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1.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180150, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975883

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives This investigation aimed to assess the differentiation inhibitory effects of ProRoot MTA® (PMTA) and Biodentine® (BIOD) on osteoclasts originated from murine bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) and compare these effects with those of alendronate (ALD). Materials and Methods Mouse BMMs were cultured to differentiate into osteoclasts with macrophage colony-stimulating factor and receptor activator of NF-κB (RANKL), treated with lipopolysaccharide. After application with PMTA, BIOD, or ALD, cell toxicities were examined using WST-1 assay kit, and RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and activities were determined by resorption pit formation assay and tartrate-resistant acid phosphate (TRAP) staining. The mRNA levels of osteoclast activity-related genes were detected with quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Expressions of molecular signaling pathways were assessed by western blot. All data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (p<0.05). Results Mouse BMMs applied with PMTA, BIOD, or ALD showed highly reduced levels of TRAP-positive osteoclasts. The BIOD treated specimens suppressed mRNA expressions of cathepsin K, TRAP, and c-Fos. Nonetheless, it showed a lower effect than PMTA or ALD applications. Compared with ALD, PMTA and BIOD decreased RANKL-mediated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and IκBα. Conclusions PMTA and BIOD showed the inhibitory effect on osteoclast differentiation and activities similar to that of ALD through IκB phosphorylation and suppression of ERK signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Osteoclasts/drug effects , Root Canal Filling Materials/pharmacology , Bone Marrow Cells/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Silicates/pharmacology , Calcium Compounds/pharmacology , Alendronate/pharmacology , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Osteoclasts/physiology , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Root Resorption/prevention & control , Time Factors , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , I-kappa B Proteins/drug effects , RANK Ligand/analysis , RANK Ligand/drug effects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase
2.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180713, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1040234

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vitamin D has been known to have important regulatory functions in inflammation and immune response and shows inhibitory effects on experimental periodontitis in animal models. However, the potential mechanism has yet to be clarified. Recent studies have highlighted Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and its downstream signaling as a crucial regulator of immune homeostasis and inflammatory regulation. Objective: This study aimed to clarify the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) on experimental periodontitis and AhR/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)/NLR pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway in the gingival epithelium in a murine model. Methodology: We induced periodontitis in male C57BL/6 wild-type mice by oral inoculation of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), and subsequently gave intraperitoneal VD3 injection to the mice every other day for 8 weeks. Afterwards, we examined the alveolar bone using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and detected the gingival epithelial protein using western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining. Results: SEM images demonstrated that alveolar bone loss was reduced in the periodontitis mouse model after VD3 supplementation. Western blot analyses and immunohistochemical staining of the gingival epithelium showed that the expression of vitamin D receptor, AhR and its downstream cytochrome P450 1A1 were enhanced upon VD3 application. Additionally, VD3 decreased NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, and NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, caspase-1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 protein expression. Conclusions: These results implicate the alleviation of periodontitis and the alteration of AhR/NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway by VD3 in the mouse model. The attenuation of this periodontal disease may correlate with the regulation of AhR/NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway by VD3.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Periodontitis/metabolism , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Calcitriol/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/drug effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/drug effects , Periodontitis/pathology , Reference Values , Calcitriol/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Alveolar Bone Loss , NF-kappa B/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Treatment Outcome , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/analysis , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/drug effects , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Caspase 1/analysis , Bone Density Conservation Agents/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/analysis , Gingiva/drug effects , Gingiva/metabolism , Gingiva/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
3.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e086, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019605

ABSTRACT

Abstract Treatment of patients with bisphosphonate usage is a significant concern for oral surgeons because it interferes with jaw bone turnover and regeneration. In case of adverse effects manifesting related to bisphosphonate use, oral surgeons are usually treating and keep the patient's symptoms under control. In this study, we aimed to investigate a new treatment protocol for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). This treatment protocol consisted of administering human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) loaded chitosan microspheres which were prepared by ionotropic gelation method or/and the prepared microspheres were suspended in a poloxamer gel. After in-vitro optimization studies, the efficacy of the chosen formulations was evaluated in-vivo studies. Zoledronic acid was administered daily to forty-eight adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, divided into four experimental groups, at a daily concentration of 0.11 mg/kg over three weeks to induce the MRONJ model. At the end of this period, maxillary left molar teeth were extracted. In the first group, the subjects received no treatment. In the negative control group, poloxamer hydrogel containing empty microspheres were immediately applied to the soft tissues surrounding the extraction socket. The treatment group-1 was treated with local injections of poloxamer hydrogel containing hPTH. The treatment group-2 was treated with a single local injection of poloxamer hydrogel containing hPTH-loaded chitosan microspheres. Both treatment groups received a total of 7 µg of hPTH at the end of the treatment protocol. Our study demonstrates successful attenuation of MRONJ through a local drug delivery system combined with hPTH, as opposed to previously attempted treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Parathyroid Hormone/pharmacology , Chitosan/pharmacology , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Maxilla/drug effects , Parathyroid Hormone/therapeutic use , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Poloxamer/administration & dosage , Poloxamer/chemistry , Models, Animal , Delayed-Action Preparations , Chitosan/therapeutic use , Bone Density Conservation Agents/adverse effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/drug therapy , Zoledronic Acid/adverse effects , Maxilla/pathology , Microspheres
4.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(4): 438-445, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950087

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This study evaluated the effects of combination therapy of curcumin and alendronate on BMD and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Subjects and methods: In a randomized, double-blind trial study, 60 postmenopausal women were divided into three groups: control, alendronate, and alendronate + curcumin. Each group included 20 patients. Total body, total hip, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and after 12 months of therapy. Bone turnover markers such as bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx) were measured at the outset and 6 months later. Results: Patients in the control group suffered a significant decrease in BMD and increased bone turnover markers at the end of study. The group treated with only alendronate showed significantly decreased levels of BALP and CTx and increased levels of osteocalcin compared to the control group. The alendronate group also showed significant increases in the total body, total hip, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs at the end of study compared to the control group. In the curcumin + alendronate group, BALP and CTx levels decreased and osteocalcin levels increased significantly at the end of study compared to the control and alendronate groups. BMD indexes also increased in four areas significantly at the end of study compared to the control and alendronate groups. Conclusion: The combination of curcumin and alendronate has beneficial effects on BMD and bone turnover markers among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2018;62(4):438-45


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Bone Density/drug effects , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/metabolism , Alendronate/pharmacology , Curcumin/pharmacology , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Peptide Fragments/drug effects , Peptide Fragments/urine , Osteocalcin/analysis , Osteocalcin/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Collagen Type II/drug effects , Collagen Type II/urine , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Alkaline Phosphatase/drug effects
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170470, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954503

ABSTRACT

Abstract The hypothesis of this study was that the peri-implant bone healing of the group of pinealectomized rats would differ from the control group. The samples were subjected to immunohistochemical, microtomographic (total porosity and connectivity density), and fluorochrome (mineralized surface) analyses. Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the cellular changes and bone remodeling dynamics along the bone/implant interface in pinealectomized rats. Material and Methods The total of 18 adult male rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar) was divided into three groups (n=6): control (CO), pinealectomized without melatonin (PNX) and pinealectomized with melatonin (PNXm). All animals were submitted to the first surgery (pinealectomy), except the CO group. Thirty days after the pinealectomy without melatonin, the second surgery was conducted, in which all animals received an implant in each tibia (36 titanium implants with surface treatment were installed - Implalife® São Paulo, SP, Brazil). By gavage, the rats of the PNX group received the vehicle solution, and the procedure. Results Immunohistochemical analysis for runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OP) and osteocalcin (OC) showed that the bone repair process in the PNXm group was similar to that of the CO group, whereas the PNX group showed a delay. The microtomographic parameters of total porosity [Po(tot)] and bone surface (BS) showed no statistically significant differences, whereas for the connective density (Conn.Dn) a statistical difference was found between the CO and PNXm groups. Fluorochrome analysis of the active mineralized surface showed statistically significant difference between the CO and PNX and between the CO and PNXm groups. Conclusion The absence of the pineal gland impaired the bone repair process during osseointegration, however the daily melatonin replacement was able to restore this response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pineal Gland/surgery , Osseointegration/drug effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Bone-Implant Interface , Melatonin/pharmacology , Tibia/drug effects , Tibia/injuries , Tibia/pathology , Titanium , Immunohistochemistry , Osteocalcin/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Implants, Experimental , Dental Implantation, Endosseous , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/analysis , Osteopontin/analysis , X-Ray Microtomography , Fluorescent Dyes
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(8): e7440, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951737

ABSTRACT

Considering that osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint disease worldwide, multiple pharmacological treatments have been proposed to alter the articular structure with potential benefit in the progression of the disease. The so-called disease-modifying OA drugs have been frequently investigated but conclusive findings are rare. Strontium ranelate (SrRan) is a drug usually prescribed to treat osteoporosis, with proven effects in decreasing the risk of fractures and possible effect in reducing the progression of OA. The objective of this review was to demonstrate the current panorama of knowledge on the use of SrRan in clinical and experimental models, clarifying its mechanisms of action and describing possible anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. The systematic review was based on the PRISMA statement and included articles that are indexed in scientific databases. Fifteen studies were included: seven pre-clinical and eight clinical studies. Despite the limited number of studies, the results suggest a positive effect of SrRan in patients with OA, through changes in functional capacity and reduction of progression of morphological parameters and joint degradation, with moderate quality of evidence for those clinical outcomes. Novel studies are necessary to elucidate the molecular targets of SrRan, focusing on anti-inflammatory effects and histological changes promoted by SrRan, which seemed to reduce the progression of OA in the experimental and clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , Thiophenes/therapeutic use , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Thiophenes/pharmacology , Bone Resorption/drug therapy , Cartilage, Articular/drug effects , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Disease Progression , Arthralgia/drug therapy , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology
7.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 57(6): 514-520, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899474

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: The use of bisphosphonates for osteoporosis is effective in reducing the risk of fractures. However, oral formulations are sometimes not well tolerated or are contraindicated. Due to its availability in Brazilian public health system, pamidronate is frequently prescribed for osteoporosis, despite the lack of studies demonstrating its anti-fracture efficacy and the absence of FDA or EMEA approval for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) response to pamidronate in a group of women with osteoporosis in a tertiary care hospital. Patients and methods: The medical records of women with osteoporosis who received pamidronate for up to two years of treatment were reviewed. Patients were stratified at high or intermediate risk of fracture. Results: A total of 70 women were in treatment with pamidronate. Among them, 74% were at high risk of fracture. A significant gain in spine BMD after 24 months of treatment was observed (p = 0.012). There was no difference between the groups of high and not high risk of fracture. At the femur, no significant increase in BMD was present, though, a strong negative correlation with high PTH levels (r = −0.61; p = 0.003) was seen. In the multivariate analysis BMI at 12 months had impact in the response to the treatment. Conclusion The intravenous pamidronate in a group of postmenopausal women with predominant high risk of fracture promoted an isolated gain in the spine BMD, even though, clinical randomized trials are needed to confirm its anti-fracture efficacy.


Resumo Justificativa: O uso de bisfosfonatos para a osteoporose é eficaz na redução do risco de fraturas. No entanto, as formulações orais às vezes não são bem toleradas ou são contraindicadas. Em razão da sua disponibilidade no sistema público de saúde brasileiro, o pamidronato é frequentemente prescrito para a osteoporose, apesar da falta de estudos que demonstrem a sua eficácia antifratura e da ausência de aprovação da Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ou da European Medicine Agency (Emea) para essa finalidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a resposta da densidade mineral óssea (DMO) ao pamidronato em um grupo de mulheres com osteoporose em um hospital terciário. Pacientes e métodos: Revisaram-se os prontuários médicos de mulheres com osteoporose que receberam pamidronato por até dois anos de tratamento. As pacientes foram estratificadas em risco alto ou intermediário de fratura. Resultados: Estavam em tratamento com pamidronato 70 mulheres. Entre elas, 74% tinham alto risco de fratura. Observou-se um ganho significativo na DMO da coluna vertebral após 24 meses de tratamento (p = 0,012). Não houve diferença entre os grupos de risco de fratura alto e não alto. No fêmur, não foi encontrado aumento significativo na massa óssea; contudo, observou-se uma forte correlação negativa com altos níveis de PTH (r = −0,61; p = 0,003). Na análise multivariada, o IMC aos 12 meses tinha impacto na resposta ao tratamento. Conclusão O pamidronato intravenoso em um grupo de mulheres na pós-menopausa predominantemente com alto risco de fratura promoveu um ganho isolado na DMO da coluna vertebral, embora sejam necessários ensaios clínicos randomizados para confirmar sua eficácia antifratura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bone Density/drug effects , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/drug therapy , Bone Density Conservation Agents/administration & dosage , Pamidronate/administration & dosage , Brazil , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Administration, Intravenous , Pamidronate/pharmacology , Middle Aged
8.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(2): 168-176, Mar.-Apr. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841173

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the local effects of statins as adjuvants for treatment by scaling and root planing (SRP) of periodontal disease induced in rats. Material and Methods Ninety rats were used in the present experiment. Periodontal disease was induced in all animals using a cotton thread placed in the left first mandibular molar. After 7 days of induction, the bandage was removed and the animals were divided into three groups: 1) NT group (n=30), no treatment; 2) SRP group (n=30): SRP and irrigation with control gel; 3) S group (n=30) - SRP and irrigation with Simvastatin. Ten animals from each group were euthanized at 7, 15 and 30 days after treatment. Gingival biopsy specimens were processed to analyze the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8). The mandibles were removed and submitted to radiographic and laboratory processing for histometric analysis. Results The S group showed a significantly lower expression of MMP-8 compared to NT and SRP groups in all experimental periods. In the radiographic and histometric analyses between the groups, S group showed a significantly lower bone loss (BL) compared to NT and SRP groups in all experimental periods. Conclusions Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that locally applied statin was effective as an adjuvant treatment for SRP in rats with induced periodontal disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Root Planing/methods , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Periodontitis/pathology , Time Factors , Biopsy , Reproducibility of Results , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Rats, Wistar , Matrix Metalloproteinase 8/analysis , Gingiva/drug effects , Gingiva/pathology , Mandible/pathology , Mandible/diagnostic imaging
9.
Clinics ; 72(4): 231-237, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840064

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to evaluate the bone phenotypes and mechanisms involved in bone disorders associated with hepatic osteodystrophy. Hepatocellular disease was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). In addition, the effects of disodium pamidronate on bone tissue were evaluated. METHODS: The study included 4 groups of 15 mice: a) C = mice subjected to vehicle injections; b) C+P = mice subjected to vehicle and pamidronate injections; c) CCl4+V = mice subjected to CCl4 and vehicle injections; and d) CCl4+P = mice subjected to CCl4 and pamidronate injections. CCl4 or vehicle was administered for 8 weeks, while pamidronate or vehicle was injected at the end of the fourth week. Bone histomorphometry and biomechanical analysis were performed in tibiae, while femora were used for micro-computed tomography and gene expression. RESULTS: CCl4 mice exhibited decreased bone volume/trabecular volume and trabecular numbers, as well as increased trabecular separation, as determined by bone histomorphometry and micro-computed tomography, but these changes were not detected in the group treated with pamidronate. CCl4 mice showed increased numbers of osteoclasts and resorption surface. High serum levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and the increased expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase in the bones of CCl4 mice supported the enhancement of bone resorption in these mice. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that bone resorption is the main mechanism of bone loss in chronic hepatocellular disease in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/etiology , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/drug therapy , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Liver Diseases/complications , Phosphorus/administration & dosage , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Bone and Bones/diagnostic imaging , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/metabolism , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Carbon Tetrachloride , Disease Models, Animal , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/genetics , RANK Ligand/genetics , Osteoprotegerin/genetics , X-Ray Microtomography , Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/chemically induced , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Diseases/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL
10.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(1): 42-52, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841161

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sodium alendronate is a bisphosphonate drug that exerts antiresorptive action and is used to treat osteoporosis. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone repair process at the bone/implant interface of osteoporotic rats treated with sodium alendronate through the analysis of microtomography, real time polymerase chain reactions and immunohistochemistry (RUNX2 protein, bone sialoprotein (BSP), alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin). Material and Methods A total of 42 rats were used and divided in to the following experimental groups: CTL: control group (rats submitted to fictitious surgery and fed with a balanced diet), OST: osteoporosis group (rats submitted to a bilateral ovariectomy and fed with a low calcium diet) and ALE: alendronate group (rats submitted to a bilateral ovariectomy, fed with a low calcium diet and treated with sodium alendronate). A surface treated implant was installed in both tibial metaphyses of each rat. Euthanasia of the animals was conducted at 14 (immunhostochemistry) and 42 days (immunohistochemistry, micro CT and PCR). Data were subjected to statistical analysis with a 5% significance level. Results Bone volume (BV) and total pore volume were higher for ALE group (P<0.05). Molecular data for RUNX2 and BSP proteins were significantly expressed in the ALE group (P<0.05), in comparison with the other groups. ALP expression was higher in the CTL group (P<0.05). The immunostaining for RUNX2 and osteopontin was positive in the osteoblastic lineage cells of neoformed bone for the CTL and ALE groups in both periods (14 and 42 days). Alkaline phosphatase presented a lower staining area in the OST group compared to the CTL in both periods and the ALE at 42 days. Conclusion There was a decrease of osteocalcin precipitation at 42 days for the ALE and OST groups. Therefore, treatment with short-term sodium alendronate improved bone repair around the implants installed in the tibia of osteoporotic rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Dental Implants , Osseointegration/drug effects , Alendronate/pharmacology , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Osteoporosis/physiopathology , Tibia/surgery , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Ovariectomy , Bone Density/drug effects , Osteocalcin/analysis , Osteocalcin/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Implants, Experimental , Dental Implantation, Endosseous , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Alkaline Phosphatase/drug effects , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/analysis , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/drug effects , Osteopontin/analysis , Osteopontin/drug effects , X-Ray Microtomography , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e122, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951982

ABSTRACT

Abstract Osteonecrosis of the jaw is an adverse effect of bisphosphonates. While the etiopathogenesis of this condition has been investigated, the interactions and effects of bisphosphonates on oral mucosa cells remain unclear. It is hypothesized that cell culture models, such as co-culture or three-dimensional cell culture models, can provide valuable insight. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts in a co-culture model. Briefly, epithelial cells were seeded on transwell inserts and gingival fibroblasts were seeded in the lower well of 24-well plates. The latter were treated with ZA (5 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability and synthesis of the inflammatory chemokine, CCL2, were subsequently assessed. Data were subjected to statistical analysis with a 5% significance level. In the presence of ZA, the epithelial cells exhibited significant toxicity in both cell culture models and at both time points. However, greater cytotoxicity was observed in the co-culture model. Greater viability for the gingival fibroblasts was also associated with the co-culture model, and ZA-mediated toxicity was observed for the 48 h time point. ZA promoted a significant increase in CCL2 synthesis in both sets of cells, with greater CCL2 synthesis detected in the gingival fibroblasts. However, this effect was diminished in the co-culture model. Taken together, these results confirm the specific response patterns of the cells seeded in the co-culture model and also demonstrate the protective mechanism that is mediated by epithelial/mesenchymal cell interactions upon exposure to ZA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Coculture Techniques , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Zoledronic Acid , Gingiva/cytology
12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(6): 507-514, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767923

ABSTRACT

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on the cortical bone channels network (CBCN) and osteocyte organization in relation to the bone channels. Materials and methods Eighteen male Wistar rats were divided into control (CG) and test groups (TG). Twelve animals from TG received 3 ZA doses (7.5 µg/kg), and 6 animals from CG did not receive any medication. TG animals were euthanized at 14 (n = 6) and 75 (n = 6) dadys after drug injection. CBCN was analyzed in mandibles and tibias using computational routines. The osteocyte organization was qualitatively evaluated in tibias using a three-dimensional reconstruction of images from serial histological sections. Results Significant differences in CBCN of tibia were found between the treated and untreated rats, with a wider range of sizes and shapes of the channels after the use of ZA (channels area p = 0.0063, channels area SD p = 0.0276) and less bone matrix (bone volume p = 0.0388). The alterations in the channels’ morphology were more evident at 75 days after the drug injection (channels perimeter p = 0.0286). No differences were found in mandibles CBCN. The osteocyte distribution revealed more variable patterns of cell distribution in ZA groups, with non-homogeneous distribution of cells in relation to the bone channels. Conclusion Zoledronic acid induces structural changes in CBCN and modifies the osteocyte arrangement in cortical bone in the tibia; also, the variability in the morphology of bone channels became more evident after a certain time of the use of the drug.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Haversian System/drug effects , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Osteocytes/drug effects , Haversian System/anatomy & histology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Mandible/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tibia/anatomy & histology , Tibia/drug effects
13.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 55(3): 240-250, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-752092

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: O desuso pelo repouso no leito, pela imobilização de membros ou por missões espaciais provoca a perda óssea rápida. Fez-se este estudo para investigar os efeitos terapêuticos do ácido zoledrônico (ZOL), isoladamente e em combinação ao alfacalcidol (ALF), em um modelo de rato com osteoporose por desuso. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos de três meses foram submetidos à imobilização da pata traseira direita (IPTD) por 10 semanas para induzir a osteopenia; em seguida, foram divididos em quatro grupos: 1 – IPTD para controle positivo; 2 – IPTD mais ZOL (50 µg/kg, dose única intravenosa); 3 – IPTD mais ALF (0,5 µg/kg, via oral diariamente); 4 – IPTD mais ALF (0,5 µg/kg, via oral diariamente) mais ZOL (50 µg/kg, dose única intravenosa) por outras 10 semanas. Um grupo de ratos não imobilizados foi usado como controle negativo. No fim do tratamento, os fêmures foram removidos e testaram-se a porosidade do osso e suas propriedades mecânicas, além do peso seco e das cinzas do osso. Resultados: A terapia combinada com ZOL mais ALF foi mais eficaz em reduzir a porosidade do osso do que a monoterapia com um dos fármacos administrado isoladamente em ratos submetidos à IPTD. No que diz respeito à melhoria da resistência mecânica da diáfise femoral média, o tratamento combinado com ZOL mais ALF foi mais eficaz do que a monoterapia com um dos fármacos administrado isoladamente. Além disso, a terapia combinada com ZOL mais ALF foi mais eficaz na melhoria do peso seco e das cinzas do osso do que a monoterapia com ZOL ou ALF em ratos submetidos à IPTD. Conclusões: Esses dados sugerem que a terapia combinada com ZOL mais ALF representa uma opção terapêutica potencialmente útil para o tratamento da osteoporose por desuso. .


Objectives: Disuse by bed rest, limb immobilization or space flight causes rapid bone loss. We conducted the present study to investigate the therapeutic effects of zoledronic acid (ZOL), alone and in combination with alfacalcidol (ALF) in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis. Methods: In the present study, 3-month-old male Wistar rats had their right hind-limb immobilized (RHLI) for 10 weeks to induce osteopenia, then were divided into four groups: 1 – RHLI positive control; 2 – RHLI plus ZOL (50 µg/kg, i.v. single dose); 3 – RHLI plus ALF (0.5 µg/kg, oral gauge daily); 4 – RHLI plus ALF (0.5 µg/kg, oral gauge daily) plus ZOL (50 µg/kg, i.v. single dose) for another 10 weeks. One group of non-immobilized rats was used as negative control. At the end of the treatment, the femurs were removed and tested for bone porosity, bone mechanical properties, and bone dry and ash weight. Results: Combination therapy with ZOL plus ALF was more effective in decreasing bone porosity than each drug administered as monotherapy in RHLI rats. With respect to improvement in the mechanical strength of the femoral mid-shaft, the combination treatment of ZOL plus ALF was more effective than each drug administered as a monotherapy. Moreover, combination therapy using ZOL plus ALF was more effective in improving dry bone and ash weight, than single-drug therapy using ZOL or ALF in RHLI rats. Conclusions: These data suggest that combination therapy with ZOL plus ALF represents a potentially useful therapeutic option for the treatment of disuse osteoporosis. .


Subject(s)
Rats , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Hydroxycholecalciferols/therapeutic use , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Synergism , Hindlimb Suspension , Hydroxycholecalciferols/pharmacology , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Osteoporosis/etiology
14.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 55(2): 103-112, Mar-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-746141

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Este estudo foi desenvolvido para investigar a eficácia e a segurança do ácidozoledrônico (ZOL) e do propranolol (PRO) como monoterapia e terapia combinada em ummodelo de rato com osteoporose pós-menopáusica. Métodos: Ratas Wistar fêmeas foram ovariectomizadas (OVX) ou submetidas à cirurgia simulada (placebo) aos três meses de idade. Doze semanas depois da cirurgia, as ratas foram divididas em seis grupos: (1) placebo + veículo; (2) OVX + veículo; (3) OVX + ZOL (100 µg/kg, dose única intravenosa); (4) OVX + ZOL (50 µg/kg, dose única intravenosa); (5) OVX + PRO (0,1 mg/kg, via subcutânea, cinco dias por semana); (6) OVX + ZOL (50 µg/kg, dose única intravenosa) + PRO (0,1 mg/kg, via subcutânea, cinco dias por semana) durante 12 semanas. Depois do tratamento, testou-se a densidade óssea, a porosidade e a microarquitetura tra-becular dos fêmures. Também foram avaliados marcadores bioquímicos séricos e urinários. Resultados: A terapia combinada com ZOL mais PRO foi mais eficaz em corrigir a diminuição do cálcio sérico e o aumento do nível sérico de fosfatase alcalina e fosfatase ácida resistenteao tartarato do que a monoterapia com ZOL ou PRO. Além disso, a terapia combinada comZOL mais PRO foi mais eficaz em corrigir o aumento dos níveis urinários de cálcio, fósforo ecreatinina do que a monoterapia com ZOL ou PRO. A terapia combinada com ZOL mais PRO também preservou a microarquitetura trabecular e a porosidade do osso cortical. Conclusão: Os resultados sugerem que a terapia combinada com ZOL mais PRO pode ser aabordagem mais eficaz para o tratamento da osteoporose grave em humanos. .


Objectives: The present study was designed to investigate further the efficacy and safety of zoledronic acid (ZOL) and propranolol (PRO) as monotherapy and combination therapy in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods: Female Wistar rats were ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated at 3 months ofage. Twelve weeks post-surgery, rats were randomized into six groups: (1) sham + vehicle; (2) OVX + vehicle; (3) OVX + ZOL (100 뀅g/kg, i.v. single dose); (4) OVX + ZOL (50 뀅g/kg, i.v. single dose); (5) OVX + PRO (0.1 mg/kg, s.c. 5 days per week); (6) OVX + ZOL (50 뀅g/kg, i.v. single dose) + PRO (0.1 mg/kg, s.c. 5 days per week) for 12 weeks. After treatment, femurs were tested for bone density, porosity and trabecular micro-architecture. Biochemical markers in serum and urine were also determined. Results: Combined treatment with ZOL plus PRO corrected the decrease in serum calcium and increase in serum alkaline phosphatase and tartarate resistant acid phosphatase level better than single-drug therapy using ZOL or PRO. Moreover, combined treatment with ZOL plus PRO corrected the increase in urine calcium, phosphorous and creatinine level better than single-drug therapy using ZOL or PRO. Combination therapy using ZOL plus PRO also preserved the trabecular micro-architecture and cortical bone porosity. Conclusion: These data suggest that combined treatment with ZOL plus PRO could be a more effective approach for treating severe osteoporosis in humans. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Rats , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Bone Density/drug effects , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/drug therapy , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/drug therapy , Propranolol/pharmacology , Propranolol/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Ovariectomy , Random Allocation
15.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(1): 19-25, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-741591

ABSTRACT

Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is a dynamic process of bone modeling involving osteoclast-driven resorption on the compression side. Consequently, to estimate the influence of various situations on tooth movement, experimental studies need to analyze this cell. Objectives The aim of this study was to test and validate a new method for evaluating osteoclastic activity stimulated by mechanical loading based on the fractal analysis of the periodontal ligament (PDL)-bone interface. Material and Methods The mandibular right first molars of 14 rabbits were tipped mesially by a coil spring exerting a constant force of 85 cN. To evaluate the actual influence of osteoclasts on fractal dimension of bone surface, alendronate (3 mg/Kg) was injected weekly in seven of those rabbits. After 21 days, the animals were killed and their jaws were processed for histological evaluation. Osteoclast counts and fractal analysis (by the box counting method) of the PDL-bone interface were performed in histological sections of the right and left sides of the mandible. Results An increase in the number of osteoclasts and in fractal dimension after OTM only happened when alendronate was not administered. Strong correlation was found between the number of osteoclasts and fractal dimension. Conclusions Our results suggest that osteoclastic activity leads to an increase in bone surface irregularity, which can be quantified by its fractal dimension. This makes fractal analysis by the box counting method a potential tool for the assessment of osteoclastic activity on bone surfaces in microscopic examination. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Bone Remodeling/physiology , Fractals , Osteoclasts/physiology , Periodontal Ligament/anatomy & histology , Tooth Movement Techniques/methods , Alendronate/pharmacology , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Osteoclasts/drug effects , Periodontal Ligament/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227748

ABSTRACT

Bisphosphonates are used routinely to reduce bone-related events in breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. We evaluated the effects of zoledronic acid, a third generation, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, to prevent bone metastasis in breast cancer. Zoledronic acid or vehicle alone was administered to nude mice either simultaneously or after intracardiac injection of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Nude mice treated with zoledronic acid at early time points showed a lower incidence of bone metastases than did vehicle-treated nude mice, but these differences were not statistically significant. Only 37.5% of mice treated with zoledronic acid at the time of tumor cell inoculation developed bone metastases compared to over 51.8% of mice receiving vehicle alone (P = 0.304). Cell count of apoptosis confirmed by immunohistochemical staining in metastatic bone tissue significantly increased in the zoledronic acid-treated groups compared to non-treated group (1,018.3 vs 282.0; P = 0.046). However, metastatic tumor cells, which invade soft tissue around the bone, did not show extensive apoptosis; there were no differences between the zoledronic acid-treated and control groups. These results suggest that zoledronic acid increases apoptosis of metastatic breast tumor cells in the bone and could therefore reduce metastatic tumor burden. These results support the use of zoledronic acid to reduce the incidence of bone metastasis in breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Bone Neoplasms/prevention & control , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Nude , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-171915

ABSTRACT

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a member of the TNF superfamily of cytokines, is one of the most promising candidates for cancer therapeutics. However, many osteosarcomas are resistant to TRAIL. Bisphosphonates are very effective in the treatment of bone problems associated with malignancies; the antitumor effects are due to the inhibition of protein prenylation that is essential for cell function and survival. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of bisphosphonates on TRAIL-resistant MG 63 human osteosarcoma cells. The cells showed no response to TRAIL alone; however, pre-treatment with bisphosphonates significantly increased TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and cellular activation of caspase-3. Bisphosphonates significantly induced mRNA and protein expression of the TRAIL receptor, DR5. Bisphosphonates induced protein unprenylation in MG 63 cells; in addition, co-treatment with TRAIL also significantly increased protein unprenylation. Blocking of protein unprenylation using geranylgeraniol attenuated the cellular responses, including cell apoptosis and protein unprenylation induced by bisphosphonates and TRAIL. This is the first study to demonstrate that bisphosphonates markedly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells. These findings suggest that bisphosphonates may be a new and effective anticancer treatment with TRAIL proteins for TRAIL-resistant cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Bone Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Proliferation , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Osteosarcoma/drug therapy , Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand/metabolism , TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand/metabolism , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Up-Regulation
18.
Braz. oral res ; 24(3): 309-315, July-Sept. 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-558744

ABSTRACT

This study is a histomorphometrical analysis of the influence of the bisphosphonate alendronate on alveolar bone density. Eighteen male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 9) that received no medication and an experimental group (n = 9) that received oral alendronate (1 mg/kg) from birth until euthanization at 3 months of age. Semi-serial 4-µm-thick transverse sections were obtained from the region between the roots of the left maxillary first molar, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined with a Zeiss Axioskop II optical microscope for histomorphometric analysis. The images were captured with a digital camera coupled with the microscope and connected to a computer, and were analyzed using Image J 1.34s image-analysis software. A 1,200-point grid was positioned onto each digitized image. The number of intersection points of grid lines in the bone tissue was counted. The ratio between the number of points in the bone tissue and the total number of points of the grid (1,200) was used to determine the bone density of the analyzed tissue. Data from the control and experimental groups were compared and analyzed statistically by the Student's t-test (p = 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.3754) in the alveolar bone density between the control and alendronate-treated animals. It may be concluded that the bisphosphonate alendronate did not alter the morphology of the alveolar bone, maintaining its structural tissue characteristics in healthy animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Alendronate/pharmacology , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Bone Density/drug effects , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Osteoclasts/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 231-238, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-228997

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Genetic factor is an important predisposing element influencing the susceptibility to osteoporosis and related complications. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS) or geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPS) genes were associated with the response to bisphosphonate therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, 144 Korean women with osteoporosis were included. Among 13 genetic polymorphisms found within the FDPS and GGPS1 gene, 4 genetic polymorphisms with frequencies > 5% were selected for further study. Bone mineral density (BMD) response after 1 year treatment of bisphosphonate therapy was analyzed according to the genotypes. RESULTS: Women with 2 deletion allele of GGPS1 -8188A ins/del (rs3840452) had significantly higher femoral neck BMD at baseline compared with those with one or no deletion allele (0.768 +/- 0.127 vs. 0.695 +/- 0.090 respectively; p = 0.041). The response rate of women with 2 deletion allele of GGPS1 -8188A ins/del (28.6%) was significantly lower than the rate of women with one (81.4%) or no deletion allele (75.0%) (p = 0.011). Women with 2 deletion allele of GGPS1 -8188A ins/del had 7-fold higher risk of non-response to bisphosphonate therapy compared with women with other genotypes in GGPS1 -8188 after adjusting for baseline BMD (OR = 7.48; 95% CI = 1.32-42.30; p = 0.023). Other polymorphisms in FDPS or GGPS1 were not associated with lumbar spine BMD or femoral neck BMD. CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that GGPS1 - 8188A ins/del polymorphism may confer susceptibility to femoral neck BMD response to bisphosphonate therapy in Korean women. However, further study should be done to confirm the results in a larger population.


Subject(s)
Aged , Asians , Bone Density/drug effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Dimethylallyltranstransferase/genetics , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Farnesyltranstransferase/genetics , Female , Geranyltranstransferase/genetics , Humans , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics
20.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 29(12): 963-968, Dec. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539128

ABSTRACT

The absence o!!f a hypocalcemic effect of calcitonin (CT) in fishes has been suggested due to exceedingly high plasma levels of CT; the fish may be saturated with respect of circulating CT and therefore unable to respond to exogenously administered CT. Earlier it has been suggested that a hypocalcemic action of injected CT may be obscured by changes in the release of endogenous CT and other calcium regulating hormones. In this study we have used artificial freshwater, calcium-deficient freshwater and calcium-rich freshwater and injected the fish with CT. The aim behind selecting these media were (i) in calcium-deficient medium there would be reduced circulating levels of CT, (ii) in calcium-rich medium there would be diminished secretion of prolactin (this hormone is hypercalcemic in fish), and (iii) by keeping the fish in calcium-rich medium we can test the antihypercalcemic action of CT. Moreover, the present study would reveal the changes in the ultimobranchial gland (UBG) after keeping the fish in all the above three media and/or injecting the fish with CT. Freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis, were administered intraperitoneally daily with vehicle or 0.5 U/100g body wt of salmon calcitonin (CT) and kept in artificial freshwater, calcium-rich freshwater and calcium-deficient freshwater for 10 days. Blood samples were collected on 1, 3, 5, and 10 days following the treatment and analyzed for serum calcium levels. The ultimobranchial gland (UBG) was also fixed for histological studies on these intervals. In artificial freshwater there was no change in the serum calcium levels of calcitonin-injected fish. The ultimobranchial gland of calcitonin-injected fish exhibited a progressive decrease in the nuclear volume from day 5 onwards. On day 10 vacuolization in the gland was also noticed. In vehicle-injected fish (control) kept in calcium-rich freshwater hypercalcemia has been noticed which persists till the end of the experiment. ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Calcitonin/blood , Ultimobranchial Body , Catfishes
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