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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S77-S106, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1282794

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La prevalencia del vegetarianismo aumenta a nivel mundial y no hay consenso acerca de si este tipo de alimentación es adecuado durante el período de crecimiento. Objetivo. Se realizó una revisión descriptiva de la literatura con el objetivo de conocer si los niños e hijos de madres que siguen dietas vegetarianas crecen de manera diferente a los niños con dietas omnívoras. Métodos. Se incluyen 25 artículos publicados entre los años 1995-2020, que describen el crecimiento prenatal, postnatal y desarrollo puberal en niños vegetarianos e hijos de madres vegetarianas. Conclusión. La escasez de estudios longitudinales y resultados en el largo plazo, la heterogeneidad en la clasificación y el registro de las dietas, además de deficiencias metodológicas, no permiten concluir que el crecimiento de estos niños sea diferente al de los niños que siguen dietas omnívoras. Se requieren estudios longitudinales en el largo plazo para contribuir a dirimir esta controversia


The prevalence of vegetarianism is rising worldwide and there is no consensus about whether it is adequate during the growth period. The objective of this descriptive review is to find out if vegetarian children and children born from mothers who follow vegetarian diets, grow different from those who follow omnivorous diets. Results. 25 articles published between 1995 and 2020 were included describing prenatal and postnatal growth and pubertal development in vegetarian children and children of vegetarian mothers. Conclusion. The scarcity of longitudinal studies and long-term results, the heterogeneity in the classification and registration of the diets, in addition to methodological deficiencies, do not allow to conclude that the growth of these children is different from children on omnivorous diets. Long-term longitudinal studies are required to help to solve this controversy


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Diet, Vegetarian , Child Development , Adolescent Development , Mothers , Infant Formula , Body Size , Prenatal Nutrition , Diet, Vegan
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(5): s142-s152, oct 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1122562

ABSTRACT

Es innegable la necesidad de contar con curvas estándar de tamaño al nacer y crecimiento para evaluar y contribuir a orientar las acciones en la atención del neonato. Durante muchos años, se utilizaron las referencias de Lejarraga y Fustiñana, que fueron progresivamente reemplazadas por las de Fenton y Kim.Recientemente, el proyecto INTERGROWTH-21st construyó estándares de crecimiento prescriptivo para evaluar el tamaño al nacer desde las 33 semanas de edad gestacional, referencias para evaluar el tamaño al nacer desde las 24 a las 32,6 semanas de edad gestacional y curvas para el seguimiento longitudinal del crecimiento de recién nacidos pretérmino desde las 27 semanas de edad gestacional. Los Comités de Crecimiento y Desarrollo y de Estudios Feto-neonatales de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría, en conjunto con la Secretaría de Gobierno de Salud de la Nación, acordaron recomendar el reemplazo de las curvas de Fenton y Kim por las de INTERGROWTH-21st


It is unquestionable the need to have standards of size at birth and growth to evaluate and contribute to guide the actions in the care of the newborn. For many years the references of Lejarraga and Fustiñana were used, progressively replaced by those of Fenton and Kim. However, recently, the INTERGROWTH-21st project has developed prescriptive growth standards to evaluate the size at birth from 33 weeks of gestational age, references from 24 to 32.6 weeks of gestational age, and curves for postnatal growth from 27 weeks of gestational age onward. The Growth and Development and Neonatal Fetal Studies Committees of the Argentine Society of Pediatrics in conjunction with the Secretary of National Government of Health agreed to recommend the replacement of the Fenton and Kim curves with those of INTERGROWTH-21st.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Birth Weight , Body Size , Growth and Development , Growth Charts , Reference Standards , Infant, Premature/growth & development , Anthropometry , Gestational Age
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1356-1364, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134448

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Studies in humans showed that prenatal exposure to urban air pollution (AP) influences fetal development, and increases the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes and some diseases in postnatal life. However, most of these were performed in environments where the main source of environmental particulate matters (PM) emission is diesel combustion by motor vehicles and industries, thereby ignoring the effects produced by wood smoke pollution. We hypothesized that morphological changes in the placenta could contribute to the reduction in fetal size associated with different periods of exposure to AP produced by wood smoke pollution prior to and during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to investigate the quantitative effects of long-term exposure to environmental levels of wood smoke pollution on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the placenta in rats. To test this, pregnant rats were exposed during pregestational and gestational periods to wood smoke pollution in indoor and outdoor environments. At 19 days of gestation, the placentas were obtained by caesarean and were prepared for histological, planimetric and stereological analysis. The volume and proportions of the placental compartments were estimated. In addition, stereological estimators in fetal capillaries were calculated in the labyrinth region. Crown rump length, fetus weight and litter weight were influenced by pregestational and gestational exposure periods. Exposure to wood smoke pollution during pregestational period has significant effect on the volume of the placenta, and consequently on fetal height. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that long-term outdoor exposure to wood smoke pollution from residential heating affects fetal health, decreasing the absolute volume of the entire placenta and the placental interface between the mother and fetus, decreasing the total volume of blood vessels present in the labyrinth region ofthe placenta and affecting the size of the fetus.


RESUMEN: Estudios en humanos demostraron que la exposición prenatal a la polución del aire urbano influye en el desarrollo fetal y aumenta la incidencia de resultados adversos de la gestación y algunas enfermedades postnatales. Sin embargo, la mayoría de ellos fueron realizados en entornos donde la principal fuente de emisión de material particulado, fue la combustión de petróleo por vehículos a motor e industrias, ignorando los efectos producidos por el humo de leña producido por la calefacción intradomiciliaria. Hipotetizamos respecto a que los cambios de la placenta contribuirían a la disminución del tamaño fetal relacionado a los períodos de exposición al humo de leña durante los periodos pregestacional y gestacional. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar los efectos cuantitativos de la exposición al humo de leña sobre la morfología macroscópica y microscópica en placenta de ratas. Para probar esto, ratas preñadas fueron expuestas durante los períodos pregestacional y gestacional a la contaminación por humo de leña en ambientes interiores y exteriores. A los 19 días de gestación, las placentas fueron obtenidas por cesárea y fueron preparadas para un análisis histológico, planimétrico y estereológico. Fue estimado el volumen absoluto y las proporciones de los compartimentos placentarios. Además, fueron calculados estimadores estereológicos en capilares fetales del laberinto y trofoblasto. La longitud, el peso del feto y el peso de la camada fueron influenciados por los períodos de exposición pregestacional y gestacional. La exposición a la contaminación por humo de leñá durante el período pregestacional tuvo un efecto significativo en el volumen de la placenta y, en consecuencia, en la altura del feto. En conclusión, este estudio demostró que la exposición a largo plazo al humo de leña afecta la salud del feto, disminuyendo el volumen absoluto de la placenta, además, afecta la interfaz placentaria entre la madre y feto, disminuyendo el volumen total de vasos sanguíneos presentes en la región del laberinto placentario y por consecuente afectando el tamaño del feto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Placenta/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Fetus/drug effects , Wood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Combustion/adverse effects , Body Size , Fetal Development/drug effects , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Particulate Matter
4.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 41: [12], 01/01/2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128581

ABSTRACT

To identify the prevalence of distortion and dissatisfaction with the body size of Brazilian university students, and establish their relationship with the demographic and academic characteristics and the anthropometric nutritional status. The sample consisted of students from a public university in the state of São Paulo. The Figure Rating Scale (FRS) for Brazilian adults was used as an instrument. The participants selected the figure that corresponded to the current body and another one for the desired body. The prevalence of distortion and dissatisfaction with body sizewas calculated with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The association between the variables was evaluated by the Chi-Square Test (χ2). The significance level of 5% was adopted. A total of 356 students (women=71.63%) with a mean age of 20.95 (SD=2.55) years participated. The prevalence of distortion and dissatisfaction with body size was 73.03% (95% CI=68.23­77.83) and 79.49% (95% CI=75.3­83.68), respectively. There was a high prevalence of distortion with body size among individuals with low weight (χ2=9.523, p=0.009). Students who distorted the body size (52.31% [95% CI=47.12­57.50]) underestimated their body size. The type of distortion was related to sex (χ2=26.35, p<0.001), physical activity (χ2=4.51, p=0.034), use of supplements (χ2=4.62, p=0.032), andthe anthropometric nutritional status (χ2=9.05, p=0.011). Students dissatisfied with the body (58.66% [95% CI=52.92­64.40]) wished to reduce the body size. The type of dissatisfaction was related to sex (χ2=5.79, p=0.016) and anthropometric nutritional status (χ2=89.83, p<0.001). The prevalence of body size underestimation was higher among men, students who practice physical activity, subjects using dietary supplements and underweight individuals. The wish to decrease body size was higher among women and overweight/obese individuals.(AU)


Subject(s)
Perceptual Distortion , Students , Universities , Nutritional Status/ethnology , Body Size/ethnology , Body Image/psychology , Brazil
7.
Rev. Inst. Nac. Hig ; 50(1-2): 22-29, Diciembre 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1118371

ABSTRACT

El objetivo es comparar dos fórmulas de cálculo del Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) y relacionarlo con otros indicadores como la Circunferencia de Cintura (CC), Índice Cintura-Talla (ICT), Índice Peso Circunferencia de Cintura (IPCC) y etnia. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, prospectivo y correlacional. Una muestra de 480 niños y adolescentes, de 6 a 15 años, de dos instituciones educativas de Caracas, Municipio Libertador, seleccionados al azar de los grados y secciones previamente elegidas, se solicitó consentimiento informado a sus representantes. Variables: etnia, sexo, peso, talla, IMC, CC, ICT, % GC e IPCC. Se determinó promedio, desviación, porcentajes, comparación de medias y porcentajes y correlaciones. RESULTADOS: Promedios del IMC-Oxford ligeramente mayores a los del IMC-Quetelet, por edad. Al clasificar según Normopeso, Sobrepeso y Obesidad, promedios de los dos IMC son significativos; promedios de todas las variables, no significativos por sexo, excepto para el % GC (p<0,000), este aumenta considerablemente con la edad. La clasificación de la CC 15,0 % Riesgo sobrepeso y 5,0 % Obesidad; el % GC clasifica 19,5 % en Exceso, mayor en el sexo femenino, hay un alto porcentaje en Déficit (65,8 %). Correlaciona IMC-Q con IPCC (r=0,84), IMC-O con IPCC (r=0,70) e IMC-Q con IMC-O (r= 0,97). Los indicadores CC, ICT e IPCC, se comportan similarmente en los tres grupos de clasificación de los IMC; y en las tres etnias según los percentiles, y los valores de la CC siempre mayores a los del IPCC. CONCLUSIÓN: el IMC-Oxford puede ser utilizado como una nueva opción para evaluar Sobrepeso y Obesidad, en grupos de niños y adolescentes.


The objective is to compare two Body Mass Index (BMI) calculation formulas and relate it to other indicators such as Waist Circumference (CC), Waist-Size Index (ICT), Weight-Waist Circumference Index (IPCC), and ethnicity. METHODS: Descriptive, cross-cutting, prospective and correlative study. A sample of 480 children and adolescents, aged 6 to 15, from two educational institutions in Caracas, Libertador Municipality, randomly selected from the degrees and sections previously chosen, requested informed consent from their representatives. Variables: ethnicity, gender, weight, size, BMI, WC, ICT, BFP and WWCI. Average, deviation, percentages, comparison of means and percentages and correlations were determined. RESULTS: BMI-Oxford averages slightly higher than BMI-Quetelet, by age. When classifying by Normoweight, Overweight and Obesity, averages of the two BMI are significant; averages of all variables, not significant by sex, except for % GC (p<0.000), this increases considerably with age. CC rating 15.0 % Overweight risk and 5.0 % Obesity; % GC ranks 19.5 % in Excess, higher in the female sex, there is a high percentage in Deficit (65,8 %). It maps IMC-Q to WWCI (r-0.84), IMC-O with WWCI (r-0.70), and IMC-Q with IMC-O (r-0.97). The CC, WTS and WWCI indicators behave similarly in the three BMI classification groups; and in the three ethnicities according to the percentiles, and the VALUES of the WC always higher than those of the WWCI. CONCLUSION: BMI-Oxford can be used as a new option to evaluate Overweight and Obesity, in groups of children and adolescents .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Body Size , Overweight , Body Weight , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Ethnic Distribution , Waist Circumference , Waist-Height Ratio , Correlation of Data , Obesity
8.
Acta amaz ; 49(4): 299-306, out. - dez. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118948

ABSTRACT

The relationships between fish size and sagitta otolith measurements were calculated for the first time for 15 species belonging to six families from the northern Brazilian coast. A total of 220 fish were sampled from the bycatch landed by the bottom-trawl industrial shrimp-fishing fleet between August and September 2016. All species had strong relationships between otolith measurements and fish total length with the coefficient of determination (r 2) ranging between 0.71 and 0.99. The variable most strongly related to fish total length was found to be the sagittal otolith length (OL) with 98% of the variability. These relationships are a useful tool to estimate length and mass of preyed fish from otoliths found in stomach contents of marine predators. (AU)


Subject(s)
Otolithic Membrane , Amazonian Ecosystem , Body Size , Fisheries , Gastrointestinal Contents
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 133-138, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984010

ABSTRACT

Abstract Length and weight relationships and descriptive statistics are reported for six shrimp species caught off the Madeira archipelago between 1983 and 2014 using bottom and floating traps from depths ranging from 50 to 1,300 m. The parameter b ranged between 2.36 for Plesionika ensis and 2.97 for Plesionika williamsi. All species showed a pattern of negative allometric growth. To the authors' knowledge all weight-length relationships presented herein are recorded for the first time from the Madeira area, and in the cases of Ligur ensiferus and Plesionika ensis are the first references worldwide.


Resumo As relações peso-comprimento e a estatística descritiva foram estimadas para seis espécies de camarões, capturados ao largo do arquipélago da Madeira, entre 1983 e 2014, usando armadilhas de fundo e alvoradas entre os 50 e 1.300 metros de profundidade. O parâmetro b variou entre 2,36 para Plesionika ensis e 2,97 para Plesionika williamsi. Todas as espécies evidenciaram um padrão de crescimento alométrico negativo. De acordo com o conhecimento dos autores, todas as relações peso-comprimento são aqui apresentadas pela primeira vez para a área da Madeira e no caso de Ligur ensiferus e Plesionika ensis são a primeira referência mundial.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Decapoda/physiology , Portugal , Body Weight , Atlantic Ocean , Pandalidae/physiology , Body Size
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 139-143, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984004

ABSTRACT

Abstract The southern distribution of the Broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris Daudin 1802) in Argentina occurs in Santa Fe Province, where its population has been under management by "Proyecto Yacaré" since 1990. From 1997 to 2016, we captured 77 nesting female Broad-snouted Caimans in Santa Fe Province. Our results suggest that previously defined size classes for Broad-snouted Caiman do not adequately describe the reproductively mature female segment of the population. Here we propose to change size ranges for general size classes for Broad-snouted Caiman. In addition, we have observed that reintroduced reproductive females by Proyecto Yacaré represent about 32% of captured females. These results indicate that reintroduced females by the management program are surviving and reproducing in the wild at least up to 20 years.


Resumo Na Argentina, a distribuição mais austral do jacaré-de-papo-amarelo (Caiman latirostris Daudin 1802) ocorre na Provincia de Santa Fe, sendo que suas populações são manejadas pelo "Proyecto Yacaré" desde 1990. Entre os anos de 1997 e 2016, nós capturamos 77 fêmeas nidificantes do jacaré-de-papo-amarelo em Santa Fe. Nossos resultados sugerem que as classes de tamanho definidas para o jacaré-de-papo-amarelo não representam a realidade dos animais capturados no presente estudo. Portanto, propõe-se uma alteração nas classes de tamanho para o jacaré-de-papo-amarelo. Nós também observamos que as fêmeas reintroduzidas pelo "Proyecto Yacaré" representaram 32% das fêmeas capturadas. Estes resultados indicam que fêmeas reintroduzidas pelo programa de manejo estão sobrevivendo e reproduzindo na natureza por, pelo menos, 20 anos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Body Size , Alligators and Crocodiles/physiology , Argentina , Reproduction
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 111-119, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983992

ABSTRACT

Abstract Analysis of abundance and population structure of Plesionika narval was performed on data concerning 5,255 specimens obtained from 62 fishing sets carried out off the Madeira archipelago (Northeastern Atlantic) between 2004 and 2008 in a depth range from 101 to 350 m. Abundance ranged from 0.01 to 19.74 specimens-per-trap and significant differences were found between seasons, probably as a result of an increment of population in the spring during the recruitment season. The analysis of size distribution revealed that the carapace length (CL) ranged from 2.45 to 28.61 mm and that mean female size consistently exceeded that of males. Differences in mean CL were statistically significant between depth strata and seasons. Of the specimens sampled, 57.00% were males, 41.88% females and 1.42% undetermined. Sex ratio also differed significantly between seasons according to depth strata, consolidating the hypothesis of the existence of seasonal migrations related with the reproductive cycle of this species. Ovigerous females showed larger sizes and occurred all year around and remain in shallow waters in winter, summer and autumn and move to deeper waters in spring. The highest frequency of ovigerous females was recorded in summer, between 151 and 200 m deep supporting the hypothesis that spawning of this species occurs in shallow waters, especially in late summer.


Resumo O estudo de abundância e dinâmica populacional de Plesionika narval foi efetuado com 5.255 espécimes provenientes de 62 lances de pesca realizados ao largo do arquipélago da Madeira (Atlântico Nordeste) de 2004 a 2008 entre 101 e 350 m de profundidade. A abundância oscilou entre 0,01 e 19,74 espécimes-por-armadilha com diferenças significativas entre estações provavelmente devido ao aumento da população na primavera durante o período de recrutamento. A análise da distribuição de tamanhos revelou que o comprimento da carapaça (CL) variou entre 2,45 e 28,61 mm e que o tamanho médio das fêmeas excedeu o dos machos. Verificaram-se diferenças significativas no CL médio entre estrato de profundidade e estação. Do total amostrado, 57,00% foram machos, 41,88% fêmeas e 1,42% indeterminados. A razão de sexos também diferiu significativamente entre estações de acordo com a profundidade, consolidando a hipótese da existência de migrações sazonais relacionadas com o ciclo reprodutivo desta espécie. As fêmeas ovadas apresentaram maiores tamanhos e ocorreram durante todo o ano permanecendo em águas pouco profundas no inverno, verão e outono e migrando para águas profundas na primavera. A maior frequência de fêmeas ovadas foi registada no verão, entre 151 e 200 m de profundidade reforçando a hipótese de que a desova desta espécie ocorre em águas menos profundas, especialmente no final do verão.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pandalidae/physiology , Animal Distribution , Portugal , Reproduction , Seasons , Sex Ratio , Atlantic Ocean , Population Dynamics , Body Size
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761744

ABSTRACT

We tried a series of morphological and molecular approaches to identify a new species of Stellantchasmus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) originating from the wrestling half-beaked fish, Dermogenys pusillus of Thailand. Adult worm samples of the new species were recovered from hamsters experimentally infected with the metacercariae from D. pusillus in Thailand. Two isolates (Thai and Korean) of Stellantchasmus falcatus were used as comparative control groups. Worm samples of 3 Stellantchasmus groups were morphologically observed and molecularly analyzed with the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene. The morphological characteristics of S. dermogenysi n. sp. are similar to S. falcatus originating from brackish water fish, but minor difference was noted including the absence of the prepharynx, position of the ovary near the ceca end, smaller body size, and shorter esophageal length. A phylogenetic tree derived from neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood methods suggests that S. dermogenysi n. sp. is separated from S. falcatus supported by high bootstrap values. The relative divergences persist between these host-specific trematodes, which we suggest should be recognized as 2 distinct species. Comparisons of S. dermogenysi n. sp. with S. falcatus isolated from mullets in Thailand and Korea indicate a genetic divergence of mitochondrial DNA of 19.4% and 21.7%, respectively. By the present study, a new species, Stellantchasmus dermogenysi n. sp. (Digenea: Heterophyidae), is proposed in Thailand based on molecular evidences, in addition to minor morphological differences between S. falcatus and the new species.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Body Size , Cricetinae , DNA, Mitochondrial , Electron Transport Complex IV , Female , Humans , Korea , Metacercariae , Ovary , Phylogeny , Saline Waters , Smegmamorpha , Thailand , Trees , Wrestling
13.
Journal of Stroke ; : 60-68, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: As risk of hemorrhagic stroke may have early life origins, we investigated associations of birth weight and childhood body mass index (BMI) with adult intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: We included 240,234 Danish schoolchildren, born 1936 to 1989, with information on birth weight and measured weights and heights from 7 to 13 years. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between early life anthropometrics and ICH or SAH, identified through linkage with national registers. RESULTS: During the study period, 1,947 individuals (39% women) experienced an ICH and 797 individuals (64% women) experienced a SAH. Per 500 g increase in birth weight, women had a 10% decreased risk of SAH (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.97) and men had a 10% decreased risk of ICH (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85 to 0.95). Birth weight was not associated with risks of ICH in women or SAH in men. In men, a childhood BMI below average (BMI z-score < 0) was associated with increased risks of ICH. The association was stronger at older childhood ages, and at 13 years a BMI z-score of –1 was associated with a HR of 1.17 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.28), and a BMI z-score of –2 with a HR of 1.46 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.82) for ICH. Childhood BMI was not associated with risks of ICH in women or with risks of SAH in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Early life body size is associated with ICH and SAH, and the associations differ by sex.


Subject(s)
Adult , Birth Weight , Body Mass Index , Body Size , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Hemorrhage , Humans , Male , Origin of Life , Stroke , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Weights and Measures
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739531

ABSTRACT

Scratching is a main behavioral response accompanied by acute and chronic itch conditions, and has been quantified as an objective correlate to assess itch in studies using laboratory animals. Scratching has been counted mostly by human annotators, which is a time-consuming and laborious process. It has been attempted to develop automated scoring methods using various strategies, but they often require specialized equipment, costly software, or implantation of device which may disturb animal behaviors. To complement limitations of those methods, we have adapted machine learning-based strategy to develop a novel automated and real-time method detecting mouse scratching from experimental movies captured using monochrome cameras such as a webcam. Scratching is identified by characteristic changes in pixels, body position, and body size by frame as well as the size of body. To build a training model, a novel two-step J48 decision tree-inducing algorithm along with a C4.5 post-pruning algorithm was applied to three 30-min video recordings in which a mouse exhibits scratching following an intradermal injection of a pruritogen, and the resultant frames were then used for the next round of training. The trained method exhibited, on average, a sensitivity and specificity of 95.19% and 92.96%, respectively, in a performance test with five new recordings. This result suggests that it can be used as a non-invasive, automated and objective tool to measure mouse scratching from video recordings captured in general experimental settings, permitting rapid and accurate analysis of scratching for preclinical studies and high throughput drug screening.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Laboratory , Behavior, Animal , Body Size , Complement System Proteins , Decision Trees , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Injections, Intradermal , Machine Learning , Methods , Mice , Pruritus , Research Design , Sensitivity and Specificity , Video Recording
15.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 223-237, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738780

ABSTRACT

It has been known for a long time that elevated blood pressure (BP) in the young may persist and progress into adult hypertension (HTN). Multiple studies have revealed the predicted BP trajectory lines starting from childhood and related them to later cardiovascular (CV) risks in adulthood. As a small baby grows into a tall adult, BP will also naturally increase. Among early-life predictors of adult HTN, birth history, such as prematurity, and low birth weight have been popular subjects in research on pediatric HTN, because body size at birth has been reported to be inversely related to the risk of adulthood HTN. The hypothesis of HTN in prematurely born adolescents has been postulated as a physiological predisposition to postnatal excessive weight gain. Current body weight is a well-known independent predictor of HTN in children, and some studies showed that children demonstrating upward crossing of their weight percentiles while growing into adolescents have significantly increased risk for elevated BP later in life. Recently, reports focused on the adverse effect of excessive catch-up growth in this population are gradually drawing attention. Accordingly, children born prematurely or with intrauterine growth restriction who show rapid changes in their weight percentile should be under surveillance with BP monitoring. Prevention of childhood obesity, along with special care for premature infants or infants small for their gestational age, by providing healthy nutritional guidelines should be cardinal strategies for the prevention of adult HTN and CV risks later in life.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Blood Pressure , Body Size , Body Weight , Child , Gestational Age , Humans , Hypertension , Infant , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Parturition , Pediatric Obesity , Reproductive History , Weight Gain
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760266

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish diagnostic criteria for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in children by using parameters obtained through noninvasive cardiac computed tomography (CCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively measured parameters from CCT images of children from a single institution in a multiple stepwise process. A total of 208 children with mean age of 10.5 years (range: 4 days–18.9 years) were assessed. The variables were classified into three groups: the great arteries; the ventricular walls; and the bilateral ventricular cavities. The relationship between the parameters obtained from the CCT images and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) was tested and adjusted by the children's body size. Reference curves for the pulmonary trunk diameter (PTD) and ratio of diameter of pulmonary trunk to ascending aorta (rPTAo) of children with CCT images of normal hearts, adjusted for height, were plotted. Threshold lines were established on the reference curves. RESULTS: PTD and rPTAo on the CCT images were significantly positively correlated with mPAP (r > 0.85, p < 0.01). Height was the body size parameter most correlated with PTD (r = 0.91, p < 0.01) and rPTAo (r = −0.69, p < 0.01). On the basis of the threshold lines on the reference curves, PTD and rPTAo both showed 88.9% sensitivity for PAH diagnosis, with negative predictive values of 93.3% and 92.9%, respectively. CONCLUSION: PTD and rPTAo measured from CCT images were significantly correlated with mPAP in children. Reference curves and the formula of PTD and rPTAo adjusted for height could be practical for diagnosing PAH in children.


Subject(s)
Aorta , Arterial Pressure , Arteries , Body Size , Child , Diagnosis , Heart , Humans , Hypertension , Retrospective Studies
17.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(6): e20180148, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040288

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate parameters of lung function and respiratory muscle strength in different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as to determine their correlation with motor function and quality of life. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a referral center for PD in the city of Recife, Brazil. Respiratory muscle strength and lung function, as well as their relationship with motor function and quality of life, were evaluated in patients with PD, stratified by the level of severity, and were compared with the data obtained for a control group. After confirming the normality of data distribution, we performed one-way ANOVA with a post hoc t-test. Results: The sample comprised 66 individuals, in two groups: PD (n = 49) and control (n = 17). All of the parameters investigated showed inverse correlations with PD severity, and there were significant differences among the levels of severity, as well as between the PD and control groups, in terms of the MIP, MEP, FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75%. The lung function parameters also showed moderate to weak inverse correlations with bradykinesia and rigidity. On a quality of life questionnaire, the total score and mobility domain score both presented a moderate inverse correlation with FVC, FEV1, PEF, and MEP. Conclusions: Respiratory muscle strength and some lung function parameters are impaired from the early stages of PD onward, bradykinesia and rigidity being the cardinal signs that correlate most strongly with impairment of those parameters. Such alterations negatively affect the quality of life of patients with PD.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a repercussão de parâmetros de função pulmonar e de força muscular respiratória nos diversos estágios da doença de Parkinson (DP) e suas correlações com a funcionalidade e a qualidade de vida desses pacientes. Métodos: Estudo de corte transversal realizado em um serviço de referência para DP em Recife (PE). Foram avaliadas a força muscular respiratória e a função pulmonar, assim como suas relações com a funcionalidade e a qualidade de vida, em pacientes com DP estratificados por gravidade da DP e comparados a um grupo controle. Após a verificação da normalidade da amostra, foi realizada one-way ANOVA e teste t post hoc. Resultados: A amostra foi composta por 66 indivíduos, sendo 49 no grupo DP e 17 no grupo controle. Houve reduções nos parâmetros investigados com a progressão da doença, em comparação com o grupo controle, sendo encontradas diferenças significativas em PImáx, PEmáx, CVF, VEF1 e FEF25-75% em todos os estágios da DP. Houve correlações inversas (de fraca a moderada) de alguns parâmetros estudados com bradicinesia e rigidez. Os escores totais do questionário de qualidade de vida e de seu domínio mobilidade apresentaram moderada correlação inversa com CVF, VEF1, PFE e PEmáx. Conclusões: A força muscular respiratória e alguns parâmetros de função pulmonar encontram-se reduzidos desde os estágios iniciais da DP, sendo a bradicinesia e a rigidez os sinais cardinais mais correlacionados ao prejuízo desses parâmetros. Essas alterações repercutem negativamente na qualidade de vida desses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Quality of Life , Respiratory Muscles/physiopathology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Lung/physiopathology , Reference Values , Respiratory Function Tests , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Body Size/physiology
18.
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 47(1): 47-52, 2019. ^etab, graf, mapasilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1053423

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La relación de la nariz con la morfología facial no es solo estructural. Numerosos estudios sugieren la relación entre la función respiratoria nasal y el de-sarrollo craneofacial. Objetivo: Determinar la mejoría en el ángulo de convexidad facial y proyección del mentón en pacientes en postoperatorio de rinoseptoplastia. Diseño: Estudio observacional analítico tipo corte transversal. Metodología: Mues-tra de 43 pacientes, 26 de género femenino y 17 masculino, entre 12 y 43 años, sometidos a rinoseptoplastia con evolución postoperatoria mínima de 3 meses. Se analizaron las variables de edad, sexo, ángulo de convexidad facial de Legan y proyección del mentón según González Ulloa antes y después de la cirugía, así como tiempo postquirúrgico. Resultados: El ángulo de convexidad facial se redujo 3,72°+2,19. En la técnica de González Ulloa, se evidenció avance del pogonion 2,53 mm+ 1,60. De los 43 pacientes, un 72%, mostró cambios favorables en el án-gulo de convexidad facial y en la proyección del mentón. Los mejores resultados se evidenciaron en menores de 16 años y evolución postquirúrgica mayor a 1 año. Discusión: A diferencia de otras investigaciones, observamos cambios significativos en pacientes adultos. Tal hecho nos lleva a otras interrogantes sobre mecanismos adicionales que pudieran influir en los patrones de crecimiento facial. Conclusiones: La rinoseptoplastia al considerarse un procedimiento que mejora la función respira-toria nasal, favorece cambios neuromusculares y endocrinos que permiten un mejor desarrollo del perfil facial en especial del tercio inferior.


Introduction: The relation between the nose and the facial morphology is not only structural. Numerous studies have demonstrated also a relationship between nasal respiratory function and craniofacial development. Objective: To determine the im-provement in the angle of facial convexity and chin projection in patients in the postoperative period of rhinoseptoplasty. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: 43 patients were selected. 26 women and 17 men between 12 and 43 years old, undergoing Rhinoplasty with minimum 3 months of postoperative evolution. We analyzed the variables of age, sex, Legan's angle of facial convexity and projection of the chin according to Gonzalez Ulloa before and after surgery, as well as post-surgical time. Results: The angle of facial convexity was reduced X + D.S 3.72 ° + 2.19. The technique of González Ulloa showed progress of the pogonion X + D.S 2.53 mm + 1.60. Of the 43 patients, 72%, showed positive changes at the angle of facial convexity and the projection of the Chin. Best results were apparent in children under 16 years and more than 1 year postsurgical evolution. Discussion: Unlike other research, we observe significant changes in adult patients. This fact leads to other questions about additional mechanisms that might influence the facial growth patterns. Conclusions: Rhinoseptoplasty is a procedure that improves the nasal respiratory function, favors neuromuscular and endocrine changes that allow better development of the facial profile especially in the lower third.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chin , Body Size
19.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(4): 1401-1411, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003333

ABSTRACT

Abstract The morphometric variation of body size is an important topic of the natural history of the species which has been received particular interest. In this study, we estimated differences in body size and age structure of six populations of Boana cordobae living at different altitudes, 808-2 310 m.a.s.l. in Córdoba and San Luis provinces (Argentina). We measured 15 morphometric variables and used skeletochronology to age determination of 79 individuals. Morphometric variables showed significant differences between sexes, being females larger than males, even when the effect of age was taken into account. We found a significant relationship between age and most of the morphometric variables. When removing the effects of age, we found significant inter-population differences in body size. Males from the high-elevation populations were larger than individuals from low-elevation populations. These results suggest that a difference in age structure between populations is a main factor for the geographic variation in body size of this species.(AU)


Resumen La variación morfométrica del tamaño corporal es un aspecto importante de la historia natural de las especies, que ha sido de particular interés. En este estudio se estimaron diferencias en el tamaño corporal y la estructura de edad de seis poblaciones de Boana cordobae que viven a diferentes altitudes, 808-2 310 m.a.s.l. en las provincias de Córdoba y San Luis (Argentina). La técnica de esqueletocronología se utilizó para la determinación de la edad, mediante la medición de 15 variables morfométricas en 79 individuos. Las variables morfométricas mostraron diferencias significativas entre sexos, siendo las hembras de mayor tamaño que los machos, incluso cuando el efecto de la edad se tuvo en cuenta; y se encontró una relación significativa entre la edad y la mayoría de las variables morfométricas. Cuando el efecto de la edad fue removido, se encontraron diferencias significativas en el tamaño del cuerpo entre las poblaciones estudiadas. Machos de poblaciones de mayor altitud son más grandes que los de altitudes menores. Estos resultados sugieren que las diferencias en la estructura de edad entre las poblaciones es un factor de importancia a tener en cuenta para analizar la variación en el tamaño corporal de esta especie según el área geográfica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Anura/anatomy & histology , Age Determination by Skeleton , Body Size , Argentina
20.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(5): 523-529, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983791

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Recently, a new obesity index (A Body Shape Index, ABSI) based on waist circumference (WC) was developed, and high ABSI corresponds to a more central concentration of body volume. It is well known that central obesity is closely linked with insulin resistance (IR). Therefore, our study aimed to examine the discriminatory power of ABSI for IR in Chinese adults and elderly without diabetes. Subjects and methods: In 2007, a cross-sectional study was made. In this study, 570 individuals without diabetes were available for analysis (male: 56.1%, mean age: 62.3 ± 6.5 years). Insulin resistance was assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were determined to identify variables/models that could predict insulin resistance. Results: ABSI was associated with IR, the cut-off points was 0.0785 m11/6kg-2/3 to identifying IR and the area under the ROC (AUC) curve was 0.618 (95%CI: 0.561-0.675), which was not better than body mass index BMI (AUC = 0.753; 95%CI: 0.706-0.801), WC (AUC = 0.749; 95%CI: 0.700-0.797), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG, AUC = 0.752; 95%CI: 0.705-0.799). Furthermore, combination with ABSI could improve the discriminatory power of other variables for IR. The AUC curve increased from 0.753 to 0.771for BMI, 0.749 to 0.754 for WC, 0.752 to 0.769 for FPG, respectively. Conclusions: ABSI is associated with IR in the general Chinese adults and elderly without diabetes, but the discriminatory power for IR is poor. It is recommended that ABSI be used in combination with other variables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Body Mass Index , Body Size/physiology , Reference Standards , Reference Values , Somatotypes , Blood Glucose/analysis , Insulin Resistance/ethnology , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Body Size/ethnology , Homeostasis/physiology
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