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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249664, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345558

ABSTRACT

Abstract The impact of antibiotics on growth, cocoon production was assessed in addition to isolation and characterization of bacteria associated with silkworm gut of infected larvae. Larval rearing was maintained at recommended conditions of temperature and humidity. Silkworm larvae showing abnormal symptoms were collected from the control group and dissected for gut collection. Bacteria were isolated from the gut content by spreading on agar plates and incubated at 37 °C for 48 hrs. Bacterial identification and phylogenetic analysis were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated bacteria were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test (disc diffusion methods) by using Penicillin (10 µg/mL), Tetracycline (30 µg/mL), Amoxicillin (25 µg/mL), Ampicillin (10 µg/mL), and Erythromycin (15 µg/mL). All isolated strains showed positive results for the catalase test. We isolated and identified bacterial strains (n = 06) from the gut of healthy and diseased silkworm larvae. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, isolated bacteria showed close relation with Serratia, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas spp. Notably, 83.3% of strains were resistant to Penicillin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, and Erythromycin but 16.6% showed antibiotic susceptibility to the above-mentioned commonly used antibiotics. Silkworm larvae fed on penicillin-treated leaves showed significant improvement in larval weight, larval length, and cocoon production. Significantly higher larval weight (6.88g), larval length (5.84cm), and cocoon weight (1.33g) were recorded for larvae fed on leaves treated with penicillin as compared to other antibiotics. Isolated bacterial strains showed close relation with Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.


Resumo O impacto dos antibióticos no crescimento e na produção do casulo foi avaliado, além do isolamento e caracterização das bactérias associadas ao intestino de larvas infectadas do bicho-da-seda. A criação das larvas foi mantida nas condições recomendadas de temperatura e umidade. As larvas do bicho-da-seda com sintomas anormais foram coletadas do grupo controle e dissecadas para coleta do intestino. As bactérias foram isoladas do conteúdo intestinal por espalhamento em placas de ágar e incubadas a 37° C durante 48 horas. A identificação bacteriana e a análise filogenética foram realizadas pelo sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. As bactérias isoladas foram submetidas a teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana (métodos de difusão em disco) com penicilina (10 µg / mL), tetraciclina (30 µg / mL), amoxicilina (25 µg / mL), ampicilina (10 µg / mL) e eritromicina (15 µg / mL). Todas as cepas isoladas apresentaram resultados positivos para o teste da catalase. Isolamos e identificamos cepas bacterianas (n = 06) do intestino de larvas de bicho-da-seda saudáveis e doentes. Com base na sequência do gene 16S rRNA, as bactérias isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia, Bacillus e Pseudomonas spp. Notavelmente, 83,3% das cepas eram resistentes a penicilina, tetraciclina, amoxicilina, ampicilina e eritromicina, mas 16,6% mostraram suscetibilidade aos antibióticos comumente usados mencionados acima. As larvas do bicho-da-seda alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina apresentaram melhora significativa no peso larval, comprimento larval e produção de casulo. Peso larval significativamente maior (6,88g), comprimento larval (5,84cm) e peso do casulo (1,33g) foram registrados para larvas alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina, em comparação com outros antibióticos. Cepas bacterianas isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. e Pseudomonas spp.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Larva
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1589-1596, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970631

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the effect of Bombyx Batryticatus extract(BBE) on behaviors of rats with global cerebral ischemia reperfusion(I/R) and the underlying mechanism. The automatic coagulometer was used to detect the four indices of human plasma coagulation after BBE intervention for quality control of the extract. Sixty 4-week-old male SD rats were randomized into sham operation group(equivalent volume of normal saline, ip), model group(equivalent volume of normal saline, ip), positive drug group(900 IU·kg~(-1) heparin, ip), and low-, medium-, and high-dose BBE groups(0.45, 0.9, and 1.8 mg·g~(-1)·d~(-1) BBE, ip). Except the sham operation group, rats were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion(BCCAO/R) to induce I/R. The administration lasted 7 days for all the groups. The behaviors of rats were examined by beam balance test(BBT). Morphological changes of brain tissue were observed based on hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. Immunofluorescence method was used to detect common leukocyte antigen(CD45), leukocyte differentiation antigen(CD11b), and arginase-1(Arg-1) in cerebral cortex(CC). The protein expression of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-4(IL-4), interleukin-6(IL-6), and interleukin-10(IL-10) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The non-targeted metabonomics was employed to detect the levels of metabolites in plasma and CC of rats after BBE intervention. The results of quality control showed that the BBE prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT), prothrombin time(PT), and thrombin time(TT) of human plasma, which was similar to the anticoagulation effect of BBE obtained previously. The results of behavioral test showed that the BBT score of the model group increased compared with that of the sham operation group. Compared with the model group, BBE reduced the BBT score. As for the histomorphological examination, compared with the sham operation group, the model group showed morphological changes of a lot of nerve cells in CC. The nerve cells with abnormal morphology in CC decreased after the intervention of BBE compared with those in the model group. Compared with the sham operation group, the model group had high average fluorescence intensity of CD45 and CD11b in the CC. The average fluorescence intensity of CD11b decreased and the average fluorescence intensity of Arg-1 increased in CC in the low-dose BBE group compared with those in the model group. The average fluorescence intensity of CD45 and CD11b decreased and the average fluorescence intensity of Arg-1 increased in medium-and high-dose BBE groups compared with those in the model group. The expression of IL-1β and IL-6 was higher and the expression of IL-4 and IL-10 was lower in the model group than in the sham operation group. The expression of IL-1β and IL-6 was lower and the expression of IL-4 and IL-10 was higher in the low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose BBE groups than in the model group. The results of non-targeted metabonomics showed that 809 metabolites of BBE were identified, and 57 new metabolites in rat plasma and 45 new metabolites in rat CC were found. BBE with anticoagulant effect can improve the behaviors of I/R rats, and the mechanism is that it promotes the polarization of microglia to M2 type, enhances its anti-inflammatory and phagocytic functions, and thus alleviates the damage of nerve cells in CC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rats , Male , Animals , Interleukin-10 , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Bombyx , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Microglia/metabolism , Saline Solution/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Cerebral Infarction , Reperfusion , Neurons
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3269-3280, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981464

ABSTRACT

Bombyx Batryticatus is a precious traditional Chinese animal drug commonly used in clinical practice in China, which has the effects of extinguishing wind, stopping convulsions, dispelling wind, relieving pain, resolving phlegm, and dissipating mass. The processing of Bombyx Batryticatus has a long history. As early as in the Liu Song period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties, there was a record of the processing of Bombyx Batryticatus with rice swill. In addition to the processing with bran, honey bran, and ginger juice, which are still used today, there are also processing methods such as rendering, flour processing, wine processing, salt processing, oil processing, charcoal, and red dates processing in ancient times. After processing, the fishy smell of Bombyx Batryticatus can be removed, and avoid nausea and vomiting caused by the direct taking. Furthermore, processing can also facilitate the removal of surface hairs and toxicity reduction, making the medicinal material crispy and easy to crush. Previous studies have shown that the main chemical constituents of Bombyx Batryticatus include protein polypeptides, sterols, and flavonoids, with anticonvulsant, anticoagulation, antithrombotic, anti-cancer, hypnotic, hypoglycemic, and other pharmacological effects. This paper reviewed the processing historical evolution, chemical constituents, and pharmacological effects of Bombyx Batryticatus to lay a foundation for the research on the processing mechanism, quality control, and active core substances of Bombyx Batryticatus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , China , Evolution, Chemical , Flavonoids , Fruit
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2160-2185, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981347

ABSTRACT

Starting with the relationship between mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings as food and metabolites, this study systematically compared the chemical components, screened out differential components, and quantitatively analyzed the main differential components based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and UPLC-Q-TRAP-MS combined with principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA). Moreover, the in vitro enzymatic transformation of the representative differential components was studied. The results showed that(1) 95 components were identified from mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings, among which 27 components only exist in mulberry leaves and 8 components in silkworm droppings. The main differential components were flavonoid glycosides and chlorogenic acids.(2) Nineteen components with significant difference were quantitatively analyzed, and the components with significant differences and high content were neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rutin.(3) The crude protease in the mid-gut of silkworm significantly metabolized neochlorogenic acid and chlorogenic acid, which may be an important reason for the efficacy change in mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings. This study lays a scientific foundation for the development, utilization, and quality control of mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings. It provides references for clarifying the possible material basis and mechanism of the pungent-cool and dispersing nature of mulberry leaves transforming into the pungent-warm and dampness-resolving nature of silkworm droppings, and offers a new idea for the study of nature-effect transformation mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Morus/chemistry , Chlorogenic Acid/analysis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Plant Leaves/chemistry
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1655-1669, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981161

ABSTRACT

Deacetylation of chitin is closely related to insect development and metamorphosis. Chitin deacetylase (CDA) is a key enzyme in the process. However, to date, the CDAs of Bombyx mori (BmCDAs), which is a model Lepidopteran insect, were not well studied. In order to better understand the role of BmCDAs in the metamorphosis and development of silkworm, the BmCDA2 which is highly expressed in epidermis was selected to study by bioinformatics methods, protein expression purification and immunofluorescence localization. The results showed that the two mRNA splicing forms of BmCDA2, namely BmCDA2a and BmCDA2b, were highly expressed in the larval and pupal epidermis, respectively. Both genes had chitin deacetylase catalytic domain, chitin binding domain and low density lipoprotein receptor domain. Western blot showed that the BmCDA2 protein was mainly expressed in the epidermis. Moreover, fluorescence immunolocalization showed that BmCDA2 protein gradually increased and accumulated with the formation of larval new epidermis, suggesting that BmCDA2 may be involved in the formation or assembly of larval new epidermis. The results increased our understandings to the biological functions of BmCDAs, and may facilitate the CDA study of other insects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx/metabolism , Metamorphosis, Biological/genetics , Larva/metabolism , Gene Expression , Insect Proteins/metabolism , Chitin
6.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology ; : 547-554, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979395

ABSTRACT

Aims@#This study was designed to investigate the antibacterial properties of the sericin protein Bombyx mori and Samia cynthia ricini against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains.@*Methodology and results@#Sericin protein was extracted from the cocoons of B. mori races A, B, C, D, F1-1, F1-2 and S. ricini from Indonesia using a degumming process. The extracted sericin protein was evaluated as anti-microbials using Kirby Breuer disc diffusion, spectrometer measurement in decreasing OD value and imaging scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tests revealed that sericin protein from B. mori was more capable of inhibiting bacteria S. aureus than E. coli. Sericin protein from S. ricini was also capable of strongly inhibiting both S. aureus and E. coli bacteria. The sericin proteins of B. mori and S. ricini were found to reduce the number of S. aureus and E. coli bacteria as the OD value decreased at a concentration of 9%. The SEM imaging suggests that sericin B. mori and S. ricini proteins caused changes in cell morphology in S. aureus and E. coli bacteria, resulting in bacterial cell function disruption and death.@*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#Bombyx mori and S. ricini sericin proteins were found to act against S. aureus and E. coli bacteria. Therefore, sericin protein has a greater antibacterial activity against Gram-positive strain S. aureus.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Sericins , Bombyx , Lepidoptera , Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4342-4350, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921510

ABSTRACT

The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system has been widely used in basic research, gene therapy and genetic engineering due to its high efficiency, fast speed and convenience. Meanwhile, the discovery of novel CRISPR/Cas systems in the microbial community also accelerated the emergence of novel gene editing tools. CRISPR/Cpf1 is the second type (V type) CRISPR system that can edit mammalian genome. Compared with the CRISPR/Cas9, CRISPR/Cpf1 can use 5'T-PAM rich region to increase the genome coverage, and has many advantages, such as sticky end of cleavage site and less homologous recombination repair. Here we constructed three CRISPR/Cpf1 (AsCpf1, FnCpf1 and LbCpf1) expression vectors in silkworm cells. We selected a highly conserved BmHSP60 gene and an ATPase family BmATAD3A gene to design the target gRNA, and constructed gHSP60-266 and gATAD3A-346 knockout vectors. The efficiency for editing the target genes BmATAD3A and BmHSP60 by AsCpf1, FnCpf1 and LbCpf1 were analyzed by T7E1 analysis and T-clone sequencing. Moreover, the effects of target gene knockout by different gene editing systems on the protein translation of BmHSP60 and BmATAD3A were analyzed by Western blotting. We demonstrate the CRISPR/Cpf1 gene editing system developed in this study could effectively edit the silkworm genome, thus providing a novel method for silkworm gene function research, genetic engineering and genetic breeding.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx/metabolism , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Endonucleases/genetics , Gene Editing , /genetics
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2130-2137, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827971

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to study the degradation of chemical compositions after the silkworm excrement being expelled from the silkworm, and to determine its main metabolic compositions and their changing relationships. This research is based on UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. Based on the systematic analysis of the main chemical compositions contained in silkworm excrement, the principal compositions analysis(PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) on commercial silkworm excrement and fresh silkworm excrement were analyzed for differences. The S-plot chart of OPLS-DA was used to select and identify the chemical compositions that contributed significantly to the difference. At the same time, the relative peak areas of the different compositions were extracted by Masslynx to obtain the relative content of different compositions in fresh silkworm excrement. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the chemical compositions between fresh silkworm excrement and commercial silkworm excrement. The difference compositions were mainly flavonoid glycosides and Diels-Alder type composition, and two types of compounds are degradated during the storage of silkworm sand. In this study, the chemical compositions of fresh silkworm excrement were systematically identified and analyzed for the first time by mass spectrometry, and it was found that some chemical compositions of silkworm excrement were degradated with time during storage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Discriminant Analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Mass Spectrometry
9.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 986-993, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781837

ABSTRACT

Dimethyl sulfoxide (Me SO) supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS) is a widely used cryoprotectant combination. However, high concentration of Me SO is toxic to cells, and FBS presents problems related to diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy and viral infections. Silk protein is a kind of natural macromolecule fiber protein with good biocompatibility and hydrophilicity. The aim of this paper is to analyze the cryoprotective mechanism of silk protein as cryoprotectant. Firstly, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure the thermal hysteresis activity (THA) of silk protein. The THA of 10 mg/mL sericin protein was 0.96°C, and the THA of 10% (V/V) fibroin protein was 1.15°C. Then the ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) of silk protein-PBS solution was observed with cryomicroscope. The cold stage was set at - 7°C, after 40 minutes' incubation, the mean grain size rate (MGSR) of sericin protein and fibroin protein were 28.99% and 3.18%, respectively, which were calculated relative to phosphate buffer saline (PBS) control. It is indicated that sericin and silk fibroin have certain effects of inhibiting recrystallization of ice crystals. Finally, the structure and physicochemical properties of silk protein were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the content of the random coil was 75.62% and the β-sheet structure was 24.38% in the secondary of sericin protein. The content of the β-sheet structure was 56.68%, followed by random coil structure 22.38%, and α-helix 16.84% in the secondary of fibroin protein. The above analysis demonstrates the feasibility of silk fibroin as a cryoprotectant, and provides a new idea for the selection of cryoprotectants in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Fibroins , Sericins , Silk , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1546-1556, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771774

ABSTRACT

Identifying and comparing the chemical constituents of wild silkworm cocoon and silkworm cocoon is of great significance for understanding the domestication of silkworm. In this study, we used high temperature and high pressure and methanol-water system to extract cocoon chemical constituents. We used UHPLC-MS to identify and compare cocoon chemical constituents of wild silkworm and domestic silkworm Dazao and Haoyue strains. The cocoon metabolic fingerprints of wild silkworm and domestic silkworm Dazao and Haoyue strains were obtained by using the UHPLC-MS in the positive ion mode and negative ion mode. By annotation, we found that cocoon chemical compounds with high abundances contained amino acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenes, organic acids, and lignans. PLS-DA showed that the cocoon components were significantly different among the wild silkworm and two domestic silkworm strains Dazao and Haoyue. Proline, leucine/isoleucine and phenylalanine showed significantly higher abundances in the cocoon of domestic silkworm Dazao strain than in those of wild silkworm and domestic silkworm Haoyue strain. The flavonoid secondary metabolites are abundant in the Dazao cocoon, including quercetin, isoquercetin, quercetin 3-O-sophoroside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O- rutinoside, and kaempferol. The other secondary metabolites, alkaloids, terpenes and lignans, showed higher abundances in the wild silkworm cocoon than in the domestic silkworm cocoon, including neurine, candicine, pilocarpidine, artemisiifolin, eupassopin, and eudesobovatol. By exposing cocoons to UV light and observing the green fluorescence of flavonoids, we found that Dazao cocoon had the most flavonoids, and Haoyue cocoon had least flavonoids and wild silkworm cocoon had mediate flavonoids. Alkaloids and organic acids are good anti-insect and antimicrobial agents, which have high abundance in the wild silkworm cocoon and could enhance the defense ability of wild silkworm cocoon. Flavonoids are abundant in the cocoon of domestic silkworm Dazao strain, which the main factors are leading to the yellow-green cocoon of Dazao.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flavonoids , Mass Spectrometry
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 102-113, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771396

ABSTRACT

The biogenic monoamine 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is an ancient intracellular signaling molecule widely distributed in all animals with nervous systems, and has been implicated in principal behaviors. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TRH) induces a highly specific catalytic reaction that converts L-tryptophan (tryptophan) to 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) that is subsequently used as a substrate by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (DDC) to form 5-HT. Five-HT is an ancient intracellular signaling molecule that is widely distributed in the animal kingdom and has been implicated in regulating the behaviors of animals with nervous systems. However, the role of TRH in Lepidoptera is not well understood. In this study, we cloned 1 667 bp cDNAs of Bombyx mori TRH (BmTRH), which contains a 1 632 bp open reading frame (ORF). Homology analysis revealed that BmTRH shared high amino acid identity with Homo sapiens TPH and Drosophila TRH (DmTRH). The high homology (70%) of BmTRH with DmTRH suggested that BmTRH could have a function similar to DmTRH. Gene expression analysis revealed that BmTRH was mainly expressed in head and central nervous (CNS). Moreover, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analyses showed that BmTRH was detected only in larval nervous tissues. Taken together, our results indicate that BmTRH could likely function in the regulation of neural activities in B. mori. The transcripts of B. mori decarboxylase (BmDDC) and B. mori phenylalanine hydroxylase (BmPAH) whose proteins had TRH activity, were also expressed in the CNS tissues, indicating that unlike in Drosophila, two distinct mechanisms likely regulate 5-HT synthesis in silkworm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Amino Acid Sequence , Bombyx , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Complementary , Insect Proteins , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Tryptophan Hydroxylase
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 435-444, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771363

ABSTRACT

Genes belonging to the elongases of very long chain fatty acid (ELOVL) family affect many physiological functions in organism. In this paper, Bmelo424 gene, a member of the ELOVL family in silkworm, was cloned and its ORF was 558 bp. Its protein sequence was predicted to have four transmembrane domains, six serine phosphorylation sites, eight threonine phosphorylation sites and four tyrosine phosphorylation sites, and its subcellular localization was in the endoplasmic reticulum. Secondary structure analysis showed that the percentage of alpha-helix and beta-strand was 26.7% and 20% respectively. The results of fluorescence quantitative PCR showed that Bmelo424 gene was expressed in all tissues of silkworm, especially with the highest expression in head. By heterologous expression of Bmelo424 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the effect of Bmelo424 gene on fatty acid elongation was studied. GC-MS results indicated that the fatty acid content of C16:1n-7 in S. cerevisiae with pYES2-Bmelo424 recombinant plasmid increased significantly, whereas the content of C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9 decreased. The results of temperature stress revealed that Bmelo424 gene could improve the low temperature adaptability of S. cerevisiae, but its high temperature adaptability decreased. This provides a reference for exploring the function of Bmelo424 gene in silkworm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Acetyltransferases , Amino Acid Sequence , Bombyx , Cloning, Molecular , Fatty Acids , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
13.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 723-735, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762151

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the causative allergens and clinical characteristics of Korean adult patients with food allergy (FA). METHODS: This retrospective, cross-sectional single-institutional study enrolled Korean adult patients (n = 812) suspected of having FA. For diagnosis, causality assessment history taking, ImmunoCAP specific immunoglobulin E measurement and/or skin prick test were performed. RESULTS: Among 812 patients, 415 were diagnosed as having FA. The most common causative allergen was fruit, with a diagnosis of pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS: 155, 37.3%), followed by crustaceans (111, 26.7%), wheat (63, 15.1%), fruits in patients without PFAS(43, 10.3%), buckwheat (31, 7.4%), peanut (31, 7.4%), walnut (25, 6.0%), red meat due to reaction to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) (8, 1.9%), and silkworm pupa (13, 3.1%). Allergy to egg, milk, fish, or shellfish was rare in Korean adults. One-third of patients with FA exhibited multiple FAs (238/415, 57.3%); the average number of causative allergens was 2.39. About 129 patients (31.0%) were diagnosed as having anaphylaxis; in these patients, wheat was the most frequent causative food. Twenty patients were further diagnosed with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA); all were due to wheat. In particular, crustaceans, wheat, PFAS, buckwheat, and red meat (α-Gal) were also frequent causes of anaphylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: Wheat, fruits with or without PFAS, and crustaceans are important and frequent causative allergens in Korean adult FA; these allergens differ from those found in childhood FA. It is notable that non-classic allergies, such as PFAS, FDEIA, and α-Gal allergy, are the important causes of anaphylaxis in Korean adult FA.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Allergens , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Bombyx , Diagnosis , Fagopyrum , Food Hypersensitivity , Fruit , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Juglans , Korea , Milk , Ovum , Pollen , Pupa , Red Meat , Retrospective Studies , Shellfish , Skin , Triticum
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 845-848, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777487

ABSTRACT

National-level famous traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) doctor Professor Fan Yong-sheng has high-level accomplishments in the treatment of arthralgia. According to clinical diagnosis and dialectic,TCM with appropriate medicinal properties were flexibly applied,with a remarkable efficacy. Especially in the application of insect drugs,he has accumulated abundant clinical experience.According to the main syndromes of arthralgia and pathogenic site,patient' s constitution,Scorpio,Scolopendra,Pheretima,Vespae Nidus,Bombyx Batryticatus,Manis Squama,Bungarus Parvus,Zaocys,Agkistrodon,Cicadae Periostracum,Aspongopus,Eupolyphaga Steleophaga,Silkworm Sand were properly selected. Attention was also paid to the compatibility between insect drugs and antirheumatic drugs,blood-activating drugs and tonifying drugs. In the premise of safe and effective application in the treatment of arthralgia,insect drugs show such efficacies as antipyretic,activating collaterals and relieving pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Arthralgia , Bombyx , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
15.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180688, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055416

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chrysodeixis includens has become the major Lepidopteran pest of soybean crops, especially in the Brazilian Cerrado (savanna) region. A native isolate of Chrysodeixis includens nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChinNPV) from this region, Buritis, MG, was assessed for its biological and molecular features. In addition, in vitro co-infection with Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV), another virus of an important soybean pest, was tested. The ChinNPV-Buritis isolate presented an average LC50 of 7,750 occlusion bodies (OBs)/ml of diet in C. includens larvae. Analysis of restriction endonuclease profiles of viral DNA revealed similarities with previously described ChinNPV isolates IE, IF, and IG from Brazil, although the presence of submolar bands indicates genetic heterogeneity. Optical microscopy analysis in conjunction with quantitative PCR (qPCR) demonstrated in vitro infection of this isolate in IPLB-SF-21AE, Sf9, and BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cell lines, but the amount of ChinNPV tends to decrease through serial passages. The qPCR method developed in this study successfully detected both AgMNPV and ChinNPV from cell culture and from infected larvae. The cell line Tn-5B1-4 is indicated for future development of in vitro production and co-infection studies.


Subject(s)
Bombyx , Nucleopolyhedroviruses , Biological Control Agents , Larva
16.
Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery ; : 10-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in gene expression after incubation of cells with proteins released from different silk mat layers. METHODS: A silk cocoon from Bombyx mori was separated into four layers of equal thickness. The layers were numbered from 1 to 4 (from the inner to the outer layer). The proteins were released by sonication of a silk mat layer in normal saline. The concentration of proteins was determined by spectrophotometry. They were incubated with RAW264.7 cells, and changes in the expression of genes were evaluated by cDNA microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: Layer 1 and 4 groups had higher protein concentrations compared to those in layer 2 and 3 groups. The genes associated with inflammation and angiogenesis showed significantly higher expression in layer 1 and 4 groups. The results of qRT-PCR were in agreement with those of the cDNA microarray analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The silk mat from the middle portion of the silkworm cocoon yielded a lower protein release and caused an insignificant change in the expression of genes that are associated with inflammation and angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inducing Agents , Bombyx , Gene Expression , Inflammation , Macrophages , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Silk , Sonication , Spectrophotometry
17.
Journal of Nutrition and Health ; : 201-207, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714898

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, is associated with insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers. Many strategies, including natural alternative anti-obesity agents, are used widely to prevent obesity. This study examined the effects of silkworm hemolymph on the weight control of C57BL/6N mice fed with a high-fat diet. METHODS: The mice were divided into five groups: normal group (N), high-fat diet group (HFC), high-fat diet and silkworm hemolymph (at dose of 1 mL/kg BW (HFS-1), 5 mL/kg BW (HFS-5) and 10 mL/kg (HFS-10) for 12 weeks. RESULTS: After 12 weeks treatment, the administration of silkworm hemolymph decreased the final body weight significantly along with a decrease in the weights of epididymal fat and total fat. The plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration was significantly lower in the HFS-1, HFS-5, and HFS-10 groups than in the HFC group. In addition, the leptin level of the HFS groups was significantly lower than those of the HFC group without a change in the plasma insulin concentration. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the silkworm hemolymph may have the potential to prevent obesity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Anti-Obesity Agents , Body Weight , Bombyx , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diet, High-Fat , Hemolymph , Hyperlipidemias , Hypertension , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Leptin , Obesity , Plasma , Weights and Measures
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1809-1822, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776288

ABSTRACT

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces Cry toxins that are widely used as insecticides in agriculture and forestry. Receptors are important to elucidate the mode of interaction with Cry toxins and toxicity in lepidopteran insects. Here, we purified the Cry toxin from Bt and identified this toxin by flight mass spectrometry as Cry1Ac, and then recombinantly expressed aminopeptidase N (BmAPN6) and repeat domains of cadherin-like protein (CaLP) of B. mori. Using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), Far-Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), we identified the interaction between Cry1Ac and BmAPN6. Furthermore, analysis of the cytotoxic activity of Cry1Ac toxin in Sf9 cells showed that BmAPN6 directly interacted with Cry1Ac toxin to induce morphological aberrations and cell lysis. We also used co-IP, Far-Western blotting and ELISAs to analyze the interactions of Cry1Ac with three binding sites corresponding to cadherin repeat (CR) 7 CR11, and CR12 of CaLP. Notably, the three repeat domains were essential Cry1Ac binding components in CaLP. These results indicated that BmAPN6 and CaLP served as a functional receptor involved in Bt Cry1Ac toxin pathogenicity. These findings represent an important advancement in our understanding of the mechanisms of Cry1Ac toxicity and provide promising candidate targets for gene editing to enhance resistance to pathogens and increase the economic value of B. mori.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis , Bacterial Proteins , Metabolism , Bombyx , CD13 Antigens , Metabolism , Cadherins , Metabolism , Endotoxins , Metabolism , Hemolysin Proteins , Metabolism , Larva
19.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 33(3): 703-712, may/jun. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966229

ABSTRACT

Alphabaculovirus is a genus of the entomopathogenic virus, whose species Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) infects the silkworm, Bombyx mori, which is an important insect in the sericulture industry. A geographic isolate of BmNPV was identified in the state of Paraná, Brazil. It was infecting B. mori larvae and various organs and target tissues were identified, however, there was no information about the infection of Malpighian tubules (MT). The MT comprises the excretory system of B. mori and acts in the elimination of toxic substances and in hydroelectrolytic homeostasis. Thus, the present study examined the susceptibility and cytopathology of B. mori MT to BmNPV. To this end, hybrid fifth instar larvae were inoculated with a virus suspension at different days post-inoculation (dpi). MT segments were collected and divided into the ampullae, proximal, medial and distal regions. These were processed for light microscopy and transmission electron analysis. The MT regions revealed differences in susceptibility to BmNPV and the ampullae in its transition area was infected from the sixth dpi; the other regions did not reveal any evidence of infection. The transition area of the ampullae has not been previously described in Lepidoptera and its cytopathology revealed a hypertrophic nucleus with viroplasm, followed by the formation and development of viral polyhedra, which are common characteristics of infections by Alphabaculovirus. Thus, infection of the ampullae of the MT of B. mori by BmNPV, together with other known targets, compromises the metabolic balance of the insect, which results in consequences for silk production and damage to the sericulture sector.


Alphabaculovirus é um gênero de vírus entomopatogênico, cuja espécie Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) infecta o bicho-da-seda, Bombyx mori, inseto importante na indústria sericícola. Um isolado geográfico do BmNPV foi identificado no estado do Paraná, Brasil, infectando lagartas de B. mori e vários órgãos e tecidos alvos foram identificados; entretanto, não há informações sobre a infecção do túbulo de Malpighi (TM). O TM compõe o sistema excretor de B. mori, atuando na eliminação de substâncias tóxicas e na homeostase hidroeletrolítica. Assim, o presente estudo, analisou a susceptibilidade e a citopatologia do TM de B. mori ao BmNPV. Para tanto, lagartas híbridas de 5° instar foram inoculadas com uma suspensão viral e em diferentes dias pós-inoculação (dpi), segmentos do TM foram coletados e subdivididos nas regiões da ampola, proximal, média e distal; sendo processados para análises em microscopias de luz e eletrônica de transmissão. As regiões do TM revelaram diferenças na susceptibilidade ao BmNPV e a ampola, na sua área de transição, foi infectada a partir do 6° dpi, já as demais regiões não revelaram quaisquer indícios de infecção. A área de transição da ampola, ainda não havia sido descrita em lepidópteros e sua citopatologia revelou núcleo hipertrófico com viroplasma, seguido da formação e desenvolvimento dos poliedros virais, características comuns das infecções pelo Alphabaculovirus. Assim, a infecção da ampola do TM de B. mori ao BmNPV, somada a de outros alvos conhecidos, compromete o equilíbrio metabólico do inseto, com consequências na produção de seda e prejuízos ao setor sericícola.


Subject(s)
Bombyx , Baculoviridae , Nucleocapsid , Lepidoptera , Malpighian Tubules
20.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 84: 1-7, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1462431

ABSTRACT

This work aimed to evaluate the effects of the products Biogermex®, Agro-mos®, Soil-Set® and Planta Clean® on the development of white muscardine in Bombyx mori. Products have been tested at two stages for effects on biology of caterpillars and on silk production (1), and then they were evaluated to know their potential in the prevention/control of white muscardine (2). Products were sprayed on mulberry leaves (preventive treatment) and also on the integument of silkworms (curative treatment). At the first stage, the products were applied on four consecutive days, in one of the daily feeds. Planta Clean® - curative treatment - and Soil-Set® - preventive treatment - caused mortality in 63.3% and 30% of silk worms, respectively. The fungus Beauveria bassiana was inoculated at the concentration 5 × 107 conidia/mL on the leaves and insects. The products were applied three hours after application on the fungus, in a single application, and also for four days in the other groups. A group of silkworms sprayed only with the fungus served as control. Biogermex® - curative treatment applied once and for four times - was the most effective, reducing mortality by 25 and 26.7%, respectively, as compared with the control group. None of the evaluated products acts preventively against white muscardine.


Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos de produtos Biogermex®, Agro-mos®, Soil-Set® e Planta Clean® no desenvolvimento da calcinose branca em Bombyx mori. Os produtos foram testados em duas etapas: efeitos sobre a biologia e produção de seda pela lagarta (1) e, em seguida, em função do seu potencial na prevenção/no controle da calcinose branca (2). Os produtos foram pulverizados sobre as folhas de amoreira (tratamento preventivo) e sobre o tegumento das lagartas (tratamento curativo). Na primeira etapa, os produtos foram aplicados durante quatro dias consecutivos, em uma das alimentações do dia. Planta Clean® - tratamento curativo - e Soil-Set® - tratamento preventivo - causaram mortalidade em 63,3 e 30% das lagartas, respectivamente. O fungo Beauveria bassiana foi inoculado na concentração 5 × 107 conídios/mL sobre folhas e insetos. Os produtos foram aplicados três horas após o fungo, em uma aplicação, e também por quatro dias em outro grupo. Um grupo de lagartas pulverizadas apenas com fungo serviu como controle. Biogermex® - tratamento curativo aplicado uma e quatro vezes - foi o mais eficiente, reduzindo a mortalidade em 25 e 26,7% respectivamente, em relação ao grupo controle. Nenhum dos produtos avaliados atuou de forma preventiva contra muscardina branca.


Subject(s)
Animals , Beauveria , Bombyx , Calcinosis , Pesticides , Insecta
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