. Their benefits in animal models subject to RUPP are not determined. The objective of the investigation was to analyze the systemic blood pressure and the morphological findings at renal level in fetuses of rats with reduction of uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) exposed to LDAAS compared to those not exposed. Four groups of pregnant female rats Sprague Dawley (n=5) were formed. At 14.5 days post-conception (dpc), surgical RUPP was induced, ligating uterine arteries, with the RUPP group and RUPP+LDAAS group being given 5 mg/kg/day of aspirin orally. The control group was made up of those not operated and the LDAAS group was administered aspirin in the same dose from 14.5 dpc. A 18.5 dpc, prior to euthanasia systemic blood pressure was measured with flow plethysmograph Insight v2.11 and fetuses were extracted. The cephalo-caudal length (CCL) was measured, processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, describing transverse histological sections at the kidney level. It was determined that in the mean arterial pressure, there were significant differences between the group RUPP and RUPP+LDAAS (p <0.05). The size of the fetuses was lower in the RUPP group (p <0.0001), where one fetus presented congenital umbilical hernia. The quantification of renal vesicles was also lower (p <0.005). In conclusion, the administration of LDAAS decreases the effects induced by RUPP in terms of fetal size, renal morphology and congenital malformations such as umbilical hernia. Regarding the systemic blood pressure, effects would only mean arterial pressure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/drug therapy , Perfusion , Regional Blood Flow , Uterus/blood supply , Aspirin/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Fetus , Arterial Pressure/drug effects
15.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 266-274, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012534

ABSTRACT

Abstract Refractory hypertension (RfH) is an extreme phenotype of resistant hypertension (RH), being considered an uncontrolled blood pressure besides the use of 5 or more antihypertensive medications, including a long-acting thiazide diuretic and a mineralocorticoid antagonist. RH is common, with 10-20% of the general hypertensives, and its associated with renin angiotensin aldosterone system hyperactivity and excess fluid retention. RfH comprises 5-8% of the RH and seems to be influenced by increased sympathetic activity. RH patients are older and more obese than general hypertensives. It is strongly associated with diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, and hyperaldosteronism status. RfH is more frequent in women, younger patients and Afro-americans compared to RFs. Both are associated with increased albuminuria, left ventricular hypertrophy, chronic kidney diseases, stroke, and cardiovascular diseases. The magnitude of the white-coat effect seems to be higher among RH patients. Intensification of diuretic therapy is indicated in RH, while in RfH, therapy failure imposes new treatment alternatives such as the use of sympatholytic therapies. In conclusion, both RH and RfH constitute challenges in clinical practice and should be addressed as distinct clinical entities by trained professionals who are capable to identify comorbidities and provide specific, diversified, and individualized treatment.


Resumo A Hipertensão Arterial Refratária (HARf) representa um fenótipo extremo da hipertensão arterial resistente (HAR), sendo considerada a falência ao tratamento apesar do uso de 5 ou mais classes de anti-hipertensivos, incluindo um diurético tiazídico de longa ação e um antagonista mineralocorticoide. A HAR é comum (10-20%) entre os hipertensos em geral, sendo decorrente de hiperatividade do Sistema Renina Angiotensina Aldosterona e retenção hidrossalina. Aqueles com HARf correspondem a 5-8% dos resistentes e parecem sofrer maior influência catecolaminérgica. Os resistentes tendem a ter maior idade, ao sobrepeso e à obesidade. Comorbidades incluem diabetes, apneia obstrutiva do sono e status de hiperaldosteronismo. Refratários são afro-americanos em maior proporção, mais jovens e, predominantemente, mulheres. Ambos são fortemente associados à elevada albuminúria, HVE, doenças cardio e cerebrovasculares, além da doença renal crônica. O fenômeno do jaleco branco parece ser mais evidente nos resistentes. Quanto ao tratamento, a intensificação da terapia diurética está indicada nos resistentes, enquanto na HARf, a falência à terapia impôs novas alternativas de tratamento ("simpaticolíticas"). Em conclusão, tanto a HAR quanto a HARf constituem-se desafios na prática clínica e devem ser abordadas como entidades clínicas distintas por profissionais especialistas que identifiquem comorbidades e venham a prover um tratamento específico, diversificado e individualizado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Phenotype , Sympatholytics/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Complementary Therapies , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Exercise , Smoking/adverse effects , Prevalence , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Diet, Sodium-Restricted , Diuretics/pharmacology , Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/physiopathology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(4): 374-380, Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001285

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Mercury's deleterious effects are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Objective: To determine whether chronic exposure to inorganic mercury increases the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme and its relationship with oxidative stress in several organs and tissues. Methods: We studied male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (3-month-old) exposed or not to HgCl2 for 30 days. At the end of treatment, we investigated the following: changes in body weight, hemodynamic parameters, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and oxidative stress in the heart, aorta, lung, brain and kidney in hypertensive compared to normotensive animals. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Chronic exposure to HgCl2 did not affect weight gain in either group. Systolic blood pressure, measured weekly, did not increase in Wistar rats but showed a small increase in SHR rats. We also observed increases in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and ACE activity in the plasma and hearts of normotensive rats. In the SHR+Hg group, ACE activity increased in plasma but decreased in kidney, lung, heart, brain and aorta. Oxidative stress was assessed indirectly by malondialdehyde (MDA) production, which increased in Hg-treated rats in both plasma and heart. In the SHR+Hg group, MDA increased in heart and aorta and decreased in lungs and brain. Conclusion: These results suggest that chronic exposure to inorganic mercury aggravates hypertension and produces more expressive changes in ACE activity and oxidative stress in SHRs. Such exposure affects the cardiovascular system, representing a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disorders in normotensive rats and worsening of pre-existing risks for hypertension.


Resumo Fundamento: Os efeitos deletérios do mercúrio estão associados ao risco cardiovascular aumentado. Objetivo: Determinar se a exposição crônica ao mercúrio inorgânico aumenta a atividade da enzima conversora de angiotensina e sua relação com o estresse oxidativo em vários órgãos e tecidos. Métodos: Estudamos ratos Wistar e ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR) (3 meses de idade) expostos ou não a HgCl2 por 30 dias. Ao final do tratamento, investigamos: alterações de peso, parâmetros hemodinâmicos, atividade da enzima conversora de angiotensina (ECA) e estresse oxidativo no coração, aorta, pulmão, cérebro e rim de animais hipertensos comparados a animais normotensos. Um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: A exposição crônica ao HgCl2 não afetou o ganho de peso em nenhum dos grupos. A pressão arterial sistólica, medida semanalmente, não aumentou em ratos Wistar, mas mostrou um pequeno aumento nos ratos SHR. Também observamos aumentos na pressão diastólica final do ventrículo esquerdo e na atividade da ECA no plasma e no coração de ratos normotensos. No grupo SHR + Hg, a atividade da ECA aumentou no plasma, mas diminuiu no rim, pulmão, coração, cérebro e aorta. O estresse oxidativo foi avaliado indiretamente pela produção de MDA, que aumentou nos ratos tratados com Hg tanto no plasma quanto no coração. No grupo SHR + Hg, o MDA aumentou no coração e na aorta e diminuiu nos pulmões e no cérebro. Conclusão: Estes resultados sugerem que a exposição crônica ao mercúrio inorgânico agrava a hipertensão e produz mudanças mais expressivas na atividade da ECA e no estresse oxidativo em SHRs. Essa exposição afeta o sistema cardiovascular, representando um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de distúrbios cardiovasculares em ratos normotensos e para piorar riscos pré-existentes para hipertensão.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hypertension/metabolism , Mercury/toxicity , Mercury Poisoning/complications , Aorta/enzymology , Rats, Inbred SHR , Reference Values , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Risk Factors , Rats, Wistar , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/analysis , Heart , Hypertension/physiopathology , Kidney/enzymology , Lung/enzymology , Malondialdehyde/blood
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(1): 87-90, Jan. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038534

ABSTRACT

Abstract Blood pressure (BP)-lowering therapy improves left ventricular (LV) parameters of hypertensive target-organ damage in stage II hypertension, but whether there is a drug-class difference in echocardiographic parameters in stage I hypertension patients is less often studied. In the PREVER treatment study, where individuals with stage I hypertension were randomized for treatment with diuretics (chlorthalidone/amiloride) or losartan, 110 participants accepted to participate in a sub-study, where two-dimensional echocardiograms were performed at baseline and after 18 months of antihypertensive treatment. As in the general study, systolic BP reduction was similar with diuretics or with losartan. Echocardiographic parameters showed small but significant changes in both treatment groups, with a favorable LV remodeling with antihypertensive treatment for 18 months when target blood pressure was achieved either with chlorthalidone/amiloride or with losartan as the initial treatment strategy. In conclusion, even in stage I hypertension, blood pressure reduction is associated with improvement in echocardiographic parameters, either with diuretics or losartan as first-drug regimens.


Resumo A terapia de redução da pressão arterial (PA) melhora os parâmetros do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) na lesão a órgãos-alvo causada pela condição hipertensiva na hipertensão de estágio II; no entanto, se existem ou não diferenças relacionadas à classe de medicamentos nos parâmetros ecocardiográficos de pacientes com hipertensão estágio I é menos frequentemente estudado. No estudo PREVER-treatment, em que indivíduos com hipertensão estágio I foram randomizados para tratamento com diuréticos (clortalidona/amilorida) ou losartana, 110 participantes aceitaram participar de um subestudo, no qual foram realizados ecocardiogramas bidimensionais basais e após 18 meses de tratamento anti-hipertensivo. Como no estudo geral, a redução da PA sistólica foi semelhante com diuréticos ou com losartana. Os parâmetros ecocardiográficos mostraram pequenas mas significativas alterações em ambos os grupos de tratamento, com um remodelamento favorável do VE com tratamento anti-hipertensivo por 18 meses, quando a pressão arterial alvo foi atingida com clortalidona/amilorida ou com losartana como estratégia inicial de tratamento. Em conclusão, mesmo na hipertensão estágio I, a redução da pressão arterial está associada à melhora nos parâmetros ecocardiográficos tanto com o uso de diuréticos ou losartana como primeiro esquema de tratamento farmacológico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Losartan/therapeutic use , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Amiloride/therapeutic use , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Echocardiography , Double-Blind Method , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Losartan/pharmacology , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Diuretics/pharmacology , Amiloride/pharmacology , Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180574, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1040233

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hypertension is one of the main causes of premature death in the world; also, it is associated with several bone alterations. Preclinical studies have demonstrated delayed alveolar bone healing in hypertensive rats. However, losartan has been favorable for consolidation of bone grafts and reduction in active periodontitis. Therefore, losartan is suggested to be effective in bone formation stages, as well as in the synthesis of matrix proteins and mineralization. Objectives: To evaluate the alveolar bone dynamics in hypertensive rats treated with losartan by laser confocal microscopy and histological analysis. Methodology: Thirty-two rats, 16 spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and 16 Wistar albinus rats, treated or not with losartan (30 mg/kg/day) were used. Calcein fluorochrome at 21 days and alizarin red fluorochrome at 49 days were injected in rats (both 20 mg/kg). The animals were submitted to euthanasia 67 days after treatment, and then the right maxilla was removed for laser confocal microscopy analysis and the left maxilla for histological analysis. Results: This study showed a greater calcium marking in normotensive animals treated with losartan in relation to the other groups. Laser confocal microscopy parameters showed higher values of bone volume formed, mineralized surface, active surface of mineralization and bone formation rate in normotensive animals treated with losartan. However, a smaller mineralized surface was observed in all hypertensive animals. Conclusion: Losartan can improve bone mineralization parameters under normal physiological conditions, but the same anabolic effect does not occur under hypertension.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Losartan/pharmacology , Alveolar Process/drug effects , Alveolar Process/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Rats, Inbred SHR , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Calcification, Physiologic/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Microscopy, Confocal , Alveolar Process/pathology , Fluoresceins/analysis
19.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(supl.2): 266-273, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1057655

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the relationship between inadequate functional health literacy and inadequate blood pressure control in older people with hypertension in Primary Health Care. Method: a cross-sectional study with sample calculated at 392. SAHLPA-18 tool was used for functional health literacy; blood pressure was measured; sociodemographic and clinical data were collected. Hierarchical logistic regression was used. Results: (high) inadequate blood pressure and (low) functional inadequate health literacy were present in 41.6% and 54.6% of the people, respectively. Factors associated with inadequate blood pressure were: inadequate functional health literacy, black-brown skin color, overweight-obesity, hypertension diagnosis time, non-adherence to exercise/diet, drug treatment. Schooling had no association with inadequate blood pressure Conclusion: hypertensive elderly people with inadequate health literacy were more likely to have inadequate blood pressure. Thus, health professionals need to value functional health literacy as a possible component to control blood pressure.


RESUMEN Objetivo: evaluar la relación entre alfabetismo funcional en salud inadecuada y control inadecuado de la presión arterial en personas ancianas hipertensas em la Atención Primaria de Salud. Método: estudio transversal com muestra calculada en 392. Se utilizó instrumento SAHLPA-18 para alfabetismo funcional en salud; a la presión arterial; recogidos datos sociodemográficos y clínicos. Se utilizo La regresión logística jerárquica. Resultados: La presión arterial inadecuada (alta) y el alfabetismo funcional en salud inadecuada (bajo) estaban presentes en el 41,6% y el 54,6% de las personas, respectivamente. Los factores asociados com la presión arterial inadecuada fueron: alfabetismo funcional en salud inadecuada, color parda-negra, sobrepeso-obesidad, tiempo de diagnóstico de la hipertensión, no adhesión a ejercicio/dieta, no adhesión al tratamiento medicamentoso. El nivel de escolaridad no tuvo asociación con la presión arterial inadecuada. Conclusión: las personas mayores hipertensas con alfabetismo funcional em salud inadecuada presentaron más posibilidades de tener presión arterial inadecuada. Así, los profesionales de La salud necesitan valorizar el alfabetismo funcional en salud como posible componente para controlar la presión arterial.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a relação entre alfabetismo funcional em saúde inadequado e controle inadequado da pressão arterial em pessoas idosas hipertensas na Atenção Primária. Método: estudo transversal com amostra calculada em 392. Foi usado instrumento SAHLPA-18 para alfabetismo funcional em saúde; aferida a pressão arterial; coletados dados sociodemográficos e clínicos. Utilizou-se regressão logística hierárquica. Resultados: pressão arterial inadequada(alta) e alfabetismo funcional em saúde inadequado(baixo) estavam presentes em 41,6% e 54,6% das pessoas, respectivamente. Fatores associados com pressão arterial inadequada foram: alfabetismo funcional em saúde inadequado, cor parda-negra, sobrepeso-obesidade, tempo de diagnóstico da hipertensão, não adesão a exercício/dieta, não adesão a tratamento medicamentoso. O nível de escolaridade não teve associação com pressão arterial inadequada. Conclusão: pessoas idosas hipertensas com alfabetismo funcional em saúde inadequado apresentaram mais chance de ter pressão arterial inadequada. Assim, profissionais de saúde precisam valorizar o alfabetismo funcional em saúde como possível componente para controlar a pressão arterial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy/standards , Hypertension/drug therapy , Primary Health Care/methods , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Medication Adherence/psychology , Hypertension/psychology , Middle Aged
20.
Clinics ; 74: e890, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the effects of diet on the inflammatory response in middle-aged and elderly people with hypertension. METHODS: Thirty overweight or obese patients with stage one hypertension (age range, 45-75 years) were allocated to either the intervention or control group (n=15 per group; age- and sex-matched). Patients in the intervention group consumed a food powder supplement (100 g) instead of a regular meal. The control group maintained their normal dietary habits. This study lasted for six weeks. Blood pressure, inflammatory marker levels, and energy intake were measured before and after the study. RESULTS: After 6 weeks, the diet composition of the intervention group changed significantly (p<0.05). The intake of proteins, dietary fibre, monounsaturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat increased significantly (p<0.05), while the total energy intake trended towards an increase (p>0.05). In the control group, the total energy intake decreased significantly (p<0.05). The levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) decreased, and adiponectin increased significantly in the intervention group (p<0.05); however, no significant changes were observed in the inflammatory marker levels of the control group. In the intervention group, systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p<0.05), and diastolic blood pressure also exhibited a decreasing trend. No significant change in blood pressure was observed in the control group. CONCLUSION: The consumption of a food powder supplement can improve diet composition, decrease blood pressure and reduce inflammation in middle-aged and elderly overweight or obese hypertensive patients. The food powder supplement may also have an anti-atherosclerotic effect in hypertensive patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Overweight/blood , Hypertension/blood , Inflammation/blood , Powders/therapeutic use , Rural Population , Energy Intake , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , China , Nutrition Surveys/statistics & numerical data , NF-kappa B/blood , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/blood , Adiponectin/blood
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