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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(3): 335-337, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288579

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction One of the evaluation factors of human health is bone health, and an evaluation index of bone health is osteoporosis. Sports are an effective way to improve the human body. Objective The paper discusses the effects of different exercise intensities on human bone health. Methods The thesis selected 51 female college students, designed different exercise intensities of fitness running intervention programs, and conducted a 12-month exercise intervention. We divide female college students into three groups. The subjects' bone mineral density (BMD), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and serum osteocalcin (BGP) were tested before and after the experiment. Results The differences in femoral BMD, serum ALP, serum BGP, and lumbar spine BMD of the three groups of volunteers were significant (P<0.05), while the differences in ulna and radius BMD were not significant. Conclusions Sports can promote human bone health. At the same time, the effect of fitness running on human BMD is site-specific. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução Um dos fatores de avaliação da saúde humana é a saúde óssea, e um índice de avaliação da saúde óssea é a osteoporose. Os esportes são uma forma eficaz de melhorar o corpo humano. Objetivo o artigo discute os efeitos de diferentes intensidades de exercício na saúde óssea humana. Métodos A tese selecionou 51 universitárias, elaborou diferentes intensidades de exercícios em programas de intervenção de corrida de aptidão e conduziu uma intervenção de exercícios de 12 meses. Dividimos as universitárias em três grupos. A densidade mineral óssea (BMD), fosfatase alcalina sérica (ALP) e osteocalcina sérica (BGP) dos indivíduos foram testadas antes e depois do experimento. Resultados As diferenças na DMO femoral, ALP sérica, BGP sérica e DMO da coluna lombar dos três grupos de voluntários foram significativas (P <0,05), enquanto as diferenças na DMO da ulna e rádio não foram significativas. Conclusão O esporte pode promover a saúde óssea humana. Ao mesmo tempo, o efeito da corrida adaptativa na DMO humana é específico do local. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción Uno de los factores de evaluación de la salud humana es la salud ósea y un índice de evaluación de la salud ósea es la osteoporosis. Los deportes son una forma eficaz de mejorar el cuerpo humano. Objetivo El artículo analiza los efectos de diferentes intensidades de ejercicio en la salud ósea humana. Métodos La tesis seleccionó a 51 estudiantes universitarias, diseñó diferentes intensidades de ejercicio de programas de intervención para correr y realizó una intervención de ejercicio de 12 meses. Dividimos a las estudiantes universitarias en tres grupos. La densidad mineral ósea (DMO), la fosfatasa alcalina sérica (ALP) y la osteocalcina sérica (BGP) de los sujetos se analizaron antes y después del experimento. Resultados Las diferencias en la DMO femoral, la ALP sérica, la BGP sérica y la DMO de la columna lumbar de los tres grupos de voluntarios fueron significativas (P <0,05), mientras que las diferencias en la DMO del cúbito y del radio no fueron significativas. Conclusión Los deportes pueden promover la salud ósea humana. Al mismo tiempo, el efecto de la actividad física en la DMO humana es específico del sitio. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Bone and Bones/physiology , Bone Density , Osteocalcin/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , High-Intensity Interval Training
2.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(4): 517-522, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341180

ABSTRACT

Abstract Preoperative planning (PP) is critical to ensure a successful outcome in orthopaedic trauma surgery. Since it was first described thirty years ago, no modifications have been made to the original preoperative planning (OPP) technique, which was written by hand using pen and paper. We believe that the use of presentation software (such as Microsoft PowerPoint, Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA, US) can ease, improve and update the OPP and complement three-dimensional PP. The objective of the present paper is to describe our method for PP using a presentation software (PS).


Resumo O planejamento pré-operatório (PP) é fundamental para garantir um resultado bemsucedido na cirurgia de trauma ortopédico. Desde que foi descrita pela primeira vez há trinta anos, não foram feitas modificações na técnica de planejamento pré-operatório original (PPO), que foi escrita à mão usando caneta e papel. Acreditamos que o uso de um software de apresentação (como o Microsoft PowerPoint, Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA, EUA) pode facilitar, melhorar e atualizar o PPO e complementar o PP tridimensional. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar nosso método de PP por meio de software de apresentação (SA).


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone and Bones/surgery , Preoperative Care , Orthopedic Procedures
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 52-58, July. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis attacks approximately 10% of the population worldwide. Sika Deer (Cervus nippon), one of China's precious traditional medicinal animals, has been widely recorded in ancient Chinese medical books and claimed for centuries to have numerous medical benefits including bone strengthening. This study aimed to find the use of Sika Deer bone in treating osteoporosis according to traditional records and to investigate the protective effect of Sika Deer bone polypeptide extract on glucocorticoidinduced osteoporosis (GIOP) in rats. RESULTS: Sika Deer bone polypeptide extract could increase serum Ca2+ and BGP, decrease serum P3+, ALP, PTH, and CT, but had no effect on serum NO in rats with GIOP. The immunohistochemical iNOS results of the rats' distal femur were negative in each group. Besides the model group, the eNOS color reaction in osteoblasts was strongly positive in the other three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sika Deer bone polypeptide extract can improve pathological changes in the microstructure and stimulate the expression of eNOS in osteoblasts. The protective effect on bone might be mediated by eNOS-dependent NO generation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Peptides/pharmacology , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Deer , Osteoblasts , Dexamethasone , Rats, Wistar , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/drug effects
4.
Iatreia ; 34(2): 137-150, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250064

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los glucocorticoides son medicamentos ampliamente usados para el manejo de muchas enfermedades crónicas; a pesar de esto, están asociados con múltiples efectos adversos que pueden afectar diferentes órganos. En la presente revisión se hará una descripción de los efectos derivados del uso de estos sobre el eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-adrenales y los diferentes sistemas, haciendo énfasis en el sistema cardiovascular y óseo.


SUMMARY Glucocorticoids are widely used medications for the management of many chronic diseases, but they are associated with multiple adverse effects that can affect different organs. In the present review, a description will be made of the effects derived from the use of these medications on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and other systems, with emphasis on the cardiovascular system and bone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glucocorticoids , Bone and Bones , Chronic Disease , Affect
5.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(3): 534-539, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254389

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La enfermedad de Erdheim Chester es un trastorno infrecuente, de etiología no clara y edad de presentación variable, que se caracteriza por la proliferación anormal de histiocitos no Langerhans. Puede presentarse de forma asintomática, con manifestaciones locales o como complicaciones sistémicas. El diagnóstico se basa en las condiciones clínicas del paciente, estudios imagenológicos y el estudio anatomopatológico, mediante el cual se confirma la enfermedad. Caso clínico. Paciente masculino con una lesión lítica en el séptimo arco costal, inicialmente asintomático y posteriormente con dolor torácico persistente. Se realizó resección y reconstrucción de la pared torácica, con resolución de la sintomatología y adecuada evolución posoperatoria. El resultado de la patología confirmó el diagnóstico de enfermedad de Erdheim Chester. Discusión. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con compromiso costal y fractura patológica como localización y manifestación inusual de la enfermedad de Erdheim Chester, tratado quirúrgicamente de forma adecuada, y sin aparición de recidiva. Debido a la diversidad de síntomas que pueden presentar y a la afectación de múltiples órganos, además de los estudios imagenológicos, la clínica debe orientar los exámenes complementarios, como electro o ecocardiograma, resonancia nuclear magnética, o angioTAC. En los pacientes asintomáticos se ha recomendado un manejo expectante y en los sintomáticos el tratamiento médico con glucocorticoides, inhibidores de BRAF e interferón alfa. El papel de la cirugía no ha sido estudiado a profundidad


Introduction. Erdheim Chester disease is a rare disorder of unclear etiology and variable age of presentation, characterized by abnormal proliferation of non-Langerhans histiocytes. It can present asymptomatic, with local manifestations or as systemic complications. The diagnosis is based on the clinical conditions of the patient, imaging studies, and the pathological study, through which the disease is confirmed.Clinical case. A male patient with a lytic lesion in the seventh costal arch, initially asymptomatic and later with persistent chest pain, underwent resection and reconstruction of the chest wall, with resolution of the symptoms and adequate postoperative evolution. The pathology report confirmed the diagnosis of Erdheim Chester's disease.Discussion. The case of a patient with rib involvement and pathological fracture is presented as an unusual location and manifestation of Erdheim Chester's disease, treated surgically appropriately, and without recurrence. Due to the diversity of symptoms that they can present and the involvement of multiple organs, in addition to imaging studies, the clinic should direct complementary tests such as electrocardiogram or echocardiogram, magnetic resonance imaging, or CT angiography. Expectant management has been recommended in asymptomatic patients, and medical treatment with glucocorticoids, BRAF inhibitors, and interferon alfa in symptomatic patients. The role of surgery has not been studied in depth


Subject(s)
Humans , Erdheim-Chester Disease , Fractures, Spontaneous , Therapeutics , Bone and Bones , Chest Pain , Rib Cage
6.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(2): 138-146, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251348

ABSTRACT

Abstract The increase in the number of revision total knee arthroplasty surgeries has been observed in recent years, worldwide, for several causes. In the United States, a 601% increase in the number of total knee arthroplasties, between 2005 and 2030, is estimated. Among the enormous challenges of this complex surgery, the adequate treatment of bone defects is essential to obtain satisfactory and lasting results. The adequate treatment of bone defects aims to build a stable and lasting support platform for the implantation of the definitive prosthetic components and, if possible, with the reconstruction of bone stock. Concomitantly, it allows the correct alignment of the prosthetic and limb components, as well as restoring the height of the joint interline and, thus, restoring the tension of soft parts and load distribution to the host bone, generating a joint reconstruction with good function, stable, and painless. There are several options for the management of these bone defects, among them: bone cement with or without reinforcement with screws, modular metallic augmentations, impacted bone graft, structural homologous graft and, more recently, metal metaphyseal cones, and metaphyseal sleeves. The objective of the present article was to gather classic information and innovations about the main aspects related to the treatment of bone defects during revision surgeries for total knee arthroplasty.


Resumo O aumento do número de cirurgias de revisão de artroplastia total do joelho tem sido observado nos últimos anos, em todo o mundo, por diversas causas. Nos Estados Unidos, é estimado um aumento de 601% no número de artroplastias totais do joelho entre 2005 e 2030. Dentre os enormes desafios dessa cirurgia complexa, o adequado tratamento dos defeitos ósseos é essencial para a obtenção de resultados satisfatórios e duradouros. O adequado tratamento dos defeitos ósseos objetiva construir uma plataforma de suporte estável e duradoura para a implantação dos componentes protéticos definitivos e, se possível, com recomposição do estoque ósseo. Concomitantemente, possibilita o correto alinhamento dos componentes protéticos e do membro, assim como permite restabelecer a altura da interlinha articular e, dessa forma, restaurar a tensão de partes moles e distribuição de carga ao osso hospedeiro, gerando uma reconstrução articular com boa função, estável e indolor. Diversas são as opções para manejo dessas falhas ósseas, entre elas: cimento ósseo com ou sem reforço com parafusos, aumentos metálicos modulares, enxerto ósseo impactado, enxerto estrutural homólogo e, mais recentemente, cones metafisários de metal trabecular e sleeve metafisário. O objetivo do presente artigo foi reunir informações clássicas e inovações dos principais aspectos relativos ao tratamento das falhas ósseas durante as cirurgias de revisão de artroplastia total do joelho.


Subject(s)
Bone and Bones/abnormalities , Bone Transplantation , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee
7.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(1): 9-15, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180725

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aiming to evaluate cortical bone microarchitecture and osteonal morphology after irradiation, twelve male New Zealand rabbits were used. The animals were divided: control group (no radiation-NIr); and 3 irradiated groups, sacrificed after: 7 (Ir7d); 14 (Ir14d) and 21 (Ir21d) days. A single radiation dose of 30 Gy was used. Computed microtomography analyzed the cortical microarchitecture: cortical thickness (CtTh), bone volume (BV), total porosity (Ct.Po), intracortical porosity (CtPo-cl), channel/pore number (Po.N), fractal dimension (FD) and degree of anisotropy (Ct.DA). After scan, osteonal morphology was histologically assessed by means: area and perimeter of the osteons (O.Ar; O.p) and of the Haversian canals (C.Ar; C.p). Microtomographic analysis were performed by ANOVA, followed by Tukey and Dunnet tests. Osteon morphology analyses were performed by Kruskal-Wallis, and test Dunn's. Cortical thickness was significant difference (p<0.010) between the NIr and irradiated groups, with thicker cortex at Ir7d (1.15±0.09). The intracortical porosity revealed significant difference (p<0.001) between irradiated groups and NIr, with lower value for Ir7d (0.29±0.09). Bone volume was lower in Ir14d compared to control. Area and perimeter of the osteons were statistically different (p<0.0001) between NIr and Ir7d. Haversian canals also revealed lower values (p<0.0001) in Ir7d (80.57±9.3; 31.63±6.5) compared to NIr and irradiated groups. Cortical microarchitecture was affected by radiation, and the effects appear to be time-dependent, mostly regarding the osteons morphology at the initial days. Cortex structure in Ir21d revealed similarities to control suggesting that microarchitecture resembles normal condition after a period.


Resumo Com o objetivo de avaliar a microarquitetura óssea cortical e a morfologia dos osteons após irradiação, foram utilizados doze coelhos machos da Nova Zelândia. Os animais foram divididos: grupo controle (sem radiação-NIr); e 3 grupos irradiados, sacrificados após: 7 (Ir7d); 14 (Ir14d) e 21 (Ir21d) dias. Foi utilizada uma dose única de radiação de 30 Gy. A microtomografia computadorizada analisou a microarquitetura cortical: espessura cortical (CtTh), volume ósseo (BV), porosidade total (Ct.Po), porosidade intracortical (CtPo-cl), número de canal/ poro (Po.N), dimensão fractal (DF) e grau de anisotropia (Ct.DA). Após a varredura, a morfologia dos osteosn foi avaliada histologicamente por meio de: Área e perímetro do osteon (O.Ar; O.p) e dos canais de Havers (C.Ar; C.p). A análise microtomográfica foi realizada por ANOVA, seguida pelos testes de Tukey e Dunnet. As análises morfológicas do osteon foram realizadas por Kruskal-Wallis e testadas por Dunn. A espessura cortical foi diferente (p<0,010) entre os grupos controle e irradiados, com córtex mais espesso no Ir7d (1,15±0,09). A porosidade intracortical revelou diferenças significativas (p<0,001) entre os grupos irradiados e o controle, com menor valor para Ir7d (0,29±0,09). O volume ósseo foi menor no Ir14d em relação ao controle. Área e perímetro do osteon foi diferente (p<0,0001) entre o controle e Ir7d. Os canais haversianos também revelaram valores mais baixos (p<0,0001) em Ir7d (80.57±9.3; 31.63±6.5) em relação ao controle e demais grupos irradiados. A microarquitetura cortical é afetada pela radiação e os efeitos parecem ser dependentes do tempo, principalmente em relação à morfologia dos osteons nos dias iniciais. A estrutura cortical em Ir21d revelou semelhanças com o controle, sugerindo que a microarquitetura se assemelha à condição normal após um período.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Cortical Bone/diagnostic imaging , Haversian System , Bone and Bones , Porosity , Fractals
8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e001, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132750

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Three-point bending test is the most common mechanical test used for quantifying the biomechanical quality of bone tissue and bone healing in small animals. However, there is a lack of standardization for evaluation of bone repair by cortical perforation. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of bone defect position in the proximal metaphysis of rat tibias during load application and different span configuration on the three-point bending test outcomes. Cortical defects with 1.6 mm diameter were created at a standardized location on the medial surface of 60 tibias of male Wistar rats. The animals were euthanized 7 days after surgery. Five specimens were used to create 3D models for finite element analysis using high-resolution micro-CT images. Two spans (6 and 10mm) and three positions of the bone defect in relation to the load application (upward, frontal and downward) were evaluated experimentally (n = 10) and in finite element analysis (n = 5). Maximum load (N) and stiffness (N/mm) were statistically analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and Tukey test (α = 0.05). The results demonstrated that span and orientation of the bone defect significantly influenced the fracture pattern, stress distribution and force versus displacement relation. Therefore, reliable outcome can be achieved creating the bone defect at 8 mm from the extremity of the proximal epiphysis; placing a 10 mm distance span and downward facing defect position to allow a better distribution of stress and more fracture patterns that reached the bone defect target area with less intra-group variability.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Tibia , Mechanical Phenomena , Bone and Bones , Rats, Wistar , Finite Element Analysis
9.
Actual. osteol ; 17(1): [18-34], 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1292027

ABSTRACT

La osteología como práctica científica muestra, a través de su historia, los esfuerzos de los hombres de ciencia que pretendían explicar la entidad característica del hueso y sus procesos de formación. La extensión de esas investigaciones hace que se pierda el núcleo de lo que tiene la osteología de ciencia: las teorías osteológicas. Esta revisión historiográfica pretende ­con ayuda de la epistemología semántica­ presentar un esquema de red teórica que represente a algunos de esos modelos teóricos. (AU)


Osteology as a scientific practice shows through its history the efforts of scientists who tried to explain the characteristic entity of bone and its formation processes. The extension of these investigations causes that the nucleus of what the osteology of science has is lost: osteological theories. This historiographic review aims with the help of semantic epistemology to present a theoretical network scheme that represents some of these theoretical models. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteogenesis , Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology , Osteology/history , Models, Theoretical , Philosophy, Medical , Bone Development , Knowledge , History, 20th Century
10.
Actual. osteol ; 17(1): [35-44], 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1292117

ABSTRACT

The masticatory apparatus is a functional unit of the human body, which is mainly responsible for speech, chewing, and swallowing. It is built of bones, joints, ligaments, teeth, and muscles. In addition, the oral cavity and its hard tissues are the first ones to be exposed to exogenous factors during feeding and breathing. The aim of the work was to review the literature of recent years on the toxicology of metals and their possible negative and sometimes positive effects on the metabolism of bones of the masticatory apparatus. In summary, metals commonly found in the environment affect the bones of the masticatory apparatus to varying degrees. Attention should be paid to the sources of individual metals in the environment and to prevent their excessive, unwanted effects on the bones of the masticatory apparatus. (AU)


El aparato masticatorio constituye una unidad funcional del cuerpo humano especializada en la regulación y coordinación de los procesos del habla, la masticación y la deglución. Está constituida por huesos, ligamentos, articulaciones, músculos y dientes. El tejido óseo de la cavidad bucal es el primero en estar expuesto a factores exógenos durante la alimentación y la respiración. El objetivo del presente trabajo es realizar una revisión de lo reportado en la literatura en los últimos años, con respecto a los efectos beneficiosos o nocivos de los metales pesados sobre el metabolismo de los huesos del aparato masticatorio. En resumen, se evidencia que los metales presentes en el medioambiente afectan a estos huesos en diferentes grados. Se debe prestar especial atención a identificar las fuentes de donde provienen estos metales, para prevenir los efectos no deseados sobre el tejido óseo masticatorio generados por una excesiva exposición a ellos. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Stomatognathic System/metabolism , Metals, Heavy , Jaw/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/toxicity
11.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 53-69, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880939

ABSTRACT

Bone mass is a key determinant of osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Epidemiologic studies have shown that a 10% increase in peak bone mass (PBM) at the population level reduces the risk of fracture later in life by 50%. Low PBM is possibly due to the bone loss caused by various conditions or processes that occur during adolescence and young adulthood. Race, gender, and family history (genetics) are responsible for the majority of PBM, but other factors, such as physical activity, calcium and vitamin D intake, weight, smoking and alcohol consumption, socioeconomic status, age at menarche, and other secondary causes (diseases and medications), play important roles in PBM gain during childhood and adolescence. Hence, the optimization of lifestyle factors that affect PBM and bone strength is an important strategy to maximize PBM among adolescents and young people, and thus to reduce the low bone mass or osteoporosis risk in later life. This review aims to summarize the available evidence for the common but important factors that influence bone mass gain during growth and development and discuss the advances of developing high PBM.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Bone Density , Bone and Bones , Child , Exercise , Female , Humans , Life Style , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Young Adult
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880863

ABSTRACT

Issues caused by maxillofacial tumours involve not only dealing with tumours but also repairing jaw bone defects. In traditional tumour therapy, the systemic toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs, invasive surgical resection, intractable tumour recurrence, and metastasis are major threats to the patients' lives in the clinic. Fortunately, biomaterial-based intervention can improve the efficiency of tumour treatment and decrease the possibility of recurrence and metastasis, suggesting new promising antitumour therapies. In addition, maxillofacial bone tissue defects caused by tumours and their treatment can negatively affect the physiological and psychological health of patients, and investment in treatment can result in a multitude of burdens to society. Biomaterials are promising options because they have good biocompatibility and bioactive properties for stimulation of bone regeneration. More interestingly, an integrated material regimen that combines tumour therapy with bone repair is a promising treatment option. Herein, we summarized traditional and biomaterial-mediated maxillofacial tumour treatments and analysed biomaterials for bone defect repair. Furthermore, we proposed a promising and superior design of dual-functional biomaterials for simultaneous tumour therapy and bone regeneration to provide a new strategy for managing maxillofacial tumours and improve the quality of life of patients in the future.


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials , Bone Regeneration , Bone and Bones , Humans , Quality of Life
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878434

ABSTRACT

Bone invasion by oral cancer is a common clinical problem, which affects the choice of treatment and predicts a poor prognosis. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon has not been fully elucidated. Current studies have revealed that oral cancer cells modulate the formation and function of osteoclasts through the expression of a series of signal molecules. Many signal pathways are involved in this process, of which receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB/osteoprotegerin signaling pathway attracted much attention. In this review, we introduce recent progress in molecular mechanisms of bone invasion by oral cancer.


Subject(s)
Bone Resorption , Bone and Bones , Humans , Mouth Neoplasms , Osteoclasts , Osteoprotegerin , RANK Ligand , Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879449

ABSTRACT

In the process of repairing of bone defects, bone scaffold materials need to be implanted to restore the corresponding tissue structure at the injury. At present, the repair materials used for bone defects mainly include autogenous bone, allogeneic bone, metal materials, bioceramics, polymer materials and various composite materials. Different materials have demonstrated strong reconstruction ability in bone repair, but the ideal bone implants in the clinic are still yet to be established. Except for autogenous bone, other materials used in bone defect repair are unable to perfectly balance biocompatibility, bone formation, bone conduction and osteoinduction. Combining the latest advances in materials sciences and clinical application, we believe that composite materials supplementedwith Chinese medicine, tissue cells, cytokines, trace elements, etc. and manufactured using advanced technologies such as additive manufacturing technology may have ideal bone repair performance, and may have profound significance in clinical repair of bone defects of special type. This article reviewed to the domestic and foreign literature in recent years, and elaborates the current status of bone defect repair materials in clinical application and basic research in regard to the advantages, clinical options, shortcomings, and how to improve the autogenous bone, allogeneic bone and artificial bone materials, in order to provide a theoretical basis for clinical management of bone defects.


Subject(s)
Acrylic Resins , Biocompatible Materials , Bone Substitutes , Bone and Bones , Osteogenesis , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879427

ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis is one of the common clinical orthopedic diseases, which can lead to a variety of complications. There are many pathogenic factors in this disease. The latest research found that ATP6V1H is a new gene leading to the occurrence of osteoporosis, and it is likely to become a new target for the future drug treatment of osteoporosis.This paper introduces the biological structure and characteristics of H subunit, summed up the human body caused by loss of ATP6V1H and animal models such as zebrafish, mice bone loss and osteoporosis symptom such as related research reports of the loss, from osteoclast, osteoblast and marrow stromal cell level and the connection between the various subunits further expounds the H subunit regulate bone dynamic balance of mechanism, to explore ATP6V1H in bone developmentand bone related diseases has laid a solid foundation, also provide new ideas for clinical treatment of osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone and Bones , Mice , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , Osteoporosis/genetics , Zebrafish
17.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 27(4): 278-285, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289331

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se han propuesto varios estudios que sugieren que el grupo de vitaminas B posee un rol en la fisiología ósea. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre la interacción de este con la homocisteína y la relación de ambos con el metabolismo óseo y la osteoporosis. Algunos estudios han sugerido que los niveles de vitamina B, sobre todo las vitaminas B12 y B9, se han asociado a una baja densitometría ósea y a un aumentado riesgo a fractura, y que estos, a su vez, intervienen en el metabolismo de la homocisteína, por lo que su déficit puede ocasionar un estado de hiperhomocisteinemia. Publicaciones recientes proponen que la hiperhomocisteinemia se encuentra asociada a desmineralización ósea, baja calidad de masa ósea y aumento de biomarcadores de recambio óseo, dado que influye en la actividad osteoclástica y en los enlaces cruzados de colágeno. Por lo tanto, la hiperhomocisteinemia puede ser un factor que reduce la densidad y la calidad ósea. Se necesita más información para determinar el papel que tiene cada vitamina directamente en la salud ósea, o si estas solo influyen a través de las concentraciones séricas de homocisteína.


ABSTRACT Several studies have suggested a role for B-vitamins in bone physiology. A systematic review is presented on the interaction of B-vitamins with homocysteine and the relationship of both in bone metabolism and osteoporosis. The levels of vitamin-B, particularly B12 and B9, have been associated with a low bone mineral density and an increased risk of fracture. At the same time, its deficit affects the metabolism of homocysteine, which can then result in a high serum homocysteine. Recent findings have proposed that high serum homocysteine is linked to bone demineralisation, low quality of bone mass, and an increase in bone turnover biomarkers, given the influence over the osteoclastic activity and the cross-linking of collagen molecules. Therefore, high serum homocysteine could be a factor that reduces bone density and quality. More information is needed to determine whether there is a direct role of each vitamin in bone health, or if they are just influenced by homocysteine serum concentrations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin B Complex , Homocysteine , Bone and Bones , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Biomarkers , Fractures, Bone , Metabolism
18.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 771-777, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156205

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate different femoral fixation devices for medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction and compare their effectiveness regarding fixation strength up to failure in porcine knees. Methods Thirty porcine knees were used, divided into three groups of 10 knees. The removed grafts were dissected from the extensor tendons of porcine feet. In each group, the graft was fixed to the femur with an interference screw, an anchor, or adductor tenodesis. The three methods were subjected to biomechanical tests using a universal Tensile testing machine at a speed of 20 mm/minute. Results The highest average linear resistance under lateral traction occurred in group 1, "screw fixation" (185.45 ± 41.22 N), followed by group 2, "anchor fixation" (152.97 ± 49, 43 N); the lower average was observed in group 3, "tenodesis fixation" (76.69 ± 18.90 N). According to the fixed error margin (5%), there was a significant difference between groups (p < 0.001); in addition, multiple comparison tests (between group pairs) also showed significant differences. Variability was small, since the variance coefficient was lower than 33.3%. Conclusion Interference screws in bone tunnels and mountable anchors fixation with high resistance wire are strong enough for femoral fixation in porcine medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction. Adductor tenodesis, however, was deemed fragile for such purpose.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar diferentes dispositivos de fixação femoral na reconstrução do ligamento patelofemoral medial para comparar sua eficácia quanto à força de fixação até a falha em joelhos suínos. Métodos Foram ensaiados 30 joelhos de suínos subdivididos em 3 grupos de 10 joelhos. Os enxertos retirados foram dissecados de tendões extensores das patas dos suínos. Cada grupo teve o enxerto fixado ao fêmur com parafuso de interferência, âncora, ou tenodese no tendão adutor. Os 3 métodos foram submetidos à testes biomecânicos utilizando uma máquina universal de ensaio de tração com uma velocidade de 20 mm/min. Resultados Verificamos que a média mais elevada da resistência linear sob tração lateral (185,45 ± 41,22 N) ocorreu no grupo 1: "fixação por parafuso," seguido do grupo 2: "fixação por âncora" (152,97 ± 49,43 N), e a média foi menor no grupo 3: "fixação por tenodese" (76,69 ± 18,90 N). Para a margem de erro fixada (5%), comprovou-se a diferença significativa entre os grupos (p < 0,001) e também através dos testes de comparações múltiplas (entre os pares de grupos) verificou-se a ocorrência de diferenças significativas. A variabilidade expressada por meio do coeficiente de variação mostrou-se reduzida, já que a referida medida foi inferior a 33,3%. Conclusão O uso de parafusos de interferência no túnel ósseo de joelhos porcinos é suficientemente forte para fixação femoral na reconstrução do ligamento patelofemoral medial, assim como a fixação com âncoras montáveis com fio de alta resistência. Entretanto, a tenodese no tendão adutor mostrou-se frágil para essa finalidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Orthopedic Fixation Devices , Swine , Tendons , Traction , Effectiveness , Biomechanical Phenomena , Bone and Bones , Suture Techniques , Transplants , Models, Animal , Tenodesis , Patellofemoral Joint , Femur , Ligaments , Methods
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1735-1741, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134506

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of this study was to perform an in situ endoscopic analysis of the vascularization of post-extraction sites immediately after a non-traumatic extraction in terms of the number of blood vessels per field (NBV), relative area of blood vessels (RABV) and relative area of unmineralized bone (RAUB) in teeth with different periodontal status (PS). This assessment was performed using short distance support immersion endoscopy (SD-SIE). Ten patients (4 men/ 6 women, aged between 25 and 44) were selected. From them, 10 teeth were extracted due to periodontal reasons or other motives. These teeth were then categorized into 2 groups according to their PS, either as periodontally compromised (PC) (clinical attachment loss (CAL) > 7 mm and probing depth (PD) > 5 mm) or periodontally healthy (PH) (CAL < 7 mm and PD < 5 mm, without bleeding or suppuration during periodontal probing), and mobile (M) (> 1 mm horizontally) or immobile (I) (< 1 mm horizontally). The minimally invasive vertical tooth extractions were performed using the Benex ® extractor. Immediately after extraction, a rigid immersion endoscope with a diameter of 2.7 mm was introduced, and a video-alveoloscopy was carried out. This video was analyzed by ImageJ software for the quantification of NBV, RABV and RAUB per field of the post-extraction sites with different PS (PC, PH, M, I) were quantified. In the PC group, significantly greater values for RAUB were observed (33.45 %) compared to those from the PH group (19.65 %). Compared with the M group, the I group did not show significant differences in terms of RAUB or RABV. There were also no differences in NBV in both groups (Means: 33.8 vs. 30.5, respectively).


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un análisis endoscópico in situ de la vascularización de los alvéolos post-extracción inmediatamente después de una extracción atraumática en términos de número de vasos sanguíneos por campo de observación (NBV), área relativa de vasos sanguíneos (RABV) y el área relativa de espacios no mineralizados (RAUB) en dientes con diferente estado periodontal (PS). Esta evaluación se realizó mediante endoscopía de inmersión de corta distancia (SD-SIE). Se seleccionaron diez pacientes (4 hombres / 6 mujeres, con edades comprendidas entre 25 y 44). De ellos, se extrajeron 10 dientes debido a razones periodontales u otros motivos. Estos dientes se clasificaron en 2 grupos según su PS, ya sea como periodontalmente comprometidos (PC), los que presentaban un nivel de inserción clínica (CAL) ≥ 7 mm y una profundidad de sondaje (PD) ≥ 5 mm; o periodontalmente sanos (PH) (CAL <7 mm y PD <5 mm, sin sangramiento o supuración durante el sondaje periodontal). También se categorizaron según su movilidad como móvil (M) (≥ 1 mm horizontalmente) o inmóvil (I) (<1 mm horizontalmente). Las extracciones verticales mínimamente invasivas se realizaron con el extractor Benex ®. Inmediatamente después de la extracción, se introdujo un endoscopio rígido de inmersión con un diámetro de 2.7 mm, con el cual se realizó una video-alveoloscopía. Este video fue analizado por el software ImageJ para la cuantificación de NBV, RABV y RAUB por campo, de los alvéolos post-extracción con diferente estado periodontal. En el grupo de dientes PC, se observaron valores significativamente mayores para RAUB (33.45%) en comparación con los del grupo PH (19.65 %). En comparación con el grupo M, el grupo I no mostró diferencias significativas en términos de RAUB o RABV. Tampoco hubo diferencias en el NBV en ambos grupos (Media: 33.8 frente a 30.5, respectivamente).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tooth Extraction , Blood Vessels , Bone and Bones/blood supply , Tooth Socket/blood supply , Endoscopy/methods , Neovascularization, Physiologic
20.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(6): 617-622, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132349

ABSTRACT

Abstract Recent studies suggest that osteoporosis, in addition to the damage caused in long bones, may cause deterioration in the jaws, especially in alveolar bone sites, with effects in the progress of periodontal disease as well as in bone healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of osteoporosis in the metabolism of rat alveolar bone osteoblasts. There were used 10 female rats divided in two experimental groups (Sham and OVX), which were ovariectomized and after 8 weeks euthanized to collect mandibular bone samples in order to isolate osteoblastic cells. The cells were cultured in 24-well plates to perform the in vitro experiments. After 7, 10 and 14 days, there were evaluated cell proliferation by MTT assay, in situ detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as mineralized nodules and expression of genes associated to bone remodeling. Results showed that at 7, 10 and 14 days cell proliferation was lower for OVX group. In situ detection of ALP was higher at 7 days and lower at 10 and 14 days in OVX group. At 17 and 21 days, OVX group had a significative decrease of mineralization nodules. There was a downregulation in the expression of Alp, Bglap and Runx2 genes and an upregulation of Opg in OVX group, whereas Opn and Rankl modulation was similar between the evaluated groups. Our results suggest that osteoporosis has a deleterious effect on alveolar bone cells from ovariectomized rats, which might affect the treatment of diseases associated to the jaw bones.


Resumo Estudos recentes sugerem que a osteoporose, além dos danos provocados em ossos longos, pode causar deterioração dos ossos maxilares, especialmente na região do osso alveolar, com efeitos na progressão da doença periodontal assim como no reparo ósseo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da osteoporose no metabolismo de osteoblastos do osso alveolar mandibular de ratos. Foram utilizadas 10 ratas fêmeas divididas em dois grupos experimentais (Sham e OVX), que foram ovariectomizadas e após 8 semanas, eutanasiadas para coletar amostras do osso mandibular e isolar as células osteoblásticas. As células foram cultivadas em placas de cultura de 24 poços para serem realizados os experimentos in vitro. Após 7, 10 e 14 dias foram avaliados a proliferação celular pelo ensaio de MTT, detecção in situ de fosfatase alcalina (ALP) assim como de nódulos mineralizados e expressão quantitativa de genes associados à remodelação óssea. Os resultados mostraram que aos 7, 10 e 14 dias a proliferação celular foi menor para o grupo OVX. A detecção in situ de ALP foi maior aos 7 dias e menor aos 10 e 14 dias no grupo OVX. Aos 17 e 21 dias o grupo OVX apresentou uma diminuição dos nódulos mineralizados. Houve uma repressão na expressão dos genes Alp, Bglap e Runx2 e uma indução do gene Opg no grupo OVX, enquanto que a modulação dos genes Opn e Rankl foi similar entre os grupos experimentais. Nossos resultados sugerem que a osteoporose tem um efeito deletério no metabolismo de células do osso alveolar em ratas ovariectomizadas, o que pode afetar o tratamento de doenças associadas aos ossos maxilares


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Rats , Osteoporosis/genetics , Osteoblasts , Bone and Bones , Ovariectomy , Bone Density , Alkaline Phosphatase
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