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1.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 370-375, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985682

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the distribution and characteristics of gene mutations in osteosarcoma, and to analyze the frequency and types of detectable mutations, and to identify potential targets for individualized treatment of osteosarcoma. Methods: The fresh tissue or paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 64 cases of osteosarcoma that were surgically resected or biopsied and then subject to next generation sequencing, were collected from Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, China from November 2018 to December 2021. The tumor DNA was extracted to detect the somatic and germline mutations using targeted sequencing technology. Results: Among the 64 patients, 41 were males and 23 were females. The patient age ranged from 6 to 65 years with a median age of 17 years, including 36 children (under 18 years old) and 28 adults. There were 52 cases of conventional osteosarcoma, 3 cases of telangiectatic osteosarcoma, 7 cases of secondary osteosarcoma, and 2 cases of parosteosarcoma. The detection rate of gene mutations was overall 84.4% (54/64). There were 324 variations in 180 mutated genes, including 125 genes with copy number variations, 109 single nucleotide variants, 83 insertions or deletions, and 7 gene fusions. The most common mutated genes were TP53, VEGFA, CCND3, ATRX, MYC, RB1, PTEN, GLI1, CDK4 and PTPRD. Among them, TP53 had the highest mutation rate (21/64, 32.8%), single nucleotide variant was the main mutation type (14/23, 60.9%), and 2 cases carried the TP53 germline mutation. VEGFA and CCND3 showed copy number amplification simultaneously in 7 cases. Conclusions: The high-frequency mutation of TP53 suggests that it plays an important role in the pathogenesis and development of osteosarcoma. VEGFA, CCND3 and ATRX are mutated genes in osteosarcoma and worthy of further studies. Combination of pathologic diagnosis and next generation sequencing with clinical practice can guide individualized treatment for patients with refractory, recurrent and metastatic osteosarcoma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Male , Child , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , DNA Copy Number Variations , Osteosarcoma/pathology , Mutation , DNA, Neoplasm , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Nucleotides
2.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 995-1000, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012352

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical, imaging, histological, and molecular features and the differential diagnosis of radiation-associated sarcomas of bone and soft tissue. Methods: Forty-six cases of radiation-associated sarcomas of the bone and soft tissue in Beijing Jishuitan Hospital from January 2010 to January 2022 were retrospectively analyzed; and the imaging, histological features and immunophenotype were examined. Results: There were 33 females and 13 males, aged from 18 to 74 years, with a mean of 52 years. The most common site of radiation-associated sarcomas were the limbs and spine (15 cases), followed by the chest (9 cases). The primary diseases included epithelial tumors (15 breast cancer, 6 cervical cancer, and 5 bowel cancer), hematolymphoid tumors, bone and soft tissue tumors and infectious lesions. The latent period of radiation-associated sarcomas ranged from 2-22 years, with an average of 11.6 years. Histopathologically, the morphology was divergent from the primary tumor. The most common malignant tumor type was undifferentiated sarcoma (22 cases), followed by osteosarcoma (16 cases). The immunophenotype of radiation-related sarcoma was almost the same as the corresponding soft tissue sarcoma. Conclusions: Radiation-induced sarcoma has a wide range of primary tumor types and its imaging, morphology and immunohistochemical features are similar to those of the primary sarcoma of bone and soft tissue. Clinical correlation is often recommended for the differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Sarcoma/pathology , Osteosarcoma/diagnostic imaging , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/pathology , Bone Neoplasms/pathology
3.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 559-564, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981732

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the prognostic value and mechanism of long non-coding RNA DLEU1(LncRNA DLEU1) in osteosarcoma.@*METHODS@#The tissue samples and clinical data of 86 patients with osteosarcoma treated by orthopaedic surgery in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2014 were retrospectively collected. The expression of LncRNA DLEU1 in pathological tissues was detected by qRT-PCR, then the patients were divided into high and low expression of LncRNA DLEU1 groups. Osteosarcoma cell line HOS was divided into two groups, down-regulated expression group (si-DLEU1 group) and negative control group (si-NC group). LncRNA DLEU1 siRNA and negative control sequence were transfected by Lipofectamine 3000. Chi-square test was used to analyze the relationship between the expression of LncRNA DLEU1 and the clinicopathological factors of osteosarcoma. Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare the difference of the overall survival rate of osteosarcoma patients between the high and low expression groups of LncRNA DLEU1. The risk factors affecting the overall survival rate of osteosarcoma were analyzed by single factor and multifactor analysis. The number of invasive cells in the two groups was determined and compared by Transwell assay.@*RESULTS@#The expression of LncRNA DLEU1 in osteosarcoma tissue was higher than that in adjacent tissues (P<0.001). The expression of LncRNA DLEU1 in human osteosarcoma cell lines (MG-63, U-2 OS, and HOS) was significantly higher than that in human osteoblast line hFOB 1.19 (P<0.001). The expression of LncRNA DLEU1 was significantly correlated with Enneking stage (P<0.001), distant metastasis (P=0.016), and histological grade (P=0.028). The 1-year overall survival rate of the LncRNA DLEU1 high expression group was significantly higher than that of the low expression group (90.7% vs 60.5%, P<0.001). The 5-year overall survival rate of the LncRNA DLEU1 high expression group was significantly higher than that of the low expression group (32.6% vs 11.6%, P<0.001). Univariate analysis showed that Enneking stage (P<0.001), tumor size (P=0.043), distant metastasis (P<0.001), histological grade (P<0.001), and expression of LncRNA DLEU1 (P<0.001) were risk factors for overall survival of osteosarcoma patients. Multivariate analysis showed that high expression of LncRNA DLEU1 [HR=1.948, 95% CI(1.141, 3.641), P=0.012] and distant metastasis[HR=4.108, 95% CI(2.169, 7.780), P<0.001] were independent risk factors for overall survival of osteosarcoma patients. The number of invasive cells in si-DLEU1 group was significantly lesser than that in si-NC group(139±13 vs 357±31, P<0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#High expression of LncRNA DLEU1 is a molecular marker affecting the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients. Downregulation of LncRNA DLEU1 can inhibit the invasion of osteosarcoma cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Osteosarcoma/genetics , Bone Neoplasms/pathology
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(5): e210-e212, oct. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1395751

ABSTRACT

El sarcoma de Ewing es una neoplasia de origen más frecuentemente óseo; otras localizaciones son excepcionales. En el caso de las presentaciones primarias intracraneales, resulta imprescindible descartar que se trate de un secundarismo así como también de otros tumores neuroectodérmicos que puedan requerir distintos abordajes diagnósticos y terapéuticos. Se presenta a una paciente de 14 años que consultó por ptosis palpebral de ojo izquierdo asociado a diplopía de 2 meses de evolución; los estudios por imágenes mostraron una lesión tumoral extraaxial situada a nivel de la cisterna interpeduncular. Se realizó la exéresis completa, con diagnóstico anatomopatológico de sarcoma de Ewing de ubicación mesencefálica


Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant neoplasm mainly occurring in the bone, with other locations being exceptional. In the case of primary intracranial presentations, it is essential to rule out metastatic lesions as well as other neuroectodermal tumors that may require different diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. We present a 14-year-old patient who consulted for upper eyelid ptosis of left eye associated with a 2-month history of diplopia, with imaging evidence of extra-axial tumor lesion, located at the level of the interpeduncular cistern. Complete excision was performed, with a pathological diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma of midbrain location.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Sarcoma, Ewing/surgery , Sarcoma, Ewing/diagnosis , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Bone Neoplasms/therapy , Mesencephalon/pathology
5.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 147-154, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935194

ABSTRACT

Objective: To screen the different expressed genes between osteosarcoma and normal osteoblasts, and find the key genes for the occurrence and development of osteosarcoma. Methods: The gene expression dataset GSE33382 of normal osteoblasts and osteosarcoma was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The different expressed genes between normal osteoblasts and osteosarcoma were screened by limma package of R language, and the different expressed genes were analyzed by Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. The protein interaction network was constructed by the String database, and the network modules in the interaction network were screened by the molecular complex detection (MCODE) plug-in of Cytoscape software. The different expressed genes contained in the first three main modules screened by MCODE were analyzed by gene ontology (GO) using the BiNGO module of Cytoscape software. The MCC algorithm was used to screen the top 10 key genes in the protein interaction network. The gene expression and survival dataset GSE39055 of osteosarcoma was obtained from GEO database, and the survival analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier method. The data of 48 patients with osteosarcoma treated in the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University from January 2005 to December 2015 were selected for verification. The expression of STC2 protein in osteosarcoma was detected by immunohistochemical method, and the survival analysis was carried out combined with the clinical data of the patients. Results: A total of 874 different expressed genes were identified from GSE33382 dataset, including 402 down-regulated genes and 472 up-regulated genes. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that different expressed genes were mainly related to p53 signal pathway, glutathione metabolism, extracellular matrix receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules, folate tolerance, and cell senescence. The top 10 key genes in the interaction network were GAS6, IL6, RCN1, MXRA8, STC2, EVA1A, PNPLA2, CYR61, SPARCL1 and FSTL3. STC2 was related to the survival rate of patients with osteosarcoma (P<0.05). The results showed that the expression of STC2 protein was related to tumor size and Enneking stage in 48 cases of osteosarcoma. The median survival time of 25 cases with STC2 high expression was 21.4 months, and that of 23 cases with STC2 low expression was 65.4 months. The survival rate of patients with high expression of STC2 was lower than that of patients with low expression of STC2 (P<0.05). Conclusions: Bioinformatics analysis can effectively screen the different expressed genes between osteosarcoma and normal osteoblasts. STC2 is one of the important predictors for the prognosis of osteosarcoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Computational Biology/methods , Follistatin-Related Proteins/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Osteosarcoma/pathology
6.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 276-280, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928308

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Osteosarcoma(OS) and Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) are the two most common primary malignant bone tumors in children. The aim of the study was to identify key genes in OS and EWS and investigate their potential pathways.@*METHODS@#Expression profiling (GSE16088 and GSE45544) were obtained from GEO DataSets. Differentially expressed genes were identified using GEO2R and key genes involved in the occurrence of both OS and EWS were selected using venn diagram. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses were performed for the ensembl. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were established by STRING. Further, UCSC was used to predict the transcription factors of the cell division cycke 5-like(CDC5L) gene, and GEPIA was used to analyze the correlation between the transcription factors and the CDC5L gene.@*RESULTS@#The results showed that CDC5L gene was the key gene involved in the pathogenesis of OS and EWS. The gene is mainly involved in mitosis, and is related to RNA metabolism, processing of capped intron-containing pre-mRNA, mRNA and pre-mRNA splicing.@*CONCLUSION@#CDC5L, as a key gene, plays a role in development of OS and EWS, which may be reliable targets for diagnosis and treatment of these primary malignant tumors.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Computational Biology , Gene Expression Profiling , Osteosarcoma/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Sarcoma, Ewing/genetics
7.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 62(3): 221-226, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1435071

ABSTRACT

El leiomiosarcoma (LMS) es un tipo de tumor de células fusiformes de muy baja incidencia, que tiene un comportamiento agresivo, con alta tasa de mortalidad, por lo que el manejo debe ser quirúrgico, con una resección amplia de la lesión. No está claro el papel de la radio ni de la quimioterapia en su manejo. Presentamos a una paciente de 28 años que consultó por dolor de 2 meses en la rodilla derecha. Radiográficamente, se caracterizó como una lesión osteolítica pura en el fémur distal. La resonancia nuclear magnética (RNM) contrastada mostró áreas hipervasculares dentro del tumor. La gammagrafía mostró un marcado aumento en la captación de radiotrazadores. Se tomó una biopsia, con un informe de patología de LMS óseo bien diferenciado. Se trató con 3 ciclos de quimioterapia neoadyuvante preoperatoria con ifosfamida 1.000 mg/m2 en los días 1 a 3, además de doxorrubicina 70 mg/m2 , y resección quirúrgica de la lesión y salvamento de la extremidad con endoprótesis de rodilla. Una vez que se resecó la lesión, la paciente recibió quimioterapia adyuvante con 4 ciclos de gencitabina 1.000 mg/m2 entre los días 1 y 8, y doxetacel 70 mg/m2 el día 1. Durante los dos meses de seguimiento, la paciente presenóa una fractura en el tercio medio de la clavícula, compatible con una lesión patológica en radiografías y tomografía por emisión de positrones (TEP). La biopsia reveló una lesión metastásica de LMS óseo que fue tratada mediante resección quirúrgica de la clavícula. Este es un caso único, dado que, durante el seguimiento, recibió tratamiento adyuvante con quimioterapia y se evaluó con una TEP, con una evolución clínica satisfactoria y sin evidencia de nuevas lesiones


Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a type of spindle-cell tumor of very low incidence that tumor has an aggressive behavior, with high mortality rates; therefore, its management must be surgical, with a wide resection of the lesion. The role of radio and chemotherapy in its management is not clear. We present the case of a 28-year-old female patient who consulted for pain lasting 2 months in the right knee. Radiographically, it was characterized as a pure osteolytic lesion in the distal femur. Contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hypervascular areas within the tumor. The scintigraphy showed a marked increase in radiotracer uptake. A biopsy was taken, with a pathology report of well-differentiated osseous LMS. It was treated with 3 cycles of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy with ifosfamide 1,000 mg/m2 in the first 3 days, as well as doxorubicin 70 mg/m2 , and surgical resection of the lesion and limb salvage with knee endoprosthesis. Once the lesion was resected, the patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy, with 4 cycles of gencitabine 1,000 mg/m2 between days 1 and 8, and doxetacel 70 mg/m2 on day 1. During the 2-month follow-up, the patient presented a fracture in the middle third of the clavicle, which was compatible with a pathological lesion on radiographs and positron-emission tomography (PET) scans. The biopsy showed a metastatic lesion of bone LMS, which was treated by surgical resection of the clavicle. This is a unique case, given that, during the follow-up, the patient underwent adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy, and was evaluated with a PET scan, with a satisfactory clinical evolution and no evidence of new lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Leiomyosarcoma/pathology , Bone Neoplasms/drug therapy , Bone Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Radiography/methods , Clavicle/pathology , Leiomyosarcoma/drug therapy , Leiomyosarcoma/diagnostic imaging
9.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021298, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285412

ABSTRACT

Plasmacytoma is a neoplastic proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells, which can present clinically as solitary bone neoplasm, extramedullary plasmacytoma, and multiple myeloma. The biological behavior of these tumors is variable from periods of clinical latency to rapid growth and progression from localized forms to more disseminated multiple myeloma. We present the case of solitary plasmacytoma of the mandible with rare bilateral involvement in a 65-year-old female patient. This paper highlights the importance of understanding the maxillofacial manifestations of the disease by the dentist for early diagnosis and thus better prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Plasmacytoma/pathology , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Mandible/abnormalities , Plasma Cells/pathology , Early Diagnosis , Multiple Myeloma
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e9161, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153511

ABSTRACT

Patients with osteosarcoma (OS) usually have poor overall survival because of frequent metastasis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the expression and roles of lncRNA human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex P5 (HCP5) in OS, aiming to provide a novel molecular mechanism for OS. HCP5 was up-regulated both in OS tissues and cell lines and high expression of HCP5 was associated to low survival in OS patients. Down-regulation of HCP5 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, suggesting its carcinogenic role in OS. miR-101 was targeted by HCP5 and its expression was decreased in OS. The inhibitor of miR-101 reversed the impact of HCP5 down-regulation on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis in OS. Ephrin receptor 7 (EPHA7) was proved to be a target of miR-101 and had ability to recover the effects of miR-101 inhibitor in OS. In conclusion, lncRNA HCP5 knockdown suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis through depleting the expression of EPHA7 by binding to miR-101, providing a potential therapeutic strategy of HCP5 in OS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Neoplasms/genetics , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Osteosarcoma/genetics , Osteosarcoma/pathology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Movement , Receptor, EphA7/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Neoplasm Invasiveness
11.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021281, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249030

ABSTRACT

Primary malignant giant cell tumor (PMGCT) is a diagnosis based on the presence of a high-grade sarcomatous component along with a typical benign giant cell tumor (GCT). We report the first case of PMGCT of the sternum in a 28-year-old male with painless swelling over the manubrium sterni. The differential diagnoses of PMGCT and giant cell-rich osteosarcoma were considered. Surgical resection was performed, and the reconstruction was done with a neosternum using polymethyl methacrylate and prolene mesh. At 30 months follow-up, the patient is disease-free.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Sternum/pathology , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Giant Cell Tumor of Bone/pathology , Osteosarcoma , Diagnosis, Differential
12.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 6(3): 191-198, jul.-sept. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379934

ABSTRACT

La biopsia de médula ósea (BMO) es un procedimiento invasivo que ha ganado campo en la práctica médica ya que se realiza para el diagnóstico, estadificación y seguimiento de enfermedades hematológicas y no hematológicas, benignas o neoplásicas, entre otros. El objetivo fue establecer el rol de la BMO en las hemopatías en Pediatría en el ION SOLCA Guayaquil- Ecuador. Se utilizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo donde se incluyeron a todos los pacientes pediátricos menores de 18 años de edad que se sometieron a BMO, desde Julio de 2014 a Julio de 2017 en el hospital. De las 1511 BMO realizadas en el periodo de estudio, 869 correspondieron a biopsias pediátricas, de las cuales el 57,08% fueron varones. La edad mediana fue 5 (RIC: 3-10) años. El tamaño promedio de la BMO fue de 0,74 (0,1-2,5) cm, con una celularidad media de 20% (4-100%). El motivo de consulta más frecuente fue la fiebre (22,67%). En el hemograma se detectó más frecuentemente bicitopenia (44,65%) y pancitopenia (24,63%). La Leucemia Linfoblástica Aguda (LLA) fue la enfermedad hematológica maligna más comúnmente encontrada (19,59%). Solo un 0,12% correspondió al grupo de Síndromes Mielodisplásicos (SMD), mientras que un 0,23% fueron Neoplasias Mieloproliferativas (NMP). El 26,93% de las biopsias no fueron aptas para el diagnóstico, el 48,45% se encontraron libres de enfermedad de base. La enfermedad oncohematológica pediátrica más frecuente es la LLA, mientras que los SMD y las NMP son infrecuentes. El rol del patólogo y de la BMO es fundamental en el diagnóstico de las enfermedades hematológicas, siempre en integración con la clínica y los exámenes complementarios.


Bone marrow biopsy (BMB) is an invasive procedure that has gained ground in medical practice since it is performed for the diagnosis, staging and monitoring of hematological and non-hematological, benign or neoplastic diseases, among others. This work aims to establish the role of the BMB in hematological diseases in Pediatrics in the ION SOLCA Guayaquil ­ Ecuador. A non-experimental design study, descriptive type was used, that included all pediatric patients under 18 years of age who submitted a BMB, from July 2014 to July 2017 in the hospital. Of the 1511 BMB performed in the study period, 869 corresponded to pediatric biopsies, of which 57.08% belong to male patients. The median age was 5 (interquartile range: 3 - 10) years. The average size of the BMB was 0.74 (0.1 - 2.5) cm, with an average cellularity of 20% (4 - 100%). The most frequent reason for consultation was fever (22.67%). In the complete blood count, bicytopenia (44.65%) and pancytopenia (24.63%) were detected most commonly. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) was the most frequent malignant hematologic disease (19.59%). Only 0.12% corresponded to the group of Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS), while 0.23% were Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN). 26.93% of the biopsies were not apt for diagnosis, 48.45% were free of base disease. The most cfrequent pediatric onco-hematologic disease is ALL, while MDS and MPN are infrequent. The role of the pathologist and the BMP is fundamental in the diagnosis of hematological diseases, always in integration with the clinic and complementary examinations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Bone Marrow/pathology , Bone Marrow Neoplasms/secondary , Bone Marrow Neoplasms/epidemiology , Signs and Symptoms , Biopsy , Blood Cell Count , Bone Neoplasms/diagnosis , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Megakaryocytes/metabolism , Age and Sex Distribution , Myeloproliferative Disorders/diagnosis
13.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(3): e2020199, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131830

ABSTRACT

We present the autopsy findings and differential diagnosis in a 42year old male who presented with fever and rapidly progressive respiratory symptoms like breathlessness, nonproductive cough and right sided chest pain. Initial imaging workup done at our hospital revealed a large unilateral tumor with tracheal shift. While being evaluated patient developed facial puffiness, tachypnea suggestive of superior vena cava obstruction. Antemortem biopsy of lung mass was attempted twice and that suggested malignant lesion. Unfortunately, the individual had a rapid downhill course following admission. Post mortem examination was conducted that on opening the thoracic cavity revealed total replacement of right lung tissue by a necrotic growth which was deeply adherent to the rib cage. The contralateral lung as well as all other visceral organs were unremarkable grossly. Histopathology confirmed primary Ewing sarcoma of the lung. We hereby, report a rare case of primary lung Ewing sarcoma diagnosed at autopsy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Sarcoma, Ewing/pathology , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Neuroectodermal Tumors/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Autopsy , Fatal Outcome , Diagnosis, Differential
14.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(4): e2019091, Oct.-Dec. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024295

ABSTRACT

Desmoplastic fibroma (DF) is a rare bone tumor, which is known to involve mostly the gnathic bones. In this setting, the clinical presentation is usually represented by a bulging tumor of the face. Radiologically, the tumor is usually characterized by an expansile lytic bone lesion. The histopathology of the tumor shows a poorly circumscribed hypocellular lesion rich in collagen fibers with interspersed spindle cells having bland nuclear chromatin. Despite the lack of mitoses and nuclear pleomorphism, DF has an aggressive nature, presenting as a destructive growth causing entrapment of neuro-vascular bundles, sinusitis, or trismus. Some cases of DF show mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli pathway shown by nuclear localization of the ß-catenin protein. Few reports showed an association with tuberous sclerosis, though most of these cases were sporadic. We discuss a rare case of desmoplastic fibroma involving the mandible, and a review of the literature of the DF cases involving the gnathic bones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Fibroma, Desmoplastic/pathology , Mandible
15.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2): 233-235, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001147

ABSTRACT

Abstract We report the case of an 8-year-old child with subungual exostosis, whose diagnosis was suspected on the basis of dermoscopic findings and subsequently confirmed by X-ray and histopathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Bone Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Exostoses/diagnostic imaging , Nail Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Radiography , Exostoses/pathology , Dermoscopy , Diagnosis, Differential , Onycholysis/diagnostic imaging , Nail Diseases/pathology
16.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 46(2): e2094, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003087

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: determinar a expressão de neurotrofinas e seus receptores tirosina quinases em pacientes com osteossarcoma (OS) e sua correlação com desfechos clínicos. Métodos: biópsias de tumores primários de pacientes com OS tratados em uma única instituição, consecutivamente, entre 2002 e 2015, foram analisados através de imuno-histoquímica para expressão de receptores de tirosina quinase A e B (TrKA e TrKB), fator de crescimento neural (NGF) e fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (BDNF). De forma independente, dois patologistas classificaram os marcadores de imuno-histoquímica como negativos (negativos e focais fracos) ou positivos (moderado focal/difuso ou forte focal/difuso). Resultados: foram analisados dados de 19 pacientes (10 do sexo feminino e 9 do masculino) com mediana de idade de 12 anos (5 a 17,3 anos). Dos tumores, 83,3% estavam localizados em membros inferiores e 63,2% dos pacientes eram metastáticos ao diagnóstico. A sobrevida global em cinco anos foi de 55,3%. BDNF foi positivo em 16 pacientes (84%) e NGF em 14 pacientes (73%). TrKA e TrKB apresentaram coloração positiva em quatro (21,1%) e oito (42,1%) pacientes, respectivamente. A análise de sobrevida não demonstrou diferença significativa entre receptores TrK e neurotrofinas. Conclusão: amostras de OS primário expressam neurotrofinas e receptores TrK através de imuno-histoquímica. Estudos futuros podem auxiliar na identificação do papel das mesmas na patogênese do OS e determinar se há possível correlação prognóstica.


ABSTRACT Objective: to determine the expression of neurotrophins and their tyrosine-kinase receptors in patients with osteosarcoma (OS) and their correlation with clinical outcomes. Methods: we applied immunohistochemistry to biopsy specimens of patients consecutively treated for primary OS at a single institution between 2002 and 2015, analyzing them for expression receptors of tyrosine kinase A and B (TrKA and TrKB), neural growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Independently, two pathologists classified the immunohistochemical markers as negative (negative or weak focal) or positive (moderate focal/diffuse or strong focal/diffuse). Results: we analyzed data from 19 patients (10 females and 9 males), with median age of 12 years (5 to 17.3). Tumors' location were 83.3% in the lower limbs, and 63.2% of patients had metastases at diagnosis. Five-year overall survival was 55.3%. BDNF was positive in 16 patients (84%) and NGF in 14 (73%). TrKA and TrKB presented positive staining in four (21,1%) and eight (42,1%) patients, respectively. Survival analysis showed no significant difference between TrK receptors and neurotrophins. Conclusion: primary OS samples express neurotrophins and TrK receptors by immunohistochemistry. Future studies should explore their role in OS pathogenesis and determine their prognostic significance in larger cohorts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Osteosarcoma/pathology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/analysis , Receptor, trkA/analysis , Receptor, trkB/analysis , Nerve Growth Factors/analysis , Reference Values , Bone Neoplasms/mortality , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor , Osteosarcoma/mortality , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Kaplan-Meier Estimate
17.
Clinics ; 74: e701, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001831

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Osteosarcoma of the jaw (OSAJ) is fundamentally different in clinical practice from its peripheral counterparts. Studies are difficult to conduct due to low incidence rates. The primary aim of this study was to provide for the first time a comprehensive retrospective analysis of the treatment concepts and outcome data of OSAJ patients treated at the University Hospital Vienna and to compare these with two recently published studies on OSAJ. The clinical study was accompanied by a biomarker study investigating the prognostic relevance of melanoma-associated antigen-A (MAGE-A) in OSAJ specimens. METHOD: Eighteen patients were included, and their outcomes were compared to published data. Immunohistochemistry was performed with mouse monoclonal antibodies against MAGE-A. Survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meyer method. The log-rank test was used to analyze potential prognostic parameters. Fisher's exact test was performed to define the significant differences between the survival rates of the current study and the DOESAK registry. RESULTS: Disease-specific survival was 93.8% after five and 56.3% after ten years. The development of metastases (p=0.033) or relapse (p=0.037) was associated with worsened outcomes in our group as well as in the comparative group. Despite the different treatment concepts of the study groups, survival rates were comparable. MAGE-A failed to show prognostic relevance for OSAJ patients. CONCLUSIONS: Uncertainties about the optimal treatment strategies of OSAJ patients will currently remain. Thus, prospective studies of OSAJ are needed but are only feasible in a multicenter study setting, conducted over a prolonged time period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bone Neoplasms/therapy , Osteosarcoma/therapy , Prognosis , Austria/epidemiology , Bone Neoplasms/mortality , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Osteosarcoma/mortality , Osteosarcoma/pathology , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Antibodies, Monoclonal/analysis , Antigens, Neoplasm/analysis
18.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 75(1): 31-40, ene.-feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-951289

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los estudios de imagen, como la tomografía simple y contrastada, son la primera aproximación diagnóstica para detectar la recurrencia de tumores musculoesqueléticos. El objetivo de este estudio retrospectivo fue demostrar la utilidad de la gammagrafía acoplada a tomografía computarizada por emisión de fotón único (SPECT/CT) con talio-201(201Tl) en la valoración de tumores musculoesqueléticos malignos con sospecha de recurrencia o enfermedad metastásica. Métodos: Se realizaron 72 estudios gammagráficos y de SPECT/CT para la valoración de la recurrencia locorregional y a distancia, al menos 8 semanas tras la última terapia, en 42 pacientes con diferentes tipos de tumores musculoesqueléticos malignos, como osteosarcoma, sarcoma de Ewing, rabdomiosarcoma, retinoblastoma, sarcoma sinovial y tumor de Wilms en el Hospital Infantil de México. Se calcularon el valor predictivo positivo (VPP) y el intervalo de confianza del gammagrama y de la SPECT/CT en comparación con el resultado del análisis histopatológico y el seguimiento clínico y radiológico para identificar la recurrencia. Resultados: La gammagrafía fue anormal en 30 (71.4%) de los 42 pacientes. Se detectaron 33 lesiones (30 pacientes) por gammagrafía y 25 (21 pacientes) por telerradiografía de tórax y tomografía de dos regiones. La SPECT/CT se realizó en 30 pacientes y se detectaron 12 lesiones adicionales al rastreo planar. El VPP con la gammagrafía fue del 82%, y con la SPECT/CT, del 100%. Conclusión: La gammagrafía con 201Tl puede considerarse un estudio adecuado para identificar los sitios de viabilidad tumoral, con alto grado de certeza diagnóstica al complementar con SPECT/CT.


Abstract Background: Imaging studies, particularly simple and contrast-enhanced tomography, constitute the first diagnostic approach to detect recurrence of musculoskeletal tumors. The aim of the present retrospective study was to demonstrate the usefulness of scintigraphy plus SPECT/CT (single photon emission computed tomography) with thallium-201 (201Tl) in the evaluation of malignant musculoskeletal tumors with suspicion of recurrence or metastatic disease. Methods: Eight weeks after the last therapy, 72 scintigraphy and SPECT/CT studies were performed to assess regional recurrence and metastatic disease in 42 patients with different types of malignant musculoskeletal tumors, such as osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, retinoblastoma, synovial sarcoma, and Wilms tumor at the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. The positive predictive value (PPV) and the confidence interval of the scintigraphy and SPECT/CT were calculated when compared with the results of the histopathological analysis and the clinical and radiological follow-up for the identification of recurrence. Results: Scintigraphy was abnormal in 30 (71.4%) of the 42 patients; 33 lesions (30 patients) were detected by scintigraphy and 25 lesions (21 patients) by chest X-ray and tomography of two regions. The SPECT/CT was performed on 30 patients, where 12 lesions were detected in addition to the planar scintigraphy. Scintigraphy showed a PPV of 82%; SPECT/CT, 100%. Conclusion: 201Tl-scintigraphy can be considered as an adequate study to identify the sites of tumor viability with a high degree of diagnostic certainty combined with the SPECT/CT technique.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Bone Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Muscle Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Thallium Radioisotopes/administration & dosage , Radionuclide Imaging/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Muscle Neoplasms/pathology , Mexico , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
19.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 45(3): e1129, 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-956556

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: determinar, em pacientes pediátricos portadores de neoplasias malignas, as características de nódulos pulmonares identificados à tomografia computadorizada, capazes de diferenciar nódulos benignos de metástases. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo de pacientes submetidos a ressecções pulmonares de nódulos diagnosticados como metástases em um período de sete anos. Achados de tomografia e da cirurgia, assim como resultados dos exames anatomopatológicos foram comparados. Resultados: nove pacientes, submetidos a 11 intervenções cirúrgicas, foram estudados. Entre as variáveis estudadas, apenas o tamanho do nódulo, maior do que 12,5mm provou ser estatisticamente significante para predizer malignidade. Conclusão: esse estudo sugere que, entre as características tomográficas de nódulos pulmonares de crianças portadoras de neoplasias malignas, apenas o tamanho da lesão foi preditor de malignidade.


ABSTRACT Objective: to determine, in pediatric patients with malignant neoplasms, the characteristics of pulmonary nodules identified on computed tomography, as well as the possibility of differentiating benign lesions from metastases. Methods: we conducted a retrospective study of patients submitted to pulmonary resections of nodules diagnosed as metastases in a period of seven years. We compared computed tomography and surgery findings, as well as results of anatomopathological examinations. Results: we studied nine patients submitted to 11 surgical interventions. Among the studied variables, only nodule size greater than 12.5mm proved to be statistically significant to predict malignancy. Conclusion: among the tomographic characteristics of pulmonary nodules in children with malignant neoplasms, only the size of the lesion was a predictor of malignancy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Unnecessary Procedures , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Teratoma/pathology , Thoracoscopy/methods , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Osteosarcoma/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Hepatoblastoma/pathology , Wilms Tumor/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(12): e7665, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974250

ABSTRACT

Osteosarcoma (OS) has a high incidence, malignity, and frequency of recurrence and metastasis. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential anti-cancer effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on human OS MG63 cells as well as underlying mechanisms. Viability of MG63 cells was assessed by CCK-8 assay to determine the adequate concentration of APS. Then, effects of APS on MG63 cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and migration and invasion were analyzed by BrdU incorporation, PI staining, flow cytometry, and transwell assays, respectively. The expression levels of proteins involved in these physiological processes were assessed by western blot analysis. Afterwards, miR-133a level in APS-treated cells was determined by qRT-PCR, and whether APS affected MG63 cells through regulation of miR-133a was determined. Finally, the activation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway was detected. We found that APS treatment suppressed the viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion of MG63 cells, as well as induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, APS enhanced the expression of miR-133a in MG63 cells. Knockdown of miR-133a reversed the APS treatment-induced MG63 cell proliferation, migration and invasion inhibition, as well as cell apoptosis. Furthermore, APS inactivated JNK pathway in MG63 cells. Knockdown of miR-133a reversed the APS treatment-induced inactivation of JNK pathway in MG63 cells. To conclude, APS repressed proliferation, migration, and invasion while induced apoptosis of OS MG63 cells by up-regulating miR-133a and then inactivating JNK pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Movement/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Astragalus Plant/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Bone Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , MicroRNAs/analysis , Cell Line, Tumor , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/analysis , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
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