Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 392
Filter
1.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(supl.1): e1584, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289475

ABSTRACT

Introduction: MASP-2 is a mannose blinding lectin associate to serine protease in cerebrospinal fluid and its dynamics through the blood brain barrier is unknown. Objective: To describe MASP-2 diffusion pattern from blood to cerebrospinal fluid. Methods: A transversal observational prospective study was performed 56 control samples of cerebrospinal fluid and serum were employed. ELISA measured MASP-2. Two groups were made: control patients without organic brain disease with normal cerebrospinal fluid and normal barrier function and patients without inflammatory diseases with a blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier dysfunction. Results: MASP-2 concentration in cerebrospinal fluid increase with augment the Q Albumin. QMASP-2 vs. Q Albumin saturation curve indicates that MASP-2 is interacting with other molecules in the subarachnoid environment. The higher inter-individual variation of cerebrospinal fluid MASP-2 of the control compared to the serum MASP-2 indicates that MASP-2 is a protein derived from blood. Conclusions: MASP-2 in CSF is predominantly blood-derived. The saturation curve demonstrates that MASP-2 interacts with the starters of the lectin pathway like mannose binding lectin, ficolins and collectin LK(AU)


Introducción: MASP2 es una proteína de unión a manosa asociada a una proteasa de serina encontrada en la periferia, pero puede pasar a líquido cefalorraquídeo. Sin embargo, su dinámica a través de la barrera sangre-líquido cefalorraquídeo es aún desconocida. Objetivo: Describir la difusión del MASP-2 desde la sangre al líquido cefalorraquídeo. Métodos: Se realiza estudio observacional prospectivo de corte transversal donde se emplearon 56 muestras de suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Fue seleccionado un grupo control con pacientes sin enfermedad orgánica del cerebro, con líquido cefalorraquídeo y función de barrera normal y otro grupo de pacientes sin enfermedades inflamatorias del cerebro con disfunción de barrera sangre-líquido cefalorraquídeo. Resultados: La concentración de MASP-2 en líquido cefalorraquídeo aumentó con el incremento de la Q Albúmina. La curva de saturación de Q MASP-2 contra la Q Albúmina indicó que el MASP-2 se encuentra interactuando con otras moléculas en el espacio subaracnoideo. El aumento del coeficiente de variación individual de MASP-2 en líquido cefalorraquídeo de los controles comparado con el MASP-2 en suero indicó que el MASP-2 es una proteína derivada de la sangre. Conclusiones: La producción de MASP-2 en líquido cefalorraquídeo es predominantemente derivada de la sangre. La curva de saturación demostró que el MASP-2 interactúa con los iniciadores de la vía de las lectinas como lectina unida a manosa, las ficolinas y la colectina LK(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Blood-Brain Barrier , Cerebrospinal Fluid/physiology , Mannose-Binding Protein-Associated Serine Proteases , Mannose , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828924

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of blocking the activation of ERK pathway on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the formation of cerebral edema in SD rats after brain injury.@*METHODS@#Ninety SD rats were randomly divided into 3 equal groups, including a sham-operated group, modified Feeney's traumatic brain injury model group, and ERK inhibition group where the ERK inhibitor SCH772984 (500 μg/kg) was injected via the femoral vein 15 min before brain trauma. At 2 h and 2 days after brain trauma, the permeability of blood-brain barrier was assessed by Evans blue method, the water content of the brain tissue was determined, and the phosphorylation level of ERK and the expression level of MMP-9 mRNA and protein were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operated group, the rats with brain trauma exhibited significantly increased level of ERK phosphorylation at 2 h and significantly increased expression of MMP-9 mRNA and protein 2 days after the injury ( < 0.01). Treatment with the ERK inhibitor significantly decreased the phosphorylation level of ERK after the injury ( < 0.01), suppressed over-expression of MMP-9 mRNA and protein 2 days after the injury ( < 0.01). The permeability of blood-brain barrier increased significantly 2 h after brain trauma ( < 0.05) and increased further at 2 days ( < 0.01); the water content of the brain did not change significantly at 2 h ( > 0.05) but increased significantly 2 d after the injury ( < 0.01). Treatment with the ERK inhibitor significantly lowered the permeability of blood-brain barrier and brain water content after brain trauma ( < 0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Blocking the activation of ERK pathway significantly reduced the over-expression of MMP-9 and alleviates the damage of blood-brain barrier and traumatic brain edema, suggesting that ERK signaling pathway plays an important role in traumatic brain edema by regulating the expression of MMP-9.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain Edema , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828066

ABSTRACT

According to traditional Chinese medicine, "spleen transport" is closely related to the metabolism of substance and energy. Studies have shown that Alzheimer's disease(AD) is a disease related to glucose and lipid metabolism and energy metabolism. The traditional Chinese medicine Jiangpi Recipe can improve the learning ability and memory of AD animal model. Sijunzi Decoction originated from Taiping Huimin Hefang Prescription is the basic prescription for strengthening and nourishing the spleen, with the effects of nourishing Qi and strengthening the spleen. In this experiment, human brain microvascular endothelial cells(HBMEC) and Sijunzi Decoction water extract(0.25, 0.5, 1 mg·L~(-1)) were pre-incubated for 2 h, and then Aβ_(25-35) oligomers(final concentration 40 μmol·L~(-1)) was added for co-culture for 22 hours. The effect of Sijunzi Decoction on the activity of Aβ_(25-35) oligomer injured cells and the expression of related proteins were investigated. Q-TOF-LC-MS was used first for principal component analysis of Sijunzi Decoction water extract. Then MTT assay was used to investigate the effect of Sijunzi Decoction water extract on the proliferation of HBMEC cells. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR(RT-qPCR) was employed to detect the mRNA expression of GLUT1, RAGE, and LRP1. The expression of Aβ-related proteins across blood-brain barrier(RAGE, LRP1) was detected by Western blot. The results showed that 40 μmol·L~(-1) Aβ_(25-35) oligomers could induce endothelial cell damage, reduce cell survival, increase expression of RAGE mRNA and RAGE protein, and reduce expression of GLUT1 mRNA, LRP1 mRNA, and LRP1 protein. Sijunzi Decoction water extract could reduce the Aβ_(25-35) oligomer-induced cytotoxicity of HBMEC, decrease the expression of RAGE mRNA and RAGE protein, and increase the expression of GLUT1 mRNA, LRP1 mRNA and LRP1 protein. The results indicated that Sijunzi Decoction could reduce the injury of HBMEC cells induced by Aβ_(25-35) oligomer, and regulate the transport-related proteins GLUT1, RAGE and LRP1, which might be the mechanism of regulating Aβ_(25-35) transport across the blood-brain barrier.


Subject(s)
Amyloid beta-Peptides , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Endothelial Cells , Humans
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(3): 460-468, Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003053

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent primary malignant tumor from the central nervous system in adults. However, the presence of systemic metastasis is an extremely rare event. The objective of this study was to review the literature, evaluating the possible biological mechanisms related to the occurrence of systemic metastasis in patients diagnosed with GBM. RESULTS: The mechanisms that may be related to GBM systemic dissemination are the blood-brain barrier breach, often seen in GBM cases, by the tumor itself or by surgical procedures, gaining access to blood and lymphatic vessels, associated with the acquisition of mesenchymal features of invasiveness, resistance to the immune mechanisms of defense and hostile environment through quiescence. CONCLUSIONS: Tumor cells must overcome many obstacles until the development of systemic metastasis. The physiologic mechanisms are not completely clear. Although not fully understood, the pathophysiological understanding of the mechanisms that may be associated with the systemic spread is salutary for a global understanding of the disease. In addition, this knowledge may be used as a basis for a therapy to be performed in patients diagnosed with GBM distant metastasis.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: Glioblastoma (GBM) é o tumor maligno mais comum do sistema nervoso central em adultos. Entretanto, metástase a distância de GBM é um evento extremamente raro. O presente estudo teve o objetivo de realizar uma revisão da literatura para avaliar os possíveis mecanismos biológicos relacionados com a ocorrência de metástase a distância de pacientes com diagnóstico de GBM. RESULTADOS: Os mecanismos que podem estar relacionados com a capacidade de disseminação sistêmica do GBM são a quebra de barreira hematoencefálica (BHE) frequentemente vista em GBM, seja pela doença, seja por procedimentos cirúrgicos, dando acesso aos vasos sanguíneos e linfáticos, associada à aquisição de características mesenquimais de invasividade, resistência aos mecanismos de defesa do sistema imunológico e adaptação a hostilidades dos meios distantes por meio de quiescência. CONCLUSÕES: As células tumorais necessitam vencer diversos obstáculos até a formação de uma metástase distante. Apesar de não totalmente esclarecido, o entendimento fisiopatológico dos mecanismos pelos quais podem estar associados à disseminação sistêmica do GBM é salutar para a compreensão global da doença. Além disso, esse conhecimento pode servir de base para a terapia a ser empregada diante do paciente com diagnóstico de GBM com metástase a distância.


Subject(s)
Humans , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/pathology , Glioblastoma/secondary , Neoplasm Metastasis/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/immunology , Glioblastoma/immunology , Immunocompetence
5.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 732-740, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777137

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the dense part of the substantia nigra (SNpc). Postmortem analysis of PD patients and experimental animal studies found that microglial cell activation and increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors were common features of PD brain tissue. At the same time, the invasion and accumulation of peripheric immune cells were detected in the brain of PD patients. In this paper, peripheral inflammation across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the misfolded α-synuclein (α-syn)-induced microglial cell activation and intracerebral inflammation in PD are summarized, providing potential therapeutic measures for delaying the onset of PD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier , Dopaminergic Neurons , Pathology , Humans , Inflammation , Pathology , Microglia , Parkinson Disease , Pathology , Substantia Nigra , Pathology , alpha-Synuclein
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786461

ABSTRACT

Owing to its highly biocompatible property as naturally produced nanoscale particle and drug carrying ability, exosome has attracted much interest in the biomedical area. Versatile functions of exosome in biological system play an important role in elucidating mysterious and unknown biological processes and pathological disease progression. For usage of exosome as brain disease therapeutics, even though the ability of exosomes crossing blood brain barrier (BBB) is not well clearly proven, the small size and their own characteristics possessing cell-derived molecular contents may provide great and beneficial tools for brain delivery and brain-associated disease therapy. A variety of trials related to bioapplications using stem cell-derived exosome in regenerative therapy or autologous exosome shuttling inhibitor targeting brain disease-associated protein marker enhance possibility of exosome toward clinical application. The radionuclide PETor SPECT imaging of radiolabeled exosome will be clearly able to provide accurate clues for analyzing their whole body distribution, targeting efficacy, and the degree of non-specific tissue uptake. In this perspective, the practical information on thranostics of exosome for brain delivery and therapy is offered and radionuclide-based exosome applicability will be dealt with.


Subject(s)
Biological Phenomena , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain Diseases , Brain , Disease Progression , Exosomes , Lifting , Radionuclide Imaging , Theranostic Nanomedicine , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813011

ABSTRACT

To investigate the alteration in Golgi and blood-brain barrier after cerebral hemorrhage in SD rats, and to evaluate the effect of butylphthalide on blood-brain barrier. 
 Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into 4 groups: a control group, a sham group, an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) group, and a butylphthalide group. Brain tissue was collected at 48 h after the blood brain barrier permeability was examined. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) were conducted to explore the change of GM130, Cdc42 and tight junction protein and mRNA expression in rat brain after ICH. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to explore the distribution of ZO-1 and Occludin in the cerebral vascular endothelial cells around the hematoma.
 Results: The Evans blue (EB) extravasation in the ICH group were much greater than that in the sham group (P<0.05). Butylphthalide treatment significantly decreased Evans blue extravasation compared to the ICH group (P<0.05). Results of Western blotting and real-time PCR showed that GM130, Cdc42, ZO-1/Occludin were decreased (P<0.05). The intervention of butylphthalide significantly upregulated the expressions of Cdc42 as well as ZO-1/Occludin (P<0.05), but exerted no effect on GM130 (P<0.05). Immunofluorescent staining showed that GM130 was co-localized with Cdc42 and administration of butylphthalide improved the expression of Cdc42 around the hematoma without affecting the expression of GM130. IHC showed that expressions of occludin and ZO-1 around the hematoma were significantly decreased in the ICH group (P<0.05), whereas butylphthalide treatment elevated the expressions of ZO-1 and occludin around the hematoma compared with the ICH group (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: Morphology of Golgi apparatus is altered and the blood-brain barrier is destroyed after ICH. The application of butylphthalide can alleviate neurological impairment and blood-brain barrier disruption, which is related to the up-regulation of Cdc42, but not GM130.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzofurans , Blood-Brain Barrier , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Endothelial Cells , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788753

ABSTRACT

Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is an emerging new technology with considerable potential to treat various neurological diseases. With refinement of ultrasound transducer technology and integration with magnetic resonance imaging guidance, transcranial sonication of precise cerebral targets has become a therapeutic option. Intensity is a key determinant of ultrasound effects. High-intensity focused ultrasound can produce targeted lesions via thermal ablation of tissue. MRgFUS-mediated stereotactic ablation is non-invasive, incision-free, and confers immediate therapeutic effects. Since the US Food and Drug Administration approval of MRgFUS in 2016 for unilateral thalamotomy in medication-refractory essential tremor, studies on novel indications such as Parkinson's disease, psychiatric disease, and brain tumors are underway. MRgFUS is also used in the context of blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening at low intensities, in combination with intravenously-administered microbubbles. Preclinical studies show that MRgFUS-mediated BBB opening safely enhances the delivery of targeted chemotherapeutic agents to the brain and improves tumor control as well as survival. In addition, BBB opening has been shown to activate the innate immune system in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease. Amyloid plaque clearance and promotion of neurogenesis in these studies suggest that MRgFUS-mediated BBB opening may be a new paradigm for neurodegenerative disease treatment in the future. Here, we review the current status of preclinical and clinical trials of MRgFUS-mediated thermal ablation and BBB opening, described their mechanisms of action, and discuss future prospects.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Essential Tremor , High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation , Immune System , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Microbubbles , Models, Animal , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurogenesis , Parkinson Disease , Plaque, Amyloid , Sonication , Therapeutic Uses , Transducers , Ultrasonography , United States Food and Drug Administration
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763016

ABSTRACT

Brain aging induces neuropsychological changes, such as decreased memory capacity, language ability, and attention; and is also associated with neurodegenerative diseases. However, most of the studies on brain aging are focused on neurons, while senescence in astrocytes has received less attention. Astrocytes constitute the majority of cell types in the brain and perform various functions in the brain such as supporting brain structures, regulating blood-brain barrier permeability, transmitter uptake and regulation, and immunity modulation. Recent studies have shown that SIRT1 and SIRT2 play certain roles in cellular senescence in peripheral systems. Both SIRT1 and SIRT2 inhibitors delay tumor growth in vivo without significant general toxicity. In this study, we investigated the role of tenovin-1, an inhibitor of SIRT1 and SIRT2, on rat primary astrocytes where we observed senescence and other functional changes. Cellular senescence usually is characterized by irreversible cell cycle arrest and induces senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity. Tenovin-1-treated astrocytes showed increased SA-β-gal-positive cell number, senescence-associated secretory phenotypes, including IL-6 and IL-1β, and cell cycle-related proteins like phospho-histone H3 and CDK2. Along with the molecular changes, tenovin-1 impaired the wound-healing activity of cultured primary astrocytes. These data suggest that tenovin-1 can induce cellular senescence in astrocytes possibly by inhibiting SIRT1 and SIRT2, which may play particular roles in brain aging and neurodegenerative conditions.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Astrocytes , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , Cellular Senescence , Cell Count , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Interleukin-6 , Language , Memory , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Permeability , Phenotype , Rats , Wound Healing
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763015

ABSTRACT

Paeonol has neuroprotective function, which could be useful for improving central nervous system disorder. The purpose of this study was to characterize the functional mechanism involved in brain transport of paeonol through blood-brain barrier (BBB). Brain transport of paeonol was characterized by internal carotid artery perfusion (ICAP), carotid artery single injection technique (brain uptake index, BUI) and intravenous (IV) injection technique in vivo. The transport mechanism of paeonol was examined using conditionally immortalized rat brain capillary endothelial cell line (TR-BBB) as an in vitro model of BBB. Brain volume of distribution (V(D)) of [³H]paeonol in rat brain was about 6-fold higher than that of [¹⁴C]sucrose, the vascular space marker of BBB. The uptake of [³H]paeonol was concentration-dependent. Brain volume of distribution of paeonol and BUI as in vivo and inhibition of analog as in vitro studies presented significant reduction effect in the presence of unlabeled lipophilic compounds such as paeonol, imperatorin, diphenhydramine, pyrilamine, tramadol and ALC during the uptake of [³H]paeonol. In addition, the uptake significantly decreased and increased at the acidic and alkaline pH in both extracellular and intracellular study, respectively. In the presence of metabolic inhibitor, the uptake reduced significantly but not affected by sodium free or membrane potential disruption. Similarly, paeonol uptake was not affected on OCTN2 or rPMAT siRNA transfection BBB cells. Interestingly. Paeonol is actively transported from the blood to brain across the BBB by a carrier mediated transporter system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Artery, Internal , Central Nervous System , Diphenhydramine , Endothelial Cells , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , In Vitro Techniques , Membrane Potentials , Perfusion , Pyrilamine , Rats , RNA, Small Interfering , Sodium , Tramadol , Transfection
11.
Journal of Stroke ; : 160-174, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766250

ABSTRACT

Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only therapeutic agent approved to treat patients with acute ischemic stroke. The clinical benefits of tPA manifest when the agent is administered within 4.5 hours of stroke onset. However, tPA administration, especially delayed administration, is associated with increased intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), hemorrhagic transformation (HT), and mortality. In the ischemic brain, vascular remodeling factors are upregulated and microvascular structures are destabilized. These factors disrupt the blood brain barrier (BBB). Delayed recanalization of the vessels in the presence of relatively matured infarction appears to damage the BBB, resulting in HT or ICH, also known as reperfusion injury. Moreover, tPA itself activates matrix metalloproteases, further aggravating BBB disruption. Therefore, attenuation of edema, HT, or ICH after tPA treatment is an important therapeutic strategy that may enable clinicians to extend therapeutic time and increase the probability of excellent outcomes. Recently, numerous agents with various mechanisms have been developed to interfere with various steps of ischemia/reperfusion injuries or BBB destabilization. These agents successfully reduce infarct volume and decrease the incidence of ICH and HT after delayed tPA treatment in various animal stroke models. However, only some have entered into clinical trials; the results have been intriguing yet unsatisfactory. In this narrative review, I describe such drugs and discuss the problems and future directions. These “tPA helpers” may be clinically used in the future to increase the efficacy of tPA in patients with acute ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , Edema , Humans , Incidence , Infarction , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Metalloproteases , Mortality , Neuroprotection , Reperfusion Injury , Stroke , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Vascular Remodeling
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765324

ABSTRACT

Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is an emerging new technology with considerable potential to treat various neurological diseases. With refinement of ultrasound transducer technology and integration with magnetic resonance imaging guidance, transcranial sonication of precise cerebral targets has become a therapeutic option. Intensity is a key determinant of ultrasound effects. High-intensity focused ultrasound can produce targeted lesions via thermal ablation of tissue. MRgFUS-mediated stereotactic ablation is non-invasive, incision-free, and confers immediate therapeutic effects. Since the US Food and Drug Administration approval of MRgFUS in 2016 for unilateral thalamotomy in medication-refractory essential tremor, studies on novel indications such as Parkinson's disease, psychiatric disease, and brain tumors are underway. MRgFUS is also used in the context of blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening at low intensities, in combination with intravenously-administered microbubbles. Preclinical studies show that MRgFUS-mediated BBB opening safely enhances the delivery of targeted chemotherapeutic agents to the brain and improves tumor control as well as survival. In addition, BBB opening has been shown to activate the innate immune system in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease. Amyloid plaque clearance and promotion of neurogenesis in these studies suggest that MRgFUS-mediated BBB opening may be a new paradigm for neurodegenerative disease treatment in the future. Here, we review the current status of preclinical and clinical trials of MRgFUS-mediated thermal ablation and BBB opening, described their mechanisms of action, and discuss future prospects.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Essential Tremor , High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation , Immune System , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Microbubbles , Models, Animal , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurogenesis , Parkinson Disease , Plaque, Amyloid , Sonication , Therapeutic Uses , Transducers , Ultrasonography , United States Food and Drug Administration
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739661

ABSTRACT

Dysregulation of excitatory neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacological inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is widely used to model neurobehavioral pathologies and underlying mechanisms. There is ample evidence that overstimulation of NMDA-dependent neurotransmission may induce neurobehavioral abnormalities, such as repetitive behaviors and hypersensitization to nociception and cognitive disruption, pharmacological modeling using NMDA has been limited due to the induction of neurotoxicity and blood brain barrier breakdown, especially in young animals. In this study, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal NMDA-administration on nociceptive and repetitive behaviors in ICR mice. Intraperitoneal injection of NMDA induced repetitive grooming and tail biting/licking behaviors in a dose- and age-dependent manner. Nociceptive and repetitive behaviors were more prominent in juvenile mice than adult mice. We did not observe extensive blood brain barrier breakdown or neuronal cell death after peritoneal injection of NMDA, indicating limited neurotoxic effects despite a significant increase in NMDA concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid. These findings suggest that the observed behavioral changes were not mediated by general NMDA toxicity. In the hot plate test, we found that the latency of paw licking and jumping decreased in the NMDA-exposed mice especially in the 75 mg/kg group, suggesting increased nociceptive sensitivity in NMDA-treated animals. Repetitive behaviors and increased pain sensitivity are often comorbid in psychiatric disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorder). Therefore, the behavioral characteristics of intraperitoneal NMDA-administered mice described herein may be valuable for studying the mechanisms underlying relevant disorders and screening candidate therapeutic molecules.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Autistic Disorder , Blood-Brain Barrier , Cell Death , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Grooming , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Mass Screening , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , N-Methylaspartate , Neurons , Nociception , Pathology , Synaptic Transmission , Tail
14.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 216-228, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739543

ABSTRACT

The complement cascade is a central component of innate immunity which plays a critical role in brain inflammation. Complement C3a receptor (C3aR) is a key mediator of post-ischemic cerebral injury, and pharmacological antagonism of the C3a receptor is neuroprotective in stroke. Cerebral ischemia injures brain endothelial cells, causing blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption which further exacerbates ischemic neuronal injury. In this study, we used an in vitro model of ischemia (oxygen glucose deprivation; OGD) to investigate the protective effect of a C3aR antagonist (C3aRA, SB290157) on brain endothelial cells (bEnd.3). Following 24 hours of reperfusion, OGD-induced cell death was assessed by TUNEL and Caspase-3 staining. Western blot and immunocytochemistry were utilized to demonstrate that OGD upregulates inflammatory, oxidative stress and antioxidant markers (ICAM-1, Cox-2, Nox-2 and MnSOD) in endothelial cells and that C3aRA treatment significantly attenuate these markers. We also found that C3aRA administration restored the expression level of the tight junction protein occludin in endothelial cells following OGD. Interestingly, OGD/reperfusion injury increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and C3aR inhibition significantly reduced the activation of ERK suggesting that endothelial C3aR may act via ERK signaling. Furthermore, exogenous C3a administration stimulates these same inflammatory mechanisms both with and without OGD, and C3aRA suppresses these C3a-mediated responses, supporting an antagonist role for C3aRA. Based on these results, we conclude that C3aRA administration attenuates inflammation, oxidative stress, ERK activation, and protects brain endothelial cells following experimental brain ischemia.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier , Blotting, Western , Brain Ischemia , Brain , Caspase 3 , Cell Death , Complement C3a , Complement System Proteins , Encephalitis , Endothelial Cells , Glucose , Immunity, Innate , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Ischemia , Neurons , Occludin , Oxidative Stress , Phosphorylation , Reperfusion , Stroke , Tight Junctions
15.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 554-567, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763790

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the aging population after Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Defects in the lysosomal systems and mitochondria have been suspected to cause the pathogenesis of PD. Nevertheless, the pathogenesis of PD remains obscure. Abnormal cholesterol metabolism is linked to numerous disorders, including atherosclerosis. The brain contains the highest level of cholesterol in the body and abnormal cholesterol metabolism links also many neurodegenerative disorders such as AD, PD, Huntington’s disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The blood brain barrier effectively prevents uptake of lipoprotein-bound cholesterol from blood circulation. Accordingly, cholesterol level in the brain is independent from that in peripheral tissues. Because cholesterol metabolism in both peripheral tissue and the brain are quite different, cholesterol metabolism associated with neurodegeneration should be examined separately from that in peripheral tissues. Here, we review and compare cholesterol metabolism in the brain and peripheral tissues. Furthermore, the relationship between alterations in cholesterol metabolism and PD pathogenesis is reviewed.


Subject(s)
Aging , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Atherosclerosis , Blood Circulation , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , Cholesterol , Metabolism , Mitochondria , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease
16.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 612-627, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763785

ABSTRACT

Aldose reductase (AR) protein, a member of the NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase family, reduces a wide range of aldehydes and enhances cell survival by inhibition of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is known as one of the major pathological factor in ischemia. Since the precise function of AR protein in ischemic injury is fully unclear, we examined the function of AR protein in hippocampal neuronal (HT-22) cells and in an animal model of ischemia in this study. Cell permeable Tat-AR protein was produced by fusion of protein transduction domain in Tat for delivery into the cells. Tat-AR protein transduced into HT-22 cells and significantly inhibited cell death and regulated the mitogen-activate protein kinases (MAPKs), Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3 under oxidative stress condition. In an ischemic animal model, Tat-AR protein transduced into the brain tissues through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and drastically decreased neuronal cell death in hippocampal CA1 region. These results indicate that transduced Tat-AR protein has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that Tat-AR protein could be used as potential therapeutic agent in ischemic injury.


Subject(s)
Aldehyde Reductase , Aldehydes , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Caspase 3 , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Ischemia , Models, Animal , Neurons , Oxidative Stress , Oxidoreductases , Protein Kinases
17.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 108 p. graf, tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007410

ABSTRACT

O conceito de heterogeneidade vascular é bem aceito pela comunidade cientifica, desempenhando papel essencial em processos fisiológicos e patológicos. Uma vez que os vasos sanguíneos são importantes na organogênese, diferenciação e morfogênese de tecidos e órgãos, torna-se interessante desvendar a diversidade vascular cerebral, identificando novos marcadores moleculares para este órgão tão importante. Utilizando tecnologia combinatorial de phage display in vivo, identificamos um novo motivo peptídico, na qual os aminoácidos FenilalaninaArginina-Triptofano (Phe-Arg-Trp; FRW) predominam. Este motivo peptídico é um ligante seletivo para vasos sanguíneos cerebrais e não se acumula em outros órgãos, incluíndo tecidos como intestinos e gônadas, que também apresentam barreiras endoteliais especificas. No entanto, mais surpreendente foi a observação de que o motivo FRW não se liga aos vasos sanguíneos da retina, o que implica em uma diferença até então desconhecida entre duas barreiras: a barreira hematoencefálica e a barreira hematoretiniana. Combinando phage display in vivo e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão, observamos a presença de partículas de fago ligadas à vasculatura cerebral em um nível supramolecular: aglomerados de fagos filamentosos expressando o motivo FRW foram visualizados ligados às regiões de contato entre as células endoteliais. Por fim, a utilização do peptídeo CFFWKFRWMC permite imageamento in vivo, demonstrando que novas ferramentas para estudar e visualizar o cérebro podem surgir deste motivo


The concept of vascular heterogeneity is well accepted by the scientific community, playing an essential role in physiological and pathological processes. Since blood vessels are important in organogenesis, differentiation, and morphogenesis of tissues and organs, it becomes interesting to unveil the cerebral vascular diversity, identifying new molecular markers for such important organ. Using in vivo phage display, we show that a new peptide motif that emerged from our combinatorial screening of the vasculature binds selectively to blood vessels in the brain in vivo but not to vessels in other organs. Peptides containing a conserved motif in which amino acids Phenylalanine-Arginine-Tryptophan (Phe-Arg-Trp; FRW) predominate could be visualized by transmission electron microscopy bound to the junctions between endothelial in all areas of the brain, including the optic nerve but not in other barrier containing tissues, such as intestines and testis. Remarkably, peptides containing the motif do not bind to vessels in the retina, implying an important molecular difference between these two vascular barriers. Furthermore, the peptide allows for in vivo imaging, demonstrating that new tools for studying and imaging the brain are likely to emerge from this motif


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Peptides/analysis , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Cell Surface Display Techniques/instrumentation , Stroke , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/instrumentation
18.
Campinas; s.n; 2019. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118162

ABSTRACT

Resumo: O veneno da aranha Phoneutria nigriventer (PNV) contém neuropeptídeos que afetam canais iônicos e a neurotransmissão, induzindo a quebra da barreira hematoencefálica (BHE) no hipocampo de ratos, o que ocorre paralelamente ao aumento do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular (VEGF). Sabe-se que a resposta biológica do VEGF é desencadeada através da regulação transcricional promovida pelo domínio tirosina-quinase de receptores transmembranares do VEGF, dos quais o VEGFR-2 (Flk-1) é considerado o principal mediador e ativador de várias vias de sinalização. O trabalho propõe investigar o possível papel neuroprotetor do VEGF após inibir sua ligação ao receptor Flk-1 pelo itraconazol (ITZ). Para isso, examinamos o status bioquímico do hipocampo por espectroscopia no Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier (FT-IR), bem como avaliamos as proteínas envolvidas nas rotas paracelular e transcelular da BHE e quais vias de sinalização, relacionadas à neuroproteção do VEGF, foram ativadas. Os ratos receberam PNV ou foram pré-tratados com ITZ (30 min) seguido de PNV pela veia da cauda e depois sacrificados em 1 e 2 h (intervalos com maiores sinais de intoxicação), 5 h (intervalo com sinais incipientes de recuperação) e 24 h (intervalo sem sinal visual detectável de envenenamento), sendo comparados aos controles, salina e ITZ. O pré-tratamento com o antifúngico agravou os efeitos do veneno e aumentou danos à BHE. Os espectros FT-IR do veneno, hipocampo dos controles, PNV e ITZ-PNV mostraram as bandas de 1400 cm-1 (carboxilato) e de 1467 cm-1 (flexão de CH2: principalmente lipídios), que foram considerados bandas biomarcadora e referência, respectivamente. A inibição da ligação VEGF/Flk-1 produziu mudanças marcantes na estabilidade lipídios/proteínas em 1-2 h. As maiores diferenças ocorreram nas regiões espectrais atribuídas à lípides simétricos (2852 cm-1) e assimétricos (2924 e 2968 cm-1). As análises quantitativas mostraram maiores aumentos na razão 1400 cm-1/1467 cm-1 no período de intoxicação grave (1 h), e referem-se à região espectral de 3106 cm-1 a 687 cm-1. Ademais, a desativação da ligação VEGF/Flk-1 pelo itraconazol (ITZ) aumentou o fator indutor de hipóxia (H1F1-?), VEGF, Flk-1, Flt-1, Neu-N e caspase-3 às 5 horas após a injeção do PNV. No mesmo intervalo, a permeabilidade transcelular da BHE aumentou (caveolina-1?, dinamina-2 e família Src de não receptores tirosina-quinase (SKFs)), enquanto laminina e a via paracelular (occludina, ?-catenina) foram reforçadas e a proteína de efluxo glicoproteína-P (P-gp) aumentou. Ao mesmo tempo (5 h), ocorreu auto-fosforilação da via pró-proliferação celular (p38-fosforilada). Às 24 h, apesar da ausência de sinais de intoxicação, a via pró-sobrevivência celular (Akt-fosforilada) diminuiu nos animais pré-tratados com ITZ, enquanto aumentou nos tratados com PNV apenas. Os dados indicam ativação de mecanismos de neuroproteção relacionados ao VEGF envolvendo o receptor Flk-1 e principalmente à serina-treonina-quinase Akt, provavelmente via PI3K. ERK-fosforilada (2 h) e p38-fosforilada (5 h) sugerem interação entre as vias de sinalização com o objetivo de restabelecer a homeostase do hipocampo. O intervalo de 5 h parece ser o ponto de virada orquestrando respostas biológicas variadas. Os dados permitem concluir sobre o papel neuroprotetor do VEGF e que o mesmo pode ser explorado como possível alvo terapêutico no envenenamento por P. nigriventer.(AU)


Abstract: Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom (PNV) contains ion channels-acting neuropeptides that affect neurotransmission and induces transitory blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in rat¿s hippocampus, which run in parallel with (vascular endothelial growth factor) VEGF upregulation. It is known that VEGF biological response is triggered through transcriptional regulation promoted by transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors, being VEGFR-2 (Flk-1) considered the major mediator of VEGF effect through activation of a number of signaling pathways. The purpose of this work is to investigate a putative neuroprotective role of VEGF by inhibiting its binding to receptor Flk-1 by itraconazole (ITZ). To do this, we examined the biochemical status of the hippocampus by Infrared Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform (FT-IR), as well as evaluated the proteins involved in the BBB paracellular and transcellular routes and which signaling pathways related to VEGF neuroprotection were activated. Rats were administered PNV alone or were pre-treated with ITZ (30 min) followed by PNV through the tail vein, and then euthanized at 1 and 2 h (intervals with greatest signs of intoxication), 5 h (interval with incipient signs of animals¿ recovery) and 24 h (interval with no visually detectable envenomation sign) and compared to saline and ITZ controls. The antifungal pre-treatment aggravated PNV toxic effects and increased BBB damage. FT-IR spectra of venom and from hippocampi of controls, PNV and ITZ-PNV showed a 1400 cm-1 band linked to symmetric stretch of carboxylate and 1467 cm-1 band (CH2 bending: mainly lipids), which were considered biomarker and reference bands, respectively. Inhibition of VEGF/Flk-1 binding produced marked changes in lipid/protein stability at 1-2 h. The largest differences were observed in spectra regions assigned to lipids, both symmetric (2852 cm-1) and asymmetric (2924 and 2968 cm-1). Quantitative analyses showed greatest increases in the 1400 cm-1/1467 cm-1 ratio also at 1 h. Such changes at period of rats¿ severe intoxication referred to wavenumber region from 3106 cm-1 to 687 cm-1. Furthermore, the deactivation of Flk-1 receptor by VEGF through itraconazole (ITZ) showed increased hypoxia inducible factor (H1F-1?), VEGF, Flk-1, Flt-1, Neu-N and caspase-3 at 5 h after PNV injection. At same interval, BBB transcellular permeability increased (caveolin-1?, dynamin-2 and Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases (SKFs)), while laminin and paracellular route (occludin, ?-catenin) were reinforced and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux protein was increased. Such effects were timely followed by upregulation of auto-phosphorylation of the pro-proliferation (phosphorylated-p38) pathway. At 24 h, despite absence of intoxication signs, the pro-survival (p-Akt) pathway was downregulated in animals underwent inhibition of VEGF-Flk-1 binding, whereas it was upregulated in PNV rats non-treated with ITZ. The data indicate triggering of VEGF-related mechanisms involving Flk-1 receptor and serine-threonine kinase Akt, probably via PI3K, as the main mechanism of neuroprotection. Phosphorylated ERK (2 h) and p-p38 (5 h) indicates interplay among transduction pathways likely aiming at re-establishment of hippocampal homeostasis. The findings suggest 5 h interval as the turning point that orchestrates varied biological responses. Taking together the data of the present study allow concluding that VEGF expression exerts neuroprotective role and can be explored as a possible therapeutic target in P. nigriventer envenomation.(AU)


Subject(s)
Rats , Spider Venoms , Blood-Brain Barrier , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Poisoning , Poisons/administration & dosage , Central Nervous System , Itraconazole , Neuroprotection , Ion Channels
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765134

ABSTRACT

Accumulated evidence suggests that sporadic cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) make up more than 95% of total AD patients, and diabetes has been implicated as a strong risk factor for the development of AD. Diabetes shares pathological features of AD, such as impaired insulin signaling, increased oxidative stress, increased amyloid-beta (Aβ) production, tauopathy and cerebrovascular complication. Due to shared pathologies between the two diseases, anti-diabetic drugs may be a suitable therapeutic option for AD treatment. In this article, we will discuss the well-known pathologies of AD, including Aβ plaques and tau tangles, as well as other mechanisms shared in AD and diabetes including reactive glia and the breakdown of blood brain barrier in order to evaluate the presence of any potential, indirect or direct links of pre-diabetic conditions to AD pathology. In addition, clinical evidence of high incidence of diabetic patients to the development of AD are described together with application of anti-diabetic medications to AD patients.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Blood-Brain Barrier , Encephalitis , Humans , Incidence , Insulin , Neuroglia , Oxidative Stress , Pathology , Risk Factors , Tauopathies
20.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 461-470, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775428

ABSTRACT

Gastrodin is a phenolic glycoside that has been demonstrated to provide neuroprotection in preclinical models of central nervous system disease, but its effect in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unclear. In this study, we showed that intraperitoneal administration of gastrodin (100 mg/kg per day) significantly attenuated the SAH-induced neurological deficit, brain edema, and increased blood-brain barrier permeability in rats. Meanwhile, gastrodin treatment significantly reduced the SAH-induced elevation of glutamate concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid and the intracellular Ca overload. Moreover, gastrodin suppressed the SAH-induced microglial activation, astrocyte activation, and neuronal apoptosis. Mechanistically, gastrodin significantly reduced the oxidative stress and inflammatory response, up-regulated the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, heme oxygenase-1, phospho-Akt and B-cell lymphoma 2, and down-regulated the expression of BCL2-associated X protein and cleaved caspase-3. Our results suggested that the administration of gastrodin provides neuroprotection against early brain injury after experimental SAH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Astrocytes , Metabolism , Benzyl Alcohols , Blood-Brain Barrier , Metabolism , Brain , Metabolism , Brain Edema , Calcium , Metabolism , Glucosides , Glutamic Acid , Metabolism , Male , Microglia , Metabolism , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Oxidative Stress , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL