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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249756, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345533

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ri chicken is the most popular backyard chicken breed in Vietnam, but little is known about the growth curve of this breed. This study compared the performances of models with three parameters (Gompertz, Brody, and Logistic) and models containing four parameters (Richards, Bridges, and Janoschek) for describing the growth of Ri chicken. The bodyweight of Ri chicken was recorded weekly from week 1 to week 19. Growth models were fitted using minpack.lm package in R software and Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and root mean square error (RMSE) were used for model comparison. Based on these criteria, the models having four parameters showed better performance than the ones with three parameters, and the Richards model was the best one for males and females. The lowest and highest value of asymmetric weights (α) were obtained by Bridges and Brody models for each of sexes, respectively. Age and weight estimated by the Richard model were 8.46 and 7.51 weeks and 696.88 and 487.58 g for males and for females, respectively. Differences in the growth curves were observed between males and female chicken. Overall, the results suggested using the Richards model for describing the growth curve of Ri chickens. Further studies on the genetics and genomics of the obtained growth parameters are required before using them for the genetic improvement of Ri chickens.


Resumo O frango Ri é a raça de frango de quintal mais popular do Vietnã, mas pouco se sabe sobre a curva de crescimento dessa raça. Este estudo comparou o desempenho de modelos com três parâmetros (Gompertz, Brody e Logistic) e modelos contendo quatro parâmetros (Richards, Bridges e Janoschek) para descrever o crescimento do frango Ri. O peso corporal do frango Ri foi registrado semanalmente da semana 1 à semana 19. Os modelos de crescimento foram ajustados usando o pacote minpack.lm no software R e o critério de informação de Akaike (AIC); critério de informação bayesiano (BIC) e erro quadrático médio (RMSE) foram usados ​​para comparação de modelos. Com base nesses critérios, os modelos com quatro parâmetros apresentaram melhor desempenho do que os com três parâmetros, sendo o modelo de Richards o melhor para homens e mulheres. O menor e o maior valor dos pesos assimétricos (α) foram obtidos pelos modelos Bridges e Brody para cada um dos sexos, respectivamente. A idade e o peso estimados pelo modelo de Richard foram de 8,46 e 7,51 semanas e 696,88 e 487,58 g para homens e mulheres, respectivamente. Diferenças nas curvas de crescimento foram observadas entre frangos machos e fêmeas. No geral, os resultados sugeriram o uso do modelo de Richards para descrever a curva de crescimento de frangos Ri. Mais estudos sobre a genética e genômica dos parâmetros de crescimento obtidos são necessários antes de usá-los para o melhoramento genético de frangos Ri.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Chickens , Models, Theoretical , Body Weight , Bayes Theorem , Asians , Models, Biological
2.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(3): 174-184, sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1399247

ABSTRACT

Introducción: A nivel global ha existido un incremento en el peso corporal. Ante ello, se han implementado programas para diagnosticar y tratar la obesidad. Se requiere documentar si dichos programas han propiciado que las personas con obesidad reciban diagnóstico y tratamiento eficaz. Objetivo: Determinar y comparar los cambios entre 2006 y 2018 en las prevalencias de diagnóstico y tratamiento de la obesidad y pérdida intencional de peso en adultos mexicanos e identificar si en este periodo existieron cambios en las disparidades sociales en dichos eventos. Materiales y métodos: Se analizaron las bases de datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición de México realizada en 2006 (N=26.738) y 2018 (N= 12.205), Los eventos fueron diagnóstico y tratamiento de obesidad y de pérdida intencional de peso en adultos mexicanos con IMC > 30. Las variables independientes fueron: sexo, edad, índice de masa corporal, nivel socioeconómico y región geográfica. Resultados: De 2006 a 2018, aumentó la prevalencia de personas con obesidad que recibieron diagnóstico (de 20,4% a 51,1%) o tratamiento (de 8,3% a 21,4%). La prevalencia de pérdida intencional de peso también aumentó (de 5,5% a 10,0%), pero esto básicamente ocurrió en las personas con nivel socioeconómico alto. En modelos multivariados se observó que, las mujeres, las personas con mayor IMC y quienes tenían mayor nivel socioeconómico tuvieron mayor probabilidad de recibir diagnóstico y tratamiento. Conclusiones: Aunque en México el acceso a diagnóstico y tratamiento a la obesidad se ha incrementado, la prevalencia de pérdida intencional de peso es baja, además, persisten disparidades socioeconómicas en estos eventos(AU)


Introduction: Worldwide, there has been an increase in body weight. Because of this, programs have been implemented to diagnose and treat obesity. It is required to document whether these programs have led people with obesity to receive effective diagnosis and treatment. Objective: To determine and compare the changes between 2006 and 2018 in the prevalences of diagnosis and treatment of obesity and intentional weight loss among Mexican adults and to identify whether there were changes in the social disparities in these events during this period. Materials and methods: The databases of the National Health and Nutrition Survey of Mexico carried out in 2006 (N=26,738) and 2018 (N= 12,205) were analyzed. The events were diagnosis and treatment of obesity and intentional weight loss in Mexican adults with BMI > 30. The independent variables were sex, age, body mass index, socioeconomic status, and geographic region. Results: From 2006 to 2018, the prevalence of people with obesity who received the diagnosis (from 20.4% to 51.1%) or treatment (from 8.3% to 21.4%) increased. The prevalence of intentional weight loss also increased (from 5.5% to 10.0%), but this was mainly in people with high socioeconomic status, Multivariate regression models revealed that, women, people with a higher BMI, and those with a higher socioeconomic status were more likely to receive diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions: Although in Mexico access to diagnosis and treatment of obesity has increased, the prevalence of intentional weight loss is low,In addition, socioeconomic disparities persist in these events(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Overweight , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/drug therapy , Social Class , Weight Loss , Nutrition Surveys , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sociodemographic Factors
3.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(1): e203, jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1383640

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en Uruguay, la proporción de nacimientos con bajo peso al nacer (BPN) se mantiene cercana al 8%. En este grupo resulta un desafío conseguir un adecuado crecimiento y desarrollo enfocado a prevenir enfermedades a mediano y largo plazo. Objetivo: analizar la velocidad de crecimiento y los aspectos nutricionales de una cohorte de recién nacidos (RN) con BPN desde su egreso hospitalario y hasta los 12 meses de edad corregida (EC). Metodología: estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, de los RN con BPN de la unidad neonatal de la Maternidad del Hospital de Clínicas Dr. Manuel Quintela, entre el 1 de enero y el 31 de diciembre de 2015. Se excluyeron los portadores de malformaciones congénitas y patología quirúrgica al nacer. Se evaluó peso, longitud y perímetro craneano al egreso, y a los 5, 9 y 12 meses de EC. La velocidad del crecimiento fue analizada mediante z-score y Δz-score ajustado a EC en curvas de la OMS. Se estimó aporte nutricional en cada control y se exploraron asociaciones entre cambios en la curva de crecimiento y el grado de adecuación de la ingesta calórica estimada. Resultados: ingresaron al estudio 31 recién nacidos: con peso al nacer <1.500 g hubo 7 neonatos y ≥1.500 g 24. Edad gestacional (EG) media 32,5 semanas (rango 25-39), un término y 30 prematuros: extremos 2, muy prematuros 9, y moderados 19. En relación al peso al nacer para la EG 21 fueron adecuados (AEG), 7 pequeños (PEG) y 3 grandes (GEG). Completaron los tres controles programados 26 niños. En el primer control mantuvieron el carril de crecimiento 15 niños, descendieron 8 y aceleraron 8; en el segundo mantuvieron 9, desaceleraron 8 y aceleraron 12; y en el tercero mantuvieron 9, desaceleraron 7 y aceleraron 10. El número de niños que al final del seguimiento mantenían el mismo carril de crecimiento que al nacer, descendió a expensas de un aumento de aquellos que aceleraron el crecimiento. Al llegar al tercer control se encontró que sólo 9 niños mantuvieron el carril de crecimiento al nacer y el resto (17) cambiaron de carril, lo cual resultó en una diferencia significativa. En los 10 pacientes que aceleraron su crecimiento durante el primer año de vida, no se encontraron asociaciones entre la velocidad de crecimiento y las características energéticas de la alimentación complementaria que recibían. Conclusiones: se observaron problemas en el crecimiento de los niños con BPN durante el primer año de vida. Una proporción significativa presentaron crecimiento acelerado lo cual es un factor de riesgo para obesidad y enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. Es necesario profundizar en las causas de estas alteraciones, en especial relacionadas con las prácticas de alimentación, para desarrollar estrategias que contribuyan a la prevención.


Introduction: in Uruguay, the proportion of low weight births (LBW) remains close to 8%. It is a challenge to achieve adequate growth and development focused on preventing diseases in the medium and long term for the case of this group. Objective: analyze the growth rate and nutritional aspects of a cohort of newborns (NB) with LBW since they were discharged from the hospital and until 12 months of corrected age (CA). Methodology: descriptive, prospective study of NBs with LBW of the neonatal ward of the Manuel Quintela Maternity Hospital, between January 1 and December 31, 2015. We excluded carriers of congenital malformations and surgical pathology at birth and assessed weight, length and cranial perimeter at discharge, and at 5, 9 and 12 months of CA. The growth rate was analyzed using z-score and Δz-score adjusted to CA in WHO curves. Nutritional contribution was estimated in each check-up and associations were explored between changes in the growth curve and the degree of adequacy of the estimated caloric intake. Results: 31 newborns participated in the test: 7 newborns had a birth weight of <1.500 g and ≥1.500 g: 24. Mean Gestational Age (GA) 32.5 weeks (range 25-39), one term and 30 preterm newborns: extreme 2, very premature 9, and moderate 19. Regarding birth weight according to gestational age, 21 were appropiate for gestational age (AGA), 7 small for gestational age (SGA) and 3 large for gestational age (LGA). The 26 children completed the 3 scheduled check-ups. In the 1st check-up, 15 children had been able to maintain the growth trend, in 8 of them it had decreased and in 8 it had accelerated; in the 2nd check-up 9 of them maintained their growth rate, 9 decreased it and 12 of the newborns increased it; and in the 3rd check-up, the trend remained steady for 9 of them , it decreased for 7 of them and it increased for 10 of them. The number of children who at the end of the follow-up maintained the same growth trend they had at birth decreased, despite the increase in the growth trend of those with a more accelerated growth. At the time of the 3rd check-up it was found that only 9 children maintained the growth trend they had at birth and the rest, (17), changed trends, which resulted in a significant gap. We did not find links life between the growth rate and the energy characteristics of the supplementary food they received in the 10 patients who had increased their growth rate in their first year of life. Conclusions: we observed problems regarding the growth rate of children with LBW during the first year of life. A significant proportion showed accelerated growth, which is a risk factor for obesity and chronic non-communicable diseases. It is necessary to research the causes of these alterations, especially regarding their feeding practices in order to develop strategies for their prevention.


Introdução: no Uruguai, a proporção de recém-nascidos com baixo peso ao nascer (LBW) permanece próxima de 8%. É um desafio alcançar um crescimento e desenvolvimento adequados focados na prevenção de doenças a médio e longo prazo nesse grupo de crianças. Objetivo: analisar a taxa de crescimento e aspectos nutricionais de uma coorte de recém-nascidos (RN) com LBW no momento da alta hospitalar e até 12 meses de idade corrigida (EC). Metodologia: estudo prospectivo de RNs com LBW da unidade neonatal da Maternidade do Hospital Dr. Manuel Quintela, entre 1º de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 2015. Foram excluídos portadores de malformações congênitas e patologia cirúrgica ao nascer. Peso, comprimento e perímetro craniano foram avaliados no momento da alta hospitalar e aos 5, 9 e 12 meses de EC. A velocidade de crescimento foi analisada utilizando-se pontuação z e pontuação Δz ajustada ao EC das curvas da OMS. A contribuição nutricional foi estimada em cada controle e as associações entre mudanças na curva de crescimento e o grau de adequação da ingestão calórica estimada foram exploradas. Resultados: 31 recém-nascidos entraram no estudo: com peso ao nascer <1500 g havia 7 recém-nascidos e ≥1500 g: 24. Idade Gestacional Média (EG) 32,5 semanas (faixa 25-39), um termo e 30 prematuros: extremos 2, muito prematuros 9 e moderados 19. Em relação ao peso ao nascer para EG, 21 foram adequados (AEG), 7 pequenos (PEG) e 3 grandes (GEG). As 26 crianças completaram os 3 controles programados. No 1º controle, 15 crianças mantiveram a faixa de crescimento, 8 desceram e 8 aceleraram; no 2º mantiveram 9, desaceleraram 8 e aceleraram 12; e no 3º mantiveram 9, desaceleraram 7 e aceleraram 10. O número de crianças que, ao final do seguimento, manteve a mesma faixa de crescimento do que ao nascer diminuiu mesmo que houve um aumento daqueles que aceleraram o crescimento. No 3º controle foi constatado que apenas 9 crianças mantiveram a faixa de crescimento que tinham ao nascer e o resto (17) mudou de faixa, resultando numa diferença significativa. Nos 10 pacientes que aceleraram seu crescimento durante o primeiro ano de vida, não foram encontradas associações entre a velocidade de crescimento e as características energéticas da alimentação complementar que receberam. Conclusões: foram observados problemas no crescimento de crianças com LBW durante o primeiro ano de vida. Uma proporção significativa delas mostrou crescimento acelerado, que é um fator de risco para obesidade e doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. É necessário aprofundar nas causas dessas alterações, especialmente aquelas relacionadas às práticas alimentares para poder desenvolver estratégias que contribuam para a prevenção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Body Weight , Energy Intake , Infant, Low Birth Weight/growth & development , Socioeconomic Factors , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies
4.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 125-130, abr.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391951

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La mayoría de los establecimientos educacionales tienen una jornada escolar completa, generando que el estudiante transporte mayor cantidad de útiles escolares en su mochila. OBJETIVO: Analizar el peso promedio de las mochilas de espalda en estudiantes de educación básica de la comuna de Copiapó. METODOLOGÍA: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con alcance correlacional, la muestra estuvo constituida por 286 estudiantes (139 varones y 147 mujeres) de educación básica, de un establecimiento escolar de la comuna de Copiapó. Se analizó el peso corporal, la altura y el peso de las mochilas durante una semana, mediante una plataforma de fuerza y estadiómetro. RESULTADOS: Se encontró que entre los días lunes a jueves los estudiantes llevaban en su mochila un peso que sobrepasaba el 10/ de su peso corporal. Asimismo, las mochilas de espaldas son las más utilizadas en comparación con las mochilas con ruedas, con un 88,1% de la muestra. Sin embargo, las mochilas de espalda presentaron menor peso al compararlas con las mochilas con ruedas, las cuales tuvieron valores cercanos al 20% del peso corporal. CONCLUSIÓN: La mayoría de los estudiantes transportaban en sus mochilas, pesos que superan el 10% de peso recomendado, siendo las mochilas con rueda las de mayor peso. Se recomienda desarrollar normas establecidas dentro de los colegios, para evitar el traslado de dichas cargas y prevenir alteraciones posturales, biomecánicas y fisiológicas.


INTRODUCTION: Most educational establishments have a full school day, causing the student to carry a greater number of school supplies in their backpack. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the average weight of backpacks in basic education students of the Copiapó district. METHODOLOGY: a descriptive cross-sectional study with correlational scope was carried out, the sample consisted of 286 students (139 men and 147 women) of basic education, from a school in the district of Copiapó. Body weight, height and backpack weight were analyzed for one week, using a force platform and stadiometer. RESULTS: It was found that between Monday and Thursday the students carried a weight in their backpack that exceeded 10% of their body weight. Likewise, backpacks on the back are the most used compared to backpacks with wheels, with 88.1% of the sample. However, the backpacks presented less weight when compared to the backpacks with wheels, which had values close to 20% of body weight. CONCLUSION: Most of the students carried weights in their backpacks that exceed 10% of the recommended weight, with wheeled backpacks being the heaviest. It is recommended to develop established norms within the schools, to avoid the transfer of said loads and prevent postural, biomechanical and physiological alterations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Students , Weight Lifting/physiology , Lifting , Body Weight , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(2): 159-174, maio-ago. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372969

ABSTRACT

A obesidade é definida pelo excesso de gordura corporal acumulada no tecido adiposo quando o indivíduo atinge valores de IMC igual ou superior a 30 Kg/m2. Constitui um dos principais fatores de risco para várias doenças não transmissíveis (DNTs) como por exemplo, diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2), doenças cardiovasculares, hipertensão arterial, acidente vascular cerebral e até mesmo o câncer. Embora a obesidade esteja diretamente relacionada com o consumo calórico excessivo em relação ao gasto energético diário, sua etiologia pode estar associada aos baixos níveis de atividade física, às alterações neuroendócrinas e aos fatores genéticos. Considerando o componente genético, esta pode ser classificada como sindrômicas e estar associada às alterações cromossômicas estruturais ou numéricas, ou como não sindrômica, quando relacionada, principalmente, com os polimorfismos de nucleotídeos simples (SNPs) em alelos que atuam como herança monogênica, ou ainda com a interação vários genes (poligênica multifatorial). Apesar de existirem muitas etiologias diferentes, normalmente a obesidade é tratada a partir da mesma abordagem, desconsiderando a fisiologia que a desencadeou. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi abordar a obesidade genética não sindrômica por meio a) da descrição breve de perspectiva histórica sobre seu entendimento; b) da exposição dos principais mecanismos moleculares envolvidos com o controle de peso; c) da compilação dos principais genes e SNPs relacionados; d) da definição dos principais genes; e e) da abordagem das principais perspectivas de intervenção.


Obesity is defined as excess body fat accumulated in the adipose tissue when the individual reaches BMI values equal to or greater than 30 kg/m2. It is one of the main risk factors for several non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2D), cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, stroke and even cancer. Although obesity is directly related to excessive calorie intake in relation to daily energy expenditure, its etiology may be associated with low levels of physical activity, neuroendocrine changes, and genetic factors. Considering the genetic component, it can be classified as syndromic and be associated with chromosomal or numerical changes, or as non-syndromic and being related mainly to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in alleles that act as monogenic inheritance, or with an interaction of several genes (multifactorial polygenic). Although there are many different etiologies, obesity is usually treated using the same approach, disregarding the physiology that triggered it. Thus, the aim of this study was to address non-syndromic genetic obesity through a) a brief description of a historical perspective on its understanding; b) the exposure of the main molecular mechanisms involved in weight control, c) the compilation of the key genes and related SNPs, d) the definition of the key genes and e) the approach of the main intervention representations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Body Weight/genetics , Epigenomics , Genes/genetics , Obesity/genetics , Body Mass Index , Gene Expression/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4/genetics , Melanocortins/genetics , Receptors, Leptin/genetics , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/genetics , Hypothalamus/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology
6.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(1): 1-11, may. 11, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399662

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Chewing is a learned orofacial function, important in the nutrition process of most mammals. It has been described that it can vary according to the characteristics of the individuals and the characteristics of the food. The aim of this study was to compare the kinematic characteristics of mastication in subjects with different body mass index (BMI), including foods of different hardness in the analysis. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted. The mastication of 3.7 g of peanut (soft food) and 3.7 g of carrot (hard food) was compared among three study groups formed according to BMI: normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9), overweight (BMI 25-29.9) and obese (BMI ≥30); each with 7 participants. The kinematics of the masticatory movement were assessed with a 3D Electromagnetic Articulograph, the characteristics analyzed were number of masticatory cycles, masticatory frequency, speed and area of the cycles. Results: No significant differences were noted among the study groups for the number of masticatory cycles, frequency or speed in the two foods studied. It was observed that when chewing carrot, the horizontal area of the masticatory cycles was significantly larger in the obese than in the overweight group. However, when chewing peanuts, this parameter did not present significant differences among the different groups. A comparison of the characteristics of mastication of the two foods revealed that the carrot chewing presented a significantly greater masticatory frequency and speed than the peanut chewing. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that food hardness influences the kinematic characteristics of mastication more than BMI, noting that hard foods are masticated faster and more frequently than soft foods and that masticatory frequency tends to increase with BMI.


Introduction: Chewing is a learned orofacial function, important in the nutrition process of most mammals. It has been described that it can vary according to the characteristics of the individuals and the characteristics of the food. The aim of this study was to compare the kinematic cha-racteristics of mastication in subjects with different body mass index (BMI), including foods of different hardness in the analysis. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was con- ducted. The mastication of 3.7 g of peanut (soft food) and 3.7 g of carrot (hard food) was compared among three study groups formed according to BMI: normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9), overweight (BMI 25-29.9) and obese (BMI ?30); each with 7 participants. The kinematics of the masticatory movement were assessed with a 3D Electromagnetic Articulograph, the characteristics analyzed were number of masticatory cycles, masticatory frequency, speed and area of the cycles. Results: No significant differences were noted among the study groups for the number of masticatory cycles, frequency or speed in the two foods studied. It was observed that when chewing carrot, the horizontal area of the masticatory cycles was significantly larger in the obese than in the overweight group. However, when chewing peanuts, this parameter did not present significant differences among the different groups. A comparison of the characteristics of mastication of the two foods revealed that the carrot chewing presented a significantly greater masticatory frequency and speed than the peanut chewing. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that food hardness influences the kinematic characteristics of mastication more than BMI, noting that hard foods are masticated faster and more frequently than soft foods and that masticatory frequency tends to increase with BMI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Body Weight/physiology , Body Mass Index , Mastication/physiology , Biomechanical Phenomena , Overweight/physiopathology , Food , Obesity/physiopathology
7.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(1): 43-49, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1368367

ABSTRACT

Lifestyle, psychological well-being, and body mass index of indigenous women. Introduction. Obesity is more common in women and has also been found to be present in indigenous populations. During university studies, obesity-related lifestyles are in the process of consolidation, and although this is known, research is limited to addressing physical activity and diet, ignoring other lifestyle components, such as life appreciation. Additionally, there is a need to corroborate whether psychological well-being contributes to excess weight in indigenous women. Objective. To determine whether there is an association between lifestyle, psychological well-being, and body mass index (BMI) in indigenous women. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 110 female Zapotec university students in Juchitán, Oaxaca, Mexico. The Psychological Well-Being Scale, the Healthy Lifestyle Scale for University Students, and a questionnaire about personal data were used. Body weight and height were measured to calculate BMI. Results. There was a negative correlation between BMI, self-acceptance (r = -0.33; p < 0.01), and life appreciation (r = -0.22; p < 0.05). Positive correlations were found between lifestyle and psychological well-being dimensions, with the strongest correlations being observed between life appreciation and purpose in life (r = 0.55) and self-acceptance (r = 0.48). The multivariable models determined that life appreciation and self-acceptance are associated with BMI. Conclusion. Life appreciation and self-acceptance are predictors of BMI and are even more strongly associated than exercise and nutrition behaviors(AU)


La obesidad es más frecuente en mujeres, aún en poblaciones indígenas. Durante los estudios universitarios, los estilos de vida relacionados con la obesidad se encuentran en proceso de consolidación, y aunque esto es conocido, las investigaciones se limitan a abordar la actividad física y la dieta, ignorando otros componentes del estilo de vida, como la apreciación por la vida. Adicionalmente, es necesario corroborar si el bienestar psicológico contribuye al exceso de peso en mujeres indígenas. Objetivo. Determinar si existe asociación entre los estilos de vida, el bienestar psicológico y el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) en mujeres indígenas. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal en 110 mujeres zapotecas estudiantes universitarias en Juchitán, Oaxaca, México. Se utilizó la escala de bienestar psicológico, la escala de estilos de vida saludables para estudiantes universitarias y un cuestionario sobre datos personales. Se midió el peso corporal y la estatura para calcular el IMC. Resultados. Hubo correlación negativa entre el IMC, la autoaceptación (r=-0,33; p<0,01) y la apreciación por la vida (r=-0,22; p<0,05). Se encontraron correlaciones entre las dimensiones de estilos de vida y las dimensiones de bienestar psicológico: las correlaciones más fuertes se observaron entre apreciación por la vida y propósito en la vida (r 0 0.55) y autoaceptación (r = 0.48). La apreciación por la vida y la autoaceptación son factores predictores del IMC. Conclusión. La apreciación por la vida y la autoaceptación son predictores del IMC, incluso más fuertemente asociados que el ejercicio físico y la alimentación(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Indigenous Peoples , Life Style , Obesity , Students , Universities , Body Height , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Mexico
8.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 161-171, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364975

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: There are divergences in the literature regarding the experimental model (Wistar-WIS or Wistar Kyoto-WKY) to be used as a Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) control. The characterization of these models in terms of cardiovascular parameters provides researchers with important tools at the time of selection and application in scientific research. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of WIS and WKY as a Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) control by assessing the long-term behavior of blood pressure and cardiac structure and function in these strains. Methods: To this end, WIS, WKY, and SHR underwent longitudinal experiments. Blood pressure and body mass were measured every two weeks from the 8th to the 72nd. Echocardiographic analysis was performed in all groups with 16, 48, and 72 weeks of life. After having applied the normality test, the Two-Way ANOVA of repeated measures followed by the Tukey post hoc test was used. A significance level of 5% was established. Results: The WIS group showed higher body mass (p<0.05), while the WKY and SHR presented higher body mass variation over time (p<0.05). SHR exhibited increased values of systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure when compared to WKY and WIS, whereas the WKY generally showed higher values than WIS (p<0.05). Regarding the cardiac function, SHR showed reduced values, while the WKY presented an early decrease when compared to WIS with aging (p<0.05). Conclusion: WIS is a more suitable normotensive control for SHR than WKY in experiments to test blood pressure and cardiac structure and function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Heart/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Body Weight , Echocardiography , Longitudinal Studies , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
9.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 29(2): [1-15], mar. 2022. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366584

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de hormônio do crescimento (Growth Hormone - GH) e treinamento de força (TF) na composição do tecido ósseo de ratos Wistar a partir da Espectroscopia Raman. 40 ratos machos foram distribuídos de forma aleatória em quatro grupos: controle (C [n=10]), controle a aplicação de GH (GHC [n=10]), treinamento de força (T [n=10]) e treinamento de força e aplicação de GH (GHT [n=10]). O treinamento foi composto por quatro séries de 10 saltos aquáticos, realizados três vezes por semana, com sobrecarga correspondente a 50% do peso corpóreo e duração de quatro semanas. O GH foi aplicado na dose de 0,2 UI/Kg em cada animal, três vezes por semana e em dias alternados. Ao final do experimento, os animais foram eutanasiados e coletados os fêmures direitos para realização da análise da composição óssea. A espectroscopia Raman (ER) foi utilizada para observar os seguintes compostos a partir de suas respectivas bandas: colágeno e fosfolipídio (1445 cm-1), colesterol (548 cm-1), glicerol (607 cm-1), glicose (913 cm-1), Pico de carboidrato (931 cm-1 ) e prolina (918 cm-1 ). Para a análise estatística, foram realizados os testes de normalidade de Shapiro-Wilk e análise de variâncias ANOVA one-way, seguida pelo pós-teste de Tukey. Os resultados revelaram aumento nas concentrações de colágeno e fosfolipidio, colesterol, glicerol, glicose, pico de carboidrato e prolina em todos os grupos experimentais, associados ou não à realização do ST e/ou aplicação de GH. Porém, somente o grupo T diferiu significativamente do grupo C (p<0,05). Conclui-se que todas intervenções puderam promover ganho no tecido ósseo, porém, somente o grupo T demonstrou diferença significativa nos compostos minerais analisados. (AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of growth hormone (GH) and strength training (TF) on the bone tissue composition of Wistar rats using Raman Spectroscopy. 40 male rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control (C [n = 10]), control the application of GH (GHC [n = 10]), strength training (T [n = 10]) and training of strength and application of GH (GHT [n = 10]). The training consisted of four series of 10 water jumps, performed three times a week, with an overload corresponding to 50% of body weight and lasting four weeks. GH was applied at a dose of 0.2 IU / kg to each animal, three times a week and on alternate days. After four weeks, the animals were euthanized and the right femurs were collected to carry out the analysis of the bone composition. Raman spectroscopy (ER) was used to observe the following compounds from their respective bands: collagen and phospholipid (1445 cm-1), cholesterol (548 cm-1), glycerol (607 cm-1), glucose (913 cm-1), Peak carbohydrate (931 cm-1), proline (918 cm-1). For statistical analysis, the Shapiro-Wilk normality tests and ANOVA One-Way analysis of variances were performed, followed by the Tukey post-test. The results revealed an increase in the concentrations of collagen and phospholipid, cholesterol, glycerol, glucose, peak carbohydrate and proline in all experimental groups, associated or not with the performance of ST and / or application of GH. However, only group T differed significantly from group C (p <0.05). It was concluded that all intervention could promote gain in bone tissue, however, only the T group showed a significant difference in the analyzed mineral compounds. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Spectrum Analysis , Bone and Bones , Exercise , Rats, Wistar , Resistance Training , Femur , Metabolism , Phospholipids , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Body Weight , Proline , Growth Hormone , Carbohydrates , Cholesterol , Analysis of Variance , Collagen , Glycerol , Lipids
10.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 543-550, fev 11, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359315

ABSTRACT

Introdução: fatores de risco gestacionais podem culminar na prematuridade neonatal, que constitui um grande desafio para a saúde pública em todo o mundo, sendo uma das principais causas de mortes neonatais. Objetivo: analisar uma população de prematuros, internados em unidades neonatais em relação ao estado nutricional e à alimentação recebida. Metodologia: delineamento observacional retrospectivo, com 125 recém-nascidos prematuros de uma maternidade pública do Tocantins. Sexo, idade gestacional ao nascer, peso, comprimento e perímetro cefálico ao nascer, durante a internação e na alta, ganho de peso diário, tempo de internação e tipo de dieta recebida foram analisados por meio dos testes de Mann-Whitney, Qui-quadrado, Exato de Fisher e t-Student, Mc Nemar, Wilcoxon e Friedman, a 5% de significância, no Statistical Package for Social Sciences 20.0. Resultados: houve predomínio do sexo masculino na amostra. A prevalência de crianças muito prematuras foi maior na unidade de cuidados convencionais (UcinCo), enquanto a prevalência de crianças com muito baixo peso ao nascer foi maior na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTIN). O tempo de internação foi menor na UcinCo, sendo este menos da metade do tempo de internação na UTIN. O peso à alta e o ganho de peso foram maiores na UTIN. Observou-se declínio do estado nutricional nas duas unidades. A utilização de fórmulas comerciais foi maior na UcinCo, enquanto predominou a oferta de leite humano na UTIN. Conclusão: independentemente do tipo de dieta recebida e da unidade de terapia, as crianças declinaram de estado nutricional durante a internação.


Introduction: gestational risk factors can culminate in neonatal prematurity, which is a major public health challenge worldwide, being one of the leading causes of neonatal deaths. Objective: to analyze a population of preterm infants admitted to neonatal units in relation to nutritional status and the food received. Methodology: retrospective observational design with 125 premature newborns from a public maternity in Tocantins. Gender, gestational age at birth, weight, length and head circumference at birth, during hospitalization and at discharge, daily weight gain, length of stay and type of diet received were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, Fisher exact and Student t, Mc Nemar, Wilcoxon and Friedman tests, at 5% significance, in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 20.0. Results: there was a predominance of males in the sample. The prevalence of very premature children was higher in the conventional care unit (CCU), while the prevalence of very low birth weight children was higher in the intensive care unit (ICU). Length of stay was shorter in the CCU, which was less than half of the length of stay in the ICU. Weight at discharge and weight gain were higher in the ICU. There was a decline in nutritional status in both units. The use of commercial formulas was higher in CCU, while the supply of human milk in the ICU predominated. Conclusion: regardless of the type of diet received and the therapy unit, the children declined their nutritional status during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Sex , Body Weight , Breast Feeding , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Cephalometry , Gestational Age , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 68-76, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364297

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The lowest dosage of empagliflozin (10 mg) showed similar benefits on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, body weight, blood pressure, and total and cardiovascular mortality in comparison with the highest available dose (25 mg) in the EMPAREG trial. These findings have not been clearly demonstrated for canagliflozin and dapagliflozin. The objective was to compare the effect of different doses of SGLT2 inhibitors commercially available in Brazil on HbA1c and body weight of patients with type 2 diabetes. MEDLINE, Cochrane and Embase databases were searched from inception until 11th October 2021 for randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes patients, lasting at least 12 weeks. HbA1c and body weight variations were described using standard mean difference. We performed direct and indirect meta-analysis, as well as a meta-regression with medication doses as covariates. Eighteen studies were included, comprising 16,095 patients. In the direct meta-analysis, SGLT2 inhibitors reduced HbA1c by 0.62% (95% CI −0.66 to −0.59) and body weight by 0.60 kg (95% CI −0.64 to −0.55). In the indirect meta-analysis, canagliflozin 300 mg ranked the highest regarding reductions in HbA1c and body weight. The remaining medications and dosages were clinically similar, despite some statistically significant differences among them. Canagliflozin 300 mg seems to be more potent in reducing HbA1c and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes. The remaining SGLT2 inhibitors at different doses lead to similar effects for both outcomes. Whether these glycemic and weight effects are reflected in lower mortality and cardiovascular events is still uncertain and may be a topic for further studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Blood , Body Weight , Brazil , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Canagliflozin/therapeutic use
12.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e57233, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363844

ABSTRACT

Despite numerous studies related to dehydration there is still a lack of scientific literature presenting hydration status and fluid intake of judo athletes during different periods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate, fluid intake, hydration status and body weight changes of young judo athletes during a typical day of training in preparation period. Twenty-two young judo athletes (age: 12 ± 0.7 y, experience: 3.5 ± 1.1) voluntarily participated in this study. Hydration status and weight were examined in the morning, before and immediately after the training. All athletes trained 90 min and they consumed fluids ad libitum during the exercise. According to morning urine specific gravity (USG) values, 81.2% of the athletes were dehydrated while only 18.8% of the athletes were euhydrated. Pre-training urine measurements showed that 63.64% of the athletes presented dehydration and 77.27% of the athletes completed the training in dehydrated condition despite fluid availability during the training. Mean body weight loss during training was -0.64 ± 0.66%. It can be concluded that young judo athletes presented high prevalence of dehydration as indicated by USG values. Most of the athletes were dehydrated during a typical training day and completed the training in more dehydrated conditions compared to pre training values despite ad libitum fluid intake. It is of great importance to evaluate hydration status of the athletes before training to refrain from common practice of fluid restriction for weight loss and adverse effects of a persistent state of fluid deficit on physical and health related state.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Body Weight/physiology , Martial Arts , Drinking , Athletes , Mentoring , Organism Hydration Status/physiology , Urine/physiology , Body Weight Changes , Exercise/physiology , Prevalence , Dehydration , Drinking Behavior/physiology
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 66-80, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372378

ABSTRACT

Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) extracts have been reported to exert various pharmacological activities including antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities. The objective of the present study was to determine the anticarcinogenic activity of its methanol extract (MEMM) against the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced early colon carcinogenesis in rats. Rats were randomly assigned to five groups (n=6) namely normal control, negative control, and treatment (50, 250 or 500 mg/kg of MEMM) groups. Colon tissues were harvested for histopathological analysis and endogenous antioxidant system determination. MEMM was also subjected to HPLC analysis. Findings showed that MEMM significantly (p<0.05) reversed the AOM-induced carcinogenicity by: i) reducing the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in colon tissues, and; ii) enhancing the endogenous antioxidant activity (catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase). Moreover, various phenolics has been identified in MEMM. In conclusion, MEMM exerts the in vivo anticarcinogenic activity via the activation of endogenous antioxidant system and synergistic action of phenolics.


Se ha informado que los extractos de Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) ejercen diversas actividades farmacológicas, incluidas actividades antioxidantes, antiinflamatorias y antiproliferativas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la actividad anticancerígena de su extracto de metanol (MEMM) contra la carcinogénesis de colon temprana inducida por azoximetano (AOM) en ratas. Las ratas se asignaron al azar a cinco grupos (n=6), a saber, los grupos de control normal, control negativo y tratamiento (50, 250 o 500 mg/kg de MEMM). Tejidos de colon fueron recolectados para análisis histopatológico y determinación del sistema antioxidante endógeno. MEMM también se sometió a análisis de HPLC. Los hallazgos mostraron que MEMM invirtió significativamente (p<0.05) la carcinogenicidad inducida por AOM al: i) reducir la formación de focos de criptas aberrantes (ACF) en los tejidos del colon, y; ii) potenciar la actividad antioxidante endógena (catalasa, superóxido dismutasa y glutatión peroxidasa). Además, se han identificado varios fenólicos en MEMM. En conclusión, MEMM ejerce la actividad anticancerígena in vivo mediante la activación del sistema antioxidante endógeno y la acción sinérgica de los fenólicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Anticarcinogenic Agents/administration & dosage , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Melastomataceae/chemistry , Organ Size/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Colon/pathology , Plant Leaves , Methanol , Phenolic Compounds , Aberrant Crypt Foci , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Antioxidants
14.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e56397, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363820

ABSTRACT

According to different researches, 30% of university graduates have a low level of health, and studying at university is one of the factors of its deterioration, besides the first year is considered critical. The purpose of research is to study the dynamics of physical development, physical fitness and functional state of young men during the first year of university studies. For the survey we used standard measurements and index calculations for 11 indicators of physical development, 9 indicators of physical fitness and 15 indicators of functional status. We calculated the arithmetic mean (M), the standard error of the mean (m), then evaluated differences by the Student criterion (t) for independent samples and considered them as reliable atр < 0.05. It is shown that during the first year of studies, young men have an increase in the Erismann index, the corpulence (Rohrer's) index, the body mass index and a decrease in the Pignet index. There is also an increase in the coefficient of endurance, adaptive capacity and diastolic pressure, while vital capacity of the lungs, the vital index, time of hanging on the bar and the speed of running 1000 m decrease. The dynamics of physical development is expressed in a change in mass-growth indices and indicates an increase in body weight. The dynamics of physical fitness is expressed in a decrease of the time of hanging on the bar and the speed of running 1000 m. The dynamics of the functional state is expressed in a decrease of vital capacity of the lungs, vital index, increase in the coefficient of endurance, adaptive capacity and diastolic blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Students , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Health Status , Physical Fitness/physiology , Athletic Performance/physiology , Motor Skills/physiology , Physical Endurance/physiology , Running/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Cardiovascular System , Body Mass Index , Vital Capacity/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Functional Status , Indicators and Reagents , Men
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1404-1414, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405270

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: In Saudi Arabia, it is widely believed that women with reproductive problems can use the extract of the sage plant as a tea drink. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of this herb on the fertility of female rats and embryo implantation. Forty-eight Wistar virgin female rats were divided into four groups at random, with 12 rats in each group. The control group received distilled water orally. The three treatment groups received different concentrations of sage extract: 15, 60, or 100 mg/kg for 14 days before mating, then mated with a male and sacrificed on the 7th day of gestation, the uterine horns removed, and photographed. The total body weight of mothers, weight of uteri and ovaries and number of fetuses were determined. Ovarian and uteri tissues were cut into 5 µ sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Serum FSH, LH were determined by the ELISA method. The present study showed that low dose of sage (15 mg/kg) have no effects on serum concentration levels of FSH and LH hormones, also has no effect on the number of growing follicles. The present study showed a significant differences (P≤0.05) in body weight, ovary and uterus weight in the groups treated with high doses of Salvia officinalis as compared to control group. Also a significant differences (P≤0.05) found in FSH, LH hormones. Histological study showed overall histomorphological structural configurations including growing and matured graafian follicular countable changes, besides a number of corpora lutea and regressed follicles in the treated groups with high doses of Salvia officinalis as compared to control group. The researchers concluded that the extract of the sage plant with high doses can stimulate the growth graafian follicles and improve fertility in female rats.


RESUMEN: En Arabia Saudita, se cree ampliamente que las mujeres con problemas reproductivos pueden usar el extracto de la planta de salvia como bebida de té. Este estudio se realizó para investigar los efectos de esta hierba sobre la fertilidad de las ratas hembra y la implantación del embrión. Se dividieron cuarenta y ocho ratas hembra vírgenes Wistar en cuatro grupos al azar, con 12 ratas en cada grupo. El grupo control recibió agua destilada por vía oral. Los tres grupos de tratamiento recibieron diferentes concentraciones de extracto de salvia: 15, 60 o 100 mg/kg durante 14 días antes del apareamiento, luego se aparearon con un macho y se sacrificaron el día 7 de gestación, se extrajeron los cuernos uterinos y se fotografiaron. Se determinó el peso corporal total de las madres, el peso del útero y los ovarios y el número de fetos. Los tejidos ováricos y uterinos se cortaron en secciones de 5 µ y se tiñeron con hematoxilina y eosina. FSH sérica, LH se determinaron por el método ELISA. El presente estudio mostró que dosis bajas de salvia (15 mg/kg) no tienen efectos sobre los niveles de concentración sérica de las hormonas FSH y LH, tampoco tienen efecto sobre el número de folículos en crecimiento. El presente estudio mostró diferencias significativas (P≤0,05) en el peso corporal, peso de ovario y útero en los grupos tratados con altas dosis de Salvia officinalis en comparación con el grupo control. También se encontraron diferencias significativas (P≤0,05) en las hormonas FSH, LH. El estudio histológico mostró configuraciones estructurales histomorfológicas generales que incluyen cambios contables en los folículos maduros (de Graaf) y en crecimiento, además de una cantidad de cuerpos lúteos y folículos en regresión en los grupos tratados con altas dosis de Salvia officinalis en comparación con el grupo de control. Los investigadores concluyeron que el extracto de la planta de salvia en altas dosis puede estimular el crecimiento de los folículos maduros y mejorar la fertilidad en ratas hembra.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Embryo Implantation/drug effects , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Salvia officinalis/chemistry , Fertility/drug effects , Body Weight , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Luteinizing Hormone/analysis , Administration, Oral , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/analysis
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1335-1343, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405278

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study aimed to explore the effects of a single moderate-intensity aerobic endurance running program on the morphological characteristics of normal-weighted and overweighted female adolescents and whether effects differ between individuals of different nutritional statuses. A total of 47 adolescent girls participated in this randomized controlled trial. Before and after 12 weeks of intervention, measurements were obtained for body height, body mass, BMI, triceps, subscapular, abdominal, thigh, and calf skinfolds, and chest, abdominal, thigh, and calf circumference. The total duration of the program was 12 weeks, with a frequency of 2 hours/week (24 sessions). The individual session lasted 60 minutes, and the intensity ranged from 60 % HRmax to 80 %. The findings from the present study suggest that the 12-week aerobic endurance running program induced changes in morphological characteristics of female adolescents. The significant reductions in body mass and BMI were small for normal-weight adolescents (-2,64 % and -3,48 %) and moderate for overweight adolescents (-4,14 % and -4,36 %) following the experimental program. The magnitude of reductions in the skinfold thickness was small for both groups (triceps, subscapular, abdominal, and calf) and moderate for thigh skinfold and a sum of skinfolds in the overweight group. The reductions in the magnitude of all circular measures were small for both groups. It ranged from - 1.59 % to -2.59 % for normal-weight and from -2.54 % to -3.92 % for overweight adolescents, respectively. Additionally, the effects of the applied program seem more favorable to overweight than normal-weight adolescents. This study's current findings indicate that the 12-week aerobic endurance running program is effective due to improvements in morphological characteristics, body mass, and BMI of female adolescents. Additionally, this study's findings show that applied aerobic endurance running program proved more effective for overweight adolescents.


RESUMEN: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo explorar los efectos de un programa único de carrera de resistencia aeróbica de intensidad moderada sobre las características morfológicas de mujeres adolescentes con peso normal y con sobrepeso y si los efectos difieren entre individuos con diferentes estados nutricionales. Un total de 47 niñas adolescentes participaron en este ensayo controlado aleatorio. Antes y después de 12 semanas de intervención, se obtuvieron mediciones de altura corporal, masa corporal, IMC, tríceps, pliegues cutáneos subescapular, abdominal, muslo y pantorrilla, y circunferencia torácica, abdominal, muslo y pantorrilla. La duración total del programa fue de12 semanas, con una frecuencia de 2 horas/semana (24 sesiones). La sesión individual tuvo una duración de 60 minutos y la intensidad osciló entre el 60 % y el 80 % de la FCmáx. Los hallazgos del presente estudio sugieren que el programa de carrera de resistencia aeróbica de 12 semanas indujo cambios en las características morfológicas de las adolescentes. Las reducciones significativas en la masa corporal y el IMC fueron menores para los adolescentes con peso normal (-2,64 % y -3,48 %) y moderadas para los adolescentes con sobrepeso (-4,14 % y -4,36 %) después del programa experimental. La magnitud de las reducciones en el grosor del pliegue cutáneo fue pequeña para ambos grupos (tríceps, subescapular, abdominal y pantorrilla) y moderada para el pliegue cutáneo del muslo y la suma de los pliegues cutáneos en el grupo con sobrepeso. Las reducciones en la magnitud de todas las medidas circulares fueron pequeñas para ambos grupos. Osciló entre -1,59 % y -2,59 % para normopeso y entre -2,54 % y -3,92 % para adolescentes con sobrepeso, respectivamente. Además, los efectos del programa aplicado parecen más favorables para los adolescentes con sobrepeso que para aquellos de peso normal. Los hallazgos actuales de este estudio indican que el programa de carreras de resistencia aeróbica de 12 semanas es eficaz, debido a las mejoras en las características morfológicas, la masa corporal y el IMC de las adolescentes. Además, los hallazgos de este estudio muestran que el programa de carrera de resistencia aeróbica aplicada demostró ser más efectivo para los adolescentes con sobrepeso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Physical Endurance/physiology , Running/physiology , Nutritional Status , Body Weight , Exercise , Body Mass Index
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1247-1252, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405282

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: En el estudio se utilizó una población de 180 llamas de ambos sexos (machos y hembras) clasificados por edades (dientes de leche; dos dientes y cuatro dientes). Se registraron datos del peso corporal y las siguientes medidas morfométricas: En la cabeza: Longitud de la cabeza (LC); ancho de cabeza (ACa) y longitud de oreja (LO). En el cuello: Longitud del cuello (LCU); Perímetro de cuello anterior (PCuA) y perímetro de cuello posterior (PCuP). En el tronco y extremidades: Altura a la cruz (AC); altura de la grupa (AGRU), diámetro dorso esternal (DDE), perímetro torácico (PT), longitud del cuerpo (LOCU), longitud de la cruz a la grupa (LCG), longitud de grupa (LGRU), perímetro de caña anterior (PCA); perímetro de caña posterior (PCP). Los datos fueron procesados utilizando el software estadístico R. Concluyendo que los rasgos de conformación en llamas (Lama glama) Ch'aku y Q'ara están influenciados por la edad, sexo y raza. Los modelos de regresión simple y múltiple para la predicción del peso corporal fueron significativos.


SUMMARY: The study used a population of 180 llamas of both sexes (males and females) classified by age (milk teeth; two teeth and four teeth). Body weight data and the following morphometric measurements were recorded: Head: Head length (CL); head width (ACa) and ear length (LO). On the neck: Neck length (LCU); anterior neck circumference (PCuA) and posterior neck circumference (PCuP). On the trunk and limbs: Height at withers (AC); height at rump (AGRU), sternal dorsal diameter (DDE), thoracic perimeter (PT), body length (LOCU), length from withers to rump (LCG), rump length (LGRU), anterior canine perimeter (PCA); posterior canine perimeter (PCP). The data were processed using R statistical software. It was concluded that conformation traits in Ch'aku and Q'ara llamas (Lama glama) are influenced by age, sex and breed. Simple and multiple regression models for body weight prediction were significant.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Body Weight , Camelids, New World/anatomy & histology , Predictive Value of Tests
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231509, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249242

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was aimed at comparing the brain size of mahseer (Tor putitora) in relation to their body weight and standard length, to investigate the potential impact of rearing environment on brain development in fish. The weight of the brain and three of its subdivisions cerebellum (CB), optic tectum (OT), and telencephalon (TC) were measured for both wild and hatchery-reared fish. The data was analysed using multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and discriminate function analysis (DFA). We found the fish reared under hatchery conditions exhibit smaller brain size related to body weight, when compared to the wild ones. A significant (p<0.5) difference was observed in the length of CB and OT concerning the standard body length while no significant difference was found in TC of the fish from both the origins. The results of the current study highlight a logical assumption that neural deficiency affects the behaviour of fish, that's why the captive-reared fish show maladaptive response and face fitness decline when released to the natural environment for wild stock enhancement. The current study concluded that hatchery-reared fish exhibit variations in gross brain morphology as compared to their wild counterpart.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar o tamanho do cérebro de mahseer (Tor putitora) em relação ao seu peso corporal e comprimento padrão, para investigar o impacto potencial do ambiente de criação no desenvolvimento do cérebro em peixes. O peso do cérebro e três de suas subdivisões — cerebelo (CB), tectum óptico (OT) e telencéfalo (TC) — foram medidos para peixes selvagens e criados em incubadoras. Os dados foram analisados usando análise múltipla de covariância (MANCOVA), análise de covariância (ANCOVA) e análise de função discriminante (DFA). Descobrimos que os peixes criados em condições de incubação apresentam menor tamanho do cérebro em relação ao peso corporal quando comparados aos selvagens. Uma diferença significativa (p <0,5) foi observada no comprimento do CB e OT em relação ao comprimento corporal padrão, enquanto nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada no CT dos peixes de ambas as origens. Os resultados do estudo atual destacam uma suposição lógica de que a deficiência neural afeta o comportamento dos peixes. É por isso que os peixes criados em cativeiro mostram uma resposta mal adaptativa e enfrentam declínio de aptidão quando liberados no ambiente natural para o aprimoramento do estoque selvagem. O estudo atual concluiu que os peixes criados em incubadoras exibem variações na morfologia cerebral bruta em comparação com suas contrapartes selvagens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyprinidae , Body Weight , Brain , Environment
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e234855, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153468

ABSTRACT

Abstract Exposure to the hight-fat diet may alter the control of food intake promoting hyperphagia and obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of this diet on dopamine receptors (drd1 and drd2), proopiomelanocortin (pomc), neuropeptideY (npy) genes expression, and preference food in adult rats. Wistar female rats were fed a hight-fat or control diet during pregnancy and lactation. The offspring were allocated into groups: Lactation - Control (C) and High-fat (H). Post-weaning - Control Control (CC), offspring of mothers C, fed a control diet after weaning; Control Hight-fat (CH), offspring of mothers C, fed a hight-fat diet after weaning; Hight-fat Control (HC), offspring of mothers H, fed with control diet after weaning; and Hight-fat Hight-fat (HH), offspring of mothers H, fed a H diet after weaning. The groups CH and HH presented greater expression of drd1 in comparison to the CC. The drd2 of CH and HC presented higher gene expression than did CC. HH presented higher pomc expression in comparison to the other groups. HC also presented greater expression in comparison to CH. The npy of HH presented greater expression in relation to CH and HC. HH and HC have had a higher preference for a high-fat diet at 102º life's day. The high-fat diet altered the gene expression of the drd1, drd2, pomc and npy, and influencing the food preference for high-fat diet.


Resumo A exposição à dieta hiperlipídica pode alterar o controle da ingestão de alimentos, promovendo hiperfagia e obesidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos dessa dieta sobre a expressão gênica dos receptores de dopamina (drd1 e drd2), da proopiomelanocortina (pomc) e neuropeptídeo Y (npy), e preferência alimentar em ratos adultos. Ratas Wistar foram alimentadas com uma dieta hiperlipídica ou controle durante a gestação e lactação. Os descendentes foram alocados em grupos: Lactação - Controle (C) e Hiperlipídica (H). Pós-desmame - Controle Controle (CC), descendentes das genitoras do grupo controle e alimentados com dieta controle após o desmame; Controle Hiperlipídica (CH), descendentes das genitoras do grupo controle e alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica após o desmame; Hiperlipídica Controle (HC), descendentes das genitoras do grupo hiperlipídica e alimentados com dieta controle após o desmame; Hiperlipídica Hiperlipídica (HH), descendentes das genitoras do grupo hiperlipídica e alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica após o desmame. Os grupos CH e HH apresentaram maior expressão de drd1 em comparação ao CC. O drd2 de CH e HC apresentou maior expressão gênica que o CC. HH apresentou maior expressão de pomc em comparação com os outros grupos. O HC também apresentou maior expressão de pomc em comparação ao CH. O npy do HH apresentou maior expressão em relação ao CH e HC. HH e HC tiveram uma preferência maior por uma dieta rica em gordura no 102º dia de vida. A dieta hiperlipídica alterou a expressão gênica dos drd1, drd2, pomc e npy e influenciou na preferência alimentar pela dieta hiperlipídica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Pro-Opiomelanocortin/genetics , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Body Weight , Neuropeptide Y/genetics , Gene Expression , Receptors, Dopamine/genetics , Rats, Wistar , Food Preferences
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