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1.
Brasilia; s.n; 19 abr. , 2020. 39 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1095204

ABSTRACT

Na comparação 1: hidroxicloroquina (HCQ) versus grupo controle/terapia padrão: quanto a cura clínica, normalização da temperatura corporal e número de dias de tosse, o grupo da HCQ sugere benefício quando comparado ao grupo controle. Em termos de cura virológica e morte/progressão da doença após o início do tratamento com HCQ, não houve diferença significativa em relação ao grupo controle. Ainda nessa mesma comparação entre os grupos, quando realizado tratamento com HCQ, observou-se menos casos com progressão radiológica quando comparado ao grupo controle. Quando se avaliou a segurança, não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos. Na metanálise, foi verificado um benefício no grupo controle/tratamento padrão quanto à progressão radiológica. Na comparação 2: HCQ associado à azitromicina (AZT) ou outras drogas versus controle/terapia padrão: em um dos estudos, 100% dos pacientes estava com cura virológica ao usar HCQ/AZT no dia 6, comparado a 57,1% em monoterapia com HCQ. Em um dos estudos, o teste de PCR positivou novamente em um paciente que ficou negativo para a PCR por tratamento com HCQ + Azitromicina. Em um dos estudos, 11% da população em terapia combinada teve prolongamento significativo do QTc (> 500 ms) e o desenvolvimento de insuficiência renal aguda foi um importante preditor de prolongamento extremo do QTc. Ainda não se pode admitir o benefício da associação do tratamento da HCQ com a AZT, pois são necessários mais estudos clínicos para uma conclusão definitiva sobre essa associação.1


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Body Temperature/drug effects , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Disease Progression , Therapies, Investigational/instrumentation , Betacoronavirus/drug effects
3.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(1): 13-19, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977430

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Hypothermia occurs in about 60% of patients under anesthesia and is generally not managed properly during short lasting surgical procedures. Hypothermia is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The current study is designed to assess the effects of crystalloid warming on maternal and fetal outcomes in patients undergoing elective cesarean section with spinal anesthesia. Methods: In this prospective randomized controlled trial, sixty parturients scheduled for elective cesarean section with spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to receive crystalloid at room temperature or warmed at 37 °C. Spinal anesthesia was performed at L3-L4 interspace with 10 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine without adding opioids. Core temperature, shivering, and hemodynamic parameters were measured every minute until 10th minute and 5-min intervals until the end of operation. The primary outcome was maternal core temperature at the end of cesarean section. Results: There was no difference for baseline tympanic temperature measurements but the difference was significant at the end of the operation (p = 0.004). Core temperature was 36.8 ± 0.5 °C at baseline and decreased to 36.3 ± 0.5 °C for isothermic warmed crystalloid group and baseline tympanic core temperature was 36.9 ± 0.4 °C and decreased to 35.8 ± 0.7 °C for room temperature group at the end of the operation. Shivering was observed in 43.3% in the control group. Hemodynamic parameter changes and demographic data were not significant between groups. Conclusions: Isothermic warming crystalloid prevents the decrease in core temperature during cesarean section with spinal anesthesia in full-term parturients. Fetal Apgar scores at first and fifth minute are higher with isothermic warming.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: A hipotermia ocorre em cerca de 60% dos pacientes sob anestesia e geralmente não é tratada adequadamente durante procedimentos cirúrgicos de curta duração. A hipotermia está associada a desfechos clínicos adversos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do aquecimento de cristaloides nas condições maternas e fetais em pacientes submetidas à cesariana eletiva com raquianestesia. Métodos: Neste estudo prospectivo, randômico e controlado, 60 parturientes agendadas para cesárea eletiva com raquianestesia foram distribuídas aleatoriamente para receber cristaloides à temperatura ambiente ou aquecidos a 37 °C. A raquianestesia foi realizada no interespaço L3-L4 com 10 mg de bupivacaína hiperbárica sem adição de opioides. Temperatura central, tremores e parâmetros hemodinâmicos foram medidos a cada minuto até o décimo minuto e em intervalos de 5 min até o fim da operação. O desfecho primário foi a temperatura central materna ao final da cesárea. Resultados: Não houve diferença nas mensurações basais da temperatura timpânica, mas a diferença foi significativa no fim da operação (p = 0,004). A temperatura central foi de 36,8 ± 0,5 °C na fase basal e diminuiu para 36,3 ± 0,5 °C no grupo com aquecimento isotérmico de cristaloides e a temperatura basal timpânica foi de 36,9 ± 0,4 °C e diminuiu para 35,8 ± 0,7 °C no grupo sem aquecimento das soluções no fim da operação. Tremores foram observados em 43,3% no grupo controle. Alterações nos parâmetros hemodinâmicos e dados demográficos não foram significantes entre os grupos. Conclusões: O aquecimento isotérmico de cristaloides previne a redução da temperatura central durante a cesariana com raquianestesia em parturientes a termo. Os escores de Apgar para os fetos no primeiro e quinto minutos são maiores com o aquecimento isotérmico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Body Temperature/drug effects , Cesarean Section , Double-Blind Method , Fetus/drug effects , Crystalloid Solutions/therapeutic use , Hypothermia/therapy , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Crystalloid Solutions/pharmacology , Hyperthermia, Induced/methods , Middle Aged
4.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2017. 63 p. il., tab., graf..
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-906567

ABSTRACT

O sucesso a longo prazo das restaurações dentárias é limitada pela sua durabilidade no meio bucal. Testes in vitro continuam sendo ferramentas indispensáveis para avaliação inicial dos materiais dentários. Ciclagem térmica é um dos procedimentos mais utilizados para simular o envelhecimento fisiológico no qual os biomateriais são submetidos na prática clínica. Os objetivos desse estudo foram determinar o efeito da variação da temperatura, isolando o efeito hidrolítico, na degradação de uma cerâmica feldspática e de um cimento resinoso por meio de comparação entre os métodos artificiais de envelhecimento: armazenamento em água destilada, termociclagem em água e termociclagem em óleo mineral seguido pelo ensaio de flexão de 3 pontos e mini-flexão. Blocos de CAD-CAM de cerâmica feldspática foram cortados e lixados para obter-se 100 barras, com dimensões de 14 x 4 x 1,2 mm. Foram confeccionadas 100 barras de cimento resinoso autoadesivo, com dimensões de 12 x 2 x 2 mm. As barras foram aleatoriamente divididas (n = 10) e envelhecidos por meio de termociclagem em água e óleo mineral por 500 (norma ISO 11405), 5000 e 10000 ciclos com banhos de 30 s a 5 oC e 55 oC e armazenados em água destilada em estufa a 37 oC pelo mesmo tempo que foi realizado a ciclagem (9 h, 4 dias e 8 dias), além de dois grupos controles, um de cerâmica feldspática e outro de cimento resinoso ambos sem envelhecimento, totalizando 20 grupos. Após o envelhecimento, as barras foram fraturadas por meio do ensaio de flexão de 3 pontos e mini-flexão e os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística. Amostras representativas de cada grupo foram submetidas ao teste de dureza Knoop (cimento resinoso) e Vickers (cerâmica feldspática). Algumas superfícies fraturadas foram analisadas em Microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Para cerâmica feldspática não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos, apontando que os envelhecimentos propostos pelo trabalho não degradaram as amostras, já para o cimento resinoso houve diminuição da resistência à flexão após 8 dias ou 10000 ciclos térmicos, sendo que a termociclagem degradou ainda mais a amostra quando comparada ao armazenamento em água por 8 dias. Para dureza Vickers na cerâmica houve decréscimo após 10000 ciclos térmicos em óleo mineral. Para dureza Knoop no cimento resinoso, os valores diminuíram conforme aumentou o número de ciclos para a termociclagem em óleo e aumentou no armazenamento em água e não houve diferença para a termociclagem em água. Dentre as limitações desse estudo concluiu-se que é necessário mais ciclos térmicos/tempo para degradar a cerâmica feldspática e que para o cimento resinoso 10000 ciclos térmicos são suficientes para apontar degradação desse material(AU)


The long-term success of dental restorations is limited by their durability in oral environments. In vitro tests remain essential to evaluate dental materials. Thermocycling is one of the most commonly used test to simulate physiological aging, to which biomaterials are exposed in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of thermocycling, in non-aqueous surroundings, on feldspathic ceramic and resin cement degradation comparing 3-point bending flexural strength test and mini-flexural strength test respectively. CAD-CAM feldspathic ceramic blocks were cut and polished to obtain 100 bars (14 x 4 x1.2 mm). One hundred resin cement bars were fabricated (12 x 2 x 2 mm). The bars were randomly divided into groups (n = 10) and submitted to aging using thermocycling in water (ISO 11405) and in mineral oil for 500, 5000 and 100000 cycles from 5 °C to 55 °C, with 30 s dwell time and stored in distilled water in a dry oven at 37°C for the same time as cycling occurred (9 h, 4 days and 8 days) besides the two control groups, one feldspathic ceramic and one resin cement both without aging, totaling 20 groups. After aging, the bars were fractured using 3 point bending test and mini-flexural test and the data was subjected to statistical analysis. Representative samples of each group were subjected to Knoop (resin cement) and Vickers (feldspathic ceramic) hardness test. Some of the fractured surfaces were analyzed through scanning electron microscope. No significant difference was observed between the feldspathic ceramic groups, showing that aging processes suggested in the study did not degrade the samples. As for the resin cement, a decrease in flexural strength after 8 days or 10000 thermal cycles was observed, in which thermocycling degraded the sample further when compared to the water storage for 8 days. For Vickers hardness in the ceramic there was decrease after 10000 thermal cycles in mineral oil. For Knoop hardness in the resin cement, values decreased as the number of thermal cycles for increased in oil and values increased in water storage and there was no difference for thermocycling in water. Within the limitations of the study, it is concluded that more cycles/days are necessary to degrade feldspathic ceramic and that for resin cement degradation to become evident 10000 thermal cycles are sufficient(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Materials , Body Temperature/drug effects , Ceramics , In Vitro Techniques/statistics & numerical data
5.
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 23(1): 162-168, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-742020

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to analyse the Redness, Oedema, Ecchymosis, Discharge, Approximation (REEDA) scale reliability when evaluating perineal healing after a normal delivery with a right mediolateral episiotomy. METHOD: observational study based on data from a clinical trial conducted with 54 randomly selected women, who had their perineal healing assessed at four time points, from 6 hours to 10 days after delivery, by nurses trained in the use of this scale. The kappa coefficient was used in the reliability analysis of the REEDA scale. RESULTS: the results indicate good agreement in the evaluation of the discharge item (0.75< Kappa ≥0.88), marginal and good agreement in the first three assessments of oedema (0.16< Kappa ≥0.46), marginal agreement in the evaluation of ecchymosis (0.25< Kappa ≥0.42) and good agreement regarding redness (0.46< Kappa ≥0.66). For the item coaptation, the agreement decreased from excellent in the first assessment to good in the last assessment. In the fourth evaluation, the assessment of all items displayed excellent or good agreement among the evaluators. CONCLUSION: the difference in the scores among the evaluators when applying the scale indicates that this tool must be improved to allow an accurate assessment of the episiotomy healing process. .


OBJETIVO: analisar a confiabilidade da escala REEDA (Redness, Oedema, Ecchymosis, Discharge, Approximation) para avaliar a cicatrização do períneo após parto vaginal com episiotomia médio-lateral direita. MÉTODO: estudo observacional, baseado em dados coletados em ensaio clínico, conduzido com 54 mulheres, selecionadas aleatoriamente. As mesmas tiveram o processo de cicatrização perineal avaliado em quatro momentos (de 6 horas a 10 dias após o parto), por enfermeiras treinadas para o uso da escala. O coeficiente kappa foi usado para análise de confiabilidade da escala REEDA. RESULTADOS: os resultados indicam bom nível de concordância na avaliação do item secreção (0,75< Kappa ≥0,88), concordância boa e marginal em relação ao item equimose (0,25< Kappa ≥0,42), e bom nível de concordância em relação à hiperemia (0,46< Kappa ≥0,66). O nível de concordância referente à avaliação do item coaptação diminuiu de excelente, na primeira avaliação, para bom, na última avaliação. CONCLUSÃO: a diferença entre as pontuações atribuídas pelas avaliadoras na aplicação da escala indica que o instrumento precisa ser melhorado, para permitir avaliações mais precisas do processo de cicatrização da episiotomia. .


OBJETIVO: analizar la confiabilidad de la escala de Enrojecimiento, Edema, Equimosis, Drenaje, Aproximación (REEDA) en la evaluación de la curación perineal tras parto normal con episiotomía mediolateral derecha. MÉTODO: estudio observacional con base en datos de un ensayo clínico conducido con 54 mujeres elegidas de forma aleatoria, con evaluación de su curación perineal en cuatro momentos, entre 6 horas y 10 días después del parto, por enfermeras capacitadas en el uso de esta escala. El coeficiente de kappa fue utilizado en el análisis de confiabilidad de la escala REEDA. RESULTADOS: los resultados indican buena concordancia en la evaluación del ítem drenaje (0,75< Kappa ≥0,88), concordancia marginal y buena en las primeras tres evaluaciones de edema (0,16< Kappa ≥0,46), concordancia marginal en la evaluación de equimosis (0,25< Kappa ≥0,42) y buena concordancia sobre enrojecimiento (0,46< Kappa ≥0,66). Para el ítem coaptación, la concordancia disminuyó de excelente en la primera evaluación hasta buena en la última. En el cuarto momento, la evaluación de todos los ítems mostró concordancia excelente o buena entre los evaluadores. CONCLUSIÓN: la diferencia en las notas entre los evaluadores en la aplicación de la escala indica que esta herramienta debe ser mejorada para permitir una evaluación correcta del proceso de curación de la episiotomía. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Guinea Pigs , Cricetinae , Rabbits , Collagen/toxicity , Tilapia/metabolism , Body Temperature/drug effects , Cricetulus , Cell Shape/drug effects , Extracellular Matrix/drug effects , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Sterilization , Skin/drug effects , Toxicity Tests
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-141019

ABSTRACT

Aminophylline can elicit thermogenesis in rats or increase metabolic rate during cold stress in lambs. We tested the hypothesis that aminophylline would reduce the change in core body temperature during laparoscopic abdominal surgery requiring pneumoperitoneum. Fifty patients were randomly divided into an aminophylline group (n=25) and a saline control group (n=25). Esophageal temperature, index finger temperature, and hemodynamic variables, such as mean blood pressure and heart rate, were measured every 15 min during sevoflurane anesthesia. In the aminophylline group, esophageal temperatures at T45 (36.1+/-0.38 vs. 35.7+/-0.29, P=0.024), T60 (36.0+/-0.39 vs. 35.6+/-0.28, P=0.053), T75 (35.9+/-0.34 vs. 35.5+/-0.28, P=0.025), T90 (35.8+/-0.35 vs. 35.3+/-0.33, P=0.011), and T105 (35.8+/-0.36 vs. 35.1+/-0.53, P=0.017) and index finger temperatures at T15 (35.8+/-0.46 vs. 34.9+/-0.33, P<0.001), T30 (35.7+/-0.36 vs. 35.0+/-0.58, P=0.029), T45 (35.8+/-0.34 vs. 35.2+/-0.42, P=0.020), T60 (35.7+/-0.33 vs. 34.9+/-0.47, P=0.010), T75 (35.6+/-0.36 vs. 34.8+/-0.67, P=0.028), T90 (35.4+/-0.55 vs. 34.4+/-0.89, P=0.042), and T105 (34.9+/-0.53 vs. 33.9+/-0.85, P=0.024) were significantly higher than in the saline control group. Aminophylline is effective in maintaining the core temperature through a thermogenic effect, despite reduced peripheral thermoregulatory vasoconstriction.


Subject(s)
Abdomen/surgery , Aminophylline/administration & dosage , Body Temperature/drug effects , Female , Humans , Hypothermia/etiology , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial/adverse effects , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-141018

ABSTRACT

Aminophylline can elicit thermogenesis in rats or increase metabolic rate during cold stress in lambs. We tested the hypothesis that aminophylline would reduce the change in core body temperature during laparoscopic abdominal surgery requiring pneumoperitoneum. Fifty patients were randomly divided into an aminophylline group (n=25) and a saline control group (n=25). Esophageal temperature, index finger temperature, and hemodynamic variables, such as mean blood pressure and heart rate, were measured every 15 min during sevoflurane anesthesia. In the aminophylline group, esophageal temperatures at T45 (36.1+/-0.38 vs. 35.7+/-0.29, P=0.024), T60 (36.0+/-0.39 vs. 35.6+/-0.28, P=0.053), T75 (35.9+/-0.34 vs. 35.5+/-0.28, P=0.025), T90 (35.8+/-0.35 vs. 35.3+/-0.33, P=0.011), and T105 (35.8+/-0.36 vs. 35.1+/-0.53, P=0.017) and index finger temperatures at T15 (35.8+/-0.46 vs. 34.9+/-0.33, P<0.001), T30 (35.7+/-0.36 vs. 35.0+/-0.58, P=0.029), T45 (35.8+/-0.34 vs. 35.2+/-0.42, P=0.020), T60 (35.7+/-0.33 vs. 34.9+/-0.47, P=0.010), T75 (35.6+/-0.36 vs. 34.8+/-0.67, P=0.028), T90 (35.4+/-0.55 vs. 34.4+/-0.89, P=0.042), and T105 (34.9+/-0.53 vs. 33.9+/-0.85, P=0.024) were significantly higher than in the saline control group. Aminophylline is effective in maintaining the core temperature through a thermogenic effect, despite reduced peripheral thermoregulatory vasoconstriction.


Subject(s)
Abdomen/surgery , Aminophylline/administration & dosage , Body Temperature/drug effects , Female , Humans , Hypothermia/etiology , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial/adverse effects , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
8.
Biol. Res ; 46(1): 75-78, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676824

ABSTRACT

Curare, a selective skeletal muscle relaxant, has been used clinically to reduce shivering and as an anesthetic auxiliary in abdominal surgery. It is also widely used in animal experiments to block neuromuscular junction activity. Effective doses of curare diminish muscle contraction without affecting brain function, but at higher doses it is known to be lethal. However, the exact dose of curare initiating muscle relaxation vs. lethal effect has not been fully characterized in mice. In this study we carefully examined the dose-response for achieving muscle inactivity over lethality in both male and female mice (C57BL6/J). The most striking finding of this study is that female mice were highly susceptible to curare; both the EDm and LDm were at least 3-fold lower than male littermates. This study shows that gender-specific differences can be an important factor when administering skeletal muscle relaxants, particularly curare or other analogous agents targeted to the neuromuscular junction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Curare/administration & dosage , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/administration & dosage , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Sex Factors , Basal Metabolism/drug effects , Body Temperature/drug effects , Circadian Rhythm/drug effects , Curare/toxicity , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Feeding Behavior/drug effects , Immobilization , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/toxicity
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 198-203, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145831

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Anesthesia and surgery commonly cause hypothermia, and this caused by a combination of anesthetic-induced impairment of thermoregulatory control, a cold operation room environment and other factors that promote heat loss. All the general anesthetics markedly impair normal autonomic thermoregulatory control. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of two different types of propofol versus inhalation anesthetic on the body temperature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized controlled study, 36 patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic gastrectomy were allocated into three groups; group S (sevoflurane, n=12), group L (lipid-emulsion propofol, n=12) and group M (micro-emulsion propofol, n=12). Anesthesia was maintained with typical doses of the study drugs and all the groups received continuous remifentanil infusion. The body temperature was continuously monitored after the induction of general anesthesia until the end of surgery. RESULTS: The body temperature was decreased in all the groups. The temperature gradient of each group (group S, group L and group M) at 180 minutes from induction of anesthesia was 2.5+/-0.6degrees C, 1.6+/-0.5degrees C and 2.3+/-0.6degrees C, respectively. The body temperature of group L was significantly higher than that of group S and group M at 30 minutes and 75 minute after induction of anesthesia, respectively. There were no temperature differences between group S and group M. CONCLUSION: The body temperature is maintained at a higher level in elderly patients anesthetized with lipid-emulsion propofol.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aging , Anesthesia, General/methods , Anesthetics, Combined/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Inhalation/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Body Temperature/drug effects , Body Temperature Regulation/drug effects , Fat Emulsions, Intravenous , Female , Humans , Male , Methyl Ethers/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Propofol/administration & dosage
10.
Clinics ; 66(7): 1187-1191, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-596906

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on shivering during spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Sixty patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, aged 18-50 years), scheduled for elective minor surgical operations under spinal anesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine, were enrolled. They were administered saline (group C, n = 30) or dexmedetomidine (group D, n = 30). Motor block was assessed using a Modified Bromage Scale. The presence of shivering was assessed by a blinded observer after the completion of subarachnoid drug injection. RESULTS: Hypothermia was observed in 21 patients (70 percent) in group D and in 20 patients (66.7 percent) in group C (p = 0.781). Three patients (10 percent) in group D and 17 patients (56.7 percent) in group C experienced shivering (p = 0.001). The intensity of shivering was lower in group D than in group C (p = 0.001). Time from baseline to onset of shivering was 10 (5-15) min in group D and 15 (5-45) min in group C (p = 0.207). CONCLUSION: Dexmedetomidine infusion in the perioperative period significantly reduced shivering associated with spinal anesthesia during minor surgical procedures without any major adverse effect during the perioperative period. Therefore, we conclude that dexmedetomidine infusion is an effective drug for preventing shivering and providing sedation in patients during spinal anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , /therapeutic use , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Shivering/drug effects , Anesthetics, Local/adverse effects , Body Temperature Regulation/drug effects , Body Temperature Regulation/physiology , Body Temperature/drug effects , Bupivacaine/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Chi-Square Distribution , Double-Blind Method , Heart Rate/drug effects , Postoperative Period , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 24 (4): 513-517
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-137552

ABSTRACT

Postanesthesia shivering is an undesirable event that may induce a variety of adverse consequences including patient discomfort, increased oxygen consumption and wound pain. Thus, its pharmacological treatment should be regarded. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of morphine, fentanyl and pethidine for the treatment of postanesthesia shivering. Fifty patients who developed shivering were treated in a randomized double blinded manner with an intravenous bolus dose of 2 or 4 mg morphine, 25 or 50 mg pethidine, and 50 microg fentanyl. Then, they were monitored for 30 minutes and the shivering suppression grade, the time taken to stop shivering, the shivering cessation time, recurrence of shivering and opioid side effects were evaluated. Core body temperature was measured immediately before, and at 15 and 30 minute after administering the drug. The groups did not differ significantly regarding shivering suppression grade, shivering cessation time, and recurrence of shivering. There was a significant difference in the time taken to stop shivering between groups. Following injection of the drugs, the core temperatures increased in the five groups with statistical difference. All opioids were effective in treating postanesthesia shivering in a similar extent


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Morphine/pharmacology , Meperidine/pharmacology , Fentanyl/pharmacology , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Body Temperature/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
Braz. dent. j ; 22(1): 32-36, 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-582398

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the influence of bleaching protocols on intrapulpal temperature and fracture strength of the bleached teeth. Ninety maxillary incisors were assigned to 9 groups (n=10): G1: 35 percent carbamide peroxide (35 percent CP), G2: 38 percent hydrogen peroxide (38 percent HP), G3: halogen light, G4: LED-laser, G5: 35 percent CP + halogen light, G6: 38 percent HP + halogen light, G7: 35 percent CP + LED-laser, G8: 38 percent HP + LED-laser, and G9: no treatment (control). Pulp space was widened, a thermocouple was introduced through the apex up to the pulp chamber and the temperature was recorded (°C). The fracture strength (kN) was determined using an Instron machine. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). The halogen light alone (1.10 ± 0.24) (G3) and associated with 38 percent HP (1.15 ± 0.30) (G6) produced the highest temperature increase, statistically different (p<0.05) from the other groups. G1 (0.15 ± 0.06) and G6 (0.19 ± 0.07) produced the lowest values, statistically different (p<0.05) from G5 (0.65 ± 0.49). The bleaching protocols increased the temperature, but no increment exceeded the critical value of 5.6°C. Neither 35 percent CP nor 38 percent HP or the light sources alone altered the fracture strength of the teeth.


Este estudo avaliou a influência de protocolos de clareamento na temperatura intrapulpar e resistência à fratura de dentes clareados. Noventa incisivos superiores foram divididos em 9 grupos (n=10): G1: peróxido de carbamida a 35 por cento (PC 35 por cento), G2: peróxido de hidrogênio a 38 por cento (PH 38 por cento), G3: luz halógena, G4: LED-laser, G5: PC 35 por cento + luz halógena, G6: PH 38 por cento + luz halógena, G7: PC 35 por cento + LED-laser, G8: PH 38 por cento + LED-laser e G9: sem tratamento (controle). O canal radicular foi alargado, um termopar foi introduzido no ápice até a câmara pulpar e a temperatura foi calculada (°C). A resistência à fratura (kN) foi determinada em máquina Instron. Os dados foram analisados por análise de variância e teste de Tukey (p>0,05). A luz halógena utilizada isoladamente (1,10 ± 0,24) (G3) e associada ao PH 38 por cento (1,15 ± 0,30) (G6) proporcionaram os maiores valores de temperatura, sendo estatisticamente diferentes dos demais grupos (p<0,05). O G1 (0,15 ± 0,06) e o G6 (0,19 ± 0,07) produziram os menores valores de resistência à fratura, sendo estatisticamente diferentes (p<0,05) do G5 (0,65 ± 0,49). Os protocolos de clareamento aumentaram a temperatura, mas nenhum incremento excedeu o valor crítico de 5,6oC. O PC 35 por cento, PH 38 por cento e as fontes de luz utilizadas isoladamente não alteraram a resistência à fratura dos dentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Temperature/drug effects , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Tooth Bleaching Agents/administration & dosage , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Tooth Fractures/prevention & control , Curing Lights, Dental , Dental Stress Analysis , Dental Pulp/physiology , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Incisor/drug effects , Lasers, Semiconductor , Maxilla , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Tooth Bleaching Agents/adverse effects , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Tooth Fractures/etiology , Urea/administration & dosage , Urea/analogs & derivatives
13.
J. bras. pneumol ; 36(6): 693-699, nov.-dez. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-570643

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a temperatura do ar exalado (TAE), medida por um método não invasivo, é efetiva no monitoramento de pacientes com asma não controlada. MÉTODOS: Estudo piloto com nove pacientes (sete mulheres e dois homens; média de idade: 39 anos) com diagnóstico de asma por pelo menos um ano e sem uso de tratamento de manutenção por pelo menos três meses antes do início do estudo. Na primeira visita, os pacientes foram submetidos à espirometria e à medida da TAE. Todos os pacientes foram orientados a iniciar tratamento com budesonida/formoterol (200/6 µg) inalatório a cada 12 h por seis semanas. Além disso, os pacientes com asma grave (VEF1 < 60 por cento do previsto) foram orientados a utilizar prednisolona oral (40 mg/dia) por cinco dias. Após seis semanas, os pacientes foram submetidos aos mesmos testes. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes relataram melhora dos sintomas de asma; confirmada por um aumento significativo de VEF1 da primeira para a segunda visita (média de VEF1: 56,1 por cento vs. 88,7 por cento do previsto; p < 0,05). Cinco pacientes utilizaram prednisolona oral, mas somente nos cinco dias iniciais do tratamento. Seis pacientes utilizaram doses extras da medicação inalatória (média de tempo de uso de medicação adicional = 2,5 semanas). Houve uma diminuição significativa da TAE entre os momentos de avaliação (média de TAE: 35,1ºC vs. 34,1ºC; p < 0,05). CONCLUSÕES: A asma não controlada, sobretudo durante exacerbações, é acompanhada pela elevação da TAE, que se reduz após o controle adequado da asma, demonstrado pela melhora do VEF1 e dos sintomas referidos. Esses resultados preliminares apontam para o monitoramento da TAE como um parâmetro possível na avaliação do controle da asma.


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the exhaled breath temperature (EBT), measured by a noninvasive method, is an effective means of monitoring patients with uncontrolled asthma. METHODS: A pilot study comprising nine patients (seven women and two men; mean age: 39 years) diagnosed with asthma at least one year prior to the beginning of the study and not having been under maintenance therapy for the last three months. In the first visit, the patients underwent spirometry and measurement of EBT. The patients were then instructed to use inhaled budesonide/formoterol (200/6 µg) every 12 h for six weeks. In addition, the patients with severe asthma (FEV1 < 60 percent of predicted) were instructed to use oral prednisolone (40 mg/day) for five days. After six weeks, the patients underwent the same tests. RESULTS: All of the patients reported an improvement in the symptoms of asthma, as confirmed by a statistically significant increase in FEV1 from the first to the second visit (mean, 56.1 percent vs. 88.7 percent of predicted; p < 0.05). Five patients used oral prednisolone for the first five days of the treatment period. Six patients used additional doses of inhaled budesonide/formoterol (mean duration, 2.5 weeks). The EBT decreased significantly from the first to the second visit (mean EBT: 35.1ºC vs. 34.1ºC; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Uncontrolled asthma, especially during exacerbations, is followed by an increase in EBT, which decreases after appropriate asthma control, as demonstrated by an increase in FEV1 and an improvement of the reported symptoms. These preliminary results suggest that EBT can be used as a parameter for the assessment of asthma control.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Asthma/drug therapy , Body Temperature/physiology , Breath Tests/instrumentation , Asthma/prevention & control , Body Temperature/drug effects , Breath Tests/methods , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Forced Expiratory Volume/drug effects , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Pilot Projects
14.
J. appl. oral sci ; 17(5): 436-439, Sept.-Oct. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-531393

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intrapulpal temperature variation after bleaching treatment with 35 percent hydrogen peroxide using different sources of activation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four human teeth were sectioned in the mesiodistal direction providing 48 specimens, and were divided into 4 groups (n=12): (G1) Control - Bleaching gel without light activation, (G2) Bleaching gel + halogen light, (G3) Bleaching gel + LED, (G4) Bleaching gel + Nd:YAG Laser. The temperatures were recorded using a digital thermometer at 4 time points: before bleaching gel application, 1 min after bleaching gel application, during activation of the bleaching gel, and after the bleaching agent turned from a dark-red into a clear gel. Data were analyzed statistically by the Dunnet's test, ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=0.05). RESULTS: The mean intrapulpal temperature values (ºC) in the groups were: G1: 0.617 ± 0.41; G2: 1.800 ± 0.68; G3: 0.975 ± 0.51; and G4: 4.325 ± 1.09. The mean maximum temperature variation (MTV) values were: 1.5ºC (G1), 2.9ºC (G2), 1.7ºC (G3) and 6.9ºC (G4). When comparing the experimental groups to the control group, G3 was not statistically different from G1 (p>0.05), but G2 and G4 presented significantly higher (p<0.05) intrapulpal temperatures and MTV. The three experimental groups differed significantly (p<0.05) from each other. CONCLUSIONS: The Nd:YAG laser was the activation method that presented the highest values of intrapulpal temperature variation when compared with LED and halogen light. The group activated by LED light presented the lowest values of temperature variation, which were similar to that of the control group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Temperature/drug effects , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Hydrogen Peroxide/therapeutic use , Light , Oxidants/therapeutic use , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Gels , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Hydrogen Peroxide/radiation effects , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Lighting/instrumentation , Materials Testing , Oxidants/administration & dosage , Oxidants/radiation effects , Thermometers , Time Factors
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(9): 863-867, Sept. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-524319

ABSTRACT

Both epidural and general anesthesia can impair thermoregulatory mechanisms during surgery. However, there is lack of information about the effects of different methods of anesthesia on newborn temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in newborn rectal temperature related to type of anesthesia. Sixty-three pregnant women were randomly assigned to receive general or epidural anesthesia. Maternal core temperature was measured three times with a rectal probe just before anesthesia, at the beginning of surgery and at delivery. In addition, umbilical vein blood was sampled for pH. The rectal temperatures of the babies were recorded immediately after delivery, and Apgar scores were determined 1, 5, and 10 min after birth. The duration of anesthesia and the volume of intravenous fluid given during the procedure (833 ± 144 vs 420 ± 215 mL) were significantly higher in the epidural group than in the general anesthesia group (P < 0.0001). Maternal rectal temperatures were not different in both groups at all measurements. In contrast, newborn rectal temperatures were lower in the epidural anesthesia group than in the general anesthesia group (37.4 ± 0.3 vs 37.6 ± 0.3°C; P < 0.05) immediately after birth. Furthermore, the umbilical vein pH value (7.31 ± 0.05 vs 7.33 ± 0.01; P < 0.05) and Apgar scores at the 1st-min measurement (8.0 ± 0.9 vs 8.5 ± 0.7; P < 0.05) were lower in the epidural anesthesia group than in the general anesthesia group. Since epidural anesthesia requires more iv fluid infusion and a longer time for cesarean section, it involves a risk of a mild temperature reduction for the baby which, however, did not reach the limits of hypothermia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Anesthesia, Epidural , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Body Temperature/drug effects , Cesarean Section , Apgar Score , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration/drug effects , Rectum/physiology
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 23(6): 511-519, Nov.-Dec. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-496754

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study thermal variations obtained through infrared image in rats, and to evaluate the relationship between intestinal ischemic time and histopathological findings. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were operated after distribution in 5 groups with different times of ischemia. Thermograms were obtained by using a infrared camera. The surgical technique has been standardized for all groups: abdominal cavity opening by a 5cm length incision in the midline, abdominal wall plans section and cavity exposure, and exteriorization of the intestine. In group I (control), it was proceeded only laparotomy without superior mesenteric artery ligature. After first thermogram done, incision was closed with continuing suture. In each rat in groups II, III, IV and V, the superior mesenteric artery was located at its origin on abdominal aorta, dissected and occluded with a vascular microclamp, subjecting the intestine to ischemia in variable times. RESULTS: Rats submitted to a 30 minutes ischemia presented reactive hyperemia, thermal differential of 1.8°C and normal pathological examination. The 1 hour ischemia produced reactive hyperemia with ischemic areas, thermal differential of 1.0°C and injuries at villosities' tips. However, the 90 minutes ischemia had not shown reactive hyperemia with large ischemic areas, thermal differential of -1.0°C and injury in the upper third of the villosities. The 2 hours ischemia demonstrated a severe ischemia, thermal differential of -2.0°C and injury throughout the all villosities' extension. CONCLUSION: It has been possible studying thermal variations through infrared image in rats, showing correlation between thermal response in thermograms, ischemic time and histopathological findings.


OBJETIVO: Estudar as variações térmicas obtidas por meio da imagem infravermelha em ratos, e avaliar sua correlação com o tempo de isquemia intestinal e os achados histopatológicos. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos Wistar foram operados após distribuição em cinco grupos com diferentes tempos de isquemia. Os termogramas foram obtidos utilizando-se uma câmera infravermelha. A técnica operatória foi padronizada para todos os grupos, abertura da cavidade abdominal por uma incisão na linha média de 5 cm de comprimento com secção de todos os planos da parede abdominal e exposição da cavidade e as alças intestinais exteriorizadas. No grupo I (controle) foi feito apenas laparotomia sem ligadura da artéria mesentérica superior. Após realizado o primeiro termograma, foi fechada a incisão com sutura contínua. Em cada rato dos grupos II, III, IV e V a artéria mesentérica superior foi localizada em sua origem na aorta abdominal, dissecada com e ocluída por um microclampe vascular submetendo o intestino à isquemia em tempos variáveis. RESULTADOS: Os ratos submetidos à isquemia de 30 minutos apresentaram hiperemia reativa, diferencial térmico de 1,8°C e exame anatomopatológico normal. A isquemia de 1 hora produziu hiperemia reativa com áreas de isquemia, diferencial térmico de 1,0°C e lesões na ponta das vilosidades. Já a de 90 minutos não demonstrou hiperemia reativa com grandes áreas de isquemia, diferencial térmico de -1,0°C e lesão no terço superior das vilosidades. A isquemia de 2 horas mostrou isquemia grave, diferencial térmico de -2,0°C e lesão em toda a extensão das vilosidades. CONCLUSÃO: Foi possível estudar as variações térmicas por meio da imagem infravermelha em ratos, que mostrou haver correlação entre a resposta térmica dos termogramas, o tempo de isquemia e achados histopatológicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Intestines/blood supply , Ischemia/diagnosis , Thermography/methods , Wound Healing/physiology , Analysis of Variance , Body Temperature/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Hyperemia/diagnosis , Hyperemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/physiopathology , Mesenteric Arteries/surgery , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Spectrophotometry, Infrared , Time Factors
17.
Hormozgan Medical Journal. 2008; 12 (1): 1-6
in English, Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-86656

ABSTRACT

Fever and consequent convulsion are among major concerns for parents of febrile children. Many antipyretic drugs are applied excessively to decrease ever in children. Many antipyretic drugs are applied excessively to decrease fever in children. This research is designed to study the efficacy and stability effects of cetaminophen and Ibuprofen in febrile children aged 6 months to 10 years old. This single-blind clinical trial study was performed on 390 children [aged 6 months to 10 years] referring to pediatric emergency department. The cases were divided equally and randomly into two groups, allocated to receive either 15 mg/kg Acetaminophen or 10mg/kg Ibuprofen. Including criteria was oral temperature of 38-40 degrees centigrade or rectal temperature of 38.5-40.5 degrees centigrade. Temperatures were recorded at the time of admission, 2, 4 and 6 hours after receiving antipyretic drug. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. T-tests and chi-square test were used for statistical comparisons. Findings revealed that mean temperatures on admission were 39.01 +/- 0.7 degrees centigrade and 39.03 +/- 0.69 degrees centigrade in the Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen groups, respectively, showing no significant difference. Mean temperatures at 2 hours after initiation of treatment in Acetaminophen and Ibruprofen groups were 38.78 +/- 0.92 degrees centigrade and 37.25 +/- 0.78 degrees centigrade, respectively [P<0.0001]. After 6 hours, the temperatures were 37.36 +/- 0.92 degrees centigrade and 36.99 +/- 0.05 degrees centigrade [P<0.002]. Overall, stability of antipyretic effect of Ibuprofen was more than Acetaminophen. Results indicate that Ibruporfen is more effective than Acetaminophen in maximum decline in temperature and its stability in lowering temperature is better than Acetaminophen. It is suggested that Ibruprofen be used as an antipyretic in children older than 6 months when Acetaminophen cannot control fever or more stable antipyretic is expected


Subject(s)
Humans , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic , Child , Acetaminophen , Ibuprofen , Body Temperature/drug effects , Single-Blind Method , Random Allocation
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 22(4): 416-424, out.-dez. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-483097

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we aimed to determine the protective effect of the perfusion of the distal aorta with diltiazem and ringer lactate solution on the spinal cord. METHODS: Twenty-seven New Zealand rabbits were used in which spinal cord ischemia was provided by occlusion of the aorta for thirty minutes. Experimental animals were divided into four groups: group A (n=4), the sham operation group; group B (n=8) in which intraaortic balloon occlusion alone was applied; group C (n=7), ringer lactate group in which ringer lactate was perfused into distal aorta at a rate of 40 ml/kg, hr, following intraaortic balloon occlusion; group D (n=8) diltiazem group in which diltiazem 40 mg/kg, hr, in Ringer lactate was perfused into distal aorta following intraaortic balloon occlusion. Motor function of hind limbs was evaluated by Tarlov's scoring system. After observation, spinal cords were removed for histopathological evaluation. RESULTS: The degree of histopathological injury was well correlated with neurological function. The most severe histopathological injury and neurological dysfunction occurred in group B, followed by group C, D and A respectively. No injury or neurological dysfunction occurred in the sham group. CONCLUSIONS: The protective effect of diltiazem on both histopathological injury and neurological function was significant in comparison with control groups.


OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente trabalho é determinar o efeito protetor da perfusão na aorta distal com diltiazem e solução de Ringer lactato na medula espinal. MÉTODOS: Foram usados 27 coelhos da raça New-Zeland, nos quais se provocou isquemia da medula espinal por meio de oclusão da aorta durante 30 minutos. Os animais experimentais foram divididos em quatro grupos: grupo A (n=4), o grupo de cirurgia simulada (pseudocirurgia); o grupo B (n=8) no qual se aplicou somente a oclusão do balão intraaórtico; grupo C (n=7), o grupo do Ringer lactato, no qual a solução de Ringer lactato foi perfundida na aorta distal após oclusão do balão intra-aórtico; grupo D (n=8), grupo do dialtiazem, no qual 40 mg/kg/h de diltiazem, em solução de Ringer lactato, foram perfundidas na aorta distal após oclusão do balão intra-aórtico. A função motora dos membros posteriores foi avaliada pelo sistema de escore de Tarlov. Após observação, as medulas espinais foram removidas para avaliação histopatológica. RESULTADOS: O grau de lesão histopatologica estava bem correlacionado com a função neurológica. Lesões histopatológicas e disfunções neurológicas mais graves ocorreram no grupo B, seguido pelos grupos C, D e A, respectivamente. Não ocorreu nenhuma lesão ou disfunção neurológica no grupo de cirurgia simulada. CONCLUSÕES: O efeito protetor do diltiazem na lesão histopatológica e na função neurológica foi significativo em comparação com os grupos-controle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Rabbits , Aorta/surgery , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Diltiazem/pharmacology , Isotonic Solutions/pharmacology , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Body Temperature/drug effects , Body Temperature/physiology , Central Nervous System/physiopathology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart Rate/physiology , Motor Activity/drug effects , Motor Activity/physiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Spinal Cord Ischemia/etiology , Spinal Cord/blood supply , Spinal Cord/pathology
19.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 29(4): 337-345, dez. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-471321

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of epipregnanolone on the influence of neurosteroids on the development of rapid tolerance to the motor impairing and hypothermic effects of ethanol. METHOD: Experiment 1: on Day 1 groups of mice were pretreated with saline or with epipregnanolone. After 30 min each group was further divided in subgroups that received ethanol or saline. Thirty, 60 and 90 min after the injections the animals were tested on the rota-rod or the body temperature was measured. On Day 2 all groups received ethanol and a similar procedure was followed to evaluate rapid tolerance. Experiment 2 and 3: On Day 1 groups of mice were treated with epipregnanolone and after 15 min each group was divided into three groups in order to receive pregnenolone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate or saline. Thirty minutes later, each group was further divided into two subgroups in order to receive ethanol or saline, respectively, and 30, 60 and 90 min later the animals were tested as in the experiment 1. On Day 2 all groups received ethanol and a similar procedure was followed to evaluate rapid tolerance. RESULTS: Pretreatment with epipregnanolone (0.10-0.30 mg/kg) significantly blocked the development of tolerance to the motor impairing and hypothermic effects induced by ethanol in mice. Considering tolerance to ethanol-induced motor impairment, epipregnanolone (0.15 mg/kg) reversed the stimulatory action of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (0.15 mg/kg), but did not affect the actions of pregnenolone sulfate (0.08 mg/kg). Moreover, epipregnanolone prevented the inhibitory action of allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (0.10 mg/kg). In relation to ethanol-induced hypothermia, the results showed that pretreatment with epipregnanolone (0.30 mg/kg) significantly prevented the stimulatory action of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and pregnenolone sulfate, as well as the inhibitory action of...


OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de investigar o efeito da epipregnanolona sobre a influência de neuroesteróides no desenvolvimento da tolerância rápida aos efeitos de incoordenação motora e hipotermia induzidos pelo etanol. MÉTODO: Experimento 1: no Dia 1, grupos de camundongos foram pré-tratados com salina ou com epipregnanolona. Após 30 min, cada grupo foi subdividido recebendo etanol ou salina. Aos 30, 60 e 90 min após as injeções, os animais foram testados no rota-rod ou a temperatura corporal foi avaliada. No Dia 2, todos os grupos receberam etanol e um procedimento similar foi seguido para avaliar a tolerância rápida. O pré-tratamento com a epipregnanolona (0,10-0,30 mg/kg) bloqueou significantemente o desenvolvimento da tolerância aos efeitos de incoordenação motora e hipotermia induzidos pelo etanol em camundongos. Experimento 2 e 3: no Dia 1, grupos de animais foram tratados com epipregnanolona e, após 15 min, cada grupo foi dividido em três grupos para receber sulfato de pregnanolona, sulfato de dehidroepiandrosterona ou salina. Após 30 min, cada grupo foi dividido em dois subgrupos para receber etanol ou salina, respectivamente, e após 30, 60 e 90 min os animais foram testados como no experimento 1. No Dia 2, todos os grupos receberam etanol e 30 min após foram testados como mencionado no experimento 1. RESULTADOS: Considerando a tolerância ao prejuízo motor induzido pelo etanol, a epipregnanolona (0,15 mg/kg) bloqueou a ação estimulatória do sulfato de dehidroepiandrosterona (0,15 mg/kg), mas não afetou a ação do sulfato de pregnanolona (0,08 mg/kg). Entretanto, a epipregnanolona bloqueou a ação inibitória da alotetrahidrodeoxicorticosterona (0,10 mg/kg). Em relação à hipotermia induzida pelo etanol, os resultados demonstraram que o pré-tratamento com epipregnanolona (0,30 mg/kg) bloqueou significantemente a ação estimulatória do sulfato de dehidroepiandrosterona e do sulfato de pregnanolona, bem como a ação...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Central Nervous System Depressants/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Hypothermia/chemically induced , Motor Activity/drug effects , Pregnanolone/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Body Temperature/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Interactions , Drug Tolerance , Desoxycorticosterone/analogs & derivatives , Desoxycorticosterone/pharmacology , Pregnenolone/pharmacology
20.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 125(3): 144-149, May 2007. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-463530

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is common during spinal anesthesia and after midazolam administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intraoperative skin-surface warming with and without 45 minutes of preoperative warming in preventing intraoperative and postoperative hypothermia caused by spinal anesthesia in patients with midazolam premedication. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective and randomized study at Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu. METHODS: Thirty patients presenting American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II who were scheduled for elective lower abdominal surgery were utilized. The patients received midazolam premedication (7.5 mg by intramuscular injection) and standard spinal anesthesia. Ten patients (Gcontrol) received preoperative and intraoperative passive thermal insulation. Ten patients (Gpre+intra) underwent preoperative and intraoperative active warming. Ten patients (Gintra) were only warmed intraoperatively. RESULTS: After 45 min of preoperative warming, the patients in Gpre+intra had significantly higher core temperatures than did the patients in the unwarmed groups (Gcontrol and Gintra) before the anesthesia (p < 0.05) but not at the beginning of surgery (p > 0.05). The patients who were warmed intraoperatively had significantly higher core temperatures than did the patients in Gcontrol at the end of surgery (p < 0.05). All the patients were hypothermic at admission to the recovery room (T CORE < 36° C). CONCLUSIONS: Forty-five minutes of preoperative warming combined with intraoperative skin-surface warming does not avoid but minimizes hypothermia caused by spinal anesthesia in patients with midazolam premedication.


CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Hipotermia inadvertida no perioperatório é freqüente durante anestesia subaracnóidea e após a administração de midazolam. O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos do aquecimento da pele no intra-operatório, associado ou não ao aquecimento da pele durante o período de 45 minutos no pré-operatório, na prevenção de hipotermia intra- e pós-operatória determinada pela anestesia subaracnóidea em pacientes com medicação pré-anestésica com midazolam. TIPO DE ETUDO E LOCAL: Estudo prospectivo e aleatório, realizado no Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Botucatu, SP. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado em 30 pacientes com estado físico ASA (da Sociedade Norte-americana de Anestesiologistas) I e II submetidos à cirurgia eletiva do abdômen. Como medicação pré-anestésica, utilizou-se o midazolam, 7,5 mg via intramuscular (IM) e anestesia subaracnóidea padrão. Em 10 pacientes (Gcontrole) utilizou-se isolamento térmico passivo; 10 pacientes (Gpré+intra) foram submetidos a aquecimento ativo no pré- e intra-operatório; e 10 pacientes (Gintra) foram aquecidos ativamente somente no intra-operatório. RESULTADOS: Após 45 minutos de aquecimento no pré-operatório, os pacientes do Gpré+intra apresentaram temperatura central mais elevada em relação aos dos grupos não aquecidos antes da anestesia (p < 0,05) mas não no início da cirurgia (p > 0,05). Os pacientes que receberam aquecimento no intra-operatório apresentaram temperatura central mais elevada no final da cirurgia em relação aos de Gcontrole (p < 0,05). Todos os pacientes estavam hipotérmicos na admissão da sala de recuperação pós-anestésica (temperatura central < 36° C). CONCLUSÕES: 45 minutos de aquecimento no pré-operatório combinado com aquecimento no intra- operatório não evita, mas minimiza a ocorrência de hipotermia determinada pela anestesia subaracnóidea em pacientes que receberam midazolam como medicação pré-anestésica.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Anti-Anxiety Agents/adverse effects , Heating/methods , Hypothermia/prevention & control , Midazolam/adverse effects , Analysis of Variance , Anti-Anxiety Agents/administration & dosage , Body Temperature/drug effects , Body Temperature/physiology , Hypothermia/chemically induced , Intraoperative Care/methods , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Premedication/adverse effects , Preoperative Care/methods , Skin Temperature/drug effects , Skin Temperature/physiology , Time Factors
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