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1.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(3): 437-442, May-June 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388015

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical and radiological results of patients with type-V cystic scaphoid nonunion who were treated with percutaneous grafting and screw. Methods A total of 11 patients were treated with a percutaneous bone graft with screw fixation. The criteria for inclusion in the study were a type-V scaphoid nonunion and age > 18 years old. Those with humpback deformity, arthritis, ligament damage determined on magnetic resonance imaging, or avascular necrosis (AVN) in the nonunion fragment were excluded from the study. Results The mean follow-up time was 36 months (range: 15-53 months). At the final follow-up examination, the mean visual analogue scale score was 1.06 (range: 0-2.3). Postoperatively, the mean extension was 61.6° (44-80°), flexion 66° (60-80°), radial deviation 12° (7-20°), and ulnar deviation 25° (20-34°). The mean grip strength of the operated hand was found to be 94%, compared with the healthy side. The results obtained in the Mayo Modified Wrist Score were poor in 2 patients, good in 2 and excellent in 7 (64%). With the exception of 2 patients, union was obtained radiologically in 9 patients, with a mean of 12.6 weeks (range, 8-16 weeks). Conclusion Percutaneous grafting and screw fixation cannot replace open surgery in cases with deformity, shortening, humpbacking, or in long term nonunions; however, it is a reliable and effective treatment method in selected cases, such as Slade & Dodds type-V cystic nonunion.


Resumo Objetivo O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar os resultados clínicos e radiológicos de pacientes com não consolidação do escafoide que foram tratados com enxerto percutâneo e parafuso. Métodos Um total de 11 pacientes foram tratados com enxerto ósseo percutâneo com fixação de parafuso. Os critérios de inclusão no estudo foram não consolidação do escafoide do tipo 5 e idade > 18 anos. Foram excluídos do estudo aqueles com deformidade corcunda, artrite, dano ligamentar determinado por ressonância magné- tica ou necrose avascular (NAV) no fragmento de não consolidação. Resultados O tempo médio de seguimento foi de 36 meses (intervalo: 15-53 meses). No exame final de seguimento, o escore médio de escala visual analógica foi de 1,06 (intervalo: 0-2,3). No pós-operatório, a extensão média foi de 61,6° (44-80°), flexão 66° (60-80°), desvio radial 12° (7--20°) e desvio ulnar 25° (20-34°). A força média de aderência da mão operada foi de 94% em comparação com o lado saudável. Os resultados obtidos no Mayo Modified Wrist Score foram ruins em 2 pacientes, bons em 2 e excelentes em 7 (64%). Com exceção de 2 pacientes, a consolidação foi confirmada radiologicamente em 9 pacientes com média de 12,6 semanas (intervalo: 8-16 semanas). Conclusão Enxerto percutâneoe fixação de parafusos não podem substituir a cirurgia aberta em casos de deformidade, encurtamento ou acorcundamento ou em não consolidação a longo prazo; no entanto, é um método de tratamento confiável e eficaz em casos selecionados, tais como a não consolidação do tipo V de Slade e Dodds.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Bone Screws , Bone Transplantation , Scaphoid Bone/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal
2.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(2): 327-333, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387990

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective We aimed to study the "in vitro" pullout strength of SpineGuard/Zavation Dynamic Surgical Guidance Z-Direct Screw (DSG Screw, SpineGuard Inc, Boulder, Colorado, USA), a screw designed to be inserted using a direct insertion technique. Methods Dynamic Surgical Guidance Screws of 5.5 and 6.5 mm were introduced into polyurethane blocks with a density of 10 PCF (0,16g/cm3). According to the experimental group, screws were inserted without pilot hole, with pilot without tapping, undertapping and line-to-line tapping. Screw pullout tests were performed using a universal test machine after screw insertion into polyurethane blocks. Results Screws inserted directly into the polyurethane blocks without pilot hole and tapping showed a statistically higher pullout strength. Insertion of the screw without tapping or with undertapping increases the pullout screw strength compared with lineto-line tapping. Conclusion Dynamic Surgical Guidance Screw showed the highest pullout strength after its insertion without pilot hole and tapping.


Resumo Objetivo Nosso objetivo foi estudar a resistência à extração "in vitro" do parafuso SpineGuard/Zavation Dynamic Surgical Guidance Z-Direct (Parafuso DSG Guia Cirúrgico Dinâmico, SpineGuard Inc, Boulder, Colorado, USA), um parafuso projetado para ser inserido utilizando a técnica de inserção direta. Métodos Os parafusos DSG de 5,5 e 6,5 mm foram introduzidos em blocos de poliuretano com densidade de 10 PCF (0,16g/cm3). De acordo com o grupo experimental, os parafusos foram inseridos sem um orifício piloto, com um orifício piloto sem o macheamento, com macheamento e com macheamento linha a linha. Os testes de extração do parafuso foram realizados em uma máquina de teste universal, após a inserção do parafuso em blocos de poliuretano. Resultados Os parafusos inseridos diretamente nos blocos de poliuretano sem o orifício piloto e o macheamento mostraram uma resistência à extração estatisticamente maior. A inserção do parafuso sem o macheamento ou com o macho de menor diâmetro aumenta a resistência à extração do parafuso em comparação com o macheamento linha a linha. Conclusão O parafuso DSG apresentou a maior resistência à extração após a inserção sem o orifício piloto e o macheamento.


Subject(s)
Spinal Fusion , Biomechanical Phenomena/physiology , Bone Screws , Pedicle Screws
3.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(1): 47-54, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365749

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To study the parameters related to the insertion path of cortical screws and to describe this technique. Methods Computed tomography (CT) scans of 30 patients, as well as the measurements from the L1 to the L5 vertebrae, were studied. A second observer evaluated ten randomly-selected exams. The parameters studied included the lateral angle (LA) and the screw diameter (SD) as axial variables, and the cranial angle (CA) and screw length (SL) as sagittal variables. Results We studied 15 male patients (mean age: 31.33 years) and 15 female patients (mean age: 32.01 years). The LA varied between 13.8° and 20.89°, with a tendency to increase in the proximal to distal direction. The CA varied from 17.5° to 24.9°, with a tendency to decrease in the caudal direction. The SD ranged from 2.3 mm to 7.2 mm, with a tendency to increase as we progressed from proximal to distal. The SL varied from 19 mm to 45 mm, with a tendency to decrease as we proceeded from proximal (L1) to distal (L5). No statistical difference was observed between the genders or in the interobserver agreement regarding the values studied when comparing the sides. Conclusion The path of insertion of the cortical screw shows a variation in different populations. Therefore, we recommend a preoperative imaging study to reduce the surgical risks related to the technique.


Resumo Objetivo Estudar os parâmetros anatômicos do trajeto de inserção do parafuso cortical e descrever sua técnica. Métodos Analisaram-se exames de tomografia computadorizada de 30 pacientes, e as medidas nas vértebras de L1 a L5 bilateralmente. Um segundo observador avaliou dez exames aleatoriamente. Os parâmetros incluíram o ângulo lateral (AL) e o diâmetro do parafuso (DP) como variáveis axiais, e o ângulo cranial (AC) e o comprimento do parafuso (CP) como variáveis sagitais. Resultados No total, havia 15 pacientes do sexo masculino (média de idade de 31,33 anos) e 15 do sexo feminino (média de idade de 32,01 anos). O AL variou de 13,8° a 20,89°, com uma tendência de aumento no sentido de proximal a distal. O AC variou de 17,5° a 24,9°, com tendência de diminuição no sentido caudal. O DP variou de 2,3 mm a 7,2 mm, havendo uma tendência ao aumento conforme avançamos de proximal a distal. O CP variou de 19 mm a 45 mm, havendo uma tendência de diminuição conforme avançamos de proximal (L1) a distal (L5). Não houve diferença estatística entre os sexos, nem diferenças na confiabilidade interobservador, quanto aos valores estudados quando comparados os lados. Conclusão A trajetória do parafuso de trajeto cortical apresenta variações em diferentes populações. Assim, recomendamos o estudo pré-operatório de imagens para reduzir os riscos cirúrgicos relacionados à técnica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Spine/anatomy & histology , Spine/surgery , Bone Screws , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939765

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the self-tapping performance test method of self-tapping bone screws based on the YY/T 1505 standard.@*METHODS@#With reference to the method of YY/T 1505, various factors affecting the self-tapping force test was optimised, and the self-tapping force judgment method was improved.@*RESULTS@#The experimental results showed that the self-tapping force obtained by the improved self-tapping force judgment method has good repeatability and high stability of the experimental data. At the same time, the test results of other influencing factors indicated that the manufacturer should fully consider the test material and the size of the pre-drilled hole.@*CONCLUSIONS@#An improved method for judging the self-tapping force is helpful for the repeatability and stability of the test data. This study has certain significance referring to the self-tapping performance test of self-tapping bone screws.


Subject(s)
Biomechanical Phenomena , Bone Screws
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928854

ABSTRACT

Cannulated Screw is a common internal fixation for the treatment of femoral neck fractures. However, the traditional implantation method has disadvantages such as inaccuracy and large radiation exposure. Based on the anatomical characteristics of the femoral neck and geometric principles, we develop a novel guide device for cannulated screws insertion. The cadaver experiment showed that it can improve the accuracy of cannulated screws implantation, reduce puncture attempts and the radiation exposure of doctors and patients.


Subject(s)
Bone Screws , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Humans , Robotic Surgical Procedures
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928312

ABSTRACT

The proximal medial column of the humerus is a continuous cortical region in the inner and lower part of the humerus head, which has attracted more and more attention in clinical and scientific research since it was proposed. It has been shown to increase the stability of internal fixation, maintain the height of the humeral head to prevent varus, and reduce the risk of screw penetration. Biomechanical studies have also shown that the medial column has an outstanding performance in increasing the stiffness, torsion resistance, and shear resistance of the locking plate. Although it has many benefits, there is no unified definition of its concept and specific region, and the existing classification does not include the medial column, therefore more researches are required to provide supporting information. The methods of medial column reconstruction mainly include locking plate combined with talus screw, locking plate combined with bone grafting, internal and external double plate combined support, locking plate combined with bone cement, and humeral cage. These methods have their own characteristics, however they will increase the cost of surgery and bring new complications. How to determine the best way of reconstruction is one of the focuses of future research. In this review, the concept of the proximal medial humerus column, the role of maintaining internal fixation, the role of biomechanics and the reconstruction methods are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Aged , Bone Plates , Bone Screws , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Humans , Humeral Head , Shoulder Fractures/surgery
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928306

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical effect of the modified Topping-off technique in the treatment of multiple lumbar degenerative diseases.@*METHODS@#From October 2019 to May 2020, 42 patients who underwent modified Topping-off operation (modified Topping-off group) and 42 patients who underwent multilevel total laminectomy and interbody fusion with screw rod system internal fixation (whole laminectomy group) were observed and analyzed. There were 15 males and 27 females in the modified Topping-off group, aged from 28 to 80 years old, with an average of (59.57±11.85)years old. There were 14 males and 28 females in the whole laminectomy group, aged from 45 to 82 years old, with an average of (64.26±9.19) years old. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were evaluated before operation, 1 week, 6 weeks and 12 weeks after operation. The intraoperative blood loss, incision length, operation time, postoperative drainage, weight-bearing time, hospitalization time, intervertebral space height, intervertebral foramen height and lumbar mobility were statistically analyzed.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up for 12 weeks. The intraoperative blood loss and postoperative drainage in the modified Topping-off group were significantly less than those in the whole lamina group (P<0.05). The incision length, operation time, weight-bearing time and hospital stay in the modified Topping-off group were shorter than those in the whole lamina group(P<0.05). There were significant differences in intervertebral space height, intervertebral foramen height and lumbar mobility between the two groups at 12 weeks after operation(P<0.05). The modified Topping-off group had significantly lower VAS 1, 6, 12 weeks after operation and ODI 12 weeks after operation compared with rhose before operation. The VAS at 1, 6, 12 weeks in the whole lamina group were significantly lower those that before operation(P<0.05). The ODI at 12 weeks in the whole lamina group were significantly lower than those before operation(P<0.01). There were significant differences in VAS scores between the two groups at 1 week, 6 weeks and 12 weeks after operation(P<0.01). There was significant difference in ODI between the two groups 12 weeks after operation(P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The application of modified Topping-off technique in the treatment of multi segmental lumbar degenerative diseases can reduce the total length of fusion segments, avoid or slow down the degeneration of adjacent segments, and has a positive effect on maintaining the normal movement of the spine.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bone Screws , Female , Humans , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery , Lumbosacral Region , Male , Middle Aged , Spinal Fusion/methods , Technology
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928291

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To establish the fixation model of anterior cervical transpedicular system (ACTPS) after subtotal resection of two segments of lower cervical spine(C3-C7) in order to provide a finite element modeling method for anterior cervical reconstruction.@*METHODS@#The CT data of the cervical segment (C1-T1) of a 30-year-old adult healthy male volunteer was collected. Used Mimics 10.0, Rapidform XOR3, HyperMesh 10.0, CATIA5V19 and ANSYS 14.0 to establish the three-dimensional nonlinear complete model of lower cervical spine(C3-C7) as the intact group. The number of units and nodes of the complete model were recorded. After the effectiveness of the complete model was verified, the C5 and C6 vertebral subtotal resection was performed, and the ACTPS model was established as the ACTPS group. The axial force of 75 N and moment couple of 1N·m was loaded on the upper surface of C3 in intact group and ACTPS group, the range of motion(ROM)and stress distribution in states of flexion extension, lateral flexion, rotation was compared between two groups.@*RESULTS@#There were 85 832 elements and 23 612 nodes in the complete model of lower cervical spine(C3-C7) which was established in this experiment. The stress distribution of ACTPS internal fixation model was relatively uniform. Comparing with the intact group, the overall range of motion in ACTPS group was decreased in flexion extension, lateral flexion and rotation directions, and the corresponding compensation of adjacent C3,4 segment was increased slightly.@*CONCLUSION@#The stress distribution of ACTPS fixation system is uniform, there is no stress concentration area at the joint of screw and titanium plate, and the fracture risk of internal fixation is low. It is suitable for stability reconstruction after anterior decompression of two or more cervical segments.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biomechanical Phenomena , Bone Screws , Cervical Vertebrae/surgery , Finite Element Analysis , Humans , Male , Range of Motion, Articular , Spinal Fusion
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928283

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical effects of total laminectomy with lateral mass screw fixation and single open-door laminoplasty in the treatment of cervical spinal cord injury without fracture and dislocation.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 75 patients with cervical spinal cord injury without fracture and dislocation treated from December 2014 to April 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, including 65 males and 10 females, aged from 33 to 83 years old with an average of (60.1±11.4) years. According to surgical method, the patients were divided into observation group (36 cases) and control group (39 cases). The observation group was treated with C3-C6 single open-door laminoplasty. In the control group, the C3-C6 whole lamina was opened by "uncovering", and the lateral mass screw was fixed and fused. The general conditions including operation time, intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay and complications such as axial pain, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, postoperative C5 nerve palsy were recorded. Visual analogue scale(VAS), Nurick pain scale, Japanese Orthopaedic Association(JOA) scores and American Spinal Injury Association(AISA) injury scale were used to evaluate the improvement of clinical symptoms and related functional recovery 12 months after operation.@*RESULTS@#There were no statistically significant differences in operation time, intraoperative blood loss and hospital stay between two groups(P>0.05). There were statistically significant differences in JOA, VAS, ASIA and Nurick scores of the all patients between 12 months after surgery and before surgery (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between groups. There was significant difference in the incidence of C5 nerve root palsy and axial pain between two groups(P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the complications of cerebrospinal fluid leakage between two groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Total laminectomy with lateral mass screw fixation and single open-door laminoplasty in treating cervical spinal cord injury without fracture and dislocation can obtain satisfactory results in restoring nerve function, alleviating pain and improving daily behavior, but single open-door laminoplasty has the advantages of less trauma and low incidence of complications.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bone Screws , Case-Control Studies , Cervical Cord/surgery , Cervical Vertebrae/surgery , Female , Humans , Laminectomy/methods , Laminoplasty/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1075-1080, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405256

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Intramedullary headless screw fixation has come to the fore in the treatment of metacarpal fractures in recent years with its advantages. Our aim was to evaluate the metacarpal morphometry for retrograde intramedullary entrance and to determine the optimal entry point. Computed tomography images of 105 patients including 64 men and 41 women, were examined. Distal and proximal metacarpal widths, medullary cavity width, cortex thickness and the measurements of the optimal entry site in volar-dorsal and radio-ulnar directions were measured in both coronal and sagittal planes. In the sagittal plane, the second metacarpal had the widest proximal width (16.29 mm), distal width was greatest in the third metacarpal (14.34 mm) which was significantly different between the sexes (p<0.001). Third metacarpal had the widest medullary cavity width in the sagittal plane (4.12 mm). In the coronal plane, it was the second metarcarpal with the widest proximal (16.14 mm) and distal width (13.92 mm) and was also the longest (66.32 mm). Unlike the sagittal plane, the medullary cavity width in the coronal plane was at the widest (4.06 mm) in fifth metacarpal. The points determined for optimal entry were respectively (4.60 mm; 4.97 mm; 4.55 mm; 4.36 mm) in the dorsal-volar plane, close to the dorsal side. There was no significant difference between the sexes for optimal insertion point in the sagittal planes in all the measured metacarpals. Considering its three dimensional structure, metacarpal bones have irregular morphometric properties and these features differ in sagittal and coronal planes. The optimal entry site is located in the midline in the coronal plane, while it is located in the sagittal plane close to the dorsal part. Knowing these properties can reduce the complication rate by reducing entry attempts and help select the correct material.


RESUMEN: En los últimos años, debido a sus ventajas la fijación intramedular con tornillos sin cabeza ha pasado a primer plano en el tratamiento de las fracturas de los huesos metacarpianos. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la morfometría del hueso metacarpiano para la entrada intramedular retrógrada y determinar el punto de entrada óptimo. Se examinaron imágenes de tomografía computarizada de 105 pacientes, incluidos 64 hombres y 41 mujeres. Los anchos de los huesos metacarpianos distal y proximal, el ancho de la cavidad medular, el grosor de la cortical y las medidas del sitio de entrada óptimo en las direcciones palmar-dorsal y radioulnar se midieron en los planos coronal y sagital. En el plano sagital, el segundo hueso metacarpiano presentó el mayor ancho proximal (16,29 mm), el ancho distal fue mayor en el tercer hueso metacarpiano (14,34 mm), lo que fue significativamente diferente entre individuos de ambos sexos (p<0,001). El tercer metacarpiano tenía la cavidad medular más ancha en el plano sagital (4,12 mm). En el plano coronal, era el segundo hueso metarcarpiano con mayor ancho proximal (16,14 mm) y distal (13,92 mm) y también era el más largo (66,32 mm). A diferencia del plano sagital, el ancho de la cavidad medular en el plano coronal era más ancho (4,06 mm) en el quinto hueso metacarpiano. Los puntos determinados para la entrada óptima fueron respectivamente (4,60 mm; 4,97 mm; 4,55 mm; 4,36 mm) en el plano dorsal-volar, próximo del lado dorsal. No hubo diferencia significativa entre ambos sexos para el punto de inserción óptimo en los planos sagitales en todos los huesos metacarpianos medidos. Teniendo en consideración su estructura tridimensional, los huesos metacarpianos tienen propiedades morfométricas irregulares, y estas características difieren en los planos sagital y coronal. El sitio de entrada óptimo se encuentra en la línea mediana en el plano coronal, mientras que se ubica en el plano sagital cerca de la parte dorsal. Conocer estas propiedades puede reducir la tasa de complicaciones al disminuir los intentos de entrada y ayudar a seleccionar el material correcto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Bone Screws , Metacarpal Bones/diagnostic imaging , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Metacarpal Bones/anatomy & histology
11.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1248721

ABSTRACT

Las fracturas osteocondrales (FOC) traumáticas de rodilla en la edad pediátrica, son lesiones que acompañan hasta un 30% de las luxaciones agudas de rótula (LAR). Si no se mantiene una elevada sospecha clínica, es frecuente su retraso diagnóstico, pudiendo generar potenciales complicaciones. A propósito, presentamos el caso de una paciente de 12 años con una FOC post LAR que pasó inadvertida en la primera consulta, requiriendo la fijación del fragmento osteocondral con tornillos HCS a los 5 meses, logrando un excelente resultado funcional a los 54 meses de seguimiento.


Traumatic osteochondral fractures (OCF) of the knee in pediatric age are injuries that accompany up to 30% of acute patellar dislocations (APD). If high clinical suspicion is not maintained, its diagnostic delay is frequent, and may generate potential complications. Incidentally, we present the case of a 12-year-old patient with a post-APD OCF that went unnoticed in the first consultation, requiring fixation of the osteochondral fragment with HCS screws at 5 months. Achieving an excellent functional result at 54 months follow-up.


As fraturas osteocondrais traumáticas (FOC) do joelho em idade pediátrica são lesões que acompanham até 30% das luxações agudas da patela (LAP). Se uma alta suspeita clínica não for mantida, seu atraso no diagnóstico é frequente e pode gerar complicações potenciais. A propósito, apresentamos o caso de um paciente de 12 anos com FOC pós-LAP que passou despercebido na primeira consulta, exigindo fixação do fragmento osteocondral com parafusos HCS em 5 meses. Obtendo um excelente resultado funcional aos 54 de acompanhamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Knee Injuries/surgery , Knee Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Bone Screws , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Patellar Dislocation/complications , Fracture Fixation , Knee Injuries/etiology
12.
Rev. cuba. ortop. traumatol ; 35(1): e395, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289555

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El hombre ha actuado sobre las fracturas óseas de los miembros desde tiempos ancestrales, confirmando a la inmovilización (reducción-estabilidad) como la forma básica de tratar la afección, que se le presenta con la tríada: trauma, dolor e impotencia funcional. Objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo fue organizar la presentación de los cambios que ocurrían con las innovaciones tecnológicas que se incorporaban en el tratamiento de las fracturas. Métodos: Se presenta una revisión de artículos sobre fracturas publicados en revistas indizadas por el CITMA, libros de autores reconocidos, notas personales de eventos y actividades quirúrgicas, con el fin de analizar las variables seleccionadas y sus vínculos históricos con las distintas etapas que marcaron las nuevas concepciones y modificaciones, surgidas en la aplicación de este tipo de osteosíntesis, lo que nominamos Generaciones. Las variables seleccionadas para el análisis fueron: la reducción de la fractura, la vía de acceso para la colocación de la placa, el procedimiento quirúrgico, los nuevos diseños de implantes, el instrumental, la metalurgia de los implantes y la consolidación curativa. Elementos constitutivos del procedimiento quirúrgico de la osteosíntesis. Relacionando los resultados obtenidos y las fechas de su puesta en práctica, con momentos históricos y la inclusión de Innovaciones Tecnológicas de relevancia, llegamos a reconocer tres etapas o Generaciones donde la influencia de las mismas, explican los adelantos en las concepciones actuales de este proceder. Primera Generación: Clásica, a principios del siglo XX. Segunda Generación: de Compresión, Post Segunda Guerra Mundial. Tercera Generación: Actual, Funcional, y Biológica. Conclusiones: Relacionando los resultados obtenidos y las fechas de su puesta en práctica, con momentos históricos e inclusión de innovaciones tecnológicas de relevancia, llegamos a reconocer tres etapas o Generaciones donde su influencia explica los adelantos en las concepciones actuales de este proceder. Primera Generación o Clásica: a principios del siglo XX. Segunda Generación: de Compresión, Post Segunda Guerra Mundial. Tercera Generación: Actual, Funcional y Biológica(AU)


Introduction: Man has acted on bone fractures of the limbs since ancient times, confirming immobilization (reduction-stability) as the basic way of treating the condition, which is presented with the triad of trauma, pain and functional impotence. Objective: The objective of this paper was to organize the presentation of the changes occurred with technological innovations, integrated in the treatment of fractures. Methods: A literature review on fractures is presented here. Articles published in journals indexed by CITMA, books by well-known authors, personal notes of events and surgical activities were reviewed, in order to analyze the selected variables and their historical links with the different stages that marked the new conceptions and modifications, arisen in the use of this type of osteosynthesis we call generations. Variables selected for analysis were fracture reduction, access route for plate placement, surgical procedure, new implant designs, instrumentation, implant metallurgy, and healing consolidation. Constitutive elements of the osteosynthesis surgical procedure: By relating the results obtained and the dates of their implementation, with historical moments and the inclusion of relevant technological innovations, we come to recognize three stages or generations and their influence explains the advances in the current conceptions of this approach. First generation: classic, early 20th century. Second generation: compression, post-World War II. Third generation: current, functional, and biological. Conclusions: By relating the results obtained and the dates of their implementation, with historical moments and the inclusion of relevant technological innovations, we come to recognize three stages or generations whose influence explains the advances in the current conceptions of this procedure. First generation or classic: at the beginning of the 20th century. Second generation: compression, post-World War II. Third generation: current, functional and biological(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Bone and Bones , Bone Plates , Bone Screws , Inventions/trends
13.
Coluna/Columna ; 20(2): 132-136, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249654

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: In the last three decades, there have been great advances in the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. There are few studies that focus on the long-term clinical and radiographic results of AIS operated on with pedicle screws that also consider psychological repercussions. Methods: We conducted an observational longitudinal study. We reviewed the AIS cases that were operated on with pedicle screws in our center between January 2009 and December 2010. We conducted follow-up until July 2019. A short questionnaire was administered to assess patient satisfaction and the long-term impact from both psychological and functional points of view. Results: A total of 19 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean preoperative Cobb was 58°, the postoperative was 23° and at the end of follow-up it was 26°. No major complications were reported. Ninety percent were very satisfied with the overall results of the surgery. Ninety-five percent had no limitation for sports or daily activities and 90% were satisfied with the cosmetic results. Conclusion: The short- and long-term radiographic evolution in patients treated with third generation material presented good clinical results. In 3 cases (16%) loss of correction greater than 10% was reported. The overall satisfaction index and cosmetic results were very good at the end of follow-up despite the low correction rate (60%). There were no major complications and the incidence of functional limitation and pain at the end of the follow-up was very low. Level of evidence IV; Review article.


RESUMO Objetivo: Nas últimas três décadas houve grandes avanços no tratamento cirúrgico da escoliose idiopática do adolescente. Existem poucos trabalhos que estudam os resultados clínicos e radiográficos a longo prazo de EIA, tratados cirurgicamente com parafusos pediculares que também considerem a repercussão psicológica. Métodos: Realizamos um estudo longitudinal observacional. Analisamos a EIA de pacientes operados entre janeiro de 2009 e dezembro de 2010 que receberam parafusos pediculares em nosso centro. Realizamos o acompanhamento até julho de 2019. Foi realizado um breve questionário para avaliar a satisfação dos pacientes e a repercussão a longo prazo do ponto de vista psicológico e funcional. Resultados: Um total de 19 pacientes satisfizeram os critérios de inclusão. A média de Cobb pré-operatório foi de 58° e o pós-operatório foi de 23° e ao final do acompanhamento, de 26°. Não foram registradas complicações relevantes. Quanto à satisfação, 90% estão muito satisfeitos com o resultado geral da cirurgia, 95% não têm limitações para esportes ou atividades diárias e 90% estão satisfeitos com os resultados estéticos. Conclusões: A evolução radiográfica a curto e longo prazo nos pacientes tratados com material de terceira geração apresentou bons resultados clínicos. Em 3 casos (16%), registrou-se perda de correção superior a 10%. O índice geral de satisfação e resultado estético é muito bom no final do acompanhamento, apesar da baixa taxa de correção (60%). Não se constataram complicações importantes e a incidência de limitação funcional e dor ao final do acompanhamento foi muito baixa. Nível de evidência IV; Artigo de revisão.


RESUMEN Objetivo: En las últimas tres décadas han habido grandes avances en el tratamiento quirúrgico de las escoliosis idiopática del adolescente. Existen pocos trabajos que estudien el resultado clínico y radiográfico a largo plazo en las EIA intervenidas con tornillos pediculares que además contemplen repercusión psicológica. Métodos: Realizamos un estudio longitudinal observacional. Revisamos las EIA intervenidas entre enero de 2009 y diciembre de 2010 con tornillos pediculares en nuestro centro. Realizamos seguimiento hasta julio de 2019. Se realizó un breve cuestionario para evaluar satisfacción de los pacientes y la repercusión a largo plazo de punto de vista psicológico y funcional. Resultados: Un total de 19 pacientes cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. La media del Cobb pre operatorio fue de 58° y el post operatorio de 23° y al final del seguimiento, de 26°. No se registraron complicaciones mayores. El 90% está muy satisfecho con el resultado global de la cirugía. El 95% no presenta limitación para el deporte o actividad cotidiana y el 90% está conforme con resultado cosmético. Conclusiones: La evolución radiográfica a corto y largo plazo en pacientes tratados con material de tercera generación presentó buenos resultados clínicos. En 3 casos (16%) se registró perdida de corrección mayor a 10%. El índice de satisfacción global y resultado cosmético es muy bueno al final del seguimiento a pesar de la baja tasa de corrección (60%). No se constataron complicaciones mayores y la incidencia de limitación funcional y dolor al final del seguimiento fue muy baja. Nivel de evidencia IV; Estudio de revisión.


Subject(s)
Humans , Scoliosis , General Surgery , Bone Screws , Adolescent
14.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 62(1): 11-18, mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342590

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Realizar la evaluación clínica, imagenológica y funcional de pacientes con fracturas avulsivas tibiales del ligamento cruzado posterior (FTALCPs) fijadas con tornillos canulados con técnica abierta. MÉTODOS: Los pacientes con FTALCP operados entre 2010 y 2017 fueron revisados retrospectivamente. Criterios de inclusión: fracturas agudas, desplazadas, test de cajón posterior grado III, lesiones combinadas de rodilla, seguimiento > 12 meses. Se excluyeron pacientes > 65 años, con FTALCPs bilaterales, lesiones del ligamento cruzado posterior (LCP) intrasustancia, test de cajón posterior grados I-II, fracturas expuestas, lesiones neurovasculares, y seguimientos < 12 meses. Objetivo primario: medir la estabilidad clínica mediante test de cajón posterior y radiografía de estrés arrodillada comparativa. Objetivos secundarios: nvaluar la consolidación en radiografías, complicaciones y funcionalidad con las escalas de Lysholm y Tegner. Resultados Se incluyeron 20 pacientes, con edad media de 41 años (rango: 32 a 61 años). El seguimiento promedio fue de 33,9 meses (rango: 12 a 82 meses). La estabilidad clínica mejoró en 93% (cajón posterior postoperatorio grados 0 y I) de los pacientes. La radiografía de estrés arrodillada mostró una diferencia promedio de 2,6 mm (rango: 0,1 mm a 6,8 mm) de traslación posterior al comparar con el lado sano. Todas las fracturas consolidaron. Siete pacientes presentaron complicaciones. El puntaje promedio de la escala de Lysholm al final del seguimiento fue de 85,17. El promedio preoperatorio del puntaje en la escala de Tegner no varió significativamente en comparación con el postoperatorio. CONCLUSIONES: La fijación de fracturas avulsivas tibiales del LCP con tornillos canulados con técnica abierta es efectiva en restaurar la estabilidad posterior y lograr la consolidación ósea. La funcionalidad clínica a mediano plazo es buena, a pesar del alto número de complicaciones y lesiones concomitantes. NIVEL DE EVIDENCIA: tipo IV.


OBJECTIVE: To report mid-term clinical, radiographic, and functional outcomes following open reduction and fixation of posterior cruciate ligament tibial avulsion fractures (PCLTAFs) with cannulated screws. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of patients with PCLTAF operated on from August 2010 to April 2017. Patients with acute fractures, with more than 2 mm of displacement and grade III on the posterior drawer test, combined or not to knee injuries, were included. Patients older than 65 years of age, with bilateral avulsion fractures, intrasubstance posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) lesions, stable grade-I to -II on the posterior drawer test, concomitant neurovascular injuries, mid-substance tears, open fractures, and less than 12 months of follow-up were excluded. Primary outcomes: the clinical stability was assessed using the posterior drawer test and a single comparative knee stress radiograph. Secondary outcomes: radiographic consolidation, complications, Lysholm score, and Tegner activity score. RESULTS: In total, 20 patients with a mean age of 41 years (range: 32 to 61 years) were included. The mean follow-up was of 33.9 months (range: 12 to 82 months). Clinical stability (grade 0 or I on the posterior drawer test) was observed in 93% of the patients. The mean difference in contralateral posterior displacement was of 2.6 mm (range: 0.1 mm to 6.8 mm) on a single comparative knee stress radiograph. All fractures presented radiological consolidation. Seven patients developed complications. The mean Lysholm score at the last follow-up visit was of 85.17. The postoperative Tegner activity scores did no vary significantly compared to the preinjury scores. CONCLUSIONS: Cannulated screw fixation of a displaced PCLTAF through a posterior approach restores clinical and radiographic stability and has excellent union rates. The mid-term functional outcomes are good despite the high rates of combined knee lesions and postoperative complications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tibial Fractures/surgery , Tibial Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Bone Screws , Posterior Cruciate Ligament/surgery , Posterior Cruciate Ligament/diagnostic imaging , Fracture Fixation/methods , Tibial Fractures/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Posterior Cruciate Ligament/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome , Fractures, Avulsion , Fracture Fixation/instrumentation
15.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 62(1): 27-33, mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342658

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Una de las complicaciones de la osteosíntesis retrógrada del escafoides es la protrusión del tornillo en la articulación radiocarpiana, dada la limitada visualización intraoperatoria del polo proximal del escafoides con las proyecciones tradicionales. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la capacidad de una nueva proyección radiológica, la proyección "tangencial del escafoides dorsal", o TED, para identificar tornillos prominentes radiocarpianos durante la osteosíntesis retrógrada del escafoides con tornillos canulados. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio cadavérico en muñecas frescas congeladas. Se introdujo en el escafoides un tornillo canulado con técnica retrógrada estándar. La proyección TED fue evaluada en 5 muñecas, con angulaciones del antebrazo de 15°, 30° y 45° para definir la mejor visualización del polo proximal del escafoides y del tornillo. Se comparó la capacidad para identificar la prominencia del tornillo en el polo proximal de la proyección TED de 30° con 5 proyecciones tradicionales de escafoides en 9 muñecas. El tornillo se posicionó a nivel de la superficie del escafoides, y luego se avanzó a intervalos de 0,5 mm bajo visualización directa por artrotomía dorsal. Tras cada intervalo, se repitieron todas las proyecciones para determinar su capacidad de detectar tornillos prominentes en el escafoides. RESULTADOS: La mejor visualización del polo proximal del escafoides se logró con la proyección TED de 30°. Al comparar la proyección TED de 30° y las tradicionales, con la TED se logró identificar tornillos prominentes a 0,8 mm promedio, seguida por la proyección posteroanterior con cubitalización y extensión a 1.3 mm (p » 0.014), con una alta precisión y correlación interobservador de estas proyecciones. CONCLUSIÓN: La proyección TED demostró ser la más sensible para detectar tornillos prominentes en la articulación radiocarpiana. Su uso rutinario podría evitar complicaciones durante la osteosíntesis.


INTRODUCTION: One of the complications of the retrograde percutaneous scaphoid fixation is the protrusion of the screw in the radiocarpal joint due to the limited intraoperative visualization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid with the traditional radiographic views. OBJETIVE: To evaluate the sensitivity of a novel radiographic view (the skyline scaphoid view, SSV) to detect screws protruding in the radiocarpal joint during the retrograde fixation of the scaphoid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied nine cadaverous fresh frozen wrists. A retrograde cannulated screw was inserted in the scaphoid. To validate the SSV, 5 wrists were studied, comparing 3 forearm angulations (15°, 30° and 45°) to get the best visualization of the proximal pole and screw. We compared the ability to identify the protrusion of the screw in the proximal pole of the 30° SSV with that of 5 standard scaphoid radiographic views in 9 wrists. The screw was positioned at the level of the surface of the scaphoid, and was sequentially protruded in 0.5 mm increments, with direct visualization of its tip through a dorsal capsulotomy. After each increment, all views were repeated to determine if they were able to detect screws projecting from the scaphoid. RESULTS: The best visualization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid was found with the 30° SSV. In the comparison of the 30° SSV and the standard views, with the SSV we were able to identify the protrusion of the screws at an average of 0.8 mm, followed by the posterior-anterior view with ulnar deviation and extension at 1.3 mm (p » 0.014), with high precision and interobserver agreement regarding these views. CONCLUSION: The SSV was the most sensitive view to detect protruding screws in the proximal pole of the scaphoid. Its routine use could avoid complications during osteosynthesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Wrist Joint/diagnostic imaging , Bone Screws/adverse effects , Scaphoid Bone/diagnostic imaging , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Radiology/methods , Wrist Joint/surgery , Cadaver , Observer Variation , Scaphoid Bone/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal/instrumentation
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the biomechanical stability of elastic intramedullary nail in the treatment of pubic ramus fractures by finite element analysis, and to compare the stability of elastic intramedullary nail with cannulated screw intramedullary fixation.@*METHODS@#The CT data of the pelvis of a volunteer were selected, and the three-dimensional model of the pelvis was reconstructed by reverse engineering software and the fracture of the pubic ramus fractures was simulated by osteotomy. The hollow nail model, single elastic nail model and double elastic nailmodel were assembled with different implants respectively. The mesh division, material assignment loading and other steps were carried out in the ANSYS software, and then the calculation was submitted.@*RESULTS@#The overall displacement of the pelvis of the elastic nail model was smaller than that of the cannulated screw model, in which the double elastic nail model had the smallest overall displacement, but the cannulated screw model had the smallest plant displacement and the single elastic nail model had the largest plant displacement. Although the stress of cannulated screw was small, there was obvious stress concentration, the stress of elastic nail was large, but there was no obvious stress concentration, especially the stress distribution of double elastic nail was more uniform and the overall stress of pelvis was the smallest.@*CONCLUSION@#All the three fixation methods can effectively improve the stability of the anterior ring of the pelvis. Among them, there is no significant difference in the overall biomechanical propertiesof hollow nail fixation and double elastic nail fixation, which is better than that of single elastic nail fixation. Elastic nail fixation has the advantages of minimally invasive surgery and good biomechanical stability, so it can be used as a better surgical method for the treatment of pubic ramus fractures.


Subject(s)
Biomechanical Phenomena , Bone Screws , Finite Element Analysis , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Humans , Spinal Fractures
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888331

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy of iliolumbar fixation in the treatment of U-shaped sacral fractures.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted on the 14 complex U-shaped sacral fractures which had been treated from January 2014 to December 2019, involved 10 males and 4 females, aged 24 to 48 (35.4±6.5) years. Fracture healing time, nerve function, clinical function and complications were observed in the patients.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up for 9 to 16(26.0±5.9) months. The complete weight-bearing time for bone healing was(12.4±2.0) weeks. One case of surgical incision infection occurred after operation, and one case of sacrum nailspenetrated to the outer plate of sacrum. No complications such as pressure ulcers, loosening or rupture of internal fixation occurred. According to Gibbons scoring, the neurological function recovered from preoperative 2.9±0.9 to postoperative 2.1±1.1, there were statistically significant differences between preoperative and postoperative (@*CONCLUSION@#Sacral lumbar fixation is an effective method for the treatment of U-shaped sacrum fractures. It has the advantages of strong internal fixation and satisfactory functional recovery.


Subject(s)
Bone Screws , Female , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Sacrum/surgery , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Treatment Outcome
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the clinical effect of integrated angulated screw channel (ASC) abutment crown in implant-supported rehabilitation of the aesthetic area.@*METHODS@#Sixteen patients who received single implant-supported rehabilitation using integrated ASC abutment crown in the aesthetic area were included in the study. After one-year follow-up, the cumulative survival rate, aesthetic effectiveness, bone resorption around implants, and patient satisfaction were analyzed through periapical film, clinical examination, and the visual analog scale (VAS).@*RESULTS@#The implant cumulative survival rate of the integrated ASC abutment crown in the implant-supported rehabilitation of the aesthetic area was 100%. The average pink esthetic index scores reached 9.5, and the white esthetic index scores reached 9.4. The mean marginal bone loss of implants was (0.439±0.123) mm at the mesial side and (0.341±0.118) mm at the distal side. The average VAS satisfaction score was 8.9, which showed that all patients were satisfied with the final restorative effect.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Using integrated ASC abutment crown for implant restoration is an ideal implant restoration design in the aesthetic zone and can be applied clinically.


Subject(s)
Bone Screws , Crowns , Dental Implants , Dental Implants, Single-Tooth , Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported , Esthetics, Dental , Humans
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879465

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore clinical effect of early incision and decompression combined with screw fixation in treating Lisfranc injury and foot osteofascial compartment syndrome.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 5 patients with Lisfranc injury and foot osteofascial compartment syndrome were retrospective analysized from January 2017 to December 2018, including 4 males and 1 female, aged from 19 to 62 years old. All patients were suffered from closed injuries. The time from injury to treatment ranged from 1 to 14 h. According to Myerson classification, 1 patient was type A, 1 patient was type B, and 3 patients were type C. All patients were performed early incision decompression and screw fixation. Maryland foot functional scoring standard at 12 months after opertaion was used to evaluate clinical effect.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up for 10 to 48 months. All fractures were achieved bone union, and healing time ranged from 3 to 9 months. All metatarsal and tarsal joints were reached to anatomical reduction. No infection, osteomyelitis, loosening or breaking of internal fixation occurred. Postopertaive Maryland foot function score at 12 months was from 44 to 97, and 2 patients got excellent result, 2 good, and 1 poor.@*CONCLUSION@#Early incision and decompression with screw fixation for the treatment of Lisfranc injury and foot osteofascial compartment syndrome, which has advantages of simple opertaion, thoroughly decompression, screw fixation does not occupy space, stable decompression and fixation, and could receive satisfied clinical effect.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bone Screws , Compartment Syndromes/surgery , Decompression , Female , Foot Injuries , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tarsal Joints , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879418

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To measure the maximum corridor parameters of the infra acetabular screw and evaluate the feasibility of screw insertion through digital analysis of the acetabular structure.@*METHODS@#The pelvic CT data of 100 patients who received plain pelvic CT scan from April 2013 to June 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 50 males, aged 20 to 84 years, with an average age of (48.42±17.48) years, and 50 females, aged 18 to 87 years, with an average age of (55.02±19.54) years. Patients with acetabular fractures, hip dysplasia, and metal implants in the acetabulum were excluded. Import CT data into Mimics software in DICOM format to generate a three-dimensional model, and find the axialprojection of the infra-acetabular corridor in the middle of the pubis ramus in the inlet view. A virtual screw was placed in the infra-acetabular space and measure the parameters including the diameter and the length of the maximum corridor, the distance from the insertion point to the pubic symphysis, to the anterosuperior iliac spine and to the medial edge of the pelvis. Then import the pelvic model into 3- matic software, establish the pelvic model anterior pelvic plane and median sagittal plane, and measure the angle between the screw axis and the two planes. A minimum corridor diameter of at least 5 mm was defined as a cutoff for placing a 3.5 mm screw, and calculate the screw insertion rate.@*RESULTS@#In 100 cases, 49% of patients had a infra acetabular corridor with a diameter ≥5 mm, and the rate of screw placement in men was significantly higher than that in women. The average diameter of the maximum corridor of infra-acetabular screw was (4.86±1.72) mm, the average length was (94.04±8.29) mm, the average distance from the insertion point to the pubic symphysis was (60.92±4.84) mm, to the anterosuperior iliac spine was (85.15± 6.85) mm, and to the medial edge of the pelvis was (6.12±3.32) mm. The mean angle between the axis of the screw and the median sagittal plane was (-1.38±4.74)°, and the mean angle between the axis of the screw and the anterior pelvic plane was (56.77±7.93)°. There are significant differences between male and female measured parameters, except for the angle between the screw axis and the anterior pelvic plane. There was no statistically significant difference in the maximum corridor parameters of infra-acetabular screw on both sides of the pelvis.@*CONCLUSION@#This study shows that the insertion rate of infra-acetabular screws is low in local patients, and the feasibility of screw insertion should be fully evaluated before surgery.


Subject(s)
Acetabulum/surgery , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bone Screws , Feasibility Studies , Female , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
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