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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250821, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345541

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study aimed to determine the effect of different levels of protein on the growth, body composition, amino acid profile and serology of Channa marulius fingerlings. The experiment was conducted in ten happas installed in earthen ponds, each stocked with 10 fishes for 90 days. Four commercial fish feeds having 25%, 30%, 32% and 40% crude protein (CP) levels were fed to fish at 3% of their wet body weight three times a day. The results of the study revealed that highest weight gain, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were observed in 30% protein feed. Meanwhile, moisture content was higher in fish fed with 30% CP feed while highest crude protein was recorded in 40% CP fed fish. Lowest fat content was observed in 32% CP feed. Amino acid profile of fish revealed better results in 30% CP feed. Total protein, glucose and globulin were also highest in fish feeding 30% CP feed, while albumin was highest in 40% CP feed. It is concluded that 30% CP feed showed better results in terms of growth, amino acid profile and serological parameters without effecting fish body composition.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar o efeito de diferentes níveis de proteína sobre o crescimento, composição corporal, perfil de aminoácidos e sorologia de alevinos de Channa marulius. O experimento foi conduzido em dez happas instalados em tanques de terra, cada um abastecido com 10 peixes, por 90 dias. Quatro alimentos para peixes comerciais com níveis de 25%, 30%, 32% e 40% de proteína bruta (PB) foram dados aos peixes com 3% de seu peso corporal úmido três vezes ao dia. Os resultados do estudo revelaram que maior ganho de peso, taxa de conversão alimentar e taxa de sobrevivência foram observados em 30% de proteína alimentar. Enquanto isso, o conteúdo de umidade foi maior em peixes alimentados com 30% de PB, enquanto a proteína bruta mais alta foi registrada em peixes alimentados com 40% de PB. O menor conteúdo de gordura foi observado em rações com 32% de PB. O perfil de aminoácidos dos peixes revelou melhores resultados na ração com 30% de PB. Proteína total, glicose e globulina também foram maiores em peixes alimentados com ração com 30% de PB, enquanto a albumina foi mais alta com 40% de PB. Conclui-se que a ração com 30% de PB apresentou melhores resultados em termos de crescimento, perfil de aminoácidos e parâmetros sorológicos sem afetar a composição corporal dos peixes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fishes , Animal Feed/analysis , Pakistan , Body Composition , Ponds , Diet
2.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 24: e20220416, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535106

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to investigate the association between dietary patterns, physical activity, and body phenotypes in adolescents. Methods: this school-based cross-sectional study involved 1,022 adolescents aged ten to 19 years. Dietary patterns and body phenotypes were defined using a principal component analysis. Body phenotype was defined using anthropometry, body composition, biochemistry, sexual maturation, and dietary patterns from 19 food groups, using a food frequency questionnaire. The association between the dietary patterns and body phenotypes was assessed using a linear regression model. Results: five body phenotypes (BP1adiposity, BP2puberty, BP3biochemical, BP4muscular, BP5lipids_biochemical) and five dietary patterns (DP1ultraprocessed_foods, DP2fresh_foods, DP3bread_rice_beans, DP4culinary_preparations, DP5cakes_rice_beans) were identified. There were higher BP_adiposity scores for obese adolescents, but energy expenditure was similar for obese and non-obese adolescents. Physical activity was positively associated with BMI, BP_adiposity, and BP_puberty. We observed a negative association between DP_ultraprocessed_foods and BMI, and a positive association between DP_fresh_food. DP_fresh_foods was positively associated with BP_adiposity; DP_ultraprocessed_foods and DP_culinary_preparations were negatively associated with this phenotype. BP_biochemical was negatively associated with DP_fresh_foods. Conclusion: we identified a negative association between a dietary pattern composed mainly of ultra-processed foods, fresh foods, and BP_adiposity. These associations need to be better explored, especially in adolescents, as both dietary patterns and phenotypes were defined using multivariate analysis.


Resumo Objetivos: investigar associação entre padrão alimentar (PA), atividade física (AF) e fenótipos corporais (FC) em adolescentes. Métodos: estudo transversal de base escolar com 1.022 adolescentes de dez a 19 anos. Padrão alimentar e fenótipo corporal foram definidos por meio da análise de componentes principais. O fenótipo corporal foi definido usando antropometria, composição corporal, bioquímica e maturação sexual, e padrão alimentar a partir de 19 grupos de alimentos de um questionário de frequência alimentar. A associação entre padrão alimentar e fenótipo corporal foi avaliada por modelo de regressão linear. Resultados: foram identificados cinco fenótipos corporais (FC1adiposidade, FC2puberdade, FC3bioquímico, FC4muscular, FC5lipídios_bioquímico) e cinco padrões alimentares (PA1alimentos_ultraprocessados, PA2alimentos_frescos, PA3pão_arroz_feijão, PA4preparações_culinárias, PA5bolos_arroz_feijão). Há maiores escores de FC_adiposidade para adolescentes com obesidade, mas o gasto energético foi semelhante para adolescentes com e sem diagnóstico de obesidade. Atividade física associou-se positivamente com IMC, FC_adiposidade e FC_puberdade. Observamos associação negativa entre PA_ultraprocessados e IMC, e positiva entre PA_alimentos_frescos. PA_alimentos_frescos associou-se positivamente com FC_adiposidade; PA_ultraprocessados e PA_preparações_culinárias se associaram negativamente a este fenótipo. FC_bioquímico associou-se negativamente com PA_alimentos_frescos. Conclusão: identificamos associação negativa entre padrão alimentar composto principalmente por alimentos ultraprocessados e alimentos in natura e FC_adiposidade. Essas associações devem ser exploradas com o mesmo público em estudos futuros, principalmente em adolescentes, pois tanto o padrão alimentar quanto o fenótipo foram definidos por meio de análise multivariada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Phenotype , Exercise , Anthropometry , Nutritional Status , Adolescent Nutrition , Feeding Behavior , Body Composition , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sociodemographic Factors
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1411-1420, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521016

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study aims to assess the nutritional status of Aymara and non-Aymara children in Arica, comparing anthropometric measurements of boys and girls aged 4-10 to inform interventions for child health and development. We conducted a non-experimental, quantitative, cross-sectional study in Arica, Chile. The sample included 458 children, with equal representation of Aymara and non-Aymara children from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Trained research assistants collected anthropometric data using standardized techniques. IBM SPSS statistical software was used for data analysis, including Student's t-test and the Levene test. Both Aymara and non-Aymara children showed high prevalence of overweight and obesity. Boys had a meso-endomorph somatotype, while girls had an endomorph somatotype. Among 8-year-olds, non-Aymara children had a slightly higher mean body weight (35.87, SD 4.50) compared to Aymara children (32.27, SD 4.31), but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). However, 10-year-old Aymara girls had a significantly higher mean body mass index (22.34, SD 4.21) than non-Aymara girls (20.10, SD 3.58) (p=0.05). Regarding body fat percentage, 10-year- old non-Aymara girls had a slightly higher mean (31.01, SD 5.64) than Aymara girls (26.12, SD 5.63), but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The study found high levels of overweight and obesity in children from northern Chile, increasing with age for both Aymara and non-Aymara groups. The somatotype patterns were consistent across both groups. Although the differences between Aymara and non-Aymara children were not statistically significant, the Aymara group showed slightly higher levels of overweight and obesity. Further research with a larger sample size is needed to confirm these results and identify potential trends. Efforts should focus on promoting healthy nutrition and physical activity to address the growing problem of overweight and obesity in this region.


Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar el estado nutricional de los niños Aymaras y no Aymaras en Arica, comparando las medidas antropométricas de niños y niñas de 4 a 10 años para informar las intervenciones para la salud y el desarrollo infantil. Realizamos un estudio no experimental, cuantitativo, de corte transversal en Arica, Chile. La muestra incluyó a 458 niños, con igual representación de niños Aymaras y no Aymaras de diversos estratos socioeconómicos. Asistentes de investigación capacitados recolectaron datos antropométricos utilizando técnicas estandarizadas. Se utilizó el software estadístico IBM SPSS para el análisis de datos, incluyendo la prueba t de Student y la prueba de Levene. Tanto los niños Aymaras como los no Aymaras presentaron una alta prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad. Los niños tenían un somatotipo meso-endomorfo, mientras que las niñas tenían un somatotipo endomorfo. Entre los niños de 8 años, los niños no Aymaras tenían un peso corporal medio ligeramente superior (35,87, DE 4,50) en comparación con los niños Aymaras (32,27, DE 4,31), pero la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa (p>0,05). Sin embargo, las niñas Aymaras de 10 años tenían un índice de masa corporal medio significativamente mayor (22,34, SD 4,21) que las niñas no Aymaras (20,10, SD 3,58) (p=0,05). En cuanto al porcentaje de grasa corporal, las niñas no Aymaras de 10 años tuvieron una media ligeramente superior (31,01, DE 5,64) que las niñas Aymaras (26,12, DE 5,63), pero la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa (p>0,05). El estudio encontró altos niveles de sobrepeso y obesidad en niños del norte de Chile, aumentando con la edad tanto para los grupos Aymaras como para los no Aymaras. Los patrones de somatotipo fueron consistentes en ambos grupos. Aunque las diferencias entre los niños Aymaras y no Aymaras no fueron estadísticamente significativas, el grupo Aymara mostró niveles ligeramente más altos de sobrepeso y obesidad. Se necesita más investigación con un tamaño de muestra más grande para confirmar estos resultados e identificar tendencias potenciales. Los esfuerzos deben centrarse en promover una nutrición saludable y la actividad física para abordar el creciente problema del sobrepeso y la obesidad en esta región.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Body Composition , Indians, South American , Anthropometry , Somatotypes , Body Height , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Chile , Adipose Tissue , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Overweight , Obesity
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1323-1329, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521020

ABSTRACT

La composición corporal engloba una serie de variables relacionadas con la salud e influye en la condición física. A pesar de ello, existe poca evidencia sobre sus efectos en la capacidad operativa en militares. El objetivo de este estudio fue relacionar la composición corporal, la condición física y la capacidad operativa de militares chilenos. Participaron 57 militares chilenos (26,9 ± 4,8 años), con especialización operativa en infantería. La composición corporal fue evaluada con bioimpedancia octopolar estimando masa libre de grasa, tejido muscular y tejido adiposo, entre otras variables. También se realizaron las siguientes pruebas de condición física: 5000 m planos, dominadas, abdominales y flexibilidad, así como cuatro pruebas específicas de actividades operativas militares específicas (situación de combate simulado). Los resultados mostraron un porcentaje de tejido muscular de 45,4 ± 2,9 % (IC95%: 44,6 - 46,2), mientras que el porcentaje de tejido adiposo fue de 20,3 ± 4,9 % (IC95%: 14,7 - 17,3). Se encontraron correlaciones negativas de pequeña magnitud entre el tiempo de carrera (5000 m) y el tejido muscular (%) (r = -0,275) y positiva con el tejido adiposo (%) (r = 0,294). Sin embargo, se observaron correlaciones de alta magnitud entre dominadas y tejido muscular (%) (r = 0,517) y tejido adiposo (%) (r = -0,558). El tejido adiposo se relacionó negativamente con la capacidad aeróbica, fuerza de brazos(??) y fuerza resistencia abdominal, mientras que el tejido muscular se relacionó positivamente con estas mismas variables. No se apreciaron correlaciones entre la composición corporal y la capacidad operativa militar (p<0,05). Se concluye que la composición corporal y la condición física no se relacionan con la capacidad operativa militar en situación de combate en especialistas en infantería, pero si la composición corporal se relaciona con la fuerza y la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria.


SUMMARY: Body composition encompasses a series of variables that are health-related and influence physical condition. Nevertheless, there is little evidence on its effects on the operational capacity of the military. The objective of this study was to relate the body composition, the physical condition and the operational capacity of the Chilean military. Fifty-seven Chilean soldiers (26.9 ± 4.8 years) participated, with operational specialization in infantry. Body composition was evaluated with octopolar bioimpedance, estimating fat- free mass, muscle tissue, and adipose tissue, among other variables. The following physical condition tests were also carried out: 5000 m flat, pull-ups, abdominals and flexibility, as well as four specific tests of specific military operational activities (simulated combat situation). The results showed a percentage of muscle tissue of 45.4 ± 2.9 % (95%CI: 44.6 - 46.2), while the percentage of adipose tissue was 20.3 ± 4.9 % (95%CI). : 14.7-17.3). Negative correlations of small magnitude were found between race time (5000 m) and muscle tissue (%) (r = -0.275) and positive with adipose tissue (%) (r = 0.294). However, high magnitude correlations were observed between pull-ups and muscle tissue (%) (r = 0.517) and adipose tissue (%) (r = -0.558). Adipose tissue was negatively related to aerobic capacity, arm strength, and abdominal endurance strength, while muscle tissue was positively related to these same variables. No correlations were found between body composition and military operational capacity (p<0.05). It is concluded that body composition and physical condition are not related to military operational capacity in combat situations in infantry specialists, but body composition is related to strength and cardiorespiratory capacity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Body Composition , Exercise , Physical Functional Performance , Military Personnel , Chile , Anthropometry , Adipose Tissue , Electric Impedance
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1123-1127, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514337

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Anthropometric characteristics, including body size, shape, and composition, can have a significant impact on sports performance due to their influence on various physiological and biomechanical factors. However, limited research has been conducted on the anthropometric characteristics of highly trained throwing para-athletes. The purpose of this study was to describe the anthropometric characteristics, handgrip strength, and upper limb bilateral asymmetries of highly trained Chilean shot put para-throwers. Five male Chilean shot put para-athletes (average age of 38.8 ± 7.7 years) were assessed for their anthropometric characteristics, including skinfold thickness at six anatomical sites, girth at five sites, and bone breadth at two sites. Handgrip strength and bilateral asymmetries were also measured. The body mass and height of the athletes were found to be 90.5 ± 5.1 kg and 179.1 ± 8.9 cm, respectively. The athletes were found to have an endo-mesomorph somatotype (4.4-6.9-1.0) with high levels of fat mass (25.7 ± 2.8 %) and skeletal muscle mass (39.1 ± 3.7 %). The handgrip strength of the athletes was found to be 66.4 ± 6.7 kg with a bilateral asymmetry of 6.5 ± 6.2 %, with the dominant hand showing greater strength. The results indicate that the shot put para-athletes have a somatotype characterized by increased muscularity and body fat, along with a considerable stature. Although handgrip strength was found to be high, the athletes showed bilateral asymmetry, which requires further investigation to determine the cause and implications.


Las características antropométricas, incluido el tamaño, forma y composición del cuerpo, pueden tener un impacto significativo en el rendimiento deportivo debido a su influencia en diversos factores fisiológicos y biomecánicos. Sin embargo, las investigaciones sobre las características antropométricas para-atletas de lanzamiento altamente entrenados son limitadas. El propósito de este estudio fue describir las características antropométricas, la fuerza de prensión manual y las asimetrías bilaterales de miembros superiores de paralanzadores chilenos altamente entrenados en lanzamiento de la bala. Se evaluaron las características antropométricas de cinco atletas masculinos chilenos de lanzamiento de bala (edad promedio de 38,8 ± 7,7 años), incluido el grosor de los pliegues cutáneos en seis sitios anatómicos, la circunferencia en cinco sitios y la anchura de los huesos en dos sitios. También se midieron la fuerza de prensión manual y las asimetrías bilaterales. Se encontró que la masa corporal y la altura de los atletas eran 90,5 ± 5,1 kg y 179,1 ± 8,9 cm, respectivamente. Los atletas tenían un somatotipo endo-mesomorfo (4.4-6.9-1.0) con altos niveles de masa grasa (25.7 ± 2.8 %) y masa muscular esquelética (39.1 ± 3.7 %). Se encontró además que la fuerza de prensión manual de los atletas era de 66,4 ± 6,7 kg con una asimetría bilateral de 6,5 ± 6,2 %, mostrando mayor fuerza la mano dominante. Los resultados indican que los atletas de lanzamiento de bala tienen un somatotipo caracterizado por una mayor musculatura y grasa corporal, junto con una estatura considerable. Aunque se encontró que la fuerza de agarre era alta, los atletas mostraron asimetría bilateral, lo que requiere de más investigaciones para determinar las causa e implicaciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Anthropometry , Hand Strength , Upper Extremity Deformities, Congenital , Para-Athletes , Somatotypes , Body Composition , Chile , Sports for Persons with Disabilities
6.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 43(2): 72-78, jun. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1510623

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el judo es un deporte de combate cuya clasificación competitiva depende del peso corporal, lo cual está destinado a promover competencias parejas y equitativas en cuanto a capacidades físicas se refiere. El avance de las ciencias del entrenamiento y de la nutrición deportiva generó una mejora de la composición corporal en los deportistas, redundando en un aumento de los valores de masa muscular y en una disminución de la masa adiposa. El objetivo del estudio fue estimar la composición corporal de las personas que practican Judo participantes del campeonato nacional argentino del año 2021. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio transversal descriptivo a los/as participantes del campeonato nacional de judo del año 2021. Fueron evaluados un total de 183 judocas (51 mujeres y 132 varones), según el protocolo de medición de la ISAK. Para la determinación de la composición corporal se utilizó el método de fraccionamiento anatómico de cinco componentes de Kerry Ross. Resultados: el promedio de las judocas fue de 30,5% para la masa adiposa y de 44,5% para la masa muscular; no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los distintos grupos de edad. Los varones obtuvieron un valor promedio de 22,4% para la masa adiposa y 49,1%para la masa muscular; en este caso se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los distintos grupos de edad, tanto para la masa adiposa como para la muscular y la masa ósea. Discusión: se necesitan más estudios con grupos estratificados en función de la división de peso corporal para poder establecer patrones de referencia específicos para el trabajo en ciencias del ejercicio y la nutrición. Conclusión: la optimización de la composición corporal de las personas que practican Judo redunda positivamente en la mejora de las capacidades físicas específicas. Los datos presentados constituyen una referencia específica de utilidad para la evaluación y seguimiento de las personas que practican Judo. La estratificación por grupos etarios y división de peso corporal permitirá delimitar mejor aún los valores de cada categoría de edad. Se considera relevante vincular la composición corporal con las pruebas físicas y los resultados deportivos, a fin de establecer un mejor perfil del judoca argentino. (AU)


Introduction: judo is a combat sport whose competitive classification depends on body weight, intended to promote even and equitable compe-titions in terms of physical abilities. Advances in the sciences of training and sports nutrition have led to an improvement in the body composition of athletes, resulting in an increase in muscle mass and a decrease in adipose mass. This study aimed to estimate the body composition of judo fighters participating in the 2021 Argentine National Championship. Materials and methods: we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of participants of the 2021 national judo championship. We evaluated 183 judokas (51 women and 132 men) applying the ISAK measurement protocol. We used the Kerry Ross five-component fractional anatomic method to determine body composition. Results: the average for female judo players was 30.5% for adipose mass and 44.5% for muscle mass; we found no statistically significant diffe-rences in the different age groups. The average value for males was 22.4% for adipose mass and 49.1% for muscle mass; in this case, we found significant differences between the different age groups for adipose mass and muscle and bone mass. Discussion: there is a need for more studies with stratified groups according to body weight division to establish specific reference standards for the work in exercise science and nutrition. Conclusion: the optimization of the body composition of female and male judo players has a positive effect on the improvement of specific physical capacities. The data presented constitute a relevant reference for the evaluation and follow-up of judokas. The stratification by age groups and body weight division will allow a better delimitation of the values of each age category. Linking body composition with physical tests and results is considered relevant to obtain a better profile of the Argentinian judo player. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Body Composition , Anthropometry , Martial Arts/statistics & numerical data , Athletes/statistics & numerical data , Argentina , Body Weight , Adipose Tissue , Age Factors , Muscles
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 798-803, jun. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514322

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of this research was to determine the differences among the junior basketball players of the BC Partizan and BC Buducnost Voli, in terms of their anthropometric characteristics and body composition. A sample of 22 subjects was divided into two sub-samples. The first sub-sample of the subjects consisted of 11 players of the basketball team Partizan (Serbia), of the average age 17.18 ± 0.50, while the other sub-sample consisted of 11 players of basketball team Buducnost Voli (Montenegro), based on the average age of 17.28 ± 0.30. All players were tested in Podgorica, in a lasting period of two days, while they held international friendly tournament, just before the start of the national championships. Anthropometric characteristics in the body composition were evaluated by a battery of eleven variables: body height (cm), body weight (kg), triceps skinfold, back skinfold, biceps skinfold, abdominal skinfold, thighs skinfold, calf skinfold, body mass index (BMI), percentage of fat and muscle mass (kg). Differences in anthropometric characteristic and composition of the body of the male junior basketball players of two basketball teams were determined by using a discriminatory parametric procedure with t-test for small independent samples. It was found that the basketball players of Partizan are taller and have a lower body mass. Also, there are significant statistical differences by seven: triceps skinfold, back skinfold, biceps skinfold, abdominal skinfold, calf skinfold, thigh skinfold and BMI.


El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar las diferencias entre jugadores de baloncesto junior del BC Partizan y BC Buducnost Voli, en cuanto a sus características antropométricas y composición corporal. Una muestra de 22 sujetos se dividió en dos submuestras. La primera submuestra estuvo formada por 11 jugadores del equipo de baloncesto Partizan (Serbia), con una edad media de 17,18 ± 0,50, mientras que la otra estaba formada por 11 jugadores del equipo de baloncesto Buducnost Voli (Montenegro), cuya edad media era de 17,28 ± 0,30 años. Todos los jugadores fueron evaluados en Podgorica, en un período de dos días, mientras se realizaba un torneo amistoso internacional, precisamente antes del inicio de los campeonatos nacionales. Las características antropométricas en la composición corporal se evaluaron mediante una batería de once variables: altura corporal (cm), peso corporal (kg), pliegue cutáneo tríceps, pliegue cutáneo dorsal, pliegue cutáneo bicipital, pliegue cutáneo abdominal, pliegue cutáneo de muslos, pliegue cutáneo de pantorrillas, índice de masa corporal (IMC), porcentaje de grasa y masa muscular (kg). Se determinaron las diferencias en las características antropométricas y la composición del cuerpo de los jugadores juveniles masculinos de baloncesto de los dos equipos de baloncesto mediante un procedimiento paramétrico discriminatorio con prueba t para pequeñas muestras independientes. Se encontró que los jugadores de baloncesto del Partizan eran más altos y tenían una masa corporal más baja. Además, existían diferencias estadísticas significativas en los pliegue cutáneos del tríceps, de la espalda, del bíceps, abdominal, de la pantorrilla y del muslo además de diferencias en el IMC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Body Composition , Basketball , Anthropometry
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 845-850, jun. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514299

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare dietary intake to published recommendations and to analyze the potential relationship between body composition and dietary intake in collegiate athletes. Eighteen healthy male middle- and long- distance runners (age 20.11 ± 2.72 y; height, 174.7 ± 6.1 cm; body mass, 64.0 ± 7.7 kg), were recruited from a Mexican university track and field team at the beginning of the general preparation phase for national competitions. Participants completed three 24-hour dietary recalls, which were used to estimate dietary intake. Body composition was measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Athletes displayed high body fat values. Protein intake was significantly higher than published recommendations. Iron, zinc, sodium, and vitamin C intake were significantly higher than recommended values, while potassium and calcium intake were below established recommendations. No significant correlations between body composition variables (i.e body fat, lean body mass, bone mineral content) and dietary intake (i.e energy, macronutrients and selected vitamins and minerals) could be found. These findings suggest that coaches and practitioners should pay close attention to dietary intake and body composition of endurance athletes starting general preparation for competition. Future studies on changes of dietary intake and body composition during off-season and competitive phase, which also track physical activity, are warranted.


El objetivo de este estudio transversal fue comparar la ingesta dietética con las recomendaciones publicadas y analizar la relación potencial entre la composición corporal y la ingesta dietética en corredores universitarios. Dieciocho atletas masculinos sanos de media y larga distancia (edad 20,11 ± 2,72 años; altura, 174,7 ± 6,1 cm; masa corporal, 64,0 ± 7,7 kg), fueron reclutados de un equipo de atletismo de una universidad mexicana al comienzo de la fase de preparación general de competiciones nacionales. Los participantes completaron tres recordatorios dietéticos de 24 horas, que se utilizaron para estimar la ingesta dietética. La composición corporal se midió mediante absorciometría de rayos X de energía dual (DXA). Los atletas mostraron altos valores de grasa corporal. La ingesta de proteínas fue significativamente mayor que las recomendaciones publicadas. La ingesta de hierro, zinc, sodio y vitamina C fue significativamente superior a los valores recomendados, mientras que la ingesta de potasio y calcio estuvo por debajo de las recomendaciones establecidas. No se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre las variables de composición corporal (es decir, grasa corporal, masa corporal magra, contenido mineral óseo) y la ingesta dietética (es decir, energía, macronutrientes y vitaminas y minerales seleccionados). Estos hallazgos sugieren que los entrenadores y los practicantes deberían prestar mucha atención a la ingesta dietética y la composición corporal de los atletas de resistencia que comienzan la preparación general para la competencia. Se justifican estudios futuros sobre los cambios en la ingesta dietética y la composición corporal durante la fase fuera de temporada y competitiva, como también un seguimiento de la actividad física.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Running , Body Composition , Diet , Eating , Students , Universities , Absorptiometry, Photon , Adipose Tissue , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nutrition in Sport
9.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 22(1): 52-57, jun 22, 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442845

ABSTRACT

Rationale: the use of anti-TNFα therapy, such as Infliximab (IFX), in patients with Chron's disease (CD) can lead to changes in body composition. Objective: to evaluate the body composition and functional capacity of patients with CD. Method: Cross-sectional study with patients with CD in clinical remission using IFX. For anthropometric evaluation, it was measured: weight, height and waist circumference; functional capacity by the hand grip strength test and body composition by bioelectric impedance. After that, the fat-free mass index and body fat index were calculated. Continouns variables were analyzed by Pearson or Spearman coefficient. For the multiple linear regression model, the time of use of IFX was used as a dependent variable and waist circumference, fat-free mass index, phase angle and handgrip strength were used as independent variables. Results: forty-three patients were evaluated, with an average of 43.1± 13.5 years of age. Of the total, 44.2% were overweight and 44.2% had increased waist circumference, 58.1% were classified with high to very high fat-free mass, 30.2% were below the adequacy parameter for fat-free mass index and 11.6% had reduced functional capacity. Conclusion: overweight, as well as increased waist circumference and body fat, is common in CD patients in clinical remission using Infliximab. Most patients had preserved functional capacity, however there wasn't association with time of use of IFX.


Introdução: o uso de terapia anti-TNFα, como o Infliximabe (IFX), em pacientes com doença de Chron (DC) pode levar a alterações na composição corporal. Objetivo: avaliar a composição corporal e capacidade funcional de pacientes com DC. Metodologia: estudo transversal com pacientes com DC em remissão clínica, em uso de IFX. Foi realizada avaliação antropométrica (peso, estatura e circunferência da cintura); avaliação de capacidade funcional (teste de força de pressão manual); e avaliação de composição corporal (impedância bioelétrica) com cálculo do índice de massa livre de gordura e índice de gordura corporal. Variáveis contínuas foram analisadas pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson ou Spearman. Para o modelo de regressão linear múltipla, o tempo de uso do IFX foi utilizado como variável dependente e circunferência da cintura, índice de massa magra, ângulo de fase e força de preensão manual foram utilizados como variáveis independentes. Resultados: foram avaliados 43 pacientes, com média de idade de 43,1± 13,5 anos. 44,2% estavam acima do peso e 44,2% possuíam circunferência da cintura aumentada, 58,1% foram classificados com índice de gordura corporal de alto a muito alto, 30,2% estavam abaixo do parâmetro de adequação para o índice de massa livre de gordura e 11,6% apresentaram capacidade funcional reduzida. Conclusão: o excesso de peso e o aumento de circunferência da cintura e gordura corporal é frequente em pacientes com DC em remissão clínica e em uso de IFX. A maioria dos pacientes apresentou capacidade funcional preservada, porém não houve associação com o tempo de uso do IFX.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Body Composition , Crohn Disease , Muscle Strength , Infliximab , Anthropometry , Cross-Sectional Studies
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 717-724, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514288

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Athletes differ among themselves and one of the main differences is observed in relation to body shape and composition. Achieving top sports performance requires more standardization in the processes of training and development of a unique methodology for individualizing the control specific adaptation of athletes. The aim of this study is to establish reference data for the most sensitive variables to define the amount and structure of body fat in female athletes in individual sports. The sample included 895 females, divided in: a control group (Cont) of young females (N = 688); International (N = 113), and National level female athletes (N = 94) in 13 individual sports. Four variables described the structureof of body fat: Percentage of body fat (PBF), Body Fat Mass Index (BFMI), Protein Fat Index (PFI) and Index of Body Composition (IBC). Results showed that considering the control group, female athletes have all examined Body Fat variables statistically significantly different (BFMI and PBF are lower, p = 0.011 and p = 0.000, while PFI and IBC are higher, p = 0.000, respectively). Female athletes are also statistically significantly different in relation to the level of competition (p = 0.000), and the investigated variables are responsible for 17.7 % of the variability of the difference between the groups. Competitively more successful female athletes have higher IBC (lower percentage of fat per overall body volume, p = 0.013), as well as, a statistically significantly higher protein mass in relation to body fat mass (PFI, p = 0.018). The most sensitive variables for defining body fat differences between the examined individual sports were IBC, with an influence of 37.9 %, then PFI (32.4 %), then PBF (22.8 %), and finally BFMI, with an influence of 11.4 % on the differences. Based on the results of this study, IBC and PFI are variables that have shown useful scientific-methodological potential for research in the future.


Los deportistas difieren entre sí y una de las principales diferencias se observa en relación a la forma y composición corporal. Alcanzar el máximo rendimiento deportivo requiere una mayor estandarización en los procesos de entrenamiento y en el desarrollo de una metodología única para individualizar el control de adaptación específico de los atletas. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer datos de referencia de las variables más sensibles para definir la cantidad y estructura de la grasa corporal en mujeres deportistas en deportes individuales. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 895 mujeres, divididas en: un grupo control (Cont) de mujeres jóvenes (N = 688); Atletas femeninas de nivel internacional (N = 113) y nacional (N = 94) en 13 deportes individuales. Cuatro variables describieron la estructura de la grasa corporal: Porcentaje de grasa corporal (PBF), Índice de Masa Grasa Corporal (BFMI), Índice de Proteína Grasa (PFI) e Índice de Composición Corporal (IBC). Los resultados mostraron que, considerando el grupo control, todas las atletas tuvieron diferecias estadísticamente significativas respecto a las variables de grasa corporal (BFMI y PBF son más bajos, p = 0,011 y p = 0,000, mientras que PFI e IBC son más altos, p = 0,000, respectivamente). En relación al nivel de competencia, las atletas femeninas presentan diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p = 0,000), y las variables investigadas son responsables por el 17,7 % de la variabilidad de la diferencia entre los grupos. Las atletas femeninas competitivamente más exitosas tienen un IBC más alto (menor porcentaje de grasa por volumen corporal total, p = 0,013), así como una masa proteica estadísticamente más alta en relación con la masa de grasa corporal (PFI, p = 0,018). Las variables más sensibles para definir las diferencias de grasa corporal entre los deportes individuales examinados fueron IBC, con una influencia del 37,9 %, luego PFI (32,4 %), a seguir PBF (22,8 %) y finalmente BFMI, con una influencia del 11,4 % en las diferencias. En base a los resultados de este estudio, IBC y PFI son las variables que han mostrado un potencial científico-metodológico útil para la investigación en el futuro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Sports , Body Composition , Athletes , Reference Values , Discriminant Analysis , Adipose Tissue , Multivariate Analysis , Electric Impedance
11.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(1): 60-73, mar. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1427728

ABSTRACT

The incidence of obesity and overweight in the world has been increasing in recent years due to poor diet and lack of physical activity; people suffering obesity and overweight, related with malnutrition due to excess, often resort to calorie restriction diets that are usually not very effective. In this context, intermittent fasting (IF) has become popular due to the possibilities for weight loss that it offers. This diet consists of alternating periods of fasting with unrestricted eating; however, its effectiveness and consequences are unknown to most users. This narrative review analyzes whether intermittent fasting contributes to the improvement of body and metabolic composition. The purpose of the review was to examine the available data on the contribution of intermittent fasting to the improvement of body and metabolic composition, in order to provide information and to define the parameters that condition safe achievement of its benefits. IF dieting triggers adaptive cell responses that cause a decrease in lipid oxidative stress markers in individuals with obesity and prediabetes. Metabolic alterations have been found to go hand in hand with the alteration of circadian rhythms; if IF contributes to this effect, it may assist in treating and preventing obesity and associated diseases. However, there are also disadvantages, such as the loss of lean muscle mass by wasting, and increased hypoglycemia(AU)


La incidencia de obesidad y sobrepeso en el mundo ha ido en aumento en los últimos años debido a la mala alimentación y la falta de actividad física; Las personas que padecen obesidad y sobrepeso, relacionadas con la desnutrición por exceso, suelen recurrir a dietas de restricción calórica que suelen ser poco efectivas. En este contexto, el ayuno intermitente (AI) se ha popularizado debido a las posibilidades de pérdida de peso que ofrece. Esta dieta consiste en alternar períodos de ayuno con alimentación sin restricciones; sin embargo, su eficacia y consecuencias son desconocidas para la mayoría de los usuarios. Esta revisión narrativa analiza si el ayuno intermitente contribuye a la mejora de la composición corporal y metabólica. El objetivo de la revisión fue examinar los datos disponibles sobre la contribución del ayuno intermitente a la mejora de la composición corporal y metabólica, con el fin de aportar información y definir los parámetros que condicionan la consecución segura de sus beneficios. Se ha encontrado que las alteraciones metabólicas van de la mano con la alteración de los ritmos circadianos; si AI contribuye a este efecto, puede ayudar a tratar y prevenir la obesidad y las enfermedades asociadas. Sin embargo, también existen desventajas, como la pérdida de masa muscular magra por atrofia y el aumento de la hipoglucemia(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Weight Loss , Overweight , Intermittent Fasting/adverse effects , Obesity , Prediabetic State , Body Composition , Deficiency Diseases , Delivery of Health Care , Hypoglycemia
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 225-230, feb. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430514

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The present research corresponds to a cross-sectional descriptive study in the anthropometric field, which allows coaches to develop standards to identify talent and optimize training in the discipline of beach volleyball. Its objective was to define the anthropometric profile and body composition of the Mexican Olympic beach volleyball teams in both sexes. The participants were couples one and two of Mexico in both sexes (defined by FIVB ranking), 4 women and 4 men with average age of 30.25±6.85 and 27.25±7.36 years. The technique used was Heath-Carter´s somatotype method and the anthropometric profile restricted ISAK protocol. Among the findings resulting from the research, unification can be observed in the male morphological characteristics (triceps skinfold, front thigh skinfold, calf skinfold, circumference of relaxed and contracted arm, waist, hip, femur diameter and BMI), as for the somatotype, both sexes of Mexican couples are positioned in mesomorphs-balanced. In relation to other studies consulted, balance in somatotype and muscular development is observed with high performance teams. Weight and height, as well as age, are important variables for the selection of talent and future optimal performance in world and professional volleyball.


La presente investigación corresponde a un estudio descriptivo transversal en el campo antropométrico, que permite a los entrenadores desarrollar estándares para identificar talentos y optimizar el entrenamiento en la disciplina de voleibol de playa. Su objetivo fue definir el perfil antropométrico y la composición corporal de las selecciones olímpicas mexicanas de voleibol de playa en ambos géneros. Los participantes fueron las parejas uno y dos de México en ambos géneros (definidos por ranking Fédération Internationale de Volleyball), 4 mujeres y 4 hombres con edad promedio de 30.25±6.85 y 27.25±7.36 años. La técnica utilizada fue el método del somatotipo de Heath-Carter y el protoolo ISAK del perfil antropométrico restringido. Entre los hallazgos resultantes de la investigación, se puede observar una unificación en las carácteristicas morfológicas masculinas (pliegue cuatáneotricipital, pliegue cutáneo anterior del muslo, pliegue citáneo de la pantorrila, circunferencia del brazo relajado y contraído, cintura, cadera, diámetro del fémur e IMC), en cuanto al somatotipo, ambos sexos de las parejas mexicanas se posicionan en mesomorfos-equilibrados. En relación a otros estudios consultados, se observa equilibrio en somatotipo y desarrollo muscular con equipos de alto rendimiento. El peso y la altura, así como la edad, son variables importantes para la selección del talento y en el futuro desempeño óptimo en el voleibol mundial y profesional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Body Composition , Anthropometry , Volleyball , Somatotypes , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mexico
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 257-263, feb. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430526

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: An anthropometric and body composition analysis was conducted on 123 competitive young male football players of different age groups (U13; U15; U17 & U19) with at least 4 years of training load. 3D anthropometric measurement were performed by the NX-16 ([TC]2, 3D body scanner Cary, North Carolina). Body composition was measured by the bioelectrical impedance with InBody 720 (Biospace Ltd.). Anthropometric and body composition characteristics among different age groups and asymmetries between the left and right side of the upper and lower limbs were analysed for treated age groups. The results showed differences in anthropometric and body composition variables among all age groups in all observed variables (Height, Weight, Basal Metabolic Rate, Skeletal Muscle Mass, Body Fat Mass, Percent Body Fat, Abdominal Obesity Degree, Body Mass Index, Body Fat Mass, Skeletal Lean Mass and Fat Free Mass). The results also showed that young football players of age group U13 differed statistically in four (from 7) paired variables (Arm Lean Mass, Leg Lean Mass, Forearm Girth and Calf Girth), U15 in three variables (Upper Arm Girth, Thigh Girth and Calf Girth), U17 in five variables (Arm Lean Mass, Leg Lean Mass, Upper Arm Girth, Forearm Girth and Calf Girth) and U19 in four observed variables (Arm Lean Mass, Leg Lean Mass, Upper Arm Girth and Calf Girth). All of the age groups differed statistically in calf girth paired variables. Puberty time probably had an impact on the results, and in future research more focus should be placed on puberty characteristics variables.


Se realizó un análisis antropométrico y de composición corporal en 123 jugadores de fútbol masculino jóvenes competidores de diferentes grupos de edad (U13, U15, U17 y U19) con al menos 4 años de carga de entrenamiento. La medición antropométrica 3D se realizó con el NX-16 ([TC]2, escáner corporal 3D Cary, Carolina del Norte). La composición corporal se midió mediante la impedancia bioeléctrica con InBody 720 (Biospace Ltd.). Se analizaron las características antropométricas y de composición corporal entre los diferentes grupos de edad y las asimetrías entre los lados izquierdo y derecho de los miembros superiores e inferiores para los grupos de edad tratados. Los resultados mostraron diferencias en las variables antropométricas y de composición corporal entre todos los grupos de edad en todas las variables observadas (Talla, Peso, Tasa Metabólica Basal, Masa Muscular Esquelética, Masa Grasa Corporal, Porcentaje de Grasa Corporal, Grado de Obesidad Abdominal, Índice de Masa Corporal, Masa Grasa Corporal, Masa magra esquelética y Masa libre de grasa). Los resultados también mostraron que los jugadores de fútbol jóvenes del grupo de edad U13 diferían estadísticamente en cuatro (de 7) variables pareadas (masa magra del brazo, masa magra de la pierna, circunferencia del antebrazo y circunferencia de la pantorrilla), U15 en tres variables (circunferencia del brazo superior, circunferencia del muslo y circunferencia del muslo). Circunferencia de la pantorrilla), U17 en cinco variables (Masa magra del brazo, Masa magra de la pierna, Circunferencia del brazo superior, Circunferencia del antebrazo y Circunferencia de la pantorrilla) y U19 en cuatro variables observadas (Masa magra del brazo, Masa magra de la pierna, Circunferencia del brazo superior y Circunferencia de la pierna). Todos los grupos de edad difirieron estadísticamente en las variables pareadas de circunferencia de la pierna. El tiempo de la pubertad probablemente tuvo un impacto en los resultados, y en investigaciones futuras se debe prestar más atención a las variables de las características de la pubertad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Soccer , Body Composition , Anthropometry , Age Factors , Electric Impedance
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250402, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339404

ABSTRACT

Abstract We have evaluated the effects of different fish feeds on the body composition, growth, and enzyme activities of Labeo rohita (Rohu). In total, 240 fishes between the average weights of 24.77±2.15g were studied. The treatments were applied in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments of 60 fishes each. Treatments consisted of four different fish feeds [Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4)]. Body composition, growth performance, and enzyme activities were evaluated. There was a significant variation in performance of fishes fed with different type of feed; as fishes having Oryza feed showed the highest weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and best feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to other groups that were considered to be significant (P ≤ 0.05). High net weight gain was obtained in T4 when compared with T2 and T3. FCR value of T4 was less than T1 but higher than T2, T3 and T2, which showed the lowest values. The specific growth rate was recorded as average in T4, but T2 led a high SGR than T3. Similarly, crude protein level and digestive enzymes activity was recorded significantly highest in fed with Oryza (T1) as compared to AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4). Water quality parameters were recorded significant in all treatments except pH and DO of treatment (T1), significantly different from other treatments. It was concluded that Rohu (Labeo rohita) could show a promising growth rate and protease enzyme activity when fed with the Oryza feed of 25% protein.


Resumo Avaliamos os efeitos de diferentes alimentos para peixes em relação à composição corporal, crescimento e atividades enzimáticas de Labeo rohita (Rohu). No total, foram estudados 240 peixes com pesos médios de 24,77 ± 2,15 g. Os tratamentos foram aplicados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos de 60 peixes cada. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro alimentos diferentes para peixes: Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Foram avaliados a composição corporal, o desempenho de crescimento e as atividades enzimáticas. Houve uma variação significativa no desempenho dos peixes alimentados com diferentes tipos de ração. Peixes com alimentação Oryza apresentaram maior ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento específico (SGR) e melhor taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR) em comparação com outros grupos que foram considerados significativos (P ≤ 0,05). Elevado ganho de peso líquido foi obtido em T4 quando comparado com T2 e T3. O valor da FCR de T4 foi menor que T1, mas maior que T2 e T3, que apresentaram os menores valores. A taxa de crescimento específico foi registrada como média em T4, mas T2 teve uma SGR alta do que T3. Da mesma forma, o nível de proteína bruta e a atividade das enzimas digestivas foram registrados significativamente mais altos nos peixes alimentados com Oryza (T1) em comparação com AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Os parâmetros de qualidade da água foram registrados como significativos em todos os tratamentos, exceto pH e OD do tratamento (T1), significativamente diferente dos demais tratamentos. Concluiu-se que Rohu (Labeo rohita) pode apresentar uma taxa de crescimento promissora e atividade da enzima protease quando alimentado com Oryza de 25% de proteína.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Composition , Fishes
15.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 429-435, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986872

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the status of depression and social anxiety in children and adolescents, and to analyze the association between body fat distribution and depression, social anxiety in children and adolescents.@*METHODS@#A total of 1 412 children aged 7 to 18 years in Beijing were included by stratified cluster random sampling method. Body fat distribution, including total body fat percentage (total BF%), Android BF%, Gynoid BF% and Android-to-Gynoid fat ratio (AOI), were obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorption method. Depression and social anxiety were evaluated by Children Depression Inventory and Social Anxiety Scale for Children. Multivariate linear regression and restricted cubic spline analysis were used to estimate the linear and non-linear correlation between body fat distribution and depression and social anxiety.@*RESULTS@#13.1% and 31.1% of the children and adolescents had depressive symptoms and social anxiety symptoms respectively, and the detection rate of depression and social anxiety in the boys and young groups was significantly lower than those in the girls and old groups. There was no significant linear correlation between total BF%, Android BF%, Gynoid BF%, AOI and depression and social anxiety in the children and adolescents. However, total BF% and Gynoid BF% had significant nonlinear correlation with depression, showing an inverted U-shaped curve relationship with the tangent points of 26.8% and 30.9%, respectively. In terms of the nonlinear association of total BF%, Android BF%, Gynoid BF% and AOI with depression and social anxiety, the change trends of the boys and girls, low age group and high age group were consistent. The overall anxiety risk HR of body fat distribution in the boys was significantly higher than that in the girls, and the risk HR of depression and social anxiety were significantly higher in the high age group than those in the low age group.@*CONCLUSION@#There was no significant linear correlation between body fat distribution and depression and social anxiety in children and adolescents. Total BF% and depression showed an inverted U-shaped curve, mainly manifested in Gynoid BF%, and this trend was consistent in different genders and different age groups. Maintaining children and adolescents' body fat distribution at an appropriate level is the future direction of the prevention and control of depression and social anxiety in children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Male , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , X-Rays , Depression/epidemiology , Absorptiometry, Photon/methods , Body Mass Index , Body Fat Distribution , Anxiety/epidemiology , Adipose Tissue , Body Composition
16.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 585-594, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981091

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the thermic effect of food (TEF) in a Chinese mixed diet in young people.@*METHODS@#During the study, the participants were weighed and examined for body composition every morning. The total energy expenditure (TEE) of the participants was measured by the doubly labeled water method for 7 days, and during this period, basal energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry and physical activity energy expenditure was measured by an accelerometer. The value obtained by subtracting basal energy expenditure and physical activity energy expenditure from TEE was used to calculate TEF.@*RESULTS@#Twenty healthy young students (18-30 years; 10 male) participated in the study. The energy intake of the participants was not significantly different from the Chinese Dietary Reference Intake of energy ( P > 0.05). The percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrate were all in the normal range. The intakes of fruits, milk and dietary fiber of the participants were significantly lower than those in the Chinese Dietary Guidelines ( P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the body weight of the participants during the experiment ( P > 0.05). When adjusted for body weight, there was no significant difference in either TEE or basal energy expenditure between the male and female participants ( P > 0.05). In addition, there was no significant difference in physical activity energy expenditure and TEF between the male and female participants ( P > 0.05). The percentage of TEF in TEE was 8.73%.@*CONCLUSION@#The percentage of TEF in TEE in a Chinese mixed diet in young people was significantly lower than 10% ( P < 0.001). A value of 10% is usually considered to be the TEF in mixed diets as a percentage of TEE.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Adult , Body Composition , Body Weight , Diet , East Asian People , Energy Intake , Energy Metabolism , Exercise
17.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 569-584, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to assess the relationship between the body composition of children aged 3-5 years and breastfeeding status and duration.@*METHODS@#The study was conducted using data from the National Nutrition and Health Systematic Survey for children 0-17 years of age in China (CNHSC), a nationwide cross-sectional study. Breastfeeding information and potential confounders were collected using standardized questionnaires administered through face-to-face interviews. The body composition of preschool children was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. A multivariate linear regression model was used to assess the relationship between breastfeeding duration and body composition after adjusting for potential confounders.@*RESULTS@#In total, 2,008 participants were included in the study. Of these, 89.2% were ever breastfed and the median duration of breastfeeding was 12 months (IQR 7-15 months). Among children aged 3 years, the height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) for the ever breastfed group was lower than that for never breastfed group (0.12 vs. 0.42, P = 0.043). In addition, the weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) of the ever breastfed group was lower than that of the never breastfed group (0.31 vs. 0.65, P = 0.026), and the WAZ was lower in children aged 4 years who breastfed between 12 and 23 months than in those who never breastfed. Compared to the formula-fed children, the fat-free mass of breastfed infants was higher for children aged 3 years (12.84 kg vs. 12.52 kg, P = 0.015) and lower for those aged 4 years (14.31 kg vs. 14.64 kg, P = 0.048), but no difference was detected for children aged 5 years (16.40 kg vs. 16.42 kg, P = 0.910) after adjusting for potential confounders. No significant difference was detected in the weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ), body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-score (BAZ), fat-free mass index, and body fat indicators in the ever breastfed and never breastfed groups and among various breastfeeding duration groups for children aged 3-5 years.@*CONCLUSION@#No obvious associations were detected between breastfeeding duration, BMI, and fat mass indicators. Future prospective studies should explore the relationship between breastfeeding status and fat-free mass.


Subject(s)
Infant , Female , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Child , Adolescent , Breast Feeding , Prospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Body Mass Index , Body Composition
18.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 32-35, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970941

ABSTRACT

The clinical data of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients from twenty hemodialysis centers in Guizhou province from June to September 2020 were collected by cross-sectional study. The patients were divided into AFD group and non-AFD group according to whether AFD had occurred. LTI was measured by body composition monitor. The results showed that the incidence of AFD in 2 781 MHD patients was 30.0% (835/2 781). Median LTI level was 15.2 (13.2, 17.5) kg/m2. The LTI level in the AFD group was higher than that in the non-AFD group (P < 0.05). According to the tertiles of LTI, low LTI group (LTI ≤ 13.9 kg/m2) had the highest incidence of AFD (35.5%, 334/940), and the high LTI group had the lowest incidence of AFD (26.3%, 241/916), and the difference among the three groups was statistically significant (χ2=20.182,P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low LTI group as the reference, the risk of AFD in moderate LTI group (13.9 kg/m2 < LTI ≤ 16.6 kg/m2) and high LTI group were associated with the 20.0% (OR=0.800, 95% CI 0.650-0.986, P=0.036) and 22.8% (OR=0.772, 95% CI 0.616-0.966, P=0.024) decrease, respectively. These results suggest that low LTI level is independently associated with an increased risk of AFD in MHD patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Body Composition
19.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39014, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415916

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in the body composition of Wistar rats. The HIIT protocol consisted of high-intensity swimming three times a week for four weeks. There were no differences between groups as to the Lee index. However, the weights of the perigonadal (p=0.001) and retroperitoneal (p=0.026) fats were significantly different between the Control Group (CG, n=10) vs. Trained Group (TG, n=10), respectively. There was also a significant increase in the body weight of the animals in TG (16.43%) and CG (7.19%) at the end of the experiment. These findings suggested that HIIT was not sufficient to improve significantly the body composition of rats.


Subject(s)
Physical Conditioning, Animal , Swimming , Body Composition , High-Intensity Interval Training
20.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255912, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529214

ABSTRACT

Pouco se sabe sobre a atuação do psicólogo no Brasil junto a pessoas com Diabetes Mellitus. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar os psicólogos brasileiros que trabalham com essa população e suas ações. Foram convidados a responder a um questionário online psicólogos que atuam ou atuaram junto a pessoas com diabetes. Participaram 79 psicólogos, principalmente da região Sudeste (59,5%). Todos declararam que haviam cursado pósgraduação. Na amostra, predominou o gênero feminino (89,9%), com idade entre 26 e 40 anos (46,8%). A maioria dos que atuam com diabetes declarou-se autônoma ou voluntária, e quase metade trabalhava menos do que 10 horas semanais. Entre aqueles que deixaram de trabalhar com diabetes, apenas uma minoria tinha vínculo empregatício. Além do trabalho com pessoas com diabetes, a maior parte declarou exercer outras atividades profissionais, como atendimentos clínicos em consultórios particulares, sugerindo que esta não é a atividade principal. Majoritariamente, os respondentes declararam não ter conhecimentos suficientes para o atendimento específico às pessoas com diabetes. Discute-se a qualidade da formação profissional dos psicólogos no Brasil, a necessidade de aprimoramento em relação à atuação com pessoas com diabetes e as condições de trabalho.(AU)


Little is known about the practice of psychologists in Brazil caring for people with Diabetes Mellitus. The aim of this research was to identify the Brazilian psychologists who work with this population and describe their actions. Psychologists who work or have worked with people diagnosed with diabetes were invited to answer an online questionnaire. The 79 participants lived mainly in the Southeast Region (59.5%). All of them declared to have a graduate degree, most were female (89.9%), aged 26 to 40 years (46.8%). Most of those working with diabetes declared to be autonomous or voluntary, and almost half had a workload of less than 10 hours a week. Among those who stopped working with diabetes, only a minority had a formal employment contract. In addition, most of them stated that they had other professional activities related to clinical care in private offices, suggesting that working with diabetes is not their main activity. Mostly, respondents stated that they did not have enough knowledge to care for people with diabetes. The quality of professional education of psychologists in Brazil, the need for specific improvement in labor relations and conditions were discussed.(AU)


Son escasas las informaciones del trabajo de los psicólogos en Brasil con las personas con Diabetes Mellitus. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar los psicólogos brasileños que trabajan con esta población y describir sus acciones. Se invitó a psicólogos que trabajan o hayan trabajado con personas con diabetes a responder un cuestionario en línea. Participaron 79 psicólogos, principalmente de la región Sureste de Brasil (59,5%). Todos declararon tener posgrado. En la muestra hubo una mayor prevalencia del género femenino (89,9%), de edades de entre 26 y 40 años (46,8%). La mayoría de los que trabajan con personas con diabetes se declararon autónomos o voluntarios, y casi la mitad trabajaba menos de 10 horas a la semana. Entre los que dejaron de trabajar con las personas con diabetes, solo una minoría tenía una relación laboral. Además de trabajar con personas con diabetes, la mayoría afirmó tener otras actividades profesionales, como la atención clínica en consultorios privados, lo que sugiere que esta no es su actividad principal. La mayoría de los encuestados afirmaron que no tenían los conocimientos suficientes para atender específicamente a las personas con diabetes. Se discuten la calidad de la formación profesional de los psicólogos en Brasil, la necesidad de mejora en relación con el trabajo con personas con diabetes y las condiciones laborales.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Psychology , Acting Out , Diabetes Mellitus , Professional Training , Anxiety , Pain , Patient Care Team , Primary Health Care , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Research Personnel , Self Care , Self-Care Units , Self Concept , Social Sciences , Autoimmune Diseases , Specialization , Stress, Psychological , Therapeutics , Transplantation , Volunteers , Wound Healing , Behavior , Body Composition , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Exercise , Weight Loss , Family , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Blindness , Cholesterol , Mental Health , Disease Outbreaks , Episode of Care , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Cost of Illness , Continuity of Patient Care , Counseling , Universal Access to Health Care Services , Crisis Intervention , Health Law , Death , Diabetes Complications , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Angiopathies , Diagnosis , Dialysis , Emergencies , Disease Prevention , Bariatric Surgery , Fear , Binge-Eating Disorder , Epidemics , Chronic Pain , Insulins , Cognitive Dysfunction , Problem Behavior , Diet, Healthy , Global Burden of Disease , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Burnout, Psychological , Self-Neglect , Sadness , Diabulimia , Psychological Distress , Transtheoretical Model , Psychosocial Intervention , Glycemic Control , Sociodemographic Factors , Psychological Well-Being , Food, Processed , Health Promotion , Health Services Accessibility , Amputation, Surgical , Hospitalization , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Life Style , Mental Disorders , Metabolism , Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases , Obesity
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