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Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 429-438, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981018


It has been well documented that exercise can improve bone metabolism, promote bone growth and development, and alleviate bone loss. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are widely involved in the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts and other bone tissue cells, and regulation of balance between bone formation and bone resorption by targeting osteogenic factors or bone resorption factors. Thus miRNAs play an important role in the regulation of bone metabolism. Recently, regulation of miRNAs are shown to be one of the ways by which exercise or mechanical stress promotes the positive balance of bone metabolism. Exercise induces changes of miRNAs expression in bone tissue and regulates the expression of related osteogenic factors or bone resorption factors, to further strengthen the osteogenic effect of exercise. This review summarizes relevant studies on the mechanism whereby exercise regulates bone metabolism via miRNAs, providing a theoretical basis for osteoporosis prevention and treatment with exercise.

Humans , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Osteogenesis/genetics , Cell Differentiation , Osteoblasts , Bone Resorption/metabolism
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 393-398, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981703


Pentaxin 3 (PTX3), as a multifunctional glycoprotein, plays an important role in regulating inflammatory response, promoting tissue repair, inducing ectopic calcification and maintaining bone homeostasis. The effect of PTX3 on bone mineral density (BMD) may be affected by many factors. In PTX3 knockout mice and osteoporosis (OP) patients, the deletion of PTX3 will lead to decrease of BMD. In Korean community "Dong-gu study", it was found that plasma PTX3 was negatively correlated with BMD of femoral neck in male elderly patients. In terms of bone related cells, PTX3 plays an important role in maintaining the phenotype and function of osteoblasts (OB) in OP state;for osteoclast (OC), PTX3 in inflammatory state could stimulate nuclear factor κ receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) production and its combination with TNF-stimulated gene 6(TSG-6) could improve activity of osteoclasts and promote bone resorption;for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), PTX3 could promote osteogenic differentiation of MSCs through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. In recent years, the role of PTX3 as a new bone metabolism regulator in OP and fracture healing has been gradually concerned by scholars. In OP patients, PTX3 regulates bone mass mainly by promoting bone regeneration. In the process of fracture healing, PTX3 promotes fracture healing by coordinating bone regeneration and bone resorption to maintain bone homeostasis. In view of the above biological characteristics, PTX3 is expected to become a new target for the diagnosis and treatment of OP and other age-related bone diseases and fracture healing.

Animals , Male , Mice , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Fracture Healing/genetics , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/pharmacology
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 357-363, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981697


Osteoclast (OC) is multinucleated, bone-resorbing cells originated from monocyte/macrophage lineage of cells, excessive production and abnormal activation of which could lead to many bone metabolic diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, etc. Autophagy, as a highly conserved catabolic process in eukaryotic cells, which plays an important role in maintaining cell homeostasis, stress damage repair, proliferation and differentiation. Recent studies have found that autophagy was also involved in the regulation of osteoclast generation and bone resorption. On the one hand, autophagy could be induced and activated by various factors in osteocalsts, such as nutrient deficiency, hypoxia, receptor activator of nuclear factor(NF)-κB ligand(RANKL), inflammatory factors, wear particles, microgravity environment, etc, different inducible factors, such as RANKL, inflammatory factors, wear particles, could interact with each other and work together. On the other hand, activated autophagy is involved in regulating various stages of osteoclast differentiation and maturation, autophagy could promote proliferation of osteoclasts, inhibiting apoptosis, and promoting differentiation, migration and bone resorption of osteoclast. The classical autophagy signaling pathway mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1(mTORC1) is currently a focus of research, and it could be regulated by upstream signalings such as phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase(PI-3K)/protein kinase B (PKB), AMP-activated protein kinase(AMPK). However, the paper found that mTORC1-mediated autophagy may play a bidirectional role in regulating differentiation and function of osteoclasts, and its underlying mechanism needs to be further ciarified. Integrin αvβ3 and Rab protein families are important targets for autophagy to play a role in osteoclast migration and bone resorption, respectively. In view of important role of osteoclast in the occurrence of various bone diseases, it is of great significance to elucidate the role of autophagy on osteoclast and its mechanism for the treatment of various bone diseases. The autophagy pathway could be used as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of clinical bone diseases such as osteoporosis.

Humans , Osteoclasts , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Autophagy , Osteoporosis , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/metabolism , RANK Ligand/metabolism
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190699, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134770


Abstract Purpose To evaluate the kinetics of apical periodontitis development in vivo , induced either by contamination of the root canals by microorganisms from the oral cavity or by inoculation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the regulation of major enzymes and receptors involved in the arachidonic acid metabolism. Methodology Apical periodontitis was induced in C57BL6 mice (n=96), by root canal exposure to oral cavity (n=48 teeth) or inoculation of LPS (10 µL of a suspension of 0.1 µg/µL) from E. coli into the root canals (n= 48 teeth). Healthy teeth were used as control (n=48 teeth). After 7, 14, 21 and 28 days the animals were euthanized and tissues removed for histopathological and qRT-PCR analyses. Histological analysis data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Sidak's test, and qRT-PCR data using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results Contamination by microorganisms led to the development of apical periodontitis, characterized by the recruitment of inflammatory cells and bone tissue resorption, whereas inoculation of LPS induced inflammatory cells recruitment without bone resorption. Both stimuli induced mRNA expression for cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase enzymes. Expression of prostaglandin E 2 and leukotriene B 4 cell surface receptors were more stimulated by LPS. Regarding nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), oral contamination induced the synthesis of mRNA for PPARδ, differently from inoculation of LPS, that induced PPARα and PPARγ expression. Conclusions Contamination of the root canals by microorganisms from oral cavity induced the development of apical periodontitis differently than by inoculation with LPS, characterized by less bone loss than the first model. Regardless of the model used, it was found a local increase in the synthesis of mRNA for the enzymes 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 of the arachidonic acid metabolism, as well as in the surface and nuclear receptors for the lipid mediators prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4.

Animals , Male , Periapical Periodontitis/microbiology , Dinoprostone/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Leukotriene B4/metabolism , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Periapical Periodontitis/metabolism , Periapical Periodontitis/pathology , Time Factors , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Bone Resorption/microbiology , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/analysis , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/analysis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Dinoprostone/analysis , Random Allocation , Gene Expression , Leukotriene B4/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Dental Pulp Cavity/metabolism , Dental Pulp Cavity/pathology , Cyclooxygenase 2/analysis , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180641, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012519


Abstract Objectives: Infection, inflammation and bone resorption are closely related events in apical periodontitis development. Therefore, we sought to investigate the role of cyclooxygenase (COX) in osteoclastogenesis and bone metabolism signaling in periapical bone tissue after bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inoculation into root canals. Methodology: Seventy two C57BL/6 mice had the root canals of the first molars inoculated with a solution containing LPS from E. coli (1.0 mg/mL) and received selective (celecoxib) or non-selective (indomethacin) COX-2 inhibitor. After 7, 14, 21 and 28 days the animals were euthanized and the tissues removed for total RNA extraction. Evaluation of gene expression was performed by qRT-PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post-tests (α=0.05). Results: LPS induced expression of mRNA for COX-2 (Ptgs2) and PGE2 receptors (Ptger1, Ptger3 and Ptger4), indicating that cyclooxygenase is involved in periapical response to LPS. A signaling that favours bone resorption was observed because Tnfsf11 (RANKL), Vegfa, Ctsk, Mmp9, Cd36, Icam, Vcam1, Nfkb1 and Sox9 were upregulated in response to LPS. Indomethacin and celecoxib differentially modulated expression of osteoclastogenic and other bone metabolism genes: celecoxib downregulated Igf1r, Ctsk, Mmp9, Cd36, Icam1, Nfkb1, Smad3, Sox9, Csf3, Vcam1 and Itga3 whereas indomethacin inhibited Tgfbr1, Igf1r, Ctsk, Mmp9, Sox9, Cd36 and Icam1. Conclusions: We demonstrated that gene expression for COX-2 and PGE2 receptors was upregulated after LPS inoculation into the root canals. Additionally, early administration of indomethacin and celecoxib (NSAIDs) inhibited osteoclastogenic signaling. The relevance of the cyclooxygenase pathway in apical periodontitis was shown by a wide modulation in the expression of genes involved in both bone catabolism and anabolism.

Animals , Male , Osteogenesis/physiology , Periapical Tissue/drug effects , Periapical Tissue/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/physiology , Dental Pulp Cavity/metabolism , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Time Factors , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Gene Expression , Up-Regulation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/analysis , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/analysis , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/drug effects , Receptors, Prostaglandin E/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2/analysis , Celecoxib/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Actual. osteol ; 13(3): 225-232, Sept - DIc. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117386


El esqueleto es uno de los sistemas más grandes de un vertebrado y, como tal, es razonable especular que no puede funcionar aislado del resto del organismo. De hecho, sabemos que existen sistemas complejos de regulación cruzada entre el esqueleto y muchos otros órganos. Hoy poseemos herramientas que nos permiten realizar supresión genética en células o tejidos específicos. Esto nos ha permitido comprender cómo los órganos se comunican entre sí y ha revitalizado el concepto de fisiología del organismo como un todo. Efectivamente, los últimos años han sido testigos del descubrimiento de funciones inesperadas que ejerce el esqueleto y que afectan al organismo en su totalidad. Una de tales funciones reconocidas recientemente es el control del metabolismo energético, a través de la secreción de osteocalcina. La osteocalcina es una hormona producida por los osteoblastos que regula la secreción de insulina, la sensibilidad a esta hormona y el metabolismo energético. Los hallazgos iniciales suscitaron varias preguntas fundamentales sobre la naturaleza de la acción de la insulina sobre el hueso. Pero esto solo fue la punta del iceberg. Efectivamente, más adelante se descubrió, mediante el análisis de ratones que carecen del receptor de insulina (Ins R) solamente en osteoblastos, que la acción de la insulina sobre estas células favorecía la homeostasis de la glucosa en todo el cuerpo. Es importante destacar que esta función de la insulina en los osteoblastos opera mediante la regulación negativa de la carboxilación y la biodisponibilidad de la osteocalcina. Más aún, se observó que las vías de señalización de la insulina en los osteoblastos regulan positivamente no solo la formación sino también la resorción del hueso. Curiosamente, parece que las vías de señalización de la insulina en osteoblastos pueden inducir la activación de la osteocalcina mediante la estimulación de la actividad de los osteoclastos. De hecho, el bajo pH generado durante la resorción ósea es suficiente para desencadenar la descarboxilación (y subsiguiente activación) de la osteocalcina. En breve discutiremos dos nuevas proposiciones: 1) los osteoblastos son un blanco utilizado por la insulina para controlar la homeostasis de la glucosa en todo el organismo y 2) la resorción ósea desempeña un papel fundamental en la regulación de la activación de la osteocalcina. (AU)

The skeleton is one of the biggest systems in a vertebrate animal and, as such, it is reasonable to speculate that it cannot function isolated from the rest of the organism. In fact, we know that complex systems exist for the cross-regulation between the skeleton and several other organs. Today, we have the tools that allow us to perform genetic suppression in specific cells or tissues. This has allow us understand the mechanisms by which the organs communicate with each other and has revitalized the concept of organismal physiology as a whole. Studies conducted in recent years have uncovered unexpected functions performed by the skeleton. One of these is the control of global energy metabolism, through the secretion of osteocalcin, a protein produced by osteoblasts that acts as a hormone regulating insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure. The evidence comes from the analysis of mice lacking insulin receptor (InsR) exclusively in osteoblasts. These mice have a global metabolic phenotype demonstrating that the action of insulin in osteoblasts promotes the homeostasis of glucose throughout the body. This action of insulin in osteoblasts is mediated by the negative regulation of the carboxylation (and bioavailability) of osteocalcin. The decarboxylation (and activation) of osteocalcin, in turn, occurs in the osteoclastic resorption pit. Briefly: the osteoblast is a target used by insulin to control the homeostasis of glucose throughout the body and bone resorption is the mechanism that regulates the activation of osteocalcin. (AU)

Humans , Animals , Mice , Osteocalcin/biosynthesis , Energy Metabolism , Insulin/biosynthesis , Osteoblasts/metabolism , Osteogenesis , Skeleton/physiology , Skeleton/metabolism , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Receptor, Insulin/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Osteocalcin/metabolism , Decarboxylation , Insulin Secretion , Glucose/biosynthesis , Glucose/metabolism , Insulin/metabolism
Clinics ; 72(4): 231-237, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840064


OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to evaluate the bone phenotypes and mechanisms involved in bone disorders associated with hepatic osteodystrophy. Hepatocellular disease was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). In addition, the effects of disodium pamidronate on bone tissue were evaluated. METHODS: The study included 4 groups of 15 mice: a) C = mice subjected to vehicle injections; b) C+P = mice subjected to vehicle and pamidronate injections; c) CCl4+V = mice subjected to CCl4 and vehicle injections; and d) CCl4+P = mice subjected to CCl4 and pamidronate injections. CCl4 or vehicle was administered for 8 weeks, while pamidronate or vehicle was injected at the end of the fourth week. Bone histomorphometry and biomechanical analysis were performed in tibiae, while femora were used for micro-computed tomography and gene expression. RESULTS: CCl4 mice exhibited decreased bone volume/trabecular volume and trabecular numbers, as well as increased trabecular separation, as determined by bone histomorphometry and micro-computed tomography, but these changes were not detected in the group treated with pamidronate. CCl4 mice showed increased numbers of osteoclasts and resorption surface. High serum levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and the increased expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase in the bones of CCl4 mice supported the enhancement of bone resorption in these mice. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that bone resorption is the main mechanism of bone loss in chronic hepatocellular disease in mice.

Animals , Male , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/etiology , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/drug therapy , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Liver Diseases/complications , Phosphorus/administration & dosage , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Bone and Bones/diagnostic imaging , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/metabolism , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Carbon Tetrachloride , Disease Models, Animal , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/genetics , RANK Ligand/genetics , Osteoprotegerin/genetics , X-Ray Microtomography , Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/chemically induced , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Diseases/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 231-245, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886627


ABSTRACT Bone turnover markers (BTMs) are product of bone cell activity and are generally divided in bone formation and bone resorption markers. The purpose of this review was to structure the available information on the use of BTMs in studies on small ruminants, especially for monitoring their variations related to diet, exercise, gestation and metabolic lactation state, circadian and seasonal variations, and also during skeletal growth. Pre-clinical and translational studies using BTMs with sheep and goats as animal models in orthopaedic research studies to help in the evaluation of the fracture healing process and osteoporosis research are also described in this review. The available information from the reviewed studies was systematically organized in order to highlight the most promising BTMs in small ruminant research, as well as provide a wide view of the use of sheep and goat as animal models in orthopaedic research, type of markers and commercial assay kits with cross-reactivity in sheep and goat, method of sample and storage of serum and urine for bone turnover markers determination and the usefulness and limitations of bone turnover markers in the different studies, therefore an effective tool for researchers that seek answers to different questions while using BTMs in small ruminants.

Animals , Goats/physiology , Sheep/physiology , Bone Remodeling/physiology , Models, Animal , Bone Resorption/physiopathology , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Biomarkers/urine , Biomarkers/blood , Fracture Healing/physiology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(4): 368-376, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787779


Summary Osteoporosis is a disease of ascending character in the world population; in this context, bone biomarkers are being increasingly studied in order to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of these patients. The main objective of this study was a literature review of articles whose main theme was the use of biomarkers for bone formation and degradation, and to evaluate their possible applicability in clinical practice. Literature review was performed through articles indexed and published in the last five years in the PubMed database. The findings of this study showed that most of the previously selected articles were published in the last two years, and the most cited markers were bone resorption, C-terminal collagen telopeptide (CTX), showing the highest correlation with the dynamics of bone, and the biomarker of bone formation, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), which is increased in the event of fracture or may suggest another bone disease. There was an increase in published articles, associating different bone biomarkers and their clinical applicability, especially for treatment control. Our findings suggest that in recent years there has been significant increase in publications evaluating the use of bone turnover biomarkers for bone formation and resorption and their possible clinical applicability, especially in the monitoring of treatment. Still, we believe that further studies need to be conducted to confirm these findings, given the advantages that bone biomarkers can deliver in the clinical management of the disease.

Resumo A osteoporose é uma doença de caráter ascendente na população mundial. Nesse contexto, os biomarcadores ósseos vêm sendo cada vez mais estudados com o propósito de auxiliar no diagnóstico e acompanhamento desses pacientes. Os principais objetivos deste estudo incluem realizar uma revisão da literatura dos artigos cujo principal tema estudado foi a utilização dos biomarcadores de formação e degradação óssea, e avaliar uma possível aplicabilidade desses biomarcadores na prática clínica. A revisão da literatura foi realizada com artigos indexados e publicados nos últimos cinco anos, utilizando a base de dados PubMed. Os achados deste trabalho mostraram que a maioria dos artigos previamente selecionados foram publicados nos últimos dois anos, e os marcadores mais citados foram o de reabsorção óssea, o C-telopeptídeo do colágeno (CTX), que mostra maior correlação com a dinâmica do osso, e o biomarcador de formação óssea, a fosfatase alcalina específica do osso (BAP), cujos valores aumentados estão relacionados à vigência de fratura ou sugerem uma outra doença óssea. Foi observado um aumento dos artigos publicados associando os diferentes biomarcadores ósseos e uma possível aplicabilidade clínica, principalmente no controle do tratamento. As nossas conclusões sugerem que nos últimos anos houve aumento significativo das publicações avaliando o uso dos biomarcadores de remodelação óssea de formação e reabsorção e uma possível aplicabilidade clínica, principalmente na monitorização do tratamento. No entanto, acreditamos que novos estudos precisam ser conduzidos a fim de confirmar esses achados, tendo em vista as vantagens que os biomarcadores ósseos apresentam no manejo clínico da doença.

Humans , Female , Biomarkers/analysis , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Bone Density , Bone Remodeling , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(6): 549-554, Nov.-Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-769817


ABSTRACT Objective This study aimed to investigate the potential role of CAMK II pathway in the compression-regulated OPG expression in periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs). Material and Methods The PDL tissue model was developed by 3-D culturing human PDLCs in a thin sheet of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds, which was subjected to static compression of 25 g/cm2 for 3, 6 and 12 h, with or without treatment of KN-93. After that, the expression of OPG, RANKL and NFATC2 was investigated through real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Results After static compression, the NFATC2 and RANKL expression was significantly up-regulated, while partially suppressed by KN-93 for 6 and 12 h respectively. The OPG expression was significantly down-regulated by compression in 3 h, started to elevate in 6 h, and significantly up-regulated in 12 h. The up-regulation after 12 h was significantly suppressed by KN-93. Conclusions Long-term static compression increases OPG expression in PDLCs, at least partially, via the CAMK II pathway.

Humans , /metabolism , Osteogenesis/physiology , Osteoprotegerin/metabolism , Periodontal Ligament/cytology , Benzylamines/pharmacokinetics , Blotting, Western , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Down-Regulation , NFATC Transcription Factors/metabolism , Pressure , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , RANK Ligand/analysis , RANK Ligand/metabolism , Random Allocation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sulfonamides/pharmacokinetics , Time Factors , Up-Regulation
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(6): 461-469, 06/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709449


A previous study showed that BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein-2) and wear debris can separately support osteoclast formation induced by the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). However, the effect of BMP-2 on wear debris-induced osteoclast formation is unclear. In this study, we show that neither titanium particles nor BMP-2 can induce osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cells but that BMP-2 synergizes with titanium particles to enhance osteoclast formation in the presence of RANKL, and that at a low concentration, BMP-2 has an optimal effect to stimulate the size and number of multinuclear osteoclasts, expression of osteoclast genes, and resorption area. Our data also clarify that the effects caused by the increase in BMP-2 on phosphorylated SMAD levels such as c-Fos expression increased throughout the early stages of osteoclastogenesis. BMP-2 and titanium particles stimulate the expression of p-JNK, p-P38, p-IkB, and P50 compared with the titanium group. These data suggested that BMP-2 may be a crucial factor in titanium particle-mediated osteoclast formation.

Animals , Mice , /pharmacology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Macrophages/drug effects , Osteoclasts/metabolism , RANK Ligand/pharmacology , Titanium/pharmacology , Acid Phosphatase/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Drug Synergism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gene Expression , Isoenzymes/pharmacology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Smad Proteins/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/isolation & purification
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Feb; 52(2): 153-158
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150344


Administration of aqueous extract of T. aestivum (200 and 400 mg/kg/day, po, for 30 days) and risedronate (20 mg/kg, sc, five times a week for 30 days) following methyl prednisolone sodium succinate (10 mg/kg, sc, thrice a week for 4 weeks) induced osteoporosis in Wistar rats showed an increase in the serum levels of bone mineral content markers, decrease in the serum and urinary levels of bone resorption markers. An incline in strength of femur and tibia was seen particularly with 400 mg/kg of T. aestivum. Maintenance of calcium homeostasis, formation of collagen and scavenging of free radicals can plausibly be the mode of action of aqueous extract of T. aestivum thereby combating osteoporosis induced by glucocorticoids.

Animals , Bone Density/drug effects , Bone Resorption/drug therapy , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Collagen/biosynthesis , Etidronic Acid/administration & dosage , Etidronic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Femur/drug effects , Femur/metabolism , Free Radical Scavengers/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/toxicity , Male , Osteoporosis/chemically induced , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Osteoporosis/pathology , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Rats , Tibia/drug effects , Tibia/metabolism , Triticum/chemistry
J. appl. oral sci ; 20(3): 340-346, May-June 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-643731


OBJECTIVES: The Mikania laevigata extract (MLE) (popularly known in Brazil as "guaco") possesses anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study we tested the effects of MLE in a periodontitis experimental model in rats. We also investigated possible mechanisms underlying such effects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Periodontal disease was induced by a ligature placed around the mandibular first molars of each animal. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: non-ligated animals treated with vehicle; non-ligated animals treated with MLE (10 mg/kg, daily); ligature-induced animals treated with vehicle and ligature-induced animals treated with MLE (10 mg/kg, daily). Thirty days after the induction of periodontal disease, the animals were euthanized and mandibles and gingival tissues removed for further analysis. RESULTS: Morphometric analysis of alveolar bone loss demonstrated that MLE-treated animals presented a decreased alveolar bone loss and a lower expression of the activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) measured by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, gingival tissues from the MLE-treated group showed decreased neutrophil migration myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that MLE may be useful to control bone resorption during progression of experimental periodontitis in rats.

Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Bone Resorption/drug therapy , Mikania/chemistry , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , RANK Ligand/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Bone Resorption/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Progression , Plant Leaves , Periodontitis/pathology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , RANK Ligand/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 54(2): 143-149, Mar. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-546256


Transplantation is an established therapy for many hematologic disorders as well as for end-stage diseases of the kidney, lung, liver, heart among others. Osteoporosis and a high incidence of fragility fractures have emerged as a complication of organ transplantation. Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis following organ transplantation. In addition, most patients have some form of bone disease prior to transplantation, which is usually related to adverse effects of end-stage organ failure on the skeleton. This chapter reviews the mechanisms of bone loss that occur both in the early and late post-transplant periods including the contribution of immunosuppressive agents as well as the specific features of bone loss after kidney, lung, liver, cardiac and bone marrow transplantation. Prevention and treatment for osteoporosis in the transplant recipient will also be addressed.

Transplante de órgãos ou medula óssea é uma terapia conhecida para muitas doenças hematológicas e para estágios finais de doenças renais, pulmonares, hepáticas, cardíacas, entre outras. A osteoporose e o aumento da prevalência de fraturas por fragilidade óssea têm se mostrado como uma complicação do transplante. Muitos fatores contribuem para a patogênese da osteoporose relacionada ao transplante. Além disso, a maioria dos pacientes apresenta doença óssea antes do transplante, a qual é secundária à doença grave de base. Este artigo revisa os mecanismos da perda óssea que ocorrem tanto na fase precoce quanto na fase tardia após o transplante, incluindo o uso das drogas imunossupressoras, como também os fatores específicos envolvidos na perda óssea relacionados ao transplante renal, pulmonar, hepático, cardíaco e de medula óssea. A prevenção e o tratamento da osteoporose após transplante também são abordados nesta revisão.

Humans , Bone Marrow Transplantation/adverse effects , Osteoporosis/etiology , Bone Density , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Osteoporosis/prevention & control
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 54(2): 213-219, Mar. 2010. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-546265


Anabolic drugs have recently widened therapeutic options in osteoporosis treatment, as they influence processes associated with bone formation to a greater extent and earlier than bone reabsortion. They positively affect a number of skeletal properties besides bone density, as intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) results in an increase in the number and activity of osteoblasts leading to an increase in bone mass and improvement in skeletal architecture at both the trabecular and cortical bone. Human recombinant parathyroid hormone (hrPTH 1-84) and human recombinant PTH peptide 1-34 (teriparatide) belong to this group. The objective of this paper is to review PTH actions, benefits and adverse effects, action on biochemical markers, combination therapy with antiresorptive agents, impact of antiresorptive therapy prior to anabolic treatment, sequential treatment, and effect on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.

As drogas anabólicas ampliaram recentemente as opções terapêuticas no tratamento da osteo-porose e influenciam em maior escala os processos relacionados com a formação óssea, que ocorrem antes do efeito na reabsorção. Essas drogas afetam um grande número de propriedades esqueléticas, além da densidade mineral óssea. A administração intermitente de PTH leva a um aumento do número e atividade dos osteoblastos, ocasionando aumento da massa óssea e melhora da arquitetura, tanto do osso trabecular quanto cortical. O paratormônio recombinante humano (hrPTH 1-84) e o peptídeo recombinante humano 1-34 (teriparatide) pertencem a esse grupo de agentes. O objetivo deste artigo é revisar as ações, os benefícios e os efeitos adversos do PTH, assim como sua ação nos marcadores bioquímicos do metabolismo ósseo, a terapia combinada com drogas antirreabsortivas, o impacto do uso dos antirreabsortivos antes do tratamento anabólico, o tratamento sequencial e o tratamento da osteoporose induzida por glicocorticoides.

Humans , Anabolic Agents/therapeutic use , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Parathyroid Hormone/therapeutic use , Teriparatide/therapeutic use , Anabolic Agents/adverse effects , Biomarkers/metabolism , Bone Density Conservation Agents/adverse effects , Bone Density/drug effects , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Lumbar Vertebrae/drug effects , Parathyroid Hormone/adverse effects , Spinal Fractures/prevention & control , Teriparatide/adverse effects
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 52(1): 109-113, fev. 2008. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-477439


Osteoclastogenesis may be regulated via activation of the RANK/RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B/ receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand) system, which is mediated by osteoblasts. However, the bone loss mechanism induced by T3 (triiodothyronine) is still controversial. In this study, osteoblastic lineage rat cells (ROS 17/2.8) were treated with T3 (10-8 M, 10-9 M, and 10-10 M), and RANKL mRNA (messenger RNA) expression was measured by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Our results show that T3 concentrations used did not significantly enhance RANKL expression compared to controls without hormone treatment. This data suggests that other mechanisms, unrelated to the RANK/RANKL system, might be to activate osteoclast differentiation in these cells.

A osteoclastogênese pode ser regulada via ativação do sistema RANK/RANKL (receptor ativador do fator nuclear kapa B/ ligante do receptor do fator nuclear kapa B), que é mediado pelos osteoblastos. Entretanto, o mecanismo de perda óssea induzido pelo T3 (triiodotironina) ainda é controverso. Neste estudo, a linhagem osteoblástica de células de rato ROS 17/2.8 foi tratada com T3 (10-8 M, 10-9 M e 10-10 M), e a expressão do mRNA do RANKL foi medida por RT-PCR semiquantitativo. Nossos resultados mostraram que as concentrações de T3 utilizadas não induziram significativamente a expressão do RANKL, comparado ao controle (sem tratamento hormonal). Estes dados sugerem que outros mecanismos, não relacionados ao sistema RANK/RANKL, são usados para ativar a diferenciação osteoclástica nestas células.

Animals , Rats , Bone Resorption/drug therapy , Osteoblasts/drug effects , RANK Ligand/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Thyroid Hormone/metabolism , Triiodothyronine/pharmacology , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Osteoblasts/cytology , Osteoclasts/metabolism , RANK Ligand/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Thyroid Hormone/genetics
Rev. bras. otorrinolaringol ; 73(1): 123-127, jan.-fev. 2007.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-449717


O colesteatoma adquirido da orelha média causa erosão óssea, com altas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade. O TNF-alfa (TNF-alfa) lambda uma das principais citocinas envolvidas neste processo. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel do TNF-alfa na reabsorsão óssea e a ação dele no colesteatoma. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um levantamento e uma revisão crítica da literatura. RESULTADOS: Todos os autores estudados concordam com a importância do TNF-alfa no processo de reabsorção óssea presente no colesteatoma e com o grau de destruição observado. Diferentes trabalhos demonstraram que o TNF-alfa é capaz de provocar erosão óssea, através de diferentes vias de ação. Ele pode estimular a diferenciação e a maturação dos osteoclastos ou, ainda, agir na matriz óssea expondo-a à ação dos osteoclastos. Existe a possibilidade de inibir a ação do TNF-alfa, diminuindo seus efeitos e prevenindo a perda óssea em doenças como a artrite reumatóide. Não existe, entretanto, trabalhos específicos em colesteatoma. Não existe consenso sobre a sua localização. Estas diferenças, provavelmente, ocorrem devido à distribuição dos receptores. CONCLUSÃO: O TNF-alfa, presente no colesteatoma promove a reabsorsão óssea, juntamente com outras citocinas (RANKL e IL-1), estando relacionado com a presença de complicações.

Cholesteatoma may cause bone erosion, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Tumor Necrosis Factor -Alpha (TNF-a) is one of the main cytokines involved in this process. Our goal was to evaluate the role of TNF-a in Bone Resorption and its effect on cholesteatoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: analysis and critical literature review. RESULTS: Different studies have demonstrated that TNF-a is capable of causing bone erosion. It may stimulate the differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts or it may act on the bone matrix, exposing it to the action of the osteoclasts. It is possible to inhibit TNF-a, reducing its effects and prevent bone loss in illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis,and there has been no specific investigation regarding cholesteatomas. All studies agree on the importance of TNF-a in the bone resorption process present in cholesteatomas, and on the degree of destruction observed; however, there is no consensus as to its location. These differences are probably due to receptor site. CONCLUSION: TNF-a, present in cholesteatomas, promotes bone resorption, along with other cytokines (RANKL and IL-1) related to complications.

Humans , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Bone Resorption/pathology , Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear/pathology
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 213-221, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90611


Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs), a new class of anti-cancer agents, have been reported to suppress formation of osteoclast precursors and their fusion into multinucleated cells. However, little is known about the effect of HDIs on mature osteoclasts, which may have significance for their therapeutic use. Here, we demonstrate a novel action of HDIs on osteoclast apoptosis. Primary multinucleated mature osteoclasts were prepared from mouse bone marrow cells. Treatment of osteoclasts with the HDI trichostatin A (TSA) caused apoptosis, as confirmed by annexin V staining and caspase activation. TSA caused the upregulation of p21WAF1 in osteoclasts. To understand the role of p21(WAF1) upregulation in TSA-treated osteoclasts, shRNA against p21(WAF1)-containing lentivirus was introduced into osteoclasts. The suppression of p21(WAF1) decreased TSA-directed osteoclast apoptosis. Collectively, our results provide evidence that TSA causes osteoclast apoptosis, which involves, in part, TSA-induced upregulation of p21(WAF1), and strongly supports HDIs as potential therapeutic agents for excessive bone resorption.

Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Apoptosis/drug effects , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21/deficiency , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Hydroxamic Acids/pharmacology , Osteoclasts/cytology , RANK Ligand/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Up-Regulation/drug effects
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 50(5): 852-861, out. 2006. tab
Article in Portuguese, English | LILACS | ID: lil-439066


O cálcio (Ca) dietético é fundamental para a saúde óssea. Tanto o teor como a biodisponibilidade do elemento nos alimentos devem ser considerados. Este artigo objetiva sumarizar os fatores envolvidos na absorção e destacar os alimentos com melhor disponibilidade do Ca. Este é absorvido principalmente no jejuno e o pH baixo parece favorecer sua absorção, que é maior no crescimento, na gestação/lactação e na carência de Ca ou fósforo (P), e menor no envelhecimento. As maiores fontes, e com melhor absorção, são os laticínios bovinos. Outros alimentos apresentam concentrações elevadas de Ca, mas com biodisponibilidade variável: os ricos em ácidos oxálico e fítico apresentariam uma menor absorção, enquanto que os ricos em carboidratos teriam uma absorção maior. Por apresentarem uma biodisponibilidade do Ca mais próxima da do leite bovino, o leite de outros animais, o de soja enriquecido e alguns vegetais, em quantidades adequadas, poderiam ser usados como alternativas a este.

Dietary calcium (Ca) is fundamental to the bone's health. Both the purport and the element bioavailability in the food need to be considered. The purpose of this work was to summarize the factors involved in Ca absorption and point out the sources with higher bioavailability. Ca is mostly absorbed in the jejunum and low pH seems to favor its absorption, which is higher during growth, gestation/lactation and Ca and phosphorus (P) deficiency, and lower with aging. The richest and best-absorbed Ca source is cow's milk and its derivatives. Other foods show high Ca concentrations but variable bioavailability: foods rich in phytates and oxalates show a smaller absorption and carbohydrate-rich foods show higher absorption. Since Ca bioavailability in other animal's milk, soymilk and some vegetables is closer to that in cow's milk, adequate amounts of these foods could be used as an alternative.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacokinetics , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Calcium, Dietary/pharmacokinetics , Diet , Intestinal Absorption/physiology , Nutritional Requirements , Biological Availability , Bone Density/physiology , Calcium Carbonate/metabolism , Calcium/deficiency , Lactation/metabolism , Lactose Intolerance/metabolism , Lactose/metabolism , Milk/metabolism , Osteoporosis/diet therapy , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Soy Milk/pharmacokinetics , Vegetables/metabolism
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 50(4): 603-620, ago. 2006. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-437611


With the ageing population in most countries, disorders of bone and mineral metabolism are becoming increasingly relevant to every day clinical practice. Consequently, the interest in, and the need for effective measures to be used in the screening, diagnosis and follow-up of such pathologies have markedly grown. Together with clinical and imaging techniques, biochemical tests play an important role in the assessment and differential diagnosis of metabolic bone disease. In recent years, the isolation and characterisation of cellular and extracellular components of the skeletal matrix have resulted in the development of molecular markers that are considered to reflect either bone formation or bone resorption. These biochemical indices are non-invasive, comparatively inexpensive and, when applied and interpreted correctly, helpful tools in the diagnostic and therapeutic assessment of metabolic bone disease. This review provides an overview of the current evidence regarding the clinical use of biochemical markers of bone remodelling in bone disease, with an emphasis on osteoporosis.

Tendo em vista o crescimento da população idosa na maioria dos países, os distúrbios do metabolismo ósseo e mineral estão tornando-se cada vez mais relevantes na prática clínica diária. Conseqüentemente, o interesse e a necessidade de medidas efetivas para serem usadas no rastreamento, diagnóstico e seguimento de tais patologias vêm crescendo acentuadamente. Além da avaliação clínica e de técnicas de imagens, os marcadores bioquímicos desempenham um importante papel na avaliação e diagnóstico das doenças ósseas metabólicas. Recentemente, a melhor caracterização dos componentes intracelulares e extracelulares da matriz óssea resultou no desenvolvimento dos marcadores moleculares, os quais refletem tanto a formação como a reabsorção óssea. Estes marcadores bioquímicos não são invasivos e comparativamente são de mais baixo custo, e quando aplicados e interpretados corretamente são instrumentos úteis no diagnóstico e tratamento das doenças ósseas metabólicas. Esta revisão abordará evidências atuais, levando em consideração o uso clínico dos marcadores bioquímicos da remodelação óssea nas doenças metabólicas ósseas, com ênfase na osteoporose.

Humans , Male , Female , Biomarkers/analysis , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/metabolism , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Fractures, Bone/metabolism , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Bone Density , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/urine , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/blood , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/urine , Bone Resorption/blood , Bone Resorption/urine , Bone and Bones/chemistry , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Hip Fractures/etiology , Hip Fractures/metabolism , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/metabolism , Osteoporosis/blood , Osteoporosis/urine , Risk Factors