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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(1): e202303001, feb. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1524312

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Con el uso de la nutrición parenteral agresiva en recién nacidos de muy bajo peso, se detectaron alteraciones del metabolismo fosfocálcico. En 2016 se implementó una estrategia de prevención a través del monitoreo fosfocálcico y su suplementación temprana. El objetivo fue estudiar si esta estrategia disminuye la prevalencia de osteopenia e identificar factores de riesgo asociados. Población y métodos. Estudio cuasiexperimental que comparó la prevalencia de osteopenia entre dos grupos: uno después de implementar la estrategia de monitoreo y suplementación fosfocálcica (01/01/2017-31/12/2019), y otro previo a dicha intervención (01/01/2013-31/12/2015). Resultados. Se incluyeron 226 pacientes: 133 pertenecen al período preintervención y 93 al posintervención. La prevalencia de osteopenia global fue del 26,1 % (IC95% 20,5-32,3) y disminuyó del 29,3 % (IC95% 21,7-37,8) en el período preintervención al 21,5 % (IC95% 13,6-31,2) en el posintervención, sin significancia estadística (p = 0,19). En el análisis multivariado, el puntaje NEOCOSUR de riesgo de muerte al nacer, recibir corticoides posnatales y el período de intervención se asociaron de manera independiente a osteopenia. Haber nacido luego de la intervención disminuyó un 71 % la probabilidad de presentar fosfatasa alcalina >500 UI/L independientemente de las restantes variables incluidas en el modelo. Conclusión. La monitorización y suplementación fosfocálcica precoz constituye un factor protector para el desarrollo de osteopenia en recién nacidos con muy bajo peso al nacer.


Introduction. With the use of aggressive parenteral nutrition in very low birth weight infants, alterations in calcium and phosphate metabolism were detected. In 2016, a prevention strategy was implemented through calcium phosphate monitoring and early supplementation. Our objective was to study whether this strategy reduces the prevalence of osteopenia and to identify associated risk factors. Population and methods. Quasi-experiment comparing the prevalence of osteopenia between two groups: one after implementing the calcium phosphate monitoring and supplementation strategy (01/01/2017­12/31/2019) and another prior to such intervention (01/01/2013­12/31/2015). Results. A total of 226 patients were included: 133 in the pre-intervention period and 93 in the post-intervention period. The overall prevalence of osteopenia was 26.1% (95% CI: 20.5­32.3) and it was reduced from 29.3% (95% CI: 21.7­37.8) in the pre-intervention period to 21.5% (95% CI: 13.6­31.2) in the post-intervention period, with no statistical significance (p = 0.19). In the multivariate analysis, the NEOCOSUR score for risk of death at birth, use of postnatal corticosteroids, and the intervention period were independently associated with osteopenia. Being born after the intervention reduced the probability of alkaline phosphatase > 500 IU/L by 71%, regardless of the other variables included in the model. Conclusion. Calcium phosphate monitoring and early supplementation is a protective factor against the development of osteopenia in very low birth weight infants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/prevention & control , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/epidemiology , Calcium , Phosphates , Calcium Phosphates , Prevalence
2.
Rev. Ciênc. Saúde ; 13(3): 56-65, 20230921.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1511070

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: sintetizar as principais evidências acerca das alterações osteometabólicas presentes nos pacientes em tratamento antineoplásico. Métodos: trata-se de uma revisão de escopo, seguindo a metodologia do Instituto Joanna Briggs, nas bases de dados PubMed/MedLine, Cochrane Library, LILACS, The British Library e Google Scholar. A revisão está protocolada no Open Science Framework. Resultados: muitos antineoplásicos possuem efeito na arquitetura óssea, reduzindo sua densidade, tais como moduladores seletivos de receptores de estrogênio, inibidores da aromatase, terapia de privação androgênica, e glicocorticoides. Para evitar tais desfechos, o tratamento e prevenção podem ser realizados pela suplementação de cálcio e vitamina D, exercícios físicos, uso de bifosfonatos, denosumab, e moduladores seletivos do receptor de estrogênio. Conclusão: pessoas com maior risco de desenvolver câncer também possuem maior risco de osteopenia e osteoporose, quando processo já estabelecido e em tratamento antineoplásico, devido ao compartilhamento de fatores de risco. Torna-se evidente a necessidade da densitometria óssea nos pacientes em tratamento contra o câncer para de prevenção e promoção de saúde óssea nesses pacientes, além de mais pesquisas com alto nivel de evidência para subsidiar tal uso.


Objective: To summarize the main evidence regarding osteometabolic changes in patients undergoing antineoplastic treatment. Methods: This is a scoping review, following the methodology of the Joanna Briggs Institute, using PubMed/MedLine, Cochrane Library, LILACS, The British Library, and Google Scholar. This review is registered in the Open Science Framework. Results: Many antineoplastics affect bone architecture by reducing its density, such as selective estrogen receptor modulators, aromatase inhibitors, androgen deprivation therapy, and glucocorticoids. To avoid such outcomes, treatment and prevention can be achieved by calcium and vitamin D supplementation, physical exercise, use of bisphosphonates, denosumab, and selective estrogen receptor modulators. Conclusion: people at a higher risk of developing cancer also have a higher risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis when the process is already established and undergoing antineoplastic treatment because of the grouping of risk factors. The need for bone densitometry in patients undergoing cancer treatment to prevent and promote bone health in these patients is evident, in addition to more research with a high level of evidence to support such use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Primary Prevention , Vitamin D Deficiency , Exercise , Receptors, Estrogen , Calcium , Fractures, Bone
4.
Actual. osteol ; 19(2): 144-159, sept. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1523956

ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis and vertebral and non-vertebral fractures are common in glucocorticoids (GC) treated patients. Oral GC treatment leads to bone loss, particularly of trabecular bone. The benefits of GC used in rheumatological and traumatological disorders are known but they would have possible negative effects on bone. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of epidural steroid injections (ESI), and intra-articular and intramuscular GC administration on bone mineral density (BMD) and fragility fractures. A systematic review of Medline/PubMed, Cochrane, and LILACS up to November 2020 was conducted. Meta-analyses, systematic reviews, randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies comparing the effect of ESI, intra-articular or intramuscular GC used compared to a control group or baseline measurements were included. Results: A total of 8272 individuals were included among the 13 selected articles (10 about ESI and 3 about intra-articular GC; no article was found evaluating intramuscular GC). Only a few studies showed a negative effect of ESI on bone in the qualitative analysis considering osteopenia and osteoporosis in lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip and BMD as surrogate outcomes. On the other hand, the qualitative analysis showed that most studies found an increased risk of fragility fracture. However, only two studies could be included in the quantitative analysis, in which there were no differences between patients exposed to ESI versus controls in all evaluated regions. In conclusion, there was insufficient evidence to suggest that ESI and intra-articular GC, unlike oral GC, negatively affect bone mass. Longitudinal studies are needed to obtain more knowledge regarding the effect of ESI or intra-articular GC on BMD and fragility fractures. (AU)


La osteoporosis y las fracturas vertebrales y no vertebrales son comunes en pacientes tratados con glucocorticoides (GC). El tratamiento oral con GC conduce a la pérdida ósea, particularmente del hueso trabecular. Los beneficios de los GC utilizados en patologías reumatológicas y traumatológicas son conocidos, pero tendrían posibles efectos negativos sobre el hueso. Esta revisión sistemática tuvo como objetivo evaluar los efectos de las inyecciones epidurales de esteroides (ESI), GC intraarticulares e intramusculares sobre la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) y las fracturas por fragilidad. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de Medline/PubMed, Cochrane y LILACS hasta noviembre de 2020. Se incluyeron metanálisis, revisiones sistemáticas, ensayos controlados aleatorizados y no aleatorizados, estudios prospectivos y retrospectivos que compararon el efecto de ESI, GC intraarticular o intramuscular utilizado en comparación con un grupo de control o mediciones iniciales. Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 8272 individuos entre los 13 artículos seleccionados (10 sobre ESI y 3 sobre GC intraarticular; no se encontró ningún artículo que evaluara GC intramuscular). Solo unos pocos estudios mostraron un efecto negativo del ESI sobre el hueso en el análisis cualitativo considerando la osteopenia y la osteoporosis en la columna lumbar, el cuello femoral y la cadera total y la DMO como un resultado indirecto. Por otro lado, el análisis cualitativo mostró que la mayoría de los estudios encontraron un mayor riesgo de fractura por fragilidad. Sin embargo, solo dos estudios pudieron incluirse en el análisis cuantitativo, en los que no hubo diferencias entre los pacientes expuestos a ESI versus los controles en todas las regiones evaluadas. En conclusión, no hallamos datos suficientes para sugerir que la ESI y los GC intraarticulares, a diferencia de los GC orales, afectan negativamente a la pérdida ósea. Se necesitan estudios longitudinales para obtener más conocimiento sobre el efecto de ESI o GC intraarticular en la DMO y las fracturas por fragilidad. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoporosis/etiology , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/etiology , Bone Density/drug effects , Osteoporotic Fractures/chemically induced , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Review Literature as Topic , Bias , Drug Administration Routes , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Clinical Trials as Topic , Risk Assessment , Densitometry , Estrogens/adverse effects
5.
RFO UPF ; 28(1): 50-68, 20230808. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1509412

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A literatura tem apontado uma possível relação entre diversas condições sistêmicas e as doenças periodontais. Dentro das doenças sistêmicas que podem gerar o uso crônico de medicamentos, com potencial associação com as doenças periodontais, destacam-se a hipercolesterolemia e o uso de estatinas; e as doenças do metabolismo ósseo e o uso de bisfosfonatos. Objetivo: Dessa maneira, o presente estudo objetivou revisar a literatura sobre o efeito das estatinas e dos bisfosfonatos nos parâmetros clínicos e radiográficos periodontais de indivíduos adultos. Resultados: Apenas estudos observacionais em humanos foram incluídos. Um estudo mostrou que, em pacientes que apresentam doença periodontal e usam estatina, houve 37% menos bolsas periodontais (profundidade de sondagem ≥4mm) quando comparadas aos que não utilizam a medicação, além de apresentarem menor índice de carga inflamatória e menor perda de inserção clínica. Em relação aos bisfosfonatos em indivíduos com doenças que envolvem o metabolismo ósseo, sugere-se que a utilização do fármaco tem obtido resultados positivos nos parâmetros periodontais, como menores sinais clínicos de inflamação gengival, menor profundidade de sondagem, menor perda de inserção clínica e maior nível de osso alveolar, quando comparados aos que nunca realizam essa terapia. Conclusão: Dessa forma, as estatinas e os bisfosfonatos apresentam efeitos promissores, em pacientes sob tratamento para suas respectivas condições sistêmicas, na melhoria dos parâmetros periodontais, porém é importante salientar que são necessários mais estudos sobre o assunto para melhor entender os reais efeitos a longo prazo do uso desses fármacos.(AU)


Introduction: The literature showed a possible relationship between several systemic conditions and periodontal diseases. Within the systemic diseases that can generate the chronic use of these drugs, potentially related with periodontal diseases, it may be cited the hypercholesterolemia and the use of statins; and bone metabolism diseases and the use of bisphosphonates. Objective: In this sense, the present study aimed to review the literature about the effect of statins and bisphosphonates in the periodontal parameters of adults individuals. Results: Only observational studies in humans were included. A study showed that, in patients with periodontal disease and users of statins, there 37% fewer periodontal pockets (probing depth ≥4mm) when compared to those who do not use the medication, as well as having a lower rate of inflammatory burden and less loss of clinical insertion. Regarding the bisphosphonates in individuals diagnosed with diseases involving bone metabolism, it was suggested that the use of the drug has obtained positive results in periodontal parameters, such as a greater absence of plaque, less clinical signs of gingival inflammation, less probing depth, lower level of clinical insertion and higher level of alveolar bone when compared to those who never undergo this therapy. Conclusion: Thus, statins and bisphosphonates have promising effects in patients under treatment for their respective systemic condition in improving periodontal parameters, but it is important to emphasize that further studies on the subject are needed to better understand the long-term effects of the use of these drugs.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontal Diseases/chemically induced , Periodontium/drug effects , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Diphosphonates/adverse effects , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/complications , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/drug therapy , Risk Factors , Hypercholesterolemia/complications , Hypercholesterolemia/drug therapy
6.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 45(2): 82-88, Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449701

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective It was aimed to compare visceral adiposity index (VAI) levels in patients with normal bone mineral density (BMD), osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Methods One hundred twenty postmenopausal women (40 with normal BMD, 40 with osteopenia, and 40 with osteoporosis) between the ages of 50 to 70 years were included in the study. For females, the VAI was calculated using the formula (waist circumference [WC]/[36.58 + (1.89 x body mass index (BMI))]) x (1.52/High-density lipoprotein [HDL]-cholesterol [mmol/L]) x (triglyceride [TG]/0.81 [mmol/L]). Results The time of menopause from the beginning was similar in all groups. Waist circumference was found to be higher in those with normal BMD than in the osteopenic and osteoporotic groups (p = 0.018 and p < 0.001, respectively), and it was also higher in the osteopenic group than in the osteoporotic group (p = 0.003). Height and body weight, BMI, blood pressure, insulin, glucose, HDL-cholesterol, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were similar in all groups. Triglyceride levels were found to be higher in the normal BMD group, compared with the osteoporotic group (p = 0.005). The level of VAI was detected as higher in those with normal BMD, compared with the women with osteoporosis (p = 0.002). Additionally, the correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) spine T-scores, WC, VAI, and a negative correlation between DXA spine T-scores and age. Conclusion In our study, we found higher VAI levels in those with normal BMD, compared with women with osteoporosis. We consider that further studies with a larger sample size will be beneficial in elucidating the entity.


Resumo Objetivo O objetivo foi comparar os níveis de índice de adiposidade visceral (IVA) em pacientes com densidade mineral óssea (DMO) normal osteopenia e osteoporose. Métodos Cento e vinte mulheres na pós-menopausa (40 com DMO normal 40 com osteopenia e 40 com osteoporose) com idades entre 50 e 70 anos foram incluídas no estudo. Para o sexo feminino o VAI foi calculado pela fórmula (circunferência da cintura [CC]/[36 58 + (1 89 x índice de massa corporal (IMC))]) x (1 52/lipoproteína de alta densidade [HDL]-colesterol [mmol/L]) x (triglicerídeo [TG]/0 81 [mmol/L]). Resultados O tempo de menopausa desde o início foi semelhante em todos os grupos. A circunferência da cintura foi maior naqueles com DMO normal do que nos grupos osteopênicos e osteoporóticos (p = 0 018 e p < 0 001 respectivamente) e também foi maior no grupo osteopênico do que no grupo osteoporótico (p = 0 003) . Altura e peso corporal IMC pressão arterial insulina glicose HDL-colesterol e os níveis de avaliação do modelo de homeostase-resistência à insulina (HOMA-IR) foram semelhantes em todos os grupos. Os níveis de triglicerídeos foram maiores no grupo DMO normal em comparação com o grupo osteoporótico (p = 0 005). O nível de VAI foi detectado como maior naquelas com DMO normal em comparação com as mulheres com osteoporose (p = 0 002). Além disso a análise de correlação mostrou uma correlação positiva entre a absorciometria de raios-X de dupla energia (DXA) nas pontuações T da coluna CC VAI e uma correlação negativa entre as pontuações T da coluna DXA e a idade. Conclusão Em nosso estudo encontramos níveis mais elevados de VAI naquelas com DMO normal em comparação com mulheres com osteoporose. Consideramos que novos estudos com maior tamanho amostral serão benéficos na elucidação da entidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Osteoporosis , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Adiposity , Obesity
7.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2023. 67 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1509434

ABSTRACT

O envelhecimento da população tem sido acompanhado por um aumento significativo nas doenças crônicas, com destaque para a osteoporose. A busca por tratamentos alternativos tem levado ao estudo dos probióticos para prevenção e tratamento da perda óssea pós-menopáusica, com resultados encorajadores. Embora os benefícios dos probióticos sejam numerosos, eles são bactérias vivas e a administração de organismos vivos não é isenta de riscos. Os posbióticos são probióticos inativados ou seus produtos, e poucos são os estudos que avaliam seus efeitos ósseos. Nós revisamos a literatura sobre probióticos e posbióticos na saúde óssea e avaliamos os efeitos de Limosilactobacillus reuteri 6475 viável e inativado por calor em camundongos ovariectomizados. Mecanismos de ação semelhantes, como modulação da expressão de citocinas e ativação de sistemas de sinalização celular, são observados em probióticos e posbióticos, e os últimos têm vantagens como maior estabilidade e facilidade de incorporação em alimentos, embora seus efeitos a longo prazo, estabilidade e modo de ação ainda precisem ser estudados. Para que estas terapias sejam validadas clinicamente, é fundamental padronizar metodologias, aumentar o tamanho das amostras, realizar estudos randomizados e cegos, e definir detalhes como cepa, dose e duração do tratamento. Em um estudo in vivo, avaliamos os efeitos de L. reuteri (ATCC PTA 6475), e sua forma inativada (heat-killed) na perda óssea induzida por ovariectomia (ovx). Camundongos adultos, fêmeas, foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos: controle (sham); Ovx; Ovx + posbiótico; Ovx + probiótico. L. reuteri foi administrado aos grupos (109 UFC/dia) por gavagem. O tratamento se iniciou uma semana após a ovx e teve duração de 28 dias. Na análise por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, o probiótico manteve sua estrutura intacta, e no posbiótico foram observados alguns rompimentos na superfície celular. Foi avaliada a microarquitetura de fêmur, utilizando microtomografia computadorizada. Análise de expressão gênica em íleo foi feita para avaliar junções intercelulares intestinais e citocinas pró-inflamatórias, por meio dos marcadores Ocludina, Tnf-α e Il6. Os dados foram submetidos ao teste estatístico mais conveniente (α = 0,05). Os grupos Ovx apresentaram menor porcentagem de volume ósseo (BV/TV), menor número de trabéculas ósseas e maior porosidade total, em comparação ao grupo controle, porém os grupos que receberam L. reuteri apresentaram maior BV/TV quando comparados ao grupo Ovx. O tratamento com L. reuteri em suas duas formas levou à maior espessura trabecular, quando comparados ao controle e ao grupo Ovx. Todos apresentaram semelhança na expressão gênica da Ocludina, Tnf-α e Il-6 em intestino. Ambas as formas, viável e inativada por calor, preveniram a perda óssea induzida por depleção de estrógeno (AU)


The aging of the population has been accompanied by a significant increase in chronic diseases, with osteoporosis standing out. The search for alternative treatments has led to the study of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal bone loss, with encouraging results. Although the benefits of probiotics are numerous, they are live bacteria, and the administration of live organisms is not risk-free. Postbiotics are inactivated probiotics or their products, and few studies have evaluated their bone effects. We reviewed the literature on probiotics and postbiotics in bone health and assessed the effects of both viable and heat-killed Limosilactobacillus reuteri 6475 in ovariectomized mice. Similar mechanisms of action, such as the modulation of cytokine expression and activation of cellular signaling pathways, are observed in probiotics and postbiotics, and the latter have advantages such as greater stability and ease of incorporation into food, although their long-term effects, stability, and mode of action still need to be studied. To clinically validate these therapies, it is crucial to standardize methodologies, increase sample sizes, conduct randomized and blinded studies, and define details such as strain, dosage, and treatment duration. In an in vivo study, we evaluated the effects of L. reuteri (ATCC PTA 6475) and its heat-killed form on ovariectomy (ovx)-induced bone loss. Adult female mice were randomly divided into four groups: control (sham); OVX; OVX + postbiotic; OVX + probiotic. L. reuteri was administered to the groups (109 CFU/day) by gavage. Treatment began one week after ovx and lasted for 28 days. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the probiotic maintained its intact structure, while some cell surface disruptions were observed in the postbiotic. Femur microarchitecture was evaluated using computerized microtomography. Gene expression analysis in the ileum was performed to assess intestinal intercellular junctions and pro-inflammatory cytokines, using markers Ocludin, Tnf-α, and Il-6. The data were subjected to the most appropriate statistical test (α = 0.05). The Ovx groups showed a lower percentage of bone volume (BV/TV), a lower number of trabecular bones, and greater total porosity compared to the control group. However, the groups that received L. reuteri showed higher BV/TV compared to the Ovx group. Treatment with both forms of L. reuteri led to greater trabecular thickness compared to the control and Ovx groups. All groups exhibited similarity in the gene expression of Ocludin, Tnf-α, and Il-6 in the intestine. Both viable and heatkilled forms prevented estrogen depletion-induced bone loss (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Probiotics
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1468-1477, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Congenital scoliosis (CS) is a complex spinal malformation of unknown etiology with abnormal bone metabolism. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), secreted by osteoblasts and osteocytes, can inhibit bone formation and mineralization. This research aims to investigate the relationship between CS and FGF23.@*METHODS@#We collected peripheral blood from two pairs of identical twins for methylation sequencing of the target region. FGF23 mRNA levels in the peripheral blood of CS patients and age-matched controls were measured. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were conducted to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of FGF23. The expression levels of FGF23 and its downstream factors fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFr3)/tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP)/osteopontin (OPN) in primary osteoblasts from CS patients (CS-Ob) and controls (CT-Ob) were detected. In addition, the osteogenic abilities of FGF23-knockdown or FGF23-overexpressing Ob were examined.@*RESULTS@#DNA methylation of the FGF23 gene in CS patients was decreased compared to that of their identical twins, accompanied by increased mRNA levels. CS patients had increased peripheral blood FGF23 mRNA levels and decreased computed tomography (CT) values compared with controls. The FGF23 mRNA levels were negatively correlated with the CT value of the spine, and ROCs of FGF23 mRNA levels showed high sensitivity and specificity for CS. Additionally, significantly increased levels of FGF23, FGFr3, OPN, impaired osteogenic mineralization and lower TNAP levels were observed in CS-Ob. Moreover, FGF23 overexpression in CT-Ob increased FGFr3 and OPN levels and decreased TNAP levels, while FGF23 knockdown induced downregulation of FGFr3 and OPN but upregulation of TNAP in CS-Ob. Mineralization of CS-Ob was rescued after FGF23 knockdown.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our results suggested increased peripheral blood FGF23 levels, decreased bone mineral density in CS patients, and a good predictive ability of CS by peripheral blood FGF23 levels. FGF23 may contribute to osteopenia in CS patients through FGFr3/TNAP / OPN pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteopontin/genetics , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3/metabolism , Scoliosis/genetics , Osteoblasts/metabolism , Calcinosis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/metabolism , Fibroblast Growth Factors/genetics
9.
Medicina (Ribeirao Preto, Online) ; 55(1)maio 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410579

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Hipofosfatasia é um distúrbio metabólico que afeta a mineralização óssea e dentária, causada por mutações no gene ALPL, levando à deficiência enzimática da fosfatase alcalina tecido não-específica. A forma adulta caracteriza-se por fraturas atípicas do fêmur, osteomalácia, osteoporose, grave osteoartropatia, condrocalcinose e artralgia. Objetivo: Demonstrar desafios diagnósticos relacionados à hipofosfatasia através do relato de dois casos. Paciente 1: feminino, 59 anos, encaminhada para avaliação clínica devido às fraturas patológicas de difícil consolidação e osteoporose generalizada de causa genética. Relata perda dentária precoce da arcada superior, fraturas na coluna, em ombro esquerdo e no fêmur. Atualmente, queixa-se de dor crônica intensa, com uso de múltiplos medicamentos. Achados clínicos, laboratoriais e radiológicos foram compatíveis com o diagnóstico de hipofosfatasia. Paciente 2: masculino, 31 anos, filho da paciente 1, encaminhado para avaliação clínica por fratura patológica precoce em fêmur esquerdo e osteoporose não esclarecida. Atualmente relata dor e claudicação importante em membro inferior esquerdo, associado à lombalgia crônica. Confirmação do diagnóstico de hipofosfatasia por exames laboratoriais e radiológicos e sequenciamento do gene ALPL, aliados ao diagnóstico da sua genitora. Discussão: Hipofosfatasia é uma doença rara de herança autossômica dominante e recessiva. Pacientes acometidos apresentam fraturas constantes, densidade mineral óssea baixa, cicatrização óssea deficitária. É comum a hipofosfatasia ser diagnosticada erroneamente como osteopenia e/ou osteoporose primária, acarretando prejuízos ao paciente. Ressalta-se a importância da história clínica completa e dos antecedentes familiares a fim de se obter um diagnóstico precoce, garantindo, por sua vez, o adequado acompanhamento e manejo terapêutico (AU)


Introduction: hypophosphatasia is a metabolic disorder affecting bone and tooth mineralization, caused by mutations in the ALPL gene leading to enzymatic deficiency of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase. The adult form is characterized by atypical femur fractures, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, severe osteoarthropathy, chondrocalcinosis, and arthralgia. Objective: to demonstrate diagnostic challenges related to hypophosphatasia through the report of two cases. Patient 1: female, 59 years old, referred for clinical evaluation due to pathological fractures of difficult consolidation and generalized osteoporosis of genetic cause. She reports early tooth loss in the upper arch, fractures in the spine, left shoulder and femur. Currently, he complains of severe chronic pain, with use of multiple medications. Clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings were compatible with the diagnosis of hypophosphatasia. Patient 2:male, 31 years old, son of patient 1, referred for clinical evaluation due to an early pathological fracture in the left femur and unclear osteoporosis. He currently reports pain and significant claudication in the left lower limb, associated with chronic low back pain. Confirmation of the diagnosis of hypophasatasia by laboratory and radiological tests and sequencing of the ALPL gene combined with the diagnosis of his mother. Discussion: hypophosphatasia is a rare disease of autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance. Affected patients have constant fractures, low bone mineral density, and impaired bone healing. It is common for hypophosphatasia to be misdiagnosed as osteopenia and/or primary osteoporosis, which can be harmful to the patient. The importance of a complete clinical history and family history is emphasized in order to obtain an early diagnosis, ensuring adequate follow-up and therapeutic management (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Osteoporosis , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Alkaline Phosphatase , Chronic Pain , Fractures, Spontaneous , Hypophosphatasia/diagnosis
10.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(1): 5-10, maio 05,2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370441

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Nutritional deficiencies, hormonal changes and severe weight loss after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) can promote changes in bone metabolism which may lead to a reduction in bone mineral density (BMD). Objective: to investigate the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis and factors associated with BMD in pre-menopausal women who underwent RYGB. Methodology: a cross-sectional study conducted with secondary data of patients followed-up in a specialized center for obesity treatment. Variables studied: biochemical and anthropometric data, body composition by multifrequency bioimpedance and BMD of the lumbar spine (LS), total femur (TF) and femur neck (FN) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. For statistical analysis, the SPSS® software and a 5% significance level were utilized. Results: seventy-two (72) pre-menopausal women were evaluated. Mean age, BMI and mean post-surgery time was 38.7±6.5 years, 25.8±2.5 kg/m² and 13.1±1.7 months, respectively. The prevalence of osteopenia in at least one of the densitometry sites was 13.9%, with LS being the most frequent site. A lower LS BMD was associated with greater weight loss, higher percentage of body fat before surgery and lower post-surgery serum vitamin D levels. There was a positive correlation between skeletal muscle mass index adjusted for height in the pre-surgery period and LS BMD (r=0.361; p=0.010) and TF (r=0.404; p=0.004). Conclusion: a relevant prevalence of osteopenia was detected in pre-menopausal women after RYGB, mainly in the LS.


Introdução: o Bypass Gástrico em Y de Roux (BPGYR) pode promover mudanças no metabolismo ósseo decorrentes de deficiências nutricionais, alterações hormonais e perda severa de peso, podendo acarretar redução da Densidade Mineral Óssea (DMO). Objetivo: investigar a prevalência de osteopenia/osteoporose e fatores associados à DMO em mulheres pré-menopausadas submetidas à BPGYR. Metodologia: estudo transversal com dados secundários de pacientes acompanhadas em um serviço especializado no tratamento da obesidade. Variáveis estudadas: dados bioquímicos e antropométricos, composição corporal por bioimpedância multifrequencial e DMO de coluna lombar (CL), fêmur total (FT) e colo do fêmur (CF) por Absorciometria por Dupla Emissão de Raios X. Para análise estatística foi utilizado o programa SPSS®, com o nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: foram avaliadas 72 mulheres pré-menopausadas, com média de idade e de IMC de 38,7±6,5 anos e 25,8±2,5 kg/m², respectivamente, e tempo médio de pós-operatório de 13,1±1,7 meses. A prevalência de osteopenia em pelo menos um dos sítios densitométricos foi de 13,9%, sendo a CL o sítio mais frequente. Uma menor DMO na CL se associou a maior perda de peso, maior percentual de massa gorda antes da cirurgia e níveis séricos menores de vitamina D pós-operatória. Observou-se correlação positiva entre o índice de massa muscular esquelética ajustada pela altura no pré-operatório e a DMO da CL (r=0,361; p=0,010) e do FT (r=0,404; p= 0,004). Conclusão: detectou-se prevalência relevante de osteopenia em mulheres pré-menopausadas após BPGYR, principalmente na CL.


Subject(s)
Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Vitamin D , Body Composition , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Bone Density , Premenopause , Bariatric Surgery , Cross-Sectional Studies
11.
Acta méd. costarric ; 64(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1402991

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de la osteoporosis en mujeres costarricenses posmenopáusicas, atendidas en el Hospital San Juan de Dios de la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, y relacionar con características clínicas y de estilo de vida. Métodos. Estudio transversal. Se analizó un total de 923 estudios de densitometría ósea de mujeres con edad entre los 45 y 80 años, en etapa posmenopáusica; se registró un valor de T-score obtenido por densitometría ósea para columna lumbar y cadera; se documentó las variables como la edad, el índice de masa corporal, tabaquismo y otros reconocidos factores de riesgo; se estimó la prevalencia y se analizó la relación con los factores. Resultados. A partir de 923 estudios y los factores de riesgo comúnmente asociados con la enfermedad, fueron estadísticamente significativos los siguientes: la edad (p<0,001), la edad en la menarquia (p = 0,001), la cantidad de años transcurridos desde la menopausia (p<0,001) y el antecedente familiar de fractura de cadera (p = 0,01). Otros factores no resultaron significativos. Conclusiones. Para la población estudiada, se demostró una prevalencia de 47% para osteopenia y de 39% para osteoporosis en mujeres posmenopáusicas. No se logró establecer una relación en las variables de estilo de vida, tales como tabaquismo, alcoholismo, actividad física y consumo de lácteos. Se deben realizar otras investigaciones con un mayor control sobre estas variables para conocer su riesgo relacionado con la enfermedad.


Abstract Aim: To determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Costa Rican women treated at the San Juan de Dios Hospital of the Costa Rican Social Security Fund, and relate it to clinical and lifestyle characteristics. Methods. Transversal study. A total of 923 bone densitometry studies of postmenopausal women aged between 45 and 80 years were analyzed; A T-score value obtained by bone densitometry was recorded for the lumbar spine and hip; variables such as age, bodymass index, smoking, and other recognized risk factors were documented; the prevalence was estimated and the relationship with the factors was analyzed. Results. From 923 studies and risk factors commonly associated with the disease, the following were statistically significant: age (p<0.001), age at menarche (p = 0.001), number of years since menopause (p<0.001) and family history of hip fracture (p = 0.01). Other factors were not significant. Conclusions. For the population studied, a prevalence of 47% for osteopenia and 39% for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women was demonstrated. It was not possible to establish a relationship in lifestyle variables, such as smoking, alcoholism, physical activity and dairy consumption. Other investigations with greater control over these variables should be carried out to know their risk related to the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diagnosis , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/diagnosis , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Costa Rica
12.
Rev. Assoc. Méd. Rio Gd. do Sul ; 66(1): 01022105, 20220101.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424910

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Recém-nascidos (RN) prematuros de muito baixo peso (MBP) apresentam um risco aumentado de desenvolver doença metabólica óssea (DMO). A realização de suplementação mineral e de triagem para DMO em UTI Neonatal auxilia na prevenção, no diagnóstico e no tratamento desta condição clínica. Objetivos: Avaliar a ocorrência de DMO, a realização de suplementação mineral e de investigação para DMO em prematuros de MBP internados em UTI Neonatal de um Serviço Hospitalar Materno-Infantil de alto risco, vinculado ao SUS. Métodos: Estudo transversal, a partir de dados secundários coletados de prontuários eletrônicos. Foram avaliados os recém-nascidos prematuros de muito baixo peso internados em UTI neonatal. Estudaram-se perfil do recém-nascido, realização da triagem para DMO, ocorrência de DMO, regime alimentar, intercorrências clínicas, uso de suplementação de vitaminas e minerais, idade, peso, sexo, via de parto e Apgar. Resultados: Foram incluídos 112 participantes. A triagem para DMO foi feita em 56 pacientes (50%), com dosagem sérica de fosfatase alcalina, cálcio, fósforo e magnésio séricos. A ocorrência de DMO foi de 8,9% (5 casos). Todos os participantes com DMO apresentaram doença respiratória, quadro infeccioso e estavam recebendo nutrição parenteral. Conclusão: A ocorrência de DMO em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso internados em UTI neonatal foi de 8,9%, inferior à descrita na literatura. Identificamos como fatores associados à DMO a ocorrência concomitante de doença respiratória, a sepse e o uso de nutrição parenteral.


Introduction: Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) premature infants have an increased risk of developing metabolic bone disease (MBD). The use of mineral supplementation and MBD screening in the neonatal ICU helps prevent, diagnose, and treat this clinical condition. Objectives: To evaluate the occurrence of MBD, as well as the presence of mineral supplementation and MBD screening in premature infants with MBD admitted to the neonatal ICU of a high-risk maternal-child hospital associated with the Brazilian Unified Health System. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on secondary data from electronic medical records. We evaluated ELBW premature infants admitted to a neonatal ICU. Infant profile, MBD screening, MBD occurrence, diet, clinical complications, vitamin and mineral supplementation use, age, weight, sex, delivery method, and Apgar score were assessed. Results: We included 112 participants in the study. MBD screening was conducted in 56 patients (50%) with serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. The rate of MBD occurrence was 8.9% (5 cases). All participants with MBD had respiratory disease, infection, and were receiving parenteral nutrition. Conclusions: The occurrence rate of MBD in ELBW infants admitted to a neonatal ICU was 8,9%, lower than that found in the literature. Factors associated with MBD were the concomitant occurrence of respiratory disease, sepsis, and parenteral nutrition.


Subject(s)
Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Infant, Premature
13.
Ann. afr. méd. (En ligne) ; 16(1): 4923-4930, 2022. tales, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1410557

ABSTRACT

Contexte et objectif. L'enjeu majeur dans le management de l'ostéoporose est l'identification des sujets à risque par la quantification du risque fracturaire. L'objectif de l'étude était d'évaluer le risque fracturaire chez les patients ayant consulté pour douleur du squelette axial. Méthodes. Il s'agissait d'une série des cas multicentriques menée sur des patients recrutés dans 8 hôpitaux de Kinshasa. Les paramètres d'intérêt comme l'âge, le sexe, l'alcoolisme, le tabagisme, la fracture de hanche chez un parent de 1er degré ou une fracture personnelle de fragilité ont été collectés auprès de chaque patient. La mesure de la densité osseuse avait été réalisée par absorptiométrie biphotonique à rayons X. Le risque fracturaire a été évalué par le calcul de l'indice fracturaire FRAX. Ce risque était élevé lorsque la probabilité de survenue de fracture de hanche était ≥ 3% et/ou des fractures ostéoporotiques majeures ≥ 20%. Des tests statistiques usuels ont été utilisés pour l'analyse des résultats. Résultats. 90 patients dont 75 femmes étaient inclus. Leur âge moyen était de 63, 5±12ans.L'ostéoporoseétaitdiagnostiquée chez 34,4% des patients, l'ostéopénie chez 43,9% et 16,7% avaient une densité minérale osseuse normale. Aucune fracture ostéoporotique n'a été observée dans la présente étude, mais près de 30% de l'ensemble de l'échantillon avaient un risque fracturaire élevé. L'ostéoporose était associée, dans environ 80% des cas (p<0,005), à un risque fracturaire élevé. Conclusion. La présente étude a montré que le risque fracturaire était élevé chez les patients atteints d'ostéoporose. Elle met en lumière la nécessité d'un dépistage précoce de cette pathologie.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Fracture Fixation , Osteoporosis , Absorptiometry, Photon , Risk
14.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 435-441, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928337

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical efficacy of percutaneous pedicle screw short segment internal fixation with or without the intermediate screw in the treatment of Magerl A3 thoracolumbar fractures with low bone mineral density.@*METHODS@#Patients with Magerl A3 thoracolumbar fracture underwent percutaneous pedicle screw short segment internal fixation from January 2017 to July 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, 93 cases met the diagnosis and inclusion criteria, 9 cases were excluded according to the exclusion criteria, and the remaining 84 cases obtained complete imaging follow-up data. There were 38 males and 46 females, the age ranged from 56 to 73 years old with an average of (64.78±7.12) years old, bone mineral density (BMD) ranged from 0.61 to 0.89 g/cm3 with an average of (0.73±0.14) g/cm3, the follow-up time was 11 to 25 months with an average of (17.58±6.12) months. There were 45 cases in group A with intermediate screw and 39 cases in group B without intermediate screw. The operation time and intraoperative blood loss were recorded, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) were used for clinical evaluation. The Cobb angle, vertebral wedge angle (VWA) and anterior vertebral body height (AVBH) were measured by X-ray after the operation. The corrected loss of the above parameters was calculated.@*RESULTS@#There were 5 cases of screw loosening in 84 patients (2 cases in group A and 3 cases in group B, P>0.05). There were significant differences in operation time and intraoperative blood loss between two groups(P<0.01). Clinical effects of two groups were good, postoperative VAS and ODI after operation obviously improved, there was no significant difference between two groups during all follow-up periods (3 days, 1 month after operation and the final follow-up) (P>0.05). Three days after the operation, the image evaluations (Cobb angle, VWA and AVBH) were significantly improved (P<0.05), but significant reduction loss was observed in both groups at 1 month after the operation and at the final follow-up (P<0.05). At the final follow-up, the loss of Cobb angle, VWA and AVBH in group A were (5.26±4.18) °, (4.63±3.80) ° and (9.54±8.71)%, respectively;group B was (6.01±4.34) °, (6.55±6.21) ° and (11.67± 9.95)%, respectively;however, there was no significant difference in reduction loss between the two groups(P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Although the curative effect of the patients is satisfactory, the stability of the patients can not be improved by increasing the middle injured vertebra screw placement, the two groups of percutaneous short segment internal fixation can not resist the reduction loss of Magerl-A3 thoracolumbar fracture with low bone mineral density. Because the injured vertebra screw increases the operation time and intraoperative blood loss, it is not significant to use the intermediate screw for the elderly Magerl A3 thoracolumbar fractures with low bone mineral density.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blood Loss, Surgical , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Fractures, Bone , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery , Pedicle Screws , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Thoracic Vertebrae/surgery , Treatment Outcome
15.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 236-243, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936140

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of 275 nm and 310 nm ultraviolet irradiation on ovariectomized rats' bone metabolism.@*METHODS@#Twenty four 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat were randomly divided into control group, sham operated group, 275 nm ultraviolet (UV) irradiation group and 310 nm UV irradiation group. Each group contained 6 rats. The rats in the two irradiation groups were treated with bilateral ovariectomy. The rats in sham operated group received sham operation (They were given the same back incision and a bit of par-ovarian fat were removed). Control group received no disposition. About 24 weeks after operation, all the rats received detailed bone mineral density (BMD) detection again. Detection regions include cervical vertebra, lumbar vertebra, proximal femur, mid femur and distal femur. Next, osteopenia rats in 275 nm irradiation group were UV irradiated 275 nm with fixed illumination intensity (15 μW/cm2) everyday for 16 weeks. The osteopenia rats in 310 nm irradiation group were UV irradiated 310 nm with fixed illumination intensity (15 μW/cm2) everyday for 16 weeks. The backs of the rats were shaved regularly as irradiation area (6 cm×8 cm). After 16-week irradiation, all the rats' BMD of cervical vertebra, lumbar vertebra, proximal femur, mid femur and distal femur were measured. At the end of the trial, all the rats' blood specimens were obtained and serum 25(OH)D, procollagen type Ⅰ N-peptide (PINP) and osteocalcin (OC) were measured.@*RESULTS@#Compared with control group [(238.78±26.74) mg/cm3], the BMD of the whole body were significantly lower in 275 nm [(193.34±13.28) mg/cm3] and 310 nm [(191.19±18.48) mg/cm3] irradiation groups (P=0.002, P=0.001). There were no significant difference between sham operated group [(227.20±14.32) mg/cm3] and control group. After 16-week ultraviolet irradiation, the BMD of the whole body were significantly increased in 275 nm [(193.34±13.28) mg/cm3 vs. (221.68±25.52) mg/cm3, P=0.005] and 310 nm groups [(191.19±18.48) mg/cm3 vs. (267.48±20.54) mg/cm3, P < 0.001] after corresponding irradiation. The BMD of the four body regions (lumbar vertebra, proximal femur, mid femur and distal femur) had significantly increased after irradiation in 275 nm irradiation group. For 310 nm irradiation group, the BMD in cervical vertebra, lumbar vertebra, proximal femur, mid femur and distal femur also had increased significantly after 310 nm ultraviolet irradiation. The concentration of serum 25(OH)D and OC was higher in 275 nm irradiation group than in control group [(46.78±5.59) μg/L vs. (21.32±6.65) μg/L, P=0.002;(2.05±0.53) U/L vs. (1.32±0.07) U/L, P=0.022]. Compared with the control, the concentration of serum 25(OH)D [(58.05±12.74) μg/L], OC [(2.04±0.53) U/L] and PINP [(176.16±24.18) U/L] was significantly higher (P < 0.001, P=0.015, P=0.005) in 310 nm irradiation group. However, there were no significantly difference between sham operated group and the control.@*CONCLUSION@#Both 275 nm and 310 nm ultraviolet could improve rats' vitamin D synthesis. Both 275 nm and 310 nm ultraviolet could improve osteopenia rats' bone condition. The irradiation of 310 nm might be more effective on bone condition improvement.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Rats , Bone Density , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/metabolism , Femur/metabolism , Osteocalcin/metabolism , Ovariectomy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
16.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 51: e20220050, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1424235

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Osteoporosis is a metabolic disease characterized by reduced bone mineral density, often accompanied by loss of quality of trabecular bone microarchitecture. Objective To assess the quality or degradation of trabecular bone microarchitecture in digital panoramic radiography to better predict the risk of fragility fractures. Material and method The sample included 68 female patients, age-matched, and divided into three groups according to densitometric results. Trabecular Bone Score values were measured and digital panoramic radiographs were taken. Fractal analysis with box counting was conducted in the region of premolars and angle of the mandible, with regions of interest measuring 64×64 and 80×120 pixels. In the statistical analysis, Pearson's correlation was applied between the Trabecular Bone Score and fractal analysis results obtained in each group, using age as a control variable and assigning individualized age ranges within groups. Result A moderate correlation was identified in the regions of interest of 64×64 and 80×120 pixels at the angle of the mandible in the osteoporosis group and in the normal group. A moderate correlation was also obtained using age as a control variable in the 64x64 pixel regions of interest in the premolar region. Considering age range, the within-group analysis presented a strong correlation in the osteoporosis group and moderate correlation in the osteopenia and normal groups. Conclusion Fractal analysis in digital panoramic radiographs was shown to be a promising predictive instrument of bone microarchitecture quality.


Resumo Introdução A osteoporose é uma doença metabólica caracterizada pela redução da densidade mineral óssea, muitas vezes acompanhada da perda de qualidade da microarquitetura óssea trabecular. Objetivo Avaliar a qualidade da microarquitetura óssea trabecular em radiografia panorâmica digital a fim de identificar precocemente a sua degradação, possibilitando melhor predição do risco de fraturas por fragilidade. Material e método A amostra consistiu de 68 pacientes do sexo feminino, pareadas por idade, e divididas em 3 grupos conforme resultado densitométrico. Foram aferidos os valores de Trabecular Bone Score e realizadas radiografias panorâmicas digitais. A análise fractal com box counting foi feita na região de pré-molares e ângulo da mandíbula, com regiões de interesse medindo 64x64 e 80x120 pixels. Na análise estatística utilizou-se a correlação de Pearson entre os resultados de Trabecular Bone Score e de análise fractal obtidos em cada grupo, utilizando-se a idade como variável de controle e através de atribuição de grupos etários individualizados intragrupos. Resultado Identificou-se correlação moderada nas regiões de interesse de 64x64 e 80x120 pixels, em ângulo da mandíbula no grupo Osteoporose e no grupo normal. Também se obteve correlação moderada utilizando a idade como variável de controle nas regiões de interesse de 64x64 pixels, em região de pré-molares. A análise intragrupos, considerando a faixa etária, resultou em correlação forte, no grupo osteoporose e moderada nos grupos osteopenia e normal. Conclusão A análise fractal em radiografias panorâmicas digitais se mostrou promissora como instrumento preditivo da qualidade de microarquitetura óssea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Osteoporosis , Bone and Bones , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Radiography, Panoramic , Mandible
17.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 38(1): e38105, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1389672

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: la mayoría de las fracturas por fragilidad ocurren en rango densitométrico de osteopenia, la escala ósea trabecular (TBS) permite valorar aspectos de la microarquitectura que influyen en la resistencia ósea. Objetivo: describir las características clínicas y los hallazgos de la microarquitectura ósea aplicando TBS combinado con densitometría ósea (DXA) en un grupo de pacientes. Material y métodos: estudio descriptivo, de recolección retrospectiva. Se incluyen los pacientes a los que se les realizó DXA con TBS en el INRU en julio y agosto de 2020. Resultados: se analizaron 194 pacientes, 173 (89%) de sexo femenino y 21 (11%) de sexo masculino. El 36,1% (70 pacientes) en rango de osteopenia, 36,1 (70 pacientes) en rango de osteoporosis. El 32,9% (23 pacientes) con osteopenia y el 47,1% (33 pacientes) con osteoporosis tenían microarquitectura degradada. 76,9% de los pacientes con artritis reumatoidea y 45,8% de los que tenían espondiloartritis presentaban microarquitectura alterada. Conclusiones: el TBS permitió reestratificar el riesgo de fractura en un número importante de pacientes, mostrándose como una herramienta muy útil en la valoración complementaria de la salud ósea.


Summary: Introduction: most fractures that result from bone fragility occur in the osteopenia range The trabecular bone score (TBS) enables the assessment of microarchitecture aspects that impact bone resistance. Objective: to describe the clinical characteristics and findings of bone microarchitecture, by applying TBS and bone densitometry in a group of patients. Method: descriptive study of retrospective collection. Patients who were included in the study underwent a Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) with TBS at the National Rheumatology Service between July and August, 2020. Results: 94 patients were analysed, 173 (89%) were female and 21 (11%) were male. 36.1% (70 patients) lay in the osteopenia range, 36.1 (70 patients) in the osteoporotic range. 32.9% (23 patients) with osteopenia and 47.1% (33 patients) with osteoporosis evidenced a degraded bone microarchitecture. 76.9 % of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 45.8 % of patients with spondyloarthritis respectively evidenced altered bone microarchitecture. Conclusions: TBS allowed stratification of fracture risk in a significant number of patients, which may suggest it is a useful tool for complementary assessment of bone health.


Resumo: Introdução: a maioria das fraturas por fragilidade ocorre na faixa densitométrica da osteopenia; o escore de osso trabecular (TBS) permite avaliar aspectos da microarquitetura que influenciam a resistência óssea. Objetivo: descrever as características clínicas e os achados da microarquitetura óssea aplicando TBS combinado com densitometria óssea (DMO) em um grupo de pacientes. Material e métodos: estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, incluindo pacientes que realizaram DXA (absorciometria de raios-X de dupla energia) com TBS no INRU em julho e agosto de 2020. Resultados: foram analisados 194 pacientes, 173 (89%) mulheres e 21 (11%) homens. 36,1% (70 pacientes) na faixa de osteopenia, 36,1 (70 pacientes) na faixa de osteoporose. 32,9% (23 pacientes) com osteopenia e 47,1% (33 pacientes) com osteoporose tinham microarquitetura degradada. Nos pacientes com artrite reumatoide 76,9% e nas espondiloartrite 45,8% apresentaram microarquitetura alterada, respectivamente. Conclusões: a TBS permitiu fazer uma nova estratificação do risco de fratura em um número significativo de pacientes, mostrando-se uma ferramenta muito útil na avaliação complementar da saúde óssea.


Subject(s)
Bone Density , Osteoporotic Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diagnostic imaging , Absorptiometry, Photon
18.
Actual. osteol ; 18(3): 169-182, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1509315

ABSTRACT

El síndrome metabólico se define como un trastorno heterogéneo y multifactorial con riesgo cardiovascular elevado. Actualmente se encuentra en franco crecimiento debido al sedentarismo y la ingesta rica en grasas y azúcares. Su tratamiento incluye la indicación de cambios en el estilo de vida, con realización de actividad física y una alimentación saludable e hipocalórica. Cuando esto no es eficaz, se pueden utilizar diferentes fármacos, y entre los más prescriptos se encuentra la metformina, caracterizada por su acción insulino-sensibilizante. Numerosos trabajos han estudiado la vinculación del síndrome metabólico con el tejido óseo. Se demostró como resultado general, aunque no concluyente, que dicho síndrome se asocia con una disminución de la densidad mineral ósea y un aumento en la incidencia de fracturas osteoporóticas. Una de las limitaciones de estos estudios clínicos estaría ligada a la gran heterogeneidad de los pacientes con síndrome metabólico. Por otra parte, y dado que diversos estudios preclínicos han sugerido posibles acciones osteogénicas de la metformina, se ha investigado el posible efecto óseo de un tratamiento con este fármaco en personas con hiperglucemia o disglucemia. Varios estudios clínicos muestran que este efecto sería nulo o, en algunos casos, de carácter protector para el sistema óseo. No obstante, se debería tener precaución en el uso de dicho fármaco en pacientes que necesiten dosis altas y/o posean riesgo elevado de fractura, ya que sus altas concentraciones podrían tener consecuencias negativas sobre el metabolismo óseo. (AU)


Metabolic syndrome is defined as a heterogeneous and multifactorial disorder with high cardiovascular risk. Its incidence is currently growing due to sedentary lifestyles and diets with a high intake of fats and sugars. Treatment for metabolic syndrome begins with changes in lifestyle, such as physical activity and a healthy and hypocaloric diet. When this is not effective, different drugs can be used, and one of the most frequently prescribed is the insulin-sensitizer metformin. Numerous investigations have evaluated the possible link between metabolic syndrome and alterations in bone metabolism. Although not conclusive, most clinical studies point to an association between metabolic syndrome, a decrease in bone mineral density and an increase in the incidence of osteoporotic fractures. However, an important limitation of these studies is the great heterogeneity of individuals with metabolic syndrome. In view of preclinical research indicating possible osteogenic actions of metformin, the effects on bone of metformin has been evaluated in patients with hyperglycemia. Most studies have found either no effect on fracture incidence, or a mild protective action. However, since elevated concentrations of metformin might negatively affect bone metabolism, caution should be taken when prescribing this drug for patients who require high doses, and/or have an excess fracture risk. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Metabolic Syndrome/drug therapy , Metformin/administration & dosage , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/complications , Bone Density , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Fractures, Bone/epidemiology , Metformin/pharmacology
19.
Univ. salud ; 23(3): 248-254, sep.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341771

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Actualmente la vitamina D ha ganado importancia, por ser considerada una hormona y porque sus bajos niveles están asociados con diferentes patologías, especialmente alteraciones de la masa ósea. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de bajos niveles de vitamina D en pacientes adultos con osteopenia y osteoporosis, atendidos en consulta externa de endocrinología en Popayán Cauca. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo que incluyó pacientes con diagnóstico de osteopenia y osteoporosis realizado por densitometría ósea entre los años 2013 y 2016, que tenían reporte de niveles de vitamina D obtenidos por cualquier método. Se describieron características sociodemográficas, resultados de densitometría ósea, niveles vitamina D, hormona paratiroidea y calcio iónico. Resultados: Se incluyeron 300 pacientes con diagnóstico de osteopenia y osteoporosis de los cuales 211 tenían bajos niveles de vitamina D, para una prevalencia del 71,3%, el nivel promedio de 25 hidroxivitamina D fue de 24,35ng/ml. Conclusiones: La alta prevalencia de bajos niveles de vitamina D en pacientes con osteopenia y osteoporosis hace indispensable la medición de 25 hidroxivitamina D en esta población, esto con el fin de realizar una intervención terapéutica apropiada.


Abstract Introduction: Vitamin D has gained interest because it is a hormone whose low levels are associated with different pathologies such as bone mass disorders. Objective: To determine the prevalence of low levels of vitamin D in adult patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis who received care at an outpatient endocrinology clinic in Popayan, Cauca. Materials and methods: A retrospective and descriptive study that included patients diagnosed with osteopenia and osteoporosis through bone densitometry between 2013 and 2016, who also had their vitamin D levels measured by means of any laboratory method. Sociodemographic characteristics, bone densitometry results as well as vitamin D, parathormone and ionic calcium levels were described. Results: A total of 300 patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis were included in the study, of which 211 had low levels of vitamin D, representing a prevalence of 71.3%. Finally, the average level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 24.35 ng/ml. Conclusion: The high prevalence of low levels of vitamin D in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis highlights the importance to measure 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in this population in order to carry out an appropriate therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
Vitamin D , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Osteoporosis , Prevalence
20.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(4): 1129-1134, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360719

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to evaluate the bone mass in prepubertal patients with Turner Syndrome (TS) according to height age (HA) and verify the influence of karyotype and adiposity. Methods: retrospective and analytical study of prepubertal TS patients. The variables analyzed were: karyotype, age at bone densitometry (BD), height, body mass index (BMI) and BD result. The result of the BD was corrected using HA. BMI and BD were calculated on Z score for chronological age (CA) and for HA. Results: thirty-seven prepubertal patients were selected and after exclusion criteria, 13 cases between 10 and 13 years old were included in the study. The BD for HA was significantly higher than for CA (0.39 ± 1.18 x −1.62 ± 1.32), without karyotype (p=0.369) and BMI (p=0.697) influence. Conclusion: prepubertal TS patients present normal BD when corrected for HA, without influence of karyotype and BMI.


Resumo Objetivos: avaliar a massa óssea de pacientes pré-púberes com Síndrome de Turner (ST) de acordo com a idade estatura (IE) e verificar a influência do cariótipo e da adiposidade. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo e analítico de pacientes pré-púberes com ST. As variáveis analisadas foram: cariótipo, idade na realização da densitometria óssea (DO); estatura, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e resultado da DO. Realizou-se a correção do resultado da DO utilizando a IE. O IMC e a DO foram calculados em Z score para idade cronológica (IC) e para IE. Resultados: foram selecionadas 37 pacientes pré-púberes e após critério de exclusão foram incluídas no estudo 13 casos entre 10 e 13 anos de idade. A DO para IE foi significativamente maior que para IC (0,39 ± 1,18 × −1,62 ± 1,32), sem influência do cariótipo (p=0,369) e do IMC (p=0,697). Conclusão: pacientes pré-púberes com ST apresentam DO normal quando corrigida para IE, sem influência do cariótipo e do IMC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Turner Syndrome/diagnosis , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diagnosis , Body Mass Index , Stature by Age , Karyotype , Retrospective Studies , Densitometry/methods , Adiposity
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