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1.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(1): 58-62, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286974

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Obesity is defined as a multifactorial metabolic syndrome in which there is an excessive number of fat cells within the tissues. It is discussed that intestinal microbiota might have a relevant relation with obesity, since it is relevantly altered in obese patients. Objectives To assess the effect of stool transplantation (ST) in the condition of obesity and its outcomes in an experimental model of cafeteria diet by analyzing histology and weight gain. Methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups: control (CO), control with antibiotics (CO+ATB), obesity (CAF+ATB), stool transplantation (ATB+ ST) and obesity with stool transplantation (CAF+ATB+ST). During the experiment, obesity induction groups received cafeteria diet, whereas the remaining groups had normal diet ad libitum. After 3 months, daily ST was carried out for 8 weeks by gavage procedure. The animals were euthanized, and the small intestine was harvested for further analysis. Results It was observed that before starting the ST, the cafeteria and normal diet groups had significant weight difference (p<0,0001). In the comparison between CAF+ATB and CAF+ATB+ST during the gavage period, the CAF+ATB+ST group presented lower weight gain (p=0.0017). The histopathological evaluation show that the ATB+ST group did not present intestinal crypt distortion. Conclusion Cafeteria diet resulted in an expected weight gain. In relation to the ST, it has been shown that the procedure is effective in reducing weekly weight gain. Apparently, there was no induction of disabsortive syndrome in nonobese animals that received ST.


Resumo Introdução A obesidade é definida como uma síndrome metabólica multifatorial, na qual existe um número excessivo de células de gordura nos tecidos. Discute-se que a microbiota intestinal pode estar relacionada com a obesidade, uma vez que ela é alterada de forma relevante em pacientes obesos. Objetivos Avaliar o efeito do transplante de fezes (TF) na obesidade induzida por um modelo experimental de dieta de cafeteria. Métodos Quarenta ratos Wistar foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 5 grupos: controle (CO), controle com antibióticos (CO+ATB), obesidade (CAF+ATB), transplante de fezes (ATB+TF) e obesidade com transplante de fezes (CAF+ATB+TF). Durante o experimento, os grupos de indução de obesidade receberam dieta de cafeteria, enquanto os demais grupos tiveram dieta ad libitum normal. Após 3 meses, o TF diário foi realizado por 8 semanas por meio de gavagem intragástrica. Os animais foram sacrificados e o intestino delgado foi colhido para análise posterior. Resultados Observou-se que antes de iniciar o TF, os grupos de dieta de cafeteria e dieta normocalórica apresentavam diferença significativa de peso (p<0,0001). Ao comparar os grupos CAF+ATB e CAF+ATB+TF durante o período de gavagem, o grupo CAF+ATB+TF apresentou menor ganho de peso (p=0,0017). A avaliação histopatológica mostra que nenhum dos animais do grupo TF+ATB apresentou distorções nas criptas intestinais. Conclusão A dieta da cafeteria resultou em um ganho de peso esperado. Em relação ao TF, demonstrou-se que o procedimento é eficaz na redução do ganho de peso semanal. Aparentemente, não houve indução da síndrome disabsortiva em animais não obesos que receberam TF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Body Weight/physiology , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Obesity Management/methods , Obesity/therapy
2.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 27(3): 124-130, jul./set. 2020. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1370721

ABSTRACT

The vertebral heart size is a method used to measure the cardiac dimension in order to identify the remodeling of the chambres in heart disease. This study aims to determinate the vertebral heart size values at right lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs views relating to canines weight and body area variations. For the purpose of the study 40 healthy dogs within the age of 1 to 6 years, males and females, with deep or intermediated thorax were selected, brachycephalic dogs were not included in the study; the dogs were separated in four groups: group 1(n=9) compound of dogs up to 5 kg; group 2 (n=8) with dogs from 5,1 to 10 kg; group 3 (n=12) with dogs from 10,1 to19 kg and group 4 (n=11) with dogs weighing more than 19,1 kg. The values of body score, body mass index and the thorax configuration where previously measured, as well as the vertebral heart size and the depth width ratio from the radiographs. The results demonstrated intervals of right lateral-lateral vertebral heart size 9.9 to 10.4v and ventro-dorsal vertebral heart size of 9.8-10.3v. The study results show that the vertebral heart size numbers did not correlate with weight or body area, regardless the type of radiography view. Therefore, it can be concluded that the vertebral heart size in right lateral and ventrodorsal radiography can be used to rate the cardiac area, not suffering influence by the dog's weight or body area.


O vertebral heart size é um método utilizado para mensurar a dimensão cardíaca visando identificar os remodelamentos das câmaras nas cardiopatias. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar os valores de vertebral heart size nas projeções radiográficas latero-lateral direita e ventro-dorsal conforme as variações do peso e área corporal. Para isso, foram selecionados 40 cães hígidos com idade entre 1 e 6 anos, machos e fêmeas, com padrão torácico intermediário e profundo, com exclusão dos braquicefálicos; os cães foram divididos em quatro grupos: grupo 1 (n=9) composto por cães de até 5 kg; grupo 2 (n=8) com cães de 5,1 a 10 kg; grupo 3 (n=12) com cães de 10,1 a 19 kg e grupo 4 (n=11) com cães acima de 19,1 kg. Os valores de escore corporal, índice de massa corporal e conformação torácica foram previamente mensurados, bem como os valores dos vertebral heart size a relação profundidade/largura torácica das radiografias. Os resultados demonstraram intervalos de vertebral heart size latero-lateral 9.9 a 10.4v e vertebral heart size ventro dorsal de 9.8-10.3v. Os valores não apresentaram correlação com o peso e área corporal nos grupos estudados, independente das projeções estudas. Assim, pode-se concluir que método vertebral heart size nas projeções estudadas é aplicável na avaliação da área cardíaca, não sofrendo influências do peso e área corporal canina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Body Weight/physiology , Body Weights and Measures/veterinary , Cardiovascular Diseases/veterinary , Dogs/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation/physiology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Radiography, Thoracic/veterinary , Rib Cage/anatomy & histology , Heart Diseases/veterinary
4.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(2): 295-300, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138477

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a efetividade dos diferentes métodos que estimam a profundidade de inserção do tubo orotraqueal em crianças. Métodos: Estudo observacional e transversal, no qual foram incluídas crianças entre 29 dias e 2 anos, internadas em uma unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica e ventiladas mecanicamente. Foram avaliadas as fórmulas baseadas na altura [(altura/10) + 5], no diâmetro interno do tubo (tubo orotraqueal × 3) e peso (peso + 6), verificando-se qual delas apresentou melhor concordância com a profundidade ideal de inserção do tubo orotraqueal avaliado por radiografia. Resultados: A correlação entre a fórmula da altura e a profundidade ideal observada no raio X foi forte, com r = 0,88, p < 0,05 e o coeficiente de correlação de concordância de 0,88; a correlação do peso com a profundidade no raio X foi de r = 0,75, p < 0,05 e coeficiente de correlação de concordância de 0,43; e a fórmula do tubo orotraqueal × profundidade no raio X foi de r = 0,80, p < 0,05 e coeficiente de correlação de concordância de 0,78. A análise de concordância de Lin mostrou que as medidas apresentaram concordância fraca (< 0,90). Conclusão: As fórmulas que estimam a profundidade de inserção do tubo orotraqueal em crianças apresentaram-se pouco precisas e discordantes com o método padrão-ouro de avaliação pelo raio X, com necessidade da criação de um novo método, baseado nas variáveis antropométricas (peso e altura) e na idade, que seja eficaz para guiar os profissionais de saúde das unidades de terapia intensiva pediátricas, no momento da intubação.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the different formulas for estimating the insertion depth of an endotracheal tube in children. Methods: This was an observational and cross-sectional study that included children between 29 days and 2 years of age who were hospitalized in a pediatric intensive care unit and mechanically ventilated. The formulas based on height [(height/10) + 5], the inner diameter of the tube (endotracheal tube × 3), and weight (weight + 6) were evaluated to determine which of them showed better concordance with the ideal insertion depth of the endotracheal tube as evaluated by X-ray. Results: The correlation between the height-based calculation and the ideal depth observed on X-ray was strong, with r = 0.88, p < 0.05, and a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.88; the correlation between the weight-based calculation and depth on X-ray was r = 0.75, p < 0.05, and concordance correlation coefficient 0.43; and the correlation between endotracheal tube diameter-based calculation and depth on X-ray was r = 0.80, p < 0.05, and concordance correlation coefficient 0.78. Lin's concordance correlation analysis indicated that the measurements showed weak concordance (< 0.90). Conclusion: The formulas that estimate the insertion depth of the endotracheal tube in children were not accurate and were discordant with the gold-standard method of X-ray evaluation. There is a need for a new method based on anthropometric variables (weight and height) and age that is effective in guiding health professionals of pediatric intensive care units at the time of intubation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Respiration, Artificial , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Body Height/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors
6.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4784, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039736

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effect of three types of muscular resistance training on adiposity, inflammation levels and insulin activity in Swiss mice with fat-rich diet-induced obesity. Methods Lean and obese male Swiss mice were selected and allocated to one of eight groups comprising eight mice each, as follows: standard diet + no training; standard diet + muscular resistance training; standard diet + hypertrophy training; standard diet + strength training; high-fat diet + no training; high-fat diet + muscular resistance training; high-fat diet + hypertrophy training; high-fat diet + strength training. The training protocol consisted of stair climbing for a 10-week period. Blood samples were collected for lactate analysis, glucose level measurement and insulin tolerance test. After euthanasia, adipose tissues were removed and weighed for adiposity index determination. Fragments of epididymal adipose tissue were then embedded for histological analysis or homogenized for tumor necrosis factor alpha level determination using the ELISA method. Results Ausency of differences in total training volume and blood lactate levels overall emphasize the similarity between the different resistance training protocols. Body weight loss, reduced adipocyte area and lower adiposity index were observed in trained obese mice, regardless of training modality. Different training protocols also improved insulin sensitivity and reduced inflammation levels. Conclusion Resistance training protocols were equally effective in reducing body fat, inflammation levels and insulin resistance in obese mice.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos de três tipos de treinamentos de resistência na adiposidade, na inflamação e na ação da insulina em camundongos Swiss obesos por dieta hiperlipídica. Métodos Camundongos Swiss machos magros e obesos foram selecionados e posteriormente separados em oito grupos com oito animais em cada: dieta padrão + não treinado; dieta padrão + treinamento de resistência muscular; dieta padrão + treinamento de hipertrofia; dieta padrão + treinamento de força; dieta hiperlipídica + não treinado; dieta hiperlipídica + treinamento de resistência muscular; dieta hiperlipídica + treinamento de hipertrofia; e dieta hiperlipídica + treinamento de força. O protocolo de treinamento consistiu em escaladas, por um período de 10 semanas. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas para análises de lactato, glicemia e teste de tolerância à insulina. Após eutanásia, os tecidos adiposos foram retirados e pesados para determinar o índice de adiposidade. Em seguida, parte do tecido adiposo epididimal foi emblocado para análises histológicas, e outra parte foi homogeneizada para análises de fator de necrose tumoral alfa por ELISA. Resultados O volume total de treinamento e a concentração sanguínea de lactato não diferiram entre os três treinos resistidos, sugerindo similaridade entre eles. Nos animais obesos, as três modalidades de treinamento reduziram o peso corporal, a área adipocitária e o índice de adiposidade. Os três tipos de treinamentos ainda melhoraram a tolerância à insulina e reduziram a inflamação. Conclusão Os protocolos de treinamento resistido foram igualmente efetivos em reduzir a adiposidade, a inflamação e a resistência à ação da insulina em camundongos obesos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Adiposity/physiology , Muscle Stretching Exercises/methods , Hypertrophy/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology , Time Factors , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/physiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Reproducibility of Results , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Adipose Tissue, White/physiopathology , Resistance Training/methods , Diet, High-Fat , Mice , Mice, Obese
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e8761, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089339

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) inhibition by high-dose NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) is associated with several detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. However, low-dose L-NAME increases NO synthesis, which in turn induces physiological cardiovascular benefits, probably by activating a protective negative feedback mechanism. Aerobic exercise, likewise, improves several cardiovascular functions in healthy hearts, but its effects are not known when chronically associated with low-dose L-NAME. Thus, we tested whether the association between low-dose L-NAME administration and chronic aerobic exercise promotes beneficial effects to the cardiovascular system, evaluating the cardiac remodeling process. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control (C), L-NAME (L), chronic aerobic exercise (Ex), and chronic aerobic exercise associated to L-NAME (ExL). Aerobic training was performed with progressive intensity for 12 weeks; L-NAME (1.5 mg·kg-1·day-1) was administered by orogastric gavage. Low-dose L-NAME alone did not change systolic blood pressure (SBP), but ExL significantly increased SBP at week 8 with normalization after 12 weeks. Furthermore, ExL promoted the elevation of left ventricle (LV) end-diastolic pressure without the presence of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Time to 50% shortening and relaxation were reduced in ExL, suggesting a cardiomyocyte contractile improvement. In addition, the time to 50% Ca2+ peak was increased without alterations in Ca2+ amplitude and time to 50% Ca2+ decay. In conclusion, the association of chronic aerobic exercise and low-dose L-NAME prevented cardiac pathological remodeling and induced cardiomyocyte contractile function improvement; however, it did not alter myocyte affinity and sensitivity to intracellular Ca2+ handling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Calcium/analysis , Nitric Oxide Synthase/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Body Weight/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Pressure/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Models, Animal , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Adiposity , Hemodynamics , Motor Activity/physiology , Myocardium/pathology
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(8): 555-559, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019464

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to analyze whether exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) during the juvenile phase of life interferes with the electrical activity of the adult rat brain. In addition, the present research also investigated whether this putative effect on brain electrical activity could be affected by prior overnutrition during lactation. Electrophysiology was measured through cortical spreading depression (CSD), a phenomenon related to brain excitability. Methods: Wistar rats were suckled in litters of either nine or three pups, forming the nourished (N) or overnourished (ON) groups, respectively. At 36 days old, half of the animals from each nutritional condition were exposed to EE. The other half was kept in the standard environment (SE). At 90-120 days of life, each animal was anesthetized for CSD recordings. Results: Overnutrition during lactation caused increases (p < 0.05) in body and brain weights. The EE decelerated CSD propagation velocity regardless of nutritional state during lactation (p < 0.001). The CSD deceleration in the N-EE group was 23.8% and in the ON-EE group was 15% in comparison with the N-SE and ON-SE groups, respectively. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that EE exposure in the juvenile phase of the rat's life reduced brain excitability, and this effect was observed even if animals were overnourished during lactation. An EE could be considered an adjuvant therapeutic resource to modulate brain excitability.


RESUMO Objetivo: Este estudo analisou se a exposição ao ambiente enriquecido durante a fase juvenil da vida interferiria na atividade elétrica do cérebro de ratos adultos. Além disso, a presente pesquisa também investigou se esse provável efeito na atividade elétrica cerebral poderia ser afetado pela hipernutrição durante a lactação. A eletrofisiologia foi medida através da depressão alastrante cortical, um fenômeno relacionado à excitabilidade cerebral. Métodos: Ratos Wistar foram amamentados em ninhadas de nove ou três filhotes, formando os grupos nutridos ou hipernutridos, respectivamente. Aos 36 dias, metade dos animais de cada condição nutricional foram expostos ao ambiente enriquecido. A outra metade foi mantida na condição de ambiente padrão. Aos 90-120 dias de vida, foram obtidos os registros da depressão alastrante cortical. Resultados: A hipernutrição durante a lactação causou incrementos (p < 0,05) nos pesos corporal e cerebral.O Ambiente Enriquecido desacelerou a velocidade de propagação da depressão alastrante cortical independentemente do estado nutricional durante a lactação (p < 0,001). A desaceleração da depressão alastrante cortical no grupo nutrido/ambiente enriquecido foi de 23,8% e no grupo hipernutrido/ambiente enriquecido foi de 15% em comparação com os grupos nutrido/ambiente padrão e hipernutrido/ambiente padrão, respectivamente. Conclusão: Nossos dados demonstram que a exposição ao ambiente enriquecido na fase juvenil da vida do rato reduz a excitabilidade cerebral, e esse efeito pode ser observado mesmo se os animais estiverem hipernutridos durante a lactação. O ambiente enriquecido pode ser considerado um recurso terapêutico adjuvante para modular a excitabilidade cerebral.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cortical Spreading Depression/physiology , Lactation/physiology , Overnutrition/physiopathology , Environment , Cortical Excitability/physiology , Organ Size/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
9.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Impr.) ; 13(2): 62-68, abr-jun.2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096816

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional, as condições de saúde e suas influências na capacidade funcional de idosos de um centro de convivência em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, de base populacional, com 47 idosos de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 60 e 96 anos. A capacidade funcional foi definida por meio das atividades básicas e instrumentais da vida diária, operacionalizadas pelo índice de Katz e pela escala de Lawton e Brody. Foram aplicados um questionário sociodemográfico e dois recordatórios de 24 horas para avaliação do consumo alimentar; e foram avaliados a força de preensão manual e o estado nutricional. Um modelo de equação estrutural foi empregado para analisar a relação e as associações entre as variáveis. RESULTADOS: A amostra mostrou boa funcionalidade para as atividades básicas da vida diária, mas uma frequência alta de prejuízos nas atividades instrumentais, principalmente para tarefas como cuidar das finanças, preparar a própria refeição, limpar e realizar pequenos reparos domésticos. A baixa funcionalidade vai ao encontro da baixa força de preensão palmar encontrada. A maior parte dos idosos foi classificada como eutrófica (51,06%). Ao aplicar o modelo de equação estrutural, obteve-se um coeficiente padronizado de 0,45; indicando efeito médio e significativo (p = 0,02) do índice de massa corporal sobre a dependência para as atividades básicas, com efeito direto. CONCLUSÃO: O excesso de peso influencia negativamente a capacidade funcional de idosos para desempenhar atividades básicas da vida diária.


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nutritional status, health conditions, and their impact on the functional capacity of aging adults in a community center in Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with 47 participants of both sexes, aged 60-96 years. Functional capacity was defined by the basic and instrumental activities of daily living, operationalized by the Katz index and the Lawton and Brody scale. A sociodemographic questionnaire and two 24-hour reminders were used to evaluate food consumption; hand grip strength and nutritional status were also evaluated. A structural equation model was used to analyze the relationship and associations between variables. RESULTS: The sample showed good functional capacity for the basic activities of daily living, but there was a high frequency of losses in instrumental activities, especially for tasks such as managing finances, cooking, cleaning and performing small domestic repairs. Low functional capacity is in agreement with the low hand grip strength found. Most participants were classified as eutrophic (51.06%). When applying the structural equation model, a standardized coefficient of 0.45 was obtained; indicating a mean and significant effect (p = 0.02) of body mass index on dependence for basic activities, with direct effect. CONCLUSION: Overweight negatively influences the functional capacity of older adults to perform basic activities of daily living.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Weight/physiology , Activities of Daily Living , Geriatric Assessment , Muscle Strength/physiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Body Weights and Measures , Aging , Health of the Elderly , Age Factors , Hand Strength/physiology
10.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(2): 183-192, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001549

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Migraine is one of the most frequent and incapacitating headaches, with a high degree of impairment in quality of life. Its association with vestibular symptoms is common, including imbalance and postural instability. Objective: To evaluate the body balance of patients with vestibular migraine through a static posturography test. Methods: An experimental group of 31 patients with a medical diagnosis of vestibular migraine in the intercritical period of the disease, and a control group of 31 healthy individuals, matched for age and gender, were submitted to the eight sensory conditions of the Tetrax Interactive Balance System. The parameters analyzed were: stability index, which measures the amount of sway, global stability and ability to compensate postural modifications; weight distribution index, which compares deviations in weight distribution; synchronization index, which measures the symmetry in the weight distribution; postural sway frequency, which indicates the frequency range with more sway; and fall risk index, which expresses the probability of falls. Results: The stability index was higher in the experimental group in all eight sensory conditions, with a significant difference between the groups in six of them. The weight distribution index was higher in the experimental group in all conditions, with a significant difference in three of them. The number of cases with preferential sway in F2-F4 was significantly higher in the experimental group in three conditions, and in F5-F6 in two, while the fall risk was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group. Conclusion: Patients with vestibular migraine showed compromised body balance at the static posturography test.


Resumo Introdução: Migrânea é uma das cefaleias mais frequentes, incapacitante e com elevado grau de comprometimento na qualidade de vida. É comum sua associação a sintomas vestibulares, inclusive desequilíbrio e instabilidade postural. Objetivo: Avaliar o equilíbrio corporal de pacientes com migrânea vestibular por meio de uma posturografia estática. Método: Foram submetidos às oito condições sensoriais da posturografia do Tetrax Interactive Balance System um grupo experimental de 31 pacientes com diagnóstico médico de migrânea vestibular no período intercrítico da afecção e um grupo controle de 31 indivíduos hígidos pareado quanto à idade e sexo. Os parâmetros analisados foram: índice de estabilidade, que mede a quantidade de oscilação, estabilidade global e habilidade para compensar modificações posturais; índice de distribuição de peso, que compara os desvios na distribuição do peso; índice de sincronização, que mede a simetria na distribuição de peso; frequência de oscilação postural, que aponta a faixa de frequência com mais oscilação; e índice de risco de queda, que expressa à probabilidade de ocorrerem quedas. Resultados: O índice de estabilidade foi maior no grupo experimental em todas as oito condições sensoriais, com diferença significante entre os grupos em seis delas; o índice de distribuição de peso foi maior no grupo experimental em todas as condições, com diferença significante em três delas; o número de casos com oscilação preferencial em F2-F4 foi significantemente maior no grupo experimental em três condições, e, em F5-F6, em duas; o índice de risco de queda foi significantemente maior no grupo experimental do que no grupo controle. Conclusão: Pacientes com migrânea vestibular apresentam comprometimento do equilíbrio corporal à posturografia estática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Vestibular Diseases/physiopathology , Postural Balance/physiology , Standing Position , Migraine Disorders/physiopathology , Reference Values , Body Weight/physiology , Accidental Falls , Case-Control Studies , Vertigo/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Somatosensory Disorders/physiopathology
11.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(1): e20180010, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984620

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate weight changes after 12 months of biochemically confirmed smoking abstinence, comparing patients who lost weight or maintained their baseline weight with those who gained weight. Methods: This was a real-world prospective cohort study conducted at the Outpatient Smoking Cessation Clinic of São Lucas Hospital, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, between 2010 and 2016. The patients evaluated received intensive smoking cessation counseling, focused especially on weight issues, together with pharmacotherapy, and were followed for 12 months. The baseline and final weights were measured. Continuous abstinence was confirmed by determining the concentration of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO). Results: Of a total of 348 patients evaluated, 161 (46.2%) achieved continuous abstinence (eCO < 10 ppm) over the 12-month follow-up period. Of those 161 patients, 104 (64.6%) maintained their initial weight or had a weight change of no more than 5% in relation to their baseline weight, whereas the remaining 57 (35.4%) had a weight gain of more than 5%, 18 of those patients showing a > 10% increase over their baseline weight. The number needed to harm (i.e., the number of patients required in order to detect one patient with a weight increase) was calculated to be 3.6 (95% CI: 2.8-5.4). Conclusions: Weight gain is not necessarily associated with smoking cessation, and smokers who are motivated to quit should be informed of that fact. This information could also be useful for addressing smokers who are still undecided because of possibility of weight gain.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar as alterações de peso após 12 meses de abstinência do tabagismo confirmada bioquimicamente, comparando pacientes que perderam peso ou mantiveram o peso basal com os que ganharam peso. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo de coorte do mundo real realizado no Ambulatório de Cessação do Tabagismo do Hospital São Lucas, em Porto Alegre (RS), entre 2010 e 2016. Os pacientes avaliados receberam aconselhamento intensivo sobre cessação do tabagismo, focado especialmente em questões do peso, bem como farmacoterapia, e foram acompanhados durante 12 meses. Foram medidos os pesos basal e final. A abstinência contínua foi confirmada pela determinação da concentração de monóxido de carbono no ar exalado (COex). Resultados: Do total de 348 pacientes avaliados, 161 (46,2%) alcançaram abstinência contínua (COex < 10 ppm) durante os 12 meses de acompanhamento. Desses 161 pacientes, 104 (64,6%) mantiveram o peso inicial ou tiveram alteração de peso de não mais de 5% em relação ao peso basal, enquanto os 57 restantes (35,4%) tiveram ganho de peso de mais de 5%, com 18% deles apresentando aumento > 10% em relação ao peso basal. O número necessário para causar dano (isto é, o número de pacientes necessário para detectar um paciente com aumento de peso) foi calculado em 3,6 (IC95%: 2,8-5,4). Conclusões: O ganho de peso não está necessariamente associado à cessação do tabagismo, e os fumantes que estão motivados para parar de fumar devem ser informados desse fato. Essa informação também pode ser útil para abordar os fumantes que ainda estão indecisos em razão da possibilidade de ganho de peso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Weight Gain/physiology , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Reference Values , Tobacco Use Disorder/physiopathology , Body Weight/physiology , Sex Factors , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Risk Assessment
12.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(6): e20170157, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012581

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the anthropometric data obtained for residents of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in a study of Latin America conducted in two phases (baseline, in 2003, and follow-up, in 2012). Methods: This was an analysis of data obtained for São Paulo residents in a two-phase population-based study evaluating the prevalence of COPD and its relationship with certain risk factors among individuals ≥ 40 years of age. The anthropometric data included values for weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. In the follow-up phase of that study, the same variables were evaluated in the same population sample as that of the baseline phase. Results: Of the 1,000 São Paulo residents enrolled in the baseline phase of that study, 587 participated in the follow-up phase, and 80 (13.6%) of those 587 subjects had COPD. Comparing the baseline and follow-up phases, we found increases in all anthropometric measures in both groups (COPD and non-COPD), although the differences were significant only in the non-COPD group. The subjects with mild COPD showed increases in weight and BMI (Δweight = 1.6 ± 5.7 and ΔBMI = 0.7 ± 2.2), whereas those with moderate or severe COPD showed reductions (Δweight = −1.7 ± 8.1 and ΔBMI = −0.4 ± 3.0), as did those with severe or very severe COPD (Δweight = −0.5 ± 5.4 and ΔBMI = −0.8 ± 3.3). Conclusions: Between the two phases of the study, the subjects with mild COPD showed increases in weight and BMI, whereas those with a more severe form of the disease showed reductions.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a evolução dos dados antropométricos obtidos em uma pesquisa latino-americana realizada em duas fases (basal, em 2003, e seguimento, em 2012) na cidade de São Paulo. Métodos: Estudo de base populacional que avaliou indivíduos com idade ≥ 40 anos com o objetivo de definir a prevalência da DPOC e sua relação com alguns fatores de risco. A avaliação antropométrica incluiu medições de peso, altura, índice de massa corpórea (IMC) e circunferência abdominal. Foram avaliadas as mesmas variáveis na mesma população na fase de seguimento. Resultados: Dos 1.000 indivíduos incluídos inicialmente, 587 participaram da fase de seguimento; desses, 80 (13,6%) tinham DPOC. Entre a avaliação inicial e a de seguimento ambos os grupos (DPOC e não DPOC) apresentaram aumentos nas medidas antropométricas, mas esses somente foram significativos no grupo não DPOC. Os indivíduos com DPOC leve tiveram aumentos de peso e IMC (Δpeso = 1,6 ± 5,7 kg e ΔIMC = 0,7 ± 2,2 kg/m2) enquanto aqueles com doença moderada ou grave tiveram reduções dessas medidas (DPOC moderada: Δpeso = −1,7 ± 8,1 kg e ΔIMC = −0,4 ± 3,0 kg/m2; e DPOC grave ou muito grave (Δpeso = −0,5 ± 5,4 kg e ΔIMC = −0,8 ± 3,3 kg/m2). Conclusões: Entre as duas fases da pesquisa, os pacientes com DPOC leve tiveram aumento de peso e IMC, enquanto aqueles com doença mais grave apresentaram perda ponderal e redução do IMC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Body Weight/physiology , Anthropometry , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Reference Values , Spirometry , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Follow-Up Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Overweight/physiopathology , Overweight/epidemiology
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(5): e201900503, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010873

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To analyze the muscle changes with high-intensity aerobic training (HIAT) in an animal model of renal disease (RD). Methods: Twenty one adult Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: healthy sedentary (HS), RD sedentary (RDS), RD aerobic training (RDAT). RDS and RDAT were subjected to unilateral renal ischemia-reperfusion (10 min) and 21days after that, RDAT was subjected to 6 weeks HIAT (swimming). Serum creatinine (Cr) and muscle morphometry (cross-sectional area = CSA) of gastrocnemius were analyzed. Results: Cr was higher (p = 0.0053) in RDS (0.82 ± 0.04) than in the others (RDAT 0.55 ± 0.04; HS 0.55 ± 0.04). Morphometric analysis (class interval of CSA in μm2/absolute frequency of muscle fibers in each class) indicated that 50th percentile occurred in: HS 7th class (3000.00-3499.00/515), RDS, 8th class (3500.00-3999.00/484), RDAT 5th class (2000.00-2499.00/856). CSA of largest fibers in RDS, RDAT, HS was 9953.00 μm2, 9969.00 μm2,11228.00 μm2, respectively. High frequency of fibers with lower CSA occurred in 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th class in RDA, absence of fibers into 22nd, 23rd classes (RDS and RDAT). Conclusion: HIAT in an animal model of RD resulted in increased the number of muscle fibers with smaller CSA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency/physiopathology , Reference Values , Swimming/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/physiology , Creatinine/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Sedentary Behavior , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/blood supply
14.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 28(2): e2018358, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012078

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: investigar a frequência de aleitamento materno exclusivo, a introdução precoce de outros alimentos e a associação com o baixo peso em crianças brasileiras. Métodos: analisaram-se registros de menores de 6 meses com dados inseridos no Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional em 2015; investigaram-se associações, por regressão de Poisson. Resultados: encontraram-se prevalências de aleitamento exclusivo, 56,1% (IC95% 55,3;56,8), baixo peso para idade, 8,1% (IC95% 7,7;8,5), e baixo índice de massa corporal (IMC) para idade, 5,7% (IC95% 5,3;6,7); agua ou chás e fórmulas infantis foram os alimentos introduzidos mais precocemente; crianças em aleitamento materno exclusivo apresentaram menor prevalência de baixo peso (RP=0,73 - IC95% 0,61;0,87) e de baixo IMC (RP=0,69 - IC95% 0,56;0,85); o consumo de fórmulas infantis se associou ao deficit de peso (RP=1,35 - IC95% 1,15;1,58). Conclusão: reforçou-se a importância do aleitamento materno exclusivo para o adequado crescimento até os 6 meses.


Objetivo: investigar la frecuencia de la lactancia materna exclusiva, la introducción precoz de otros alimentos y su asociación con el bajo peso en niños brasileños. Métodos: se analizaron registros de menores de seis meses con datos insertados en el Sistema de Vigilancia Alimentaria y Nutricional en 2015; se investigaron las asociaciones por medio de la Regresión de Poisson. Resultados: se hallaron prevalencias de lactancia exclusiva, 56,1% (IC95% 55,3;56,8), bajo peso para la edad, 8,1% (IC95% 7,7;8,5), y bajo Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) para la edad, 5,7% (IC95% 5,3;6,7); agua o tés y fórmulas infantiles fueron los alimentos introducidos más precozmente; los niños en lactancia materna exclusiva presentaron menor prevalencia de bajo peso (RP=0,73 - IC95% 0,61;0,87) y de bajo IMC (RP=0,69 - IC95% 0,56;0,85); el consumo de fórmulas se asoció al deficit de peso (RP=1,35 - IC95% 1,15;1,58). Conclusión: se ha reforzado la importancia de la lactancia materna exclusiva para el adecuado crecimiento has los 6 meses.


Objective: to investigate the frequency of exclusive breastfeeding, early introduction of other foods and association with prevalence of low weight in Brazilian children. Methods: we analyzed records of children under 6 months of age held on the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System for the year 2015; associations were investigated through Poisson Regression. Results: we found prevalence of 56.1% (95%CI 55.3;56.8) for exclusive breastfeeding, 8.1% (95%CI 7.7;8.5) for low weight for age, and 5.7% (95%CI 5.3;6.7) for low BMI for age; water or teas and infant formulas were the earliest foods introduced; underweight prevalence was lower (PR=0.73 - 95%CI 0.61;0.87) as was prevalence of low BMI (PR=0.69 - 95%CI 0.56;0.85) among exclusively breastfed infants; infant formula intake was associated with low weight (PR=1.35 - 95%CI 1.15;1.58). Conclusion: the importance of exclusive breastfeeding for adequate growth in the first 6 months of life was reinforced.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Bottle Feeding/trends , Breast Feeding , Infant Nutrition Disorders/epidemiology , Nutritional Status/physiology , Infant Nutrition , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Nutritional Surveillance , Body Weight/physiology , Brazil , Body Mass Index , Nutrition Surveys/statistics & numerical data
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(7): e8429, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011597

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to analyze age-related changes to motor coordination, balance, spinal cord oxidative biomarkers in 3-, 6-, 18-, 24-, and 30-month-old rats. The effects of low-intensity exercise on these parameters were also analyzed in 6-, 18-, and 24-month-old rats. Body weight, blood glucose, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were assessed for all rats. The soleus muscle weight/body weight ratio was used to estimate skeletal muscle mass loss. Body weight increased until 24 months; only 30-month-old rats exhibited decreased blood glucose and increased total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. The soleus muscle weight/body weight ratio increased until 18 months, followed by a small decrease in old rats. Exercise did not change any of these parameters. Stride length and step length increased from adult to middle age, but decreased at old age. Stride width increased while the sciatic functional index decreased in old rats. Performance in the balance beam test declined with age. While gait did not change, balance improved after exercise. Aging increased superoxide anion generation, hydrogen peroxide levels, total antioxidant capacity, and superoxide dismutase activity while total thiol decreased and lipid hydroperoxides did not change. Exercise did not significantly change this scenario. Thus, aging increased oxidative stress in the spinal cord, which may be associated with age-induced changes in gait and balance. Regular low-intensity exercise is a good alternative for improving age-induced changes in balance, while beneficial effects on gait and spinal cord oxidative biomarkers cannot be ruled out because of the small number of rats investigated (n=5 or 6/group).


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Age Factors , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Postural Balance/physiology , Gait/physiology , Spinal Cord/physiology , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/physiology , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cholesterol/blood , Rats, Wistar , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood
16.
Clinics ; 74: e829, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To test whether swimming training benefits femoral neck strength in young diabetic rats under insulin therapy. METHODS: A total of 60 male Wistar rats (age: 40 days) were divided equally into the following six groups: control sedentary, control exercise, diabetic sedentary, diabetic exercise, diabetic sedentary plus insulin and diabetic exercise plus insulin. Diabetes was induced with a unique intraperitoneal injection (60 mg/kg body weight) of streptozotocin. Seven days after the injection and after 12 hours of fasting, the animals with blood glucose levels ≥300 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Seven days after the induction of diabetes, the animals in the exercise groups were subjected to progressive swimming training (final week: 90 min/day; 5 days/week; 5% load) for eight weeks. The animals in the insulin groups received a daily dose of insulin (2-4 U/day) for the same period. RESULTS: Severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes reduced the structural properties of the femoral neck (trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness and collagen fiber content). The femoral neck mechanical properties (maximum load and tenacity) were also impaired in the diabetic rats. Insulin therapy partially reversed the damage induced by diabetes on the structural properties of the bone and mitigated the reductions in the mechanical properties of the bone. The combination of therapies further increased the femoral neck trabecular bone volume (∼30%), trabecular thickness (∼24%), collagen type I (∼19%) and type III (∼13%) fiber contents, maximum load (∼25%) and tenacity (∼14%). CONCLUSIONS: Eight weeks of swimming training potentiates the recovery of femoral neck strength in young rats with severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes under insulin therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Swimming/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Exercise Therapy/methods , Femur Neck/physiopathology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Time Factors , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Collagen/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Fractures, Bone/physiopathology , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Cancellous Bone/physiopathology
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180371, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990443

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The levels of the full-length form of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR), a component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), may be reduced in the membranes of kidneys in renal diseases. This study aimed to investigate the RAS components in the kidneys of mice submitted to a combination of a high-fat diet and Schistosoma mansoni infection. METHODS: Female BALB/c mice were maintained on a control or high-fat diet from 3 weeks of age. After 10 weeks on the designated diets, half the mice in each group were infected with S. mansoni cercariae. The blood and kidneys were harvested 8 weeks after infection. RESULTS: The high-fat diet increased the number of eggs in the feces and the number of adult worms in the mesenteric bed. Schistosoma mansoni infection reduced the plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol in the control and high-fat diet groups. In mice on the control diet, S. mansoni infection resulted in increased expression of IL-6 in the kidneys; however, in mice on the high-fat diet, the levels of IL-6 were reduced and those of superoxide anions were increased. The RAS components evaluated were ACE2, renin, PRR, AT1R, and AT2R, and the levels of PRR were found to be reduced in the kidneys of infected mice on the high-fat diet. CONCLUSIONS: The finding regarding PRR is not yet clear. However, combining a high-fat diet and S. mansoni infection resulted in increased oxidative stress in the kidney that can aggravate hypertension as well as its associated complications.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/complications , Schistosomiasis mansoni/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Kidney/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Time Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/physiology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Cholesterol/blood , Actins/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Kidney/physiopathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Obesity/physiopathology
18.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(6): 609-615, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976017

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To study fructose malabsorption in children and adolescents with abdominal pain associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders. As an additional objective, the association between intestinal fructose malabsorption and food intake, including the estimated fructose consumption, weight, height, and lactulose fermentability were also studied. Methods: The study included 31 patients with abdominal pain (11 with functional dyspepsia, 10 with irritable bowel syndrome, and 10 with functional abdominal pain). The hydrogen breath test was used to investigate fructose malabsorption and lactulose fermentation in the intestinal lumen. Food consumption was assessed by food registry. Weight and height were measured. Results: Fructose malabsorption was characterized in 21 (67.7%) patients (nine with irritable bowel syndrome, seven with functional abdominal pain, and five with functional dyspepsia). Intolerance after fructose administration was observed in six (28.6%) of the 21 patients with fructose malabsorption. Fructose malabsorption was associated with higher (p < 0.05) hydrogen production after lactulose ingestion, higher (p < 0.05) energy and carbohydrate consumption, and higher (p < 0.05) body mass index z-score value for age. Median estimates of daily fructose intake by patients with and without fructose malabsorption were, respectively, 16.1 and 10.5 g/day (p = 0.087). Conclusion: Fructose malabsorption is associated with increased lactulose fermentability in the intestinal lumen. Body mass index was higher in patients with fructose malabsorption.


Resumo Objetivo: Pesquisar a má absorção de frutose em crianças e adolescentes com dor abdominal associada com distúrbios funcionais gastrintestinais. Como objetivo adicional, estudou-se a relação entre a má absorção intestinal de frutose e a ingestão alimentar, inclusive a estimativa de consumo de frutose, o peso e a estatura dos pacientes e a capacidade de fermentação de lactulose. Métodos: Foram incluídos 31 pacientes com dor abdominal (11 com dispepsia funcional, 10 com síndrome do intestino irritável e 10 com dor abdominal funcional). O teste de hidrogênio no ar expirado foi usado para pesquisar a má absorção de frutose e a fermentação de lactulose na luz intestinal. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por registro alimentar. Foram mensurados também o peso e a estatura dos pacientes. Resultados: Má absorção de frutose foi caracterizada em 21 (67,7%) pacientes (nove com síndrome do intestino irritável, sete com dor abdominal funcional e cinco com dispepsia funcional). Intolerância após administração de frutose foi observada em seis (28,6%) dos 21 pacientes com má absorção de frutose. Má absorção de frutose associou-se com maior produção de hidrogênio após ingestão de lactulose (p < 0,05), maior consumo de energia e carboidratos (p < 0,05) e maior valor de escore z de IMC para a idade (p < 0,05). As medianas da estimativa de ingestão diária de frutose pelos pacientes com e sem má absorção de frutose foram, respectivamente, 16,1 e 10,5 g/dia (p = 0,087). Conclusão: Má absorção de frutose associa-se com maior capacidade de fermentação de lactulose na luz intestinal. O índice de massa corporal foi maior nos pacientes com má absorção de frutose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Abdominal Pain/metabolism , Fermentation/physiology , Fructose/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Lactulose/metabolism , Malabsorption Syndromes/metabolism , Reference Values , Time Factors , Body Height/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Breath Tests , Fructose Intolerance/metabolism , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Eating/physiology , Hydrogen/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/physiopathology , Malabsorption Syndromes/physiopathology
19.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(6): 721-729, dic. 2018. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-973686

ABSTRACT

En niños que, por su condición, la estatura no se puede medir o no representa el crecimiento óseo real, puede recurrirse a su cálculo a partir de la medición de segmentos corporales. Objetivos. 1. Comparar el valor de la estatura observada (EO) y predicha (EP) a partir de segmentos corporales mediante las ecuaciones de Gauld et al. 2. Analizar la aplicabilidad en el cálculo e interpretación del índice de masa corporal (IMC). Materiales y métodos. Muestra de niños y adolescentes sin alteraciones músculo-esqueléticas. Se registró estatura, envergadura, longitud del cúbito, antebrazo, tibia, altura de la pierna, peso y desarrollo puberal. Se calculó el IMC. Se analizaron diferencias y concordancias entre EO y EP mediante Bland-Altman y coeficiente de correlación intraclase. Para el IMC, se calculó el error de predicción absoluto y la concordancia mediante coeficiente kappa. Resultados. Se incluyeron 220 niños y adolescentes entre 6,04 y 19,1 años. El coeficiente de correlación intraclase entre EP y EO fue > 0,9 en todas las ecuaciones. La EP sobreestimó en promedio la EO en menos de 2,0 cm, excepto al utilizar la medición del cúbito (2,6 cm en mujeres y 3,4 cm en varones). El promedio del error de predicción absoluto para IMC fue < 5 %, excepto para el cúbito y el coeficiente kappa fue > 0,7. Conclusiones. En nuestra muestra, las ecuaciones de Gauld et al. fueron adecuadas para predecir la estatura y calcular el IMC. La mayor diferencia entre EO y EP fue al utilizar la longitud del cúbito.


When height cannot be measured or does not account for actual bone growth in children, due to their condition, it may be estimated using equations based on body segments. Objectives. 1. To compare observed height (OH) and predicted height (PH) based on body segments using the equations of Gauld et al. 2. To analyze its applicability in the estimation and interpretation of body mass index (BMI). Materials and methods. A sample of children and adolescents without musculoskeletal alterations. Height, arm span, length of the ulna, the forearm, the tibia and the leg, weight, and pubertal development were registered. BMI was estimated. Differences and agreements between OH and PH were analyzed using the Bland-Altman method and an intraclass correlation coefficient. For BMI, the absolute prediction error and agreement were estimated using a Kappa coefficient. Results. Two hundred and twenty children and adolescents aged 6.04-19.1 years were included. The intraclass correlation coefficient between PH and OH was > 0.9 in all equations. In average, PH overestimated OH by less than 2.0 cm, except when using the ulna length (2.6 cm among girls and 3.4 cm among boys). The average absolute prediction error for BMI was < 5 %, except for the ulna length, and the Kappa coefficient was > 0.7. Conclusions. In our sample, the equations of Gauld et al. were adequate to predict height and estimate BMI. The greatest difference between observed height and predicted height was observed when using the ulna length.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Ulna/anatomy & histology , Body Height/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Body Mass Index , Reproducibility of Results
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(3): 400-409, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973754

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Caloric restriction is known to impair the cardiac function and morphology in hypertrophied hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR); however, the influence of fasting/refeeding (RF) is unknown. Objective: To investigate the fasting/refeeding approach on myocardial remodeling and function. In addition, the current study was designed to bring information regarding the mechanisms underlying the participation of Ca2+ handling and b-adrenergic system. Methods: Sixty-day-old male SHR rats were submitted to food ad libitum (C), 50% food restriction (R50) or RF cycles for 90 days. Cardiac remodeling was assessed by ultrastructure analysis and isolated papillary muscle function. The level of significance considered was 5% (a = 0.05). Results: The RF rats presented lower cardiac atrophy than R50 in relation to C rats. The C rats increased weight gain, R50 maintained their initial body weight and RF rats increased and decreased weight during RF. The RF did not cause functional impairment because the isotonic and isometric parameters showed similar behavior to those of C. The isotonic and isometric cardiac parameters were significantly elevated in RF rats compared to R50 rats. In addition, the R50 rats had cardiac damage in relation to C for isotonic and isometric variables. While the R50 rats showed focal changes in many muscle fibers, the RF rats displayed mild alterations, such as loss or disorganization of myofibrils. Conclusion: Fasting/refeeding promotes cardiac beneficial effects and attenuates myocardial injury caused by caloric restriction in SHR rats, contributing to reduce the cardiovascular risk profile and morphological injuries. Furthermore, RF promotes mild improvement in Ca2+ handling and b-adrenergic system.


Resumo Fundamento: A restrição calórica compromete a função e a morfologia cardíacas em corações hipertrofiados de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR). No entanto, a influência de ciclo de jejum/Realimentação é desconhecida. Objetivo: Investigar o efeito de ciclos de jejum/realimentação sobre a remodelação e função miocárdica. Além disso, o presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar os mecanismos subjacentes à participação do trânsito de cálcio (Ca+2) e sistema beta-adrenérgico. Métodos: Neste estudo, SHR machos de 60 dias de idade foram submetidos a alimento ad libitum (grupo C), 50% de restrição alimentar (grupo R50) ou ciclos de RF (grupo RF) por 90 dias. A remodelação cardíaca foi avaliada por meio da análise ultraestrutural e função do músculo papilar isolado. Adotou-se o nível de significância de 5% (a = 0,05). Resultados: Os ratos do grupo RF apresentaram menor atrofia cardíaca do que os do grupo R50 em relação aos do grupo C. Os ratos do grupo C aumentaram peso corporal, os ratos do grupo R50 mantiveram seu peso corporal inicial e os ratos do grupo RF aumentaram e reduziram seu peso durante o ciclo RF. O ciclo RF não causou comprometimento funcional, pois os parâmetros isotônicos e isométricos apresentaram comportamento similar aos dos ratos do grupo C. Os parâmetros cardíacos isotônicos e isométricos mostraram-se significativamente elevados nos ratos do grupo RF em comparação aos dos ratos do grupo R50. Além disso, os ratos do grupo R50 apresentaram dano cardíaco em comparação aos ratos do grupo C quanto às variáveis isotônicas e isométricas. Os ratos do grupo R50 apresentaram alterações focais em muitas fibras musculares, enquanto os ratos do grupo RF apresentaram leves alterações, como perda ou desorganização de miofibrilas. Conclusão: Ciclos de Jejum/Realimentação promovem efeitos benéficos cardíacos e atenuam o dano miocárdico causado por restrição calórica em SHR, contribuindo para reduzir o risco cardiovascular e os danos morfológicos. Além disso, o ciclo de jejum/realimentação promove leve melhora do trânsito do Ca2+ e do sistema beta-adrenérgico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Papillary Muscles/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Fasting/physiology , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology , Cardiomyopathies/prevention & control , Papillary Muscles/pathology , Rats, Inbred SHR , Time Factors , Body Weight/physiology , Calcium/analysis , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Caloric Restriction/adverse effects , Isoproterenol/analysis , Isoproterenol/metabolism , Myocardial Contraction , Cardiomyopathies/pathology
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