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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e49435, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1146262

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar e mapear estratégias preconizadas para prevenção de linfedema em pacientes submetidas a esvaziamento axilar em tratamento do câncer de mama. Método: revisão de escopo realizada em agosto de 2019 considerando oito bases de dados e oito bases da literatura cinzenta. A amostra final foi composta por 13 artigos, selecionados de acordo com critérios de elegibilidade. Resultados: os estudos foram predominantemente randomizados, com nível de evidência 1a, e realizados na América do Norte. Medidas preventivas tradicionalmente utilizadas, como limitar exercícios com carga ou evitar punção venosa e aferição de pressão arterial, não se demonstraram efetivas em nenhum dos estudos encontrados. Foi evidenciado como medida preventiva o controle dos fatores de risco modificáveis associados ao linfedema: IMC elevado (> 25 kg/m2 ) e quimioterapia administrada no braço ipsilateral. Conclusões: não foram apresentadas evidências significativas para medidas cotidianamente preconizadas na prevenção do linfedema, e fatores de risco modificáveis se destacaram entre os riscos para seu desenvolvimento.


Objective: to identify and map strategies recommended for prevention of lymphedema in patients after axillary dissection during breast cancer treatment. Method: this scoping review was conducted in August 2019 across eight databases and eight gray literature data sources. The final sample comprised 13 journal articles that met eligibility criteria. Results: the studies, most of which were randomized, conducted in North America, and offered Level 1a evidence. None of the studies reviewed found traditionally employed preventive measures, such as limiting weight training or avoiding venipuncture and blood pressure measurements, to be effective. Evidence indicated that controlling modifiable lymphedema-related risk factors ­ namely high BMI (> 25 kg/m²) and chemotherapy administration in the ipsilateral arm ­ was a preventive measure. Conclusion: no significant evidence was reported for traditionally recommended preventive measures against lymphedema, and modifiable factors figured prominently among risk factors for lymphedema.


Objetivo: identificar y mapear las estrategias recomendadas para la prevención del linfedema en pacientes después de una disección axilar durante el tratamiento del cáncer de mama. Método: esta revisión de alcance se realizó en agosto de 2019 en ocho bases de datos y ocho fuentes de datos de literatura gris. La muestra final comprendió 13 artículos de revistas que cumplieron con los criterios de elegibilidad. Resultados: los estudios, la mayoría de los cuales fueron aleatorios, se realizaron en Norteamérica y ofrecieron evidencia de Nivel 1a. Ninguno de los estudios revisados encontró que las medidas preventivas empleadas tradicionalmente, como limitar el entrenamiento con pesas o evitar la punción venosa y las mediciones de la presión arterial, sean efectivas. La evidencia indicó que el control de los factores de riesgo relacionados con el linfedema modificables, a saber, un IMC alto (> 25 kg / m²) y la administración de quimioterapia en el brazo ipsilateral, era una medida preventiva. Conclusión: no se informó evidencia significativa de las medidas preventivas recomendadas tradicionalmente contra el linfedema, y los factores modificables figuraron de manera prominente entre los factores de riesgo para el linfedema.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Axilla , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Lymph Node Excision/adverse effects , Lymphedema/prevention & control , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Control , Arterial Pressure
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(5): 840-848, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1142250

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A circunferência do pescoço (CP) é uma medida indireta do tecido adiposo subcutâneo da parte superior do corpo, apontada como um preditor independente de doenças cardiometabólicas. Objetivos: Verificar a associação entre a CP e o risco cardiovascular em 10 anos (risco de doença cardiovascular [DCV] em 10 anos) em homens e mulheres separadamente. Métodos: Análise seccional com inclusão de 13.920 participantes da linha de base do Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). A associação entre a CP (utilizada como variável contínua e agregada em quartis) e o risco de DCV em 10 anos, estimado pelo Framingham Global Risk Score (FGRS), foi investigada por meio de modelos lineares generalizados após ajustes por características sociodemográficas, comportamentos em saúde, índice de massa corporal e circunferência da cintura. O nível de significância estatístico adotado foi de 5%. Resultados: A média da CP foi de 39,5 cm (desvio-padrão [DP] de ± 3,6) nos homens e 34,0 cm (DP de ±2,9) nas mulheres. Após ajustes, o aumento de 1 cm na CP foi associado ao incremento de 3% (IC 95%: 1,02 a 1,03) e 5% (IC 95%: 1,04 a 1,06) na média aritmética do risco de DCV em homens e mulheres, respectivamente. No último quartil da CP, homens e mulheres apresentaram um incremento de 18% (IC 95%: 1,13 a 1,24) e 35% (IC 95%: 1,28 a 1,43), respectivamente, na média aritmética do risco de DCV após ajustes. Conclusões: Verificamos associação positiva e independente entre a CP e o risco de DCV em 10 anos. Resultados sugerem que a CP pode contribuir para a predição de risco cardiovascular além daquele observado pelas medidas antropométricas clássicas.


Abstract Background: Neck circumference (NC), an indirect measure of upper-body subcutaneous adipose tissue, has been pointed out as an independent predictor of cardiometabolic diseases. Objectives: To assess the association between NC and 10-year cardiovascular risk in men and in women. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 13,920 participants of the (baseline) Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The association between NC (used as continuous variable and grouped into quartiles) and the 10-year cardiovascular risk was estimated by the Framingham Global Risk Score and analyzed by generalized linear models after adjustments for sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, body mass index and waist circumference. The significance level adopted was 5%. Results: Mean NC was 39.5 cm (SD± 3.6) in men and 34.0 cm (SD±2.9) in women. After adjustments, a one-centimeter increase in NC was associated with an increment of 3% (95%CI1.02-1.03) and 5% (95% 1.04-1.05) in the arithmetic mean of the 10-year CVD risk in men and women, respectively. Men and women in the last quartile showed an increment of 18% (95%CI 1.13-1.24) and 35% (95%CI 1.28-1.43), respectively in the arithmetic mean of the 10-year CVD risk, after adjustments. Conclusions: We found a positive, independent association between NC and the 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. NC may contribute to the prediction of cardiovascular risk, over and above traditional anthropometric measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Waist Circumference , Neck
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(5): 896-904, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1142246

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Diversos índices antropométricos têm sido propostos para determinar a associação entre excesso de peso e fatores de risco cardiovascular. Objetivo: Avaliar a relação entre adiposidade corporal e reatividade microvascular em pacientes hipertensos sob terapia anti-hipertensiva. Métodos: Pacientes hipertensos tratados de 40 a 70 anos foram submetidos à avaliação de índices antropométricos: conicidade (IC), adiposidade corporal (IAC), adiposidade visceral (IAV) e relação cintura-estatura (RCE). Os participantes foram divididos pelos tercis de percentual de gordura (%G) obtido pela bioimpedância elétrica (BIA) e submetidos a teste de reatividade microvascular (laser speckle contrast image), medida da velocidade da onda de pulso (VOP). O valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: A variação da área sob a curva (ASC) da perfusão cutânea foi inferior no tercil superior (97 ± 57% vs. 67 ± 36%; p = 0,027). O %G apresentou correlação significativa com RCE (r = 0,77; p < 0,001), IAV (r = 0,41; p = 0,018), IC (r = 0,60; p < 0,001) e IAC (r = 0,65; p < 0,001) nos homens e somente com RCE (r = 0,55; p < 0,001) e IAC (r = 0,60; p < 0,001) nas mulheres. Na regressão linear, a ASC mostrou associação independente com o %G (β =-3,15; p = 0,04) nas mulheres e com a glicemia (β = -1,15; p = 0,02) nos homens. Não houve diferença nas medidas de VOP. Conclusão: Os índices antropométricos de obesidade foram mais associados ao %G nos homens. A maior adiposidade corporal foi relacionada com menor reatividade microvascular, o que foi mais evidente nas mulheres. Não houve diferença na rigidez arterial, o que pode ter sido influenciado pelo tratamento anti-hipertensivo.


Abstract Background: Several anthropometric indexes have been proposed to determine the association between overweight and cardiovascular risk factors. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between body adiposity and microvascular reactivity in hypertensive patients under antihypertensive therapy. Methods: Treated hypertensive patients aged 40 to 70 were submitted to evaluation of anthropometric indexes: conicity (CI), body adiposity (BAI), visceral adiposity (VAI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Participants were divided by the terciles of fat percentage (%F) obtained by bioelectrical impedance. The patients underwent microvascular reactivity test (Laser Speckle Contrast Image) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurement. The p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The variation of the area under the curve (AUC) of the skin perfusion was lower in the upper tercile (97±57% vs. 67±36%; p=0.027). %F showed significant correlation with WHtR (r=0.77; p<0.001), VAI (r=0.41; p=0.018), CI (r=0.60; p<0.001), BAI (r=0.65; p<0.001) in men and only with WHtR (r=0.55; p<0.001) and BAI (r=0.60; p<0.001) in women. In linear regression, AUC was independently associated with %F (β=−3.15; p=0.04) in women and with blood glucose (β=−1.15; p=0.02) in men. There was no difference in PWV measurements. Conclusion: Anthropometric indices were more associated with %F in men. Higher body adiposity was associated with lower microvascular reactivity, which was more evident in women. There was no difference in arterial stiffness, which may have been influenced by antihypertensive treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Adiposity , Pulse Wave Analysis , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Waist Circumference
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(5): 320-326, oct 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1122019

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Analizar la asociación entre la fuerza de prensión manual relativa (FPMR) y la masa grasa (MG), controlando el posible efecto del estado de madurez.Metodología. Se estudiaron niños y adolescentes de ambos sexos con un rango de edad de ≥ 7,5 a ≤ 15,49 años. Se evaluó la FPMR mediante un dinamómetro hidráulico manual. El porcentaje de MG se evaluó mediante la absorciometría de rayos X de doble energía. Para analizar las diferencias por sexo y grupo etario y entre los niños normopesos y obesos en los niveles de FPMR, se utilizó el análisis de covarianza. Se consideraron como covariable los años de pico de velocidad de crecimiento (estado de madurez). Para analizar la asociación entre los niveles de FPMR y MG, se utilizó la correlación parcial, controlando el año de pico de velocidad de crecimiento.Resultados. Participaron 1685 escolares (731 mujeres y 954 varones). Fueron conformados 4 grupos de edad (7,5-9,4 años; 9,5-11,4 años; 11,5-13,4 años y 13,5-15,4 años). La FPMR aumentó con la edad en ambos sexos. Los valores de MG fueron elevados en todos los grupos etarios. No hubo diferencias en los grupos 3 y 4 en las niñas y en el grupo 4 de los niños. Los niños clasificados como peso normal presentaron significativamente mayor FPMR que los obesos. Se observó una asociación negativa entre FPMR y MG.Conclusión. Se demostró que la FPMR estaba negativamente asociada con la MG, tras controlar el efecto del estado de madurez


Objective. To analyze the association between relative handgrip strength (RHGS) and fat mass (FM) after controlling for the potential effect of maturity status.Methodology. Both male and female children and adolescents aged ≥ 7.5 to ≤ 15.49 years were studied. RHGS was assessed using a hydraulic hand dynamometer. FM percentage was established using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Age and sex differences in RHGS levels between normal weight and obese participants were studied with an analysis of covariance. A covariate was years from peak height velocity (maturity status). The association between RHGS and FM levels was analyzed using a partial correlation and controlling for age at peak height velocity.Results. A total of 1685 students (731 girls and 954 boys) participated. Four age groups were established (7.5-9.4 years, 9.5-11.4 years, 11.5-13.4 years, and 13.5-15.4 years). RHGS increased with age in both males and females. FM values were high in all age groups. No differences were observed in groups 3 and 4 among girls or in group 4 among boys. Participants classified as normal weight showed a significantly higher RHGS than their obese peers. A negative association was noted between RHGS and FM.Conclusion. RHGS was shown to be negatively associated with FM after controlling for the effect of maturity status


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Muscle Strength , Body Mass Index , Chile , Adipose Tissue , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Growth and Development , Obesity
5.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(5): 395-404, oct. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138730

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Identificar los factores determinantes de la mejoría de la calidad de vida en pacientes sometidos a cirugía de contorno corporal. Materiales y Método: Se estudió una cohorte prospectiva de 113 pacientes sometidos a cirugía de contorno corporal. Se estudiaron características sociodemográficas, mediciones antropométricas, variables relativas a la cirugía y se aplicó el instrumento Body-Qol®. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó estadística descriptiva, modelos de ecuaciones de estimación generalizada y modelos de regresión lineal y logística. Resultados: Se encontró mejoría en la calidad de vida de forma global (p < 0,0001) y por dominios. Los pacientes con pérdida masiva de peso tuvieron peores puntajes pre y postoperatorio, sin embargo, un delta de mejoría comparable con los pacientes estéticos. Dentro de los factores determinantes, existió una relación positiva entre la edad y la mejoría en la calidad de vida de forma global. El índice de masa corporal (IMC) se encontró asociado negativamente con la mejoría del puntaje global. Dentro de los factores de la cirugía, los pacientes sometidos a lipoabdominoplastía tuvieron una mayor mejoría con respecto a otras técnicas. Además, el patrón de resección ampliado y en flor de Lis se asoció a menor mejoría en el puntaje global. Conclusión: La cirugía de contorno corporal mejora la calidad de vida de forma significativa. Los principales factores determinantes de esta mejoría fueron la edad, el IMC, el antecedente de pérdida masiva de peso y el patrón de resección.


Aim: To identify the factors that have an impact on the quality of life of patients with body contouring surgery. Materials and Method: A prospective cohort of 113 patients was studied. Sociodemographic characteristics, antropometric measures and variables related to the surgery were analized. The Body-Qol® instrument was aplied. Descriptive statistic, generalized estimated equation models and lineal and logistic regresions were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Improvement in the quality of life was found globally (p < 0,0001) and in every domain of the scale. The patients with massive weight loss had worse scores pre- and post-operatively than the esthetic patients. A positive association between age and improvement on quality of life was found. Body mass index (BMI) was negatively associated with improvement of the score. The patients that had a lipoabdominoplasty had a major improvement in comparison with other techniques. Also, the extended resection pattern and Fleur de Lis pattern were associated with lesser improvement in the global score. Conclusion: Body contouring surgery improves quality of life significantly. The principal factors that have an impact on quality of life were age, BMI, massive weight loss and resection pattern.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Quality of Life , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Body Contouring , Weight Loss , Body Mass Index , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies
6.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 25: 1-9, set. 2020. tab, fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128280

ABSTRACT

This study aims to measure healthy lifestyles according to the time of participation in the Programa Academia da Saúde (PAS). We used baseline data from a randomized controlled community trial with a representative sample of PAS users from Belo Horizonte, Brazil (n = 3,414). The data on healthy lifestyles collected were: daily fruit and vegetables intake (≥5 servings); physical activity engagement (≥180min/week); body mass index (18.5kg/m² ≥ BMI ≤ 24.9kg/m²), smoking and drinking habits.The time of participation in the PAS was calculated by the difference between the date of registration in the program and the date of the data collection. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between healthy lifestyles and time of participation in the PAS. Almost half of the participants (43.3%) had three healthy lifestyle factors. The prevalence of having all five factors varied according to the time of participation in the service; the lowest rates were in the first quartile (4.9%) and the highest rates in the fourth quartile (8.1%). Those who have attended the service for the longest time (fourth quartile) were more likely to have a healthy BMI (OR = 1.43; 95%CI: 1.14-1.80; p = 0.002) and to avoid smoking (OR = 1.62; 95%CI: 1.06-4.49; p = 0.01), compared to those who have attended the program for less time (first quartile). The prevalence of healthy lifestyles in PAS users was low. However, a longer permanence in the program seems to favor positive changes on BMI and on smoking habits


Este estudo avaliou estilos de vida saudáveis segundo o tempo de participação no Programa Academia da Saúde (PAS). Para tanto, foram utilizados dados da linha de base de um ensaio comunitário controlado e aleatorizado com amostra representativa (n = 3.414) do PAS de Belo Horizonte, Brasil. Os dados sobre estilos de vida coletados foram: consumo diário de frutas e hortaliças (≥ 5 porções); prática de atividade física (≥180min/semana); índice de massa corporal (18,5kg/m² ≥ IMC ≤ 24,9kg/m²), não fumar e não ingerir bebidas alcoólicas. O tempo de participação no PAS foi calculado pela diferença entre data de ingresso no serviço e da coleta de dados. Modelos de regressão logística foram ajustados para avaliar as associações entre estilo de vida e tempo de participação no PAS. Quase a metade dos participantes (43,3%) apresentou adesão a três fatores de estilo de vida saudável. As prevalências de todos os cinco fatores variaram segundo o tempo de participação no Programa; as menores prevalências foram no primeiro quartil (4,9%) e maiores do quarto quartil (8,1%) de tempo. Aqueles que participavam do PAS a mais tempo apresentaram maiores probabilidades de ter um IMC saudável (OR = 1,43; IC95%: 1,14-1,80; p = 0,002) e de não fumar (OR = 1,62; IC95%: 1,06-4,49; p = 0,01), comparados aos que participavam do Programa a menos tempo (primeiro quartil). A adesão aos estilos de vida saudáveis entre os usuários do PAS foi baixa. No entanto, maior tempo de participação no serviço pode favorecer mudanças positivas no IMC e no hábito de fumar


Subject(s)
Vegetables , Body Mass Index , Basic Health Services , Fruit , Motor Activity
7.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 59(3): e998, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144434

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La obesidad es una enfermedad crónica multifactorial cuyo mejor tratamiento lo constituye en la actualidad la cirugía bariátrica. Objetivo: Describir los resultados a corto y largo plazo de la gastroplicatura vertical laparoscópica como técnica de cirugía bariátrica restrictiva. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, longitudinal en 436 pacientes obesos intervenidos por gastroplicatura vertical laparoscópica, de enero 2010 a enero 2020, en Hospital Universitario General Calixto García. Se incluyeron pacientes de ambos géneros, mayores de 18 años. Variables analizadas: edad, sexo, peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, grado de obesidad, perímetro de cintura, enfermedades asociadas, valores de glucemia, colesterol y triglicéridos, tiempo quirúrgico, pérdidas sanguíneas intraoperatorias, complicaciones perioperatorias y porcentaje de sobrepeso perdido al año. Resultados: Edad promedio 38,48 años, con predominio del sexo femenino. El índice de masa corporal medio fue de 45,41 Kg/m2. Las enfermedades asociadas fueron: hipertensión arterial, síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño y diabetes mellitus. El 8,6 por ciento presentó complicación intraoperatoria, mientras que en el posoperatorio hubo un 5,9 por ciento de complicaciones. Tuvieron mayor relación con índice cintura/cadera incrementado y solo se reportó un fallecido. Conclusiones: Los resultados de las gastroplicatura vertical laparoscópica son prometedores como técnica bariátrica restrictiva según lo descrito en la serie de pacientes tratados durante un periodo de 10 años. La misma permitió una disminución significativa del Índice de Masa Corporal y grado de obesidad con repercusión importante en el porcentaje de peso perdido y escasas complicaciones(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Obesity is a multifactorial chronic disease whose best treatment is currently bariatric surgery. Objective: To describe the short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic vertical gastroplication as a restrictive bariatric surgery technique. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective and longitudinal study was carried out in 436 obese patients who received laparoscopic vertical gastroplication, from January 2010 to January 2020, at General Calixto García University Hospital. Patients of both genders, older than 18 years, were included. The variables analyzed were age, sex, weight, height, body mass index, degree of obesity, waist circumference, associated diseases, blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride values, surgical time, intraoperative blood loss, perioperative complications, and percentage of overweight lost at one year. Results: The average age 38.48 years, with a predominance of the female sex. The mean body mass index was 45.41 kg/m2. The associated diseases were arterial hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. 8.6 percent presented intraoperative complication, while there were 5.9 percent of complications in the postoperative period. They were more related to the increased waist/hip ratio and only one death was reported. Conclusions: The results of laparoscopic vertical gastroplication are promising based on the usefulness of the restrictive bariatric technique as described in the series of patients treated over a period of ten years. It allowed a significant decrease in body mass index and the degree of obesity, with a significant impact on the percentage of lost weight lost and with few complications(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Body Mass Index , Laparoscopy/methods , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Obesity/therapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
8.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 257-266, set. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130600

ABSTRACT

EL HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) es un estimador de insulinorresistencia (IR) pero depende de la determinación de insulina. Los índices triglicéridos-glucosa (T-G)-circunferencia de la cintura (CC) (T-G-CC) o triglicéridos-glucosa-índice de masa corporal (TG- IMC) podrían ser sustitutos. Los objetivos de este trabajo consistieron en investigar en personas con riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2 (DT2): a) los índices T-G, T-G-CC y T-G-IMC como estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1; b) determinar su poder discriminante. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo en el que se estudiaron 223 individuos ≥45 años con riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2 (DT2). La relación T-G se calculó como ln [triglicéridos (mg/dL) x glucemia (mg/dL)/2]. La relación T-G-CC y T-G-IMC fue el producto de T-G por CC o IMC. Se utilizó análisis de regresión logística y se calcularon las áreas bajo las curvas ROC (receiver operating characteristic curves) (ABC) para comparar las asociaciones de T-G, T-G-CC y T-G-IMC con HOMA-IR>2,1. Mediante análisis discriminante se evaluó la clasificación de los sujetos entre HOMA-IR>2,1 y HOMA-IR≤2,1. ABC, sensibilidad, especificidad, poder predictivo positivo y negativo para T-G-CC y T-G-IMC fueron mayores que para T-G, con los siguientes valores de corte: T-G=8,75, T-G-CC=821 y T-G-IMC=255. Los odds ratios (OR) para HOMA-IR>2,1, ajustados para confusores, fueron: T-G>8,75, OR: 4,85 (IC 95% 2,73-8,62); T-G-CC>821, OR: 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53); T-GIMC> 255, OR: 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53). Con el análisis discriminante T-G>8,75 clasificó correctamente 69,2% individuos con HOMA-IR≤2,1 y 68,3% con HOMA-IR>2,1; T-G-CC y T-G-IMC clasificaron 74,4% y 78,2% respectivamente (p<0,001 en todos los casos). Se concluyó que T-GCC> 821 y T-G-IMC>255 fueron mejores estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1 que T-G>8,75. Estas son determinaciones simples y accesibles y podrían ser útiles en la práctica clínica y en estudios epidemiológicos.


HOMA-IR ((homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) is a surrogate estimator of insulin resistance (IR) but it depends on insulin determination. Triglyceride-glucose-waist circumference (T-G-WC) or triglyceride-glucose-body mass index (BMI) (T-G-BMI) could be substitutes. The objectives of this work were: to investigate in people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D): a) T-G, T-G-CC and T-G-BMI as estimators of HOMA-IR>2.1 and b) to determine their discriminating power. A prospective study was conducted studying 223 individuals ≥45 years of age at risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The T-G ratio was calculated as ln [triglycerides (mg/dL) x glycemia (mg/dL)/2]. The T-G-CC and T-G-BMI ratio was the product of T-G by CC or BMI. Logistic regression analysis was used and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) curves were calculated to compare the associations of T-G, T-G-CC and T-G-BMI with HOMA-IR>2.1. Using a discriminant analysis, the classification of the subjects between HOMA-IR>2.1 or HOMA-IR≤2.1 was evaluated. AUC, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive powers for T-G-CC and T-G-BMI were higher than for T-G, with the following cut-off values: TG=8.75, T-G-CC=821 and T-G-BMI=255. Odds ratios (OR) for HOMA-IR>2.1, adjusted for confounders, were: T-G>8.75, OR 4.85 (95% CI 2.73-8.62); T-G-CC>821, OR 10.41 (95% CI 5.55-19.53); T-G-BMI>255, OR 10.41 (95% CI 5.55-19.53). With the discriminant analysis T-G>8.75, 69.2% correctly classified with HOMA-IR≤2.1 and 68.3% with HOMA-IR>2.1; T-G-CC and T-G-BMI correctly classified 74.4% and 78.2% respectively (p <0.001 in all cases). It is concluded that T-G-CC>821 and T-G-BMI>255 were better estimators of HOMA-IR>2.1 than T-G>8.75. T-G-WC and T-G-BMI are simple and reliable determinations and could be useful in clinical practice and epidemiological studies.


O HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) e um estimador de resistencia a insulina (RI), mas depende da determinacao da insulina. Triglicerideos-glicose (T-G), circunferencia da cintura (CC) (T-G-CC) ou triglicerideos-glicose-indice de massa corporal (T-G-IMC) poderiam ser substitutos. Os objetivos desse trabalho foram investigar em pessoas com risco de desenvolver diabetes tipo 2 (DT2): a) os indices T-G, T-G-CC e T-G-IMC como estimadores de HOMA-IR> 2,1; b) determinar seu poder discriminante. Um estudo prospectivo foi realizado em 223 pessoas ≥45 anos com risco de desenvolver diabetes tipo 2 (DT2). A razao T-G foi calculada como ln [triglicerideos (mg/dL) x glicemia (mg/dL)/2]. A razao T-G-CC e T-G-IMC foi o produto de T-G por CC ou IMC. A analise de regressao logistica foi utilizada e as areas sob as curvas ROC (receiver operating features) ABC foram calculadas para comparar as associacoes de T-G, T-G-CC e T-G-IMC com HOMA-IR>2.1. Por meio de analise discriminante, avaliou-se a classificacao dos sujeitos entre HOMA-IR>2,1 e HOMA-IR≤2,1. ABC, sensibilidade, especificidade, poder preditivo positivo e negativo para TG-CC e TG-IMC foram maiores que para TG, com os seguintes valores de corte: TG=8,75, TG-CC=821 e TG-IMC=255. Odds Ratios (OR) para HOMA-IR>2,1, ajustados para fatores de confusao, foram: TG>8,75, OR 4,85 (IC95% 2,73-8,62); T-G-CC>821, OR 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53); T-G-IMC>255, OR 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53). Com a analise discriminante T-G>8,75, 69,2% foram classificados corretamente com HOMA-IR≤2,1 e 68,3% com HOMA-IR>2,1; T-G-CC e T-G-IMC classificaram 74,4% e 78,2%, respectivamente (p<0,001 em todos os casos). Conclui-se que T-G-CC>821 e TG- IMC>255 foram melhores estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1 que T-G>8,75. Elas sao determinacoes simples e acessiveis e poderiam ser uteis na pratica clinica e em estudos epidemiologicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Triglycerides , Power, Psychological , Epidemiologic Studies , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Classification , Area Under Curve , Courtship , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Glucose , Goals , Insulin , Persons , Organization and Administration , Association , Blood Glucose , Insulin Resistance , Body Mass Index , Discriminant Analysis , Risk , Regression Analysis , Waist Circumference
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1112-1119, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124903

ABSTRACT

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer widely used in the food industry, with obesogenic properties, in addition to causing alterations in the oral cavity. The aim of the study was to observe the morphofunctional changes in the parotid gland after the administration of MSG in rats. 18 newborn male Sprague Dawley rats were used, divided into three groups (Control group; MSG1 group: 4 mg/g weight of monosodium glutamate, 5 doses, kept for 8 weeks, and MSG2 group: 4 mg/g weight of MSG, 5 doses, kept for 16 weeks). The body mass index (BMI) was calculated, and the salivary flow, pH, a-amylase activity, Na, Cl, K and Ca were analyzed by quantitative analysis. After euthanasia by ketamine/xylazine overdose, parotid volume was analyzed and stereology was performed. MSG administration caused an increase in BMI and a decrease in parotid volume as well as a reduction in salivary flow and pH and an increase in a-amylase activity, also increasing the salivary sodium and chlorine levels. Alterations in the normal stereological parameters of the gland were observed. Exposure to MSG caused morphofunctional alterations at parotid gland.


El glutamato monosódico (MSG), es un potenciador del sabor ampliamente utilizado en la industria alimentaria. Diversos estudios han propuesto la relación entre éste y el desarrollo de obesidad, además de provocar alteraciones en la cavidad oral. El objetivo del estudio fue observar los cambios morfofuncionales a nivel de la glándula parótida, posterior a la administración de MSG en ratas. Se utilizaron 18 ratas neonatas Sprague Dawley machos, divididas en tres grupos según su tiempo de exposición y dosis a MSG (Grupo Control, Grupo MSG1: 4 mg/g peso de glutamato monosódico, 5 dosis, mantenidas 8 semanas, Grupo MSG2: 4 mg/g peso de MSG, 5 dosis, mantenidas 16 semanas. Fue calculado el índice de masa corporal (BMI), además de ser analizado el flujo salival, pH, actividad de α-amilasa, y Na, Cl, K y Ca mediante análisis semicuantitativo. Luego de la eutanasia por sobredosis de ketamina/xilasina, las glándulas parótidas fueron extraídas y analizado su volumen y fueron procesadas para histología, y estudio estereológico. La administración de MSG causó aumento en BMI y disminución del volumen parotídeo, además de disminución del flujo y pH salival, así como aumento en actividad de la a-amilasa, aumentando además los niveles de sodio y cloro salival. Fueron observadas alteraciones a nivel de los parámetros estereológicos normales de la glándula. La exposición a MSG causó alteraciones morfofuncionales a nivel parotídeo, observándose una disminución del volumen de la glándula, acompañado de alteraciones en el adenómero y conductos estriados de la glándula, implicados en la producción, secreción y modificación de la saliva, la cual se vio alterada, en el flujo, pH, y en sus componentes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Parotid Gland/drug effects , Sodium Glutamate/administration & dosage , Flavoring Agents/administration & dosage , Saliva/chemistry , Sodium/analysis , Sodium Glutamate/pharmacology , Time Factors , Body Mass Index , Chlorine/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar , alpha-Amylases/analysis , Flavoring Agents/pharmacology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
10.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(4): 490-496, Jul.-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138041

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the accuracy of interobserver diagnostic methods of the type of footprint among running athletes using three evaluation methods: physical examination, podoscopy, and baropodometry compared with radiographic measurement of Meary angles and calcaneal pitch. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of athletes who practice running. The inclusion criteria were: individuals with minimum age of 18 years and maximum age of 65, male or female, healthy and without comorbidities that interfere with running performance; regular practitioners who run at least twice a week; body mass index between 18.5 and 29.99 Kg/m2; acceptance of the written informed consent form (WICF). The non-inclusion criteria included: presence of previous or active injuries that compromise sports activity; previous foot surgeries; obesity. Forty patients were selected, 29 (72.5%) male and 11 (27.5%) female, whose mean age was 39 years (minimum 19 years and maximum 61 years). The body mass index (BMI) of the 40 patients ranged from 21.00 to 29.99 kg/m2 (mean 25.48 kg/m2 with standard deviation of 2.39 kg/m2 and a median of 25.50 kg/m2). We excluded those with values above 29.99. Running frequency ranged from 2 to 5 times per week (average 3.13 times per week, with standard deviation of 0.79 times per week and median of 3 times per week). Physical examination, podoscopy, and baropodometry were performed, and their evaluation was made by 4 examiners. Additionally, the results were compared with the radiographic classification of the footprint type obtained by measuring the Meary angles and the calcaneal pitch. Results The interobserver agreement of these parameters was verified by the weighted Kappa agreement index, in which we obtained a significant agreement between the participants considering physical examination, podoscopy, and baropodometry, and according to the Kappa index. The agreement was marginal when comparing the results of the three methods with the radiographic angular classification. Conclusion We obtained excellent agreement among observers when considering physical examination, podoscopy, and baropodometry for the diagnosis of the footprint type among runners. However, when comparing the results obtained with the radiographic measurements, the agreement for the diagnosis of footprint type was low.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a acurácia dos métodos de diagnóstico interobservadores do tipo de pisada em atletas corredores utilizando três métodos de avaliação: exame físico, podoscopia e baropodometria comparando com a medida radiográfica dos ângulos de Meary e pitch do calcâneo. Métodos Trata-se de estudo transversal de atletas que praticam corrida. Os critérios de inclusão foram: indivídulos com idade mínima de 18 anos e máxima de 65 anos de ambos os sexos; indivídulos hígidos, sem comorbidades que interfiram no desempenho da corrida; praticantes regulares que realizam corrida ao menos duas vezes na semana; índice de massa corpórea entre 18,5 e 29,99 Kg/m2; aceitação dos termos de consentimento livre e esclarecido (TCLE). Os critérios de não inclusão compreenderam: presença de lesões prévias ou ativas que comprometam a atividade esportiva; cirurgias prévias dos pés; obesidade. Foram selecionados 40 pacientes, sendo 29 (72,5%) do sexo masculino e 11 (27,5%) do sexo feminino cuja média das idades foi de 39 anos (mínimo de 19 anos e máximo de 61 anos). O índice de massa corpórea (IMC) dos 40 pacientes variou de 21,00 a 29,99 Kg/m2 (média de 25,48 Kg/m2 com desvio-padrão de 2,39 Kg/m2 e mediana de 25,50 Kg/m2). Excluímos os que apresentaram valor superior a 29,99 Kg/m2. A frequência de corrida variou de 2 a 5 vezes por semana (média de 3,13 vezes por semana com desvio-padrão de 0,79 vezes por semana e mediana de 3 vezes por semana). Foram realizados exame físico, podoscopia e baropodometria, e sua avaliação foi feita por quatro examinadores; além disso, os resultados foram comparados com a classificação radiográfica do tipo de pisada obtida através da mensuração dos ângulos de Meary e pitch do calcâneo. Resultados A concordância interobservadores destes parâmetros foi verificada pelo índice de concordância de Kappa ponderado, segundo o qual obtivemos uma concordância significante entre os participantes, levando-se em consideração o exame físico, podoscopia e baropodometria e de acordo com o índice Kappa. A concordância foi marginal quando comparados os resultados dos três métodos com a classificação angular radiográfica. Conclusão Obtivemos uma concordância excelente entre os observadores ao considerarmos o exame físico, a podoscopia e a baropodometria para o diagnóstico do tipo pisada em corredores. Porém, quando comparados os resultados obtidos com as medidas radiográficas, a concordância para o diagnóstico do tipo da pisada foi baixa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Physical Examination , Running , Sports , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Athletes , Foot
11.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 31(2): e223, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138897

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La osteoporosis masculina es una enfermedad clínica heterogénea y subdiagnosticada, con múltiples factores de riesgo. Requiere un proceso de diagnóstico en ocasiones más complejo que en las mujeres. Objetivo: Identificar factores biológicos relacionados con la masa ósea en hombres de edad mediana. Métodos: Se realizó estudio descriptivo, transversal, en 43 hombres de edad mediana (40-59 años) entre abril de 2017 y mayo de 2018, que fueron atendidos en el Policlínico Universitario Vedado. Se estudiaron los antecedentes patológicos familiares (APF) de osteoporosis masculina o fracturas por fragilidad, índice de masa corporal (IMC), circunferencia de la cintura (CC), presión arterial (PA), glucemia, colesterol, triglicéridos, creatinina, hormona luteinizante, folículo estimulante, estradiol, testosterona (T), prolactina y paratohormona (PTH) y densitometría dual de Rx (DXA). Según edad y resultado de la DXA, se crearon 4 grupos (de 40-49 y de 50-59 años, en L1-L4 y fémur). Se identificaron hombres con hueso normal y mala masa ósea (MMO). Se determinaron distribuciones de frecuencia (variables cualitativas), y mediana y rango (cuantitativas). Se empleó chi cuadrado para determinar relación entre variables cualitativas y Mann-Whitney para cuantitativas. Para establecer correlación entre variables cuantitativas, se calculó el test de Pearson. Resultados: En hombres de 50-59 años, con antecedentes patológicos familiares de fracturas por fragilidad, predominó la mala masa ósea (75 por ciento). La mediana del índice de masa corporal en hombres de 40-49 años fue mayor (26,7 Kg/m2sc) en los que tenían hueso normal en L1-L4; en los de 50-59 años con aumento de la circunferencia de la cintura predominó la mala masa ósea (3; 75 por ciento). La presión arterial sistólica y diastólica se correlacionaron positivamente con la densidad mineral ósea en L1-L4 ([r = 0,225; p = 0,009], [r = 0,263; p = 0,002]). Hubo correlación positiva entre colesterol y contenido mineral óseo en fémur (r = 0,164; p = 0,002). La testosterona resultó más baja en hombres con hueso normal (40-49 años: 15,3 nmol/L; 50-59 años: 12,5 nmol/L). Se observó correlación negativa entre paratohormona y contenido mineral óseo en fémur (r = -0,324; p = 0,000). Conclusiones: Se puede concluir que, de los factores biológicos estudiados en los hombres de edad mediana del Policlínico Universitario Vedado, los niveles más elevados de presión arterial y colesterol, y más bajos de paratohormona, se asociaron con mejor masa ósea(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Male osteoporosis is a heterogeneous and underdiagnosed clinical condition and with multiple risk factors, which requires a diagnostic process that is sometimes more complex than for women. Objective: To identify biological factors related to bone mass in middle-aged men from "Vedado" University Polyclinic. Methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out with 43 middle-aged (40-59 years old) men, between April 2017 and May 2018. The variables were family pathological history of osteoporosis or fragility fractures, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, glycemia, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, luteinizing hormone, stimulating follicle, estradiol, testosterone, prolactin and parathyroid hormone, and dual x-ray densitometry. According to age and results of the dual x-ray densitometry, four groups were created (40-49 and 50-59 years old, in L1-L4 and femur). The men with normal bone and poor bone mass were identified. Frequency distributions (qualitative variables), as well as median and range (quantitative variables) were determined. The chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between qualitative variables, and the Mann-Whitney test was used for quantitative variables. To establish correlation between quantitative variables, the Pearson test was used. Results: Among men aged 50-59 years and with a family pathological history of fragility fractures, poor bone mass prevailed (75 percent). The median body mass index among men aged 40-49 years was higher (26.7 kg/m2sc) in those with normal bone in L1-L4; among those aged 50-59 years and with increased waist circumference, poor bone mass predominated (3; 75 percent). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were correlated positively with bone mineral density in L1-L4 [(r = 0.225, p = 0.009), (r = 0.263, p = 0.002)]. There was a positive correlation between cholesterol and bone mineral content in the femur (r = 0.164, p = 0.002). T was lower among men with normal bone (15.3 nmol/L for the group 40-49 years old, and 12.5 nmol/L for the group 50-59 years old). A negative correlation was observed between the parathyroid hormone and bone mineral content values in the femur (r = -0.324, p = 0.000). Conclusions: Among the biological factors studied in middle-aged men from "Vedado" University Polyclinic, higher levels of blood pressure and cholesterol, as well as lower levels of the parathyroid hormone were concluded to be associated with better bone mass(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Biological Factors/adverse effects , Body Mass Index , Densitometry/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 903-908, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124874

ABSTRACT

The aim of this research was to determine the differences related to morphological characteristics and body composition among volleyball players of the three most successful volleyball clubs in Montenegro. The results of the survey highligted the differences in terms of morphological characteristics and body composition of the players of VC Budva, VC Buduc´nost and VC Jedinstvo. The sample of 43 subjects was divided into three sub-samples, the sub-sample of the subjects consisting of 12 players of VC Budva, the champions of Montenegro 2018-19, the other sub-sample of 17 players of VC Buducnost, the participant in the European CEV Challenge Cup 2018-19, and the one of the examinees including 14 players of VC Jedinstvo, the champions of Montenegro in the season 2017-18. Morphological characteristics in the body composition were evaluated by a battery of 11 variables: body height, body weight, triceps skinfold, biceps skinfold, skinfold of the back, abdominal skinfold, calf skinfold, thigh skinfold, body mass index, fat percentage and muscle mass. The difference between the players of three the most successful volleyball clubs in the morphological characteristics and variables for assessing body composition were determined by ANOVA and LSD Post Hoc test. ANOVA test found statistically significant differences between these three clubs, determined by six variables that estimate the skinfolds, as well as a variable of estimated body mass index (BMI). LSD Post Hoc test found that the volleyball players of VC Budva have significantly lower values ??with regard to triceps skinfold, biceps skinfold, abdominal skinfold, calf skinfold and thigh skinfold, compared to the players of VC Buducnost and VC Jedinstvo, while in the case of variables that evaluates body mass index (BMI), volleyball players of VC Buducnost have less values compared to the players of VC Budva and VC Jedinstvo.


El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar las diferencias relacionadas con las características morfológicas y la composición corporal entre los jugadores de voléibol de los tres clubes de voleibol más exitosos de Montenegro. Los resultados de la encuesta destacaron las diferencias en términos de características morfológicas y composición corporal de los jugadores de VC Budva, VC Buducnost y VC Jedinstvo. La muestra de 43 sujetos se dividió en tres submuestras, la submuestra de las asignaturas consistió en 12 jugadores de VC Budva, los campeones de Montenegro 2018-19, la otra submuestra de 17 jugadores de VC Buducnost, el participante en la European CEV Challenge Cup 2018-19, y uno de los examinados, incluidos 14 jugadores de VC Jedinstvo, campeones de Montenegro en la temporada 2017-18. Las características morfológicas en la composición corporal se evaluaron mediante una batería de 11 variables: altura corporal, peso corporal, pliegue cutáneo del tríceps, pliegue cutáneo del bíceps, pliegue cutáneo de la espalda, pliegue abdominal, pliegue cutáneo de la pantorrilla, pliegue cutáneo del muslo, índice de masa corporal, porcentaje de grasa y masa muscular. . La diferencia entre los jugadores de los tres clubes de voleibol más exitosos en las características morfológicas y las variables para evaluar la composición corporal, se determinó mediante pruebas de ANOVA y LSD Post Hoc. La prueba ANOVA encontró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre estos tres clubes, determinadas por seis variables que estiman los pliegues cutáneos, así como una variable de índice de masa corporal (IMC) estimado. La prueba LSD Post Hoc encontró que los jugadores de voleibol de VC Budva tienen valores significativamente más bajos con respecto al pliegue de tríceps, pliegue de bíceps, pliegue abdominal, pliegue de pantorrilla y pliegue de muslo, en comparación con los jugadores de VC Buducnost y VC Jedinstvo, mientras que en el caso de Las variables que evalúan el índice de masa corporal (IMC), los jugadores de voléibol de VC Buducnost tienen menos valores, en comparación con los jugadores de VC Budva y VC Jedinstvo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Body Composition , Volleyball , Skinfold Thickness , Body Height , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , Montenegro
13.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 225, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103378

ABSTRACT

Las medidas antropométricas resultan de utilidad para evaluar el estado nutricional, son fáciles de obtener cuando se aplican a poblaciones de ancianos ambulantes. Objetivo: evaluar antropométricamente un grupo de adultos mayores; para ello se midieron las variables: edad, peso, talla, Circunferencia de cintura (CC), perímetro de pantorrilla (PP) y se calcularon IMC, ICT, IPCC y %GC. Métodos: Se seleccionó un grupo de adultos mayores, quienes asistieron a la consulta en una clinica privada, del área metropolitana de Caracas, durante los mese de junio y octubre de 2015. Se determinaron los indicadores IMC, CC, PP, ICT, IPCC y %GC, para clasificar, según las categorías de cada uno, a los adultos, y evaluar su estado nutricional. Resultados: Los resultados indican edad 71,9±7,9 años, peso 67,1±13,9, talla 157,6±9,2 cm, CC 93,7±12,2, PP 33,7±4,1, IMC 26,9±4,7, ICT 0,60±0,08, IPCC 0,71±0,10 y %GC 40,4±7,7. Desnutrición según el PP 42,3%(M) y 15,6%(F); Sobrepeso según IMC 69,1%(M) y 62,9% (F); obesidad 30,8% (M) y 37.1%(F). Riesgo elevado y riesgo muy elevado, según la CC, 42,1% (M) y 20,6% (F), y 58,9% (M) y 77,4% (F), respectivamente. ICT revela obesidad 20,7% (M) y 62,2% (F); IPCC riesgo 78,2% (M) y 49,6% (F); %GC obesida 95,5% (M) y 98,3% (F). Correlaciones altas entre CC-ICT, Peso-IMC, Peso-CC, Peso-IPCC (r ≥ 0,80 y p<0,001). Conclusión: los indicadores son muy útiles para evaluar el estado nutricional, y disponer de varios de ellos, permite complementar la evaluación nutricional en el adulto mayor(AU)


Anthropometric measurements are useful for evaluating nutritional status, they are easy to obtain when applied to ambulatory elderly populations. Objective: to anthropometrically evaluate a group of older adults; For this, the variables: age, weight, height, waist circumference (CC), calf circumference (PP) were measured and BMI, ICT, IPCC and% GC were calculated. Methods: A group of older adults was selected, who attended the consultation in a private clinic, in the Caracas metropolitan area, during the months of June and October 2015. The indicators BMI, CC, PP, ICT, IPCC and% GC were determined. To classify, according to the categories of each, adults, and assess their nutritional status. Results: The results indicate age 71.9 ± 7.9 years, weight 67.1 ± 13.9, height 157.6 ± 9.2 cm, CC 93.7 ± 12.2, PP 33.7 ± 4.1, BMI 26.9 ± 4.7, ICT 0.60 ± 0.08, IPCC 0.71 ± 0.10 and% GC 40.4 ± 7.7. Malnutrition according to the PP 42.3% (M) and 15.6% (F); Overweight according to BMI 69.1% (M) and 62.9% (F); obesity 30.8% (M) and 37.1% (F). According to the CC, high risk and very high risk, 42.1% (M) and 20.6% (F), and 58.9% (M) and 77.4% (F), respectively. ICT reveals obesity 20.7% (M) and 62.2% (F); IPCC risk 78.2% (M) and 49.6% (F); % GC obesity 95.5% (M) and 98.3% (F). High correlations between CC-ICT, Weight-BMI, Weight-CC, Weight-IPCC (r ≥ 0.80 and p <0.001). Conclusion: the indicators are very useful to assess nutritional status, and having several of them, allows to complement the nutritional evaluation in the elderly(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Body Mass Index , Nutritional Status , Waist Circumference , Body Composition , Anthropometry
14.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 208, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103357

ABSTRACT

La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) representa un problema de salud pública, debido a su alta incidencia y prevalencia en el mundo. Un método para evaluar el riesgo de desarrollar DM2 es la escala Latin American Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (LA FINDRISC). La DM2 es un factor de riesgo de enfermedad arterial periférica (EAP) la cual puede ser diagnosticada mediante el índice tobillo-brazo (ITB). Objetivo: evaluar la presencia y severidad de enfermedad arterial periférica mediante ITB y relacionarlo con el riesgo de desarrollar DM2 según LA FINDRISC. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, correlacional, de corte transversal. Se evaluaron 134 personas y se les midió glicemia capilar para descartar diabetes. Posteriormente, se realizó el LA FINDRISC y el ITB. Resultados: El puntaje LA FINDRISC y la glicemia alteradas en ayunas aumentaron proporcionalmente (R2=0,5). Esta relación no se observó entre LA FINDRISC y el ITB arrojado por la población general. Sin embargo, al seleccionar los pacientes con vasos no comprimibles aparece una correlación positiva (R2=0,36) entre los dos instrumentos diagnósticos. Conclusión: LA FINDRISC y el ITB son instrumentos de diagnósticos no invasivo, sencillos y válidos para detectar riesgo de desarrollar DM2, y detectar presencia y severidad de enfermedad arterial periférica, respectivamente(AU)


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) represents a public health problem, due to its high incidence and prevalence in the world. One method to assess the risk of developing DM2 is the Latin American Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (LA FINDRISC) scale. DM2 is a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) which can be diagnosed using the ankle-brachial index (ABI). Objective: to evaluate the presence and severity of peripheral arterial disease using ABI and to relate it to the risk of developing DM2 according to LA FINDRISC. Methods: descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional study. 134 people were evaluated, and capillary glycemia was measured to rule out diabetes. Subsequently, the LA FINDRISC and the ITB were held. Results: The LA FINDRISC score and impaired fasting blood glucose increased proportionally (R2 = 0.5). This relationship was not observed between LA FINDRISC and the ITB showed by the general population. However, when selecting patients with non-compressible vessels, a positive correlation (R2 = 0.36) appears between the two diagnostic instruments. Conclusion: FINDRISC and ITB are simple and valid non-invasive diagnostic instruments to detect the risk of developing DM2, and detect the presence and severity of peripheral arterial disease, respectively(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Body Weights and Measures , Anthropometry , Abdominal Circumference
15.
Arch. med ; 20(2): 428-436, 20200703.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118898

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: el propósito de este estudio fue determinar la relación entre el índice de masa corporal, el índice de masa grasa y la tensión arterial en un grupo de cadetes con sobrepeso. El índice de masa corporal no estima la adiposidad como sí sucede con el índice de masa grasa; a su vez, el exceso de adiposidad predispone el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional retrospectivo. Se aplicaron estadísticos descriptivos y correlación de Pearson. Resultados: 90 cadetes con edad promedio 22 ± 3años y con índice de masa corporal de 27,3 ± 2 kg/m2, hicieron parte del estudio. El índice de masa grasa no presentó diferencias significativas entre hombres y mujeres: 7,62 ± 2,37 kg/m2 y 7,8 ± 2,3kg/m2 respectivamente (p: 0,38). En hombres, la tensión arterial sistólica y diastólica fue normal y sin diferencias significativas (p > 0,05). En los hombres, la tensión arterial diastólica se relacionó con valor absoluto de la masa grasa (r= 0,420 p 0,00) y con el índice de masa grasa (r=0,386 p: 0,00). En las mujeres, el índice de masa grasa se relacionó con el índice de masa corporal (r= 0,516 p= 0,00) y la tensión arterial sistólica se relacionó con la circunferencia de la cintura (r= 0,357 p: 0,03). Conclusiones: en jóvenes militares el índice de masa corporal ≥ 25 kg/m2, no se relaciona con la tensión arterial y el índice de masa grasa, no sugiere sobrepeso por adiposidad..Au


Objective: the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index, body mass index and blood pressure in a group of overweight cadets. The body mass index does not estimate adiposity as if it happens with the fat mass index.In turn, excess adiposity predisposes the development of cardiovascular diseases Materials and methods: retrospective observational study. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation were applied. Results: 90 cadets with an average age of 22 ± 3 years and a body mass index of 27.3 ± 2 kg / m2 were part of the study. The fat mass index did not show significant differences between men and women: 7.62 ± 2.37 kg / m2 and 7.8 ± 2.3kg / m2 respectively (p: 0.38). In men, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was normal and without significant differences (p> 0.05). In men, diastolic blood pressure was related to absolute value of fat mass (r = 0.420 p 0.00) and to the fat mass index (r = 0.386 p: 0.00). In women, the fat mass index was related to the body mass index (r = 0.516 p = 0.00) and the systolic blood pressure was related to the waist circumference (r = 0.357 p: 0.03). Conclusions: in young military the body mass index ≥ 25 kg / m2, is not related to blood pressure and fat mass index, does not suggest overweight due to adiposity..Au


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Mass Index , Arterial Pressure
16.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(1): 7-13, jul.2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1119374

ABSTRACT

El embarazo adolescente es un problema de salud pública por sus consecuencias sociales, de salud y nutrición para el binomio madre-hijo. Con el objetivo de evaluar el estado nutricional de adolescentes embarazadas que acudieron a la consulta de Alto Riesgo Obstétrico del Hospital Central Universitario Dr. Antonio María Pineda, se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, seleccionando 165 adolescentes embarazadas las cuales se caracterizaron por un promedio de edad de 17,24 ± 1,54 años, 45,4% tenían anemia y 72,1% eran primigestas. La edad promedio de la menarquia y de la sexarquia fue 11,66 ± 1,40 años y 15,13 ± 1,83 años, respectivamente. Con respecto al estado nutricional, el 54,5% de las adolescentes presentaron bajo peso y 38,7% normopeso durante el primer trimestre; en el tercer trimestre, el 67,2% de las adolescentes tenían un peso normal, 17,5% bajo peso y 10,3% sobrepeso. Con respecto al progreso del estado nutricional, de las adolescentes que tenían bajo peso en el primer trimestre, 67,7% pasaron a tener un peso normal y 32,2% seguían presentando bajo peso; 79,7% de las pacientes con normopeso se mantuvieron igual, 18,7% pasaron a tener sobrepeso y 1,5% obesidad. Los resultados demuestran que el control antropométrico es necesario para monitorear nutricionalmente a las adolescentes embarazadas con la finalidad de prevenir o controlar la ocurrencia de condiciones materno-fetales indeseables(AU)


Adolescent pregnancy is a public health problem due to its social, health and nutritional consequences for the mother and child. With the goal to evaluate the nutritional status of pregnant adolescents who attended the High Obstetric Risk clinic of the Hospital Central Universitario Dr. Antonio Maria Pineda, a cross-sectional descriptive study was done in 165 pregnant adolescents with an average age of 17.24 ± 1.54 years, 45.4% had anemia and 72.1% were primiparous. The average age of menarche and sexarquia was 11.66 ± 1.4 years and 15.13 ± 1.83 years, respectively. In regards to nutritional status, 54.5% of adolescents had low weight and 38.7% had normal weight in the first trimester. In the third trimester, 67.2% had normal weight, 17.5% had low weight and 10.3% were overweight. In regards to nutritional status progress, 67.7% of adolescents that were underweight in the first trimester had normal weight in the third trimester and 32.3% continued to have low weight; 79.7% of adolescents with normal weight in the first trimester continued to have normal weight while 18.7% became overweight and 1.5% obese. These results show that anthropometric control is necessary in order to nutritionally monitor pregnant adolescents and prevent or control the occurrence of undesirable maternal-fetal conditions(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Pregnancy in Adolescence , Body Mass Index , Maternal-Fetal Relations , Pregnancy Complications , Nutritional Status
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 731-736, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098313

ABSTRACT

Regardless of sex or body size, police tasks may require officers to change direction speed (CODS) under occupational loads. The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition and CODS in female and male police cadets in both unloaded and occupationally loaded conditions. Body composition and CODS of 51 female (FPC) and 70 male police cadets (MPC) were assessed. Six body composition indices were used: Body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF), percent of skeletal muscle mass (PSMM), protein fat index (PFI), index of hypokinesia (IH), and skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI). The CODS was assessed by Illinois Agility Test (IAT) and IAT while carrying a 10-kg load (LIAT). An independent sample t-test was used to identify the differences between the sexes. The regression determined associations between body composition and LIAT. The alpha level was set at p < 0.05 a priori. MPC had significantly higher (p < 0.001) BMI, PSMM, PFI and SMMI and lower PBF and IH than FPC. MPC were also faster in IAT and LIAT, carrying lower relative loads that imparted less of an impact on CODS performance. Body composition was strongly associated with the time to complete LIAT (R2 = 0.671, p < 0.001). Difference in relative load and body composition influenced CODS performance in both unloaded and loaded conditions. Thus, optimizing body composition through increasing skeletal muscle mass and reducing fat mass could positively influence unloaded and loaded CODS performance and improve elements of police task performance.


El trabajo policial puede requerir que los oficiales cambien la velocidad de dirección (CVD) bajo cargas ocupacionales, indistintamente del sexo o tamaño corporal. El propósito de este estudio fue investigar la composición corporal y los CVD en cadetes de policía de ambos sexos, tanto en condiciones de descarga como de trabajo. Se evaluaron la composición corporal y los CVD de 51 mujeres (CPF) y 70 cadetes de policía masculinos (CPM). Se utilizaron seis índices de composición corporal: índice de masa corporal (IMC), porcentaje de grasa corporal (PGC), porcentaje de masa muscular esquelética (PMME), índice de grasa proteica (IGP), índice de hipocinesia (IH) e índice de masa muscular esquelética (IMME). El CVD fue evaluado por Illinois Agility Test (IAT) y IAT mientras transportaba una carga de 10 kg (LIAT). Se usó una prueba t de muestra independiente para identificar las diferencias entre los sexos. La regresión determinó asociaciones entre la composición corporal y LIAT. El nivel alfa se estableció en p <0,05 a priori. CPM registraron un IMC, PMME, PGC y IMME significativamente más altos (p <0,001) y PGC e IH más bajos que las mujeres (CPF). Los CPM también fueron más rápidos en IAT y LIAT, llevando cargas más bajas, las que tuvieron un impacto menor en el rendimiento de CVD. La composición corporal estaba asociada con el tiempo para completar LIAT (R2 = 0,671, p <0,001). La diferencia en la carga relativa y la composición corporal influyeron en el rendimiento de CVD tanto en condiciones descargadas como cargadas. Por lo tanto, la optimización de la composición corporal a través del aumento de la masa del músculo esquelético, y la reducción de la masa grasa podrían influir de manera positiva en el rendimiento de CVD descargados y cargados, mejorando el rendimiento del trabajo policial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Body Composition , Sex Characteristics , Police , Movement/physiology , Body Mass Index , Logistic Models , Sex Factors , Adipose Tissue , Workload
18.
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(2): 171-177, ilus, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125798

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: la colecistectomía laparoscópica es uno de los procedimientos quirúrgicos más frecuentemente realizados. Las diferencias en la anatomía y en el grado de inflamación vesicular suelen causar dificultades técnicas intraoperatorias. Objetivo: determinar el valor de la proteína C reactiva (PCR) y la velocidad de sedimentación globular (VSG) como predictores de colecistectomía dificultosa y evaluar su aplicación en la planificación prequirúrgica de un programa de residencia universitario. Material y métodos: se confeccionó un estudio retrospectivo, analítico, en un hospital universitario de tercer nivel. Se incluyeron 104 pacientes adultos operados de colecistectomía laparoscópica por litiasis vesicular sintomática entre enero y julio de 2019. Se categorizó a los pacientes en un grupo de colecistectomías dificultosas y otro de colecistectomías no dificultosas. Resultados: se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas al comparar los valores de VSG y PCR de ambos grupos (p < 0,001). La sensibilidad de la VSG fue del 100%, la especificidad del 45%, el VPP del 40% y el VPN de 100%. La sensibilidad de la PCR fue del 87,5%, la especificidad del 86,3%, el VPP del 70% y el VPN de 95%. Ambos parámetros se vieron elevados en 14 de 16 colecistectomías dificultosas y en 2 de 44 colecistectomías no dificultosas. La sensibilidad para ambos parámetros elevados fue del 87,5%, la especificidad del 95%, el VPP del 87,5% y el VPN de 95%. Conclusión: la VSG y la PCR han demostrado ser un método fiable en la predicción de colecistectomías dificultosas por litiasis vesicular sintomática. Esto podría ser aplicado en la programación de cirugías dentro de un programa de residencia universitario.


Background: laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most common procedures performed in general surgery. The anatomical differences of the gallbladder and the presence of factors related to inflammation can cause technical issues during surgery. Objective: the aim of the present study was to determine the value of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) as predictors of difficult cholecystectomy and to evaluate their application during presurgical planning within a university residency program. Material and methods: we conducted a retrospective and analytical study in a tertiary university hospital. A total of 104 adult patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to symptomatic cholelithiasis between January and July 2019 were included. The patients were categorized into two groups: difficult cholecystectomy and non-difficult cholecystectomy. Results: there were statistically significant differences in ESR and CRP values between both groups (p < 0.001). Sensitivity of ESR was 100%, specificity was 45%, with a PPV of 40% and NPV of 100%. Sensitivity of CRP was 87.5%, specificity was 86.3%, with a PPV of 70% and NPV of 95%. Both parameters were elevated in 14 of 16 difficult cholecystectomies and in 2 of 44 non-difficult cholecystectomies. Sensitivity of CRP was 87.5%, specificity was 86.3%, with a PPV of 70% and NPV of 95%. Conclusion: measuring ESR and CRP has proved to be a reliable method to predict difficult cholecystectomies due to symptomatic cholelithiasis. This could be applied for surgical planning within a university residency program.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic/methods , General Surgery/methods , Blood Sedimentation , Body Mass Index , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, University , Inflammation/diagnosis , Internship and Residency
19.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(2): e793, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126745

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El índice de masa corporal es un indicador de la densidad corporal. El trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad es un síndrome que presenta tres síntomas: inatención, hiperactividad e impulsividad. Objetivo: Analizar la relación entre el índice de masa corporal y el trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad en niños. Métodos: Investigación observacional, transversal, analítica bivariada y ambispectiva, desarrollada en 111 niñas y 125 niños, de 10 a 12 años de edad estudiantes de la Unidad Educativa Hispano América de la ciudad de Ambato, Ecuador, en el período septiembre 2017- febrero 2018. Los datos del índice de masa corporal y el trastorno por déficit de atención se procesaron en Microsoft Excel, el software Minitab® 18.1 para el cálculo de los coeficientes de correlación de Pearson y Spearman, y prueba de Grubbs para comprobar normalidad y análisis de valores atípicos. Resultados: La media del índice de masa corporal fue de 20,15 en niños y 20,63 en niñas, lo que se consideró normal. El trastorno por déficit de atención: 93,7 por ciento de niñas y 90,4 por ciento de niños, también fue normal. En estos últimos, existió una ligera predisposición por este trastorno. La correlación entre ambas variables fue ligeramente positiva: niñas 0,02 y niños 0,457. Conclusiones: El índice de masa corporal y el trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad tienen parámetros normales en niñas y niños y existe entre ambos una correlación positiva débil. Es necesario establecer estrategias educativas para la disminución de la obesidad y malnutrición infantil(AU)


Introduction: The body mass index is an indicator of body density, determined by the relationship between body weight and height. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a syndrome with three symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Objective: To analyze the relationship between the body mass index and the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in students. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional, bivariate and ambispective analytical research, carried out in a population of 111 girls and 125 boys, from 10 to 12 years of the Hispanic American Education Unit of the city of Ambato, Ecuador, in the period September 2017 - February 2018. Processing data in Microsoft Excel for body mass index and for the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and with Minitab® 18.1 software for the calculation of coefficients of Pearson and Spearman correlation, as well as the normality tests and analysis of outliers with the Grubbs test. Results: The average for body mass index was 20.15 in boys and 20.63 in girls, considered normal. Normal results were obtained in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in 93.7 percent of girls and 90.4 percent of boys, there being a slight predisposition for this disorder. The correlation between both variables was slightly positive: girls 0.202 and boys 0.457. Conclusions: Both, body mass index and the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have normal parameters in girls and boys, with a weak positive correlation between them. It was proposed to establish educational strategies for the reduction of obesity and child malnutrition(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/complications , Body Mass Index , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador
20.
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(2): 165-170, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125797

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analizar la evolución de las comorbilidades mayores e índice de masa corporal a largo plazo en pacientes intervenidos de cirugía bariátrica. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo transversal sobre una muestra de 38 pacientes intervenidos de cirugía bariátrica entre los años 2008 y 2011. La muestra se compone de 32 mujeres y 6 varones, con una media de edad de 43,52 años. Las intervenciones quirúrgicas realizadas fueron 8 bandas gástricas, 8 gastrectomías verticales y 22 by-pass. Resultados: la DM mejora en un 71,43% de los casos, la HTA en 47,05%, la DL en un 75% y el SAOS en un 70%. Por encima de los 5 años de seguimiento, el 28,9% de los pacientes presenta obesidad tipo I, el 23,7% presenta sobrepeso, el 23,7% obesidad tipo II y el 23,7% obesidad tipo III. Conclusión: la cirugía bariátrica consigue la resolución de comorbilidades asociadas a la obesidad en un porcentaje muy elevado de casos, siendo la más efectiva la dislipemia. La reganancia de peso a largo plazo sigue siendo un problema en estos pacientes así como su seguimiento por encima de los 5 años.


Objective: The aim of this paper is to analyze the outcome of major comorbidities and body mass index during long-term follow-up in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Material and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 28 patients (32 women and 6 men; mean age: 43.52 years) undergoing bariatric surgery between 2008 and 2011. The surgical procedures performed were adjustable gastric banding (n =8), sleeve gastrectomy (n = 8) and gastric bypass (n = 22). Results: Diabetes mellitus was resolved in 73.43% of cases, hypertension in 47.05%, dyslipidemia in 75% and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in 70%. Five years after surgery, 28.9% of the patients had obesity class I, 23.7% had overweight, 23.7% had obesity class II and 23.7% had obesity class III. Conclusion: bariatric surgery achieves resolution of comorbidities associated with obesity in a high percentage of cases. This effect is more effective in dyslipidemia. Weight regain in the long-term and follow-up beyond five years after surgery are still pending issues.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Obesity, Morbid/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Time , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
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