Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 65: e22200702, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364476


Abstract: Boron is one of the most important micronutrients for plants. Plants may suffer from deficiency or with boron toxicity. Boron plays a role in significant physiological and biochemical events in plants such as synthesis of the cell wall, membrane integrity, antioxidation, transport of photosynthesis products to other organs of the plant. The enzyme activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in three different safflower cultivars (Balcı, Dinçer and Remzibey) subjected to different boric acid concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 mM) were measured spectrophotometrically, and the changes in the expression levels of the genes that encode these enzymes were obtained by quantitative RT-qPCR. When both the spectrophotometric measurements and the mRNA values were evaluated together, both the activity and mRNA values of APX and GR enzymes were found to be the highest in the Dinçer cultivar among the varieties treated with 15 mM boric acid, while the lowest values of these enzymes were determined in the Remzibey cultivar. According to the RT-qPCR results, the lowest SOD and CAT values were determined in Remzibey. The Dinçer cultivar was found to have the highest antioxidant capacity (APX, GR) to cope with oxidative stress caused by boric acid application at high concentrations. The sensitive Remzibey cultivar was found to have the lowest antioxidant capacity to cope with such oxidative stress. Balcı was found to be closer to Dinçer than to Remzibey in terms of boron tolerance. As a result, the boron-sensitive cultivar had low antioxidant activity.

Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Boron/administration & dosage , Agricultural Cultivation , Carthamus tinctorius/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Trace Elements/toxicity , Boron/toxicity , Gene Expression/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Carthamus tinctorius/enzymology , Carthamus tinctorius/genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939606


This study aimed to investigate the neurotoxicity induced by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and the possible protective mechanisms of boron (B). Mouse BV2 cells were treated with TCA (0, 0.39, 0.78, 1.56, 3.12, 6.25, or 12.5 mmol/L) and B (0, 7.8, 15.6, 31.25, 62.5, 125, 500, or 1,000 mmol/L) for 3 h and 24 h, respectively. Then, reactive oxygen species, and supernatant proinflammatory cytokine and protein levels were analyzed after 24 h of combined exposure. Beyond the dose-dependent decrease in the cellular viability, it clearly increased after B supplementation ( P < 0.05). Moreover, B decreased oxidative damage, and significantly down-regulated IL-6 levels and up-regulated TNF-β production ( P < 0.05). B also decreased apoptosis via the p53 pathway. The present findings indicated that TCA may induce oxidative damage, whereas B mitigates these adverse effects by decreasing cell apoptosis.

Animals , Apoptosis , Boron/toxicity , Mice , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Trichloroacetic Acid/toxicity , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 99-104, Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840939


Our aim was to describe sperm parameters in residents from Northern Chile. We evaluated in 101 volunteers (18 and 30 years old) urinary and drinking water Boron levels using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry; semen parameters were measured with standardized methods. Each individual was categorized in 3 levels of exposure: low (B levels in urine 2.94 mgL-1 or tap water 3.0 mgL-1), medium (urinary B between 2.95-7.4 mgL-1 and B in tap water with 3.0-7.0 mgL-1) and high (urinary B > 7.4 mgL-1 or tap water > 7.0 mgL-1). We found no significant differences among groups by pH, sperm concentration (45.1; 48.2 and 38 million/mL), motility 1th hour (38.1; 40.0 and 45.5 %) and vitality 1th hour (88.6; 88.0 and 76.9 %) respectively. Abnormal morphology was significant different (83.3; 90 and 83 %). Young men exposed to B in drinking water present sperm variations associated with the level of exposure. Most of these changes are positive at intermediate levels of B. For the highest exposures were observed negative changes in sperm morphology, concentration, motility and vitality, all relevant parameters of fertility. Beneficial effect is observed at medium exposure, like a "U curve".

El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir los parámetros espermáticos en residentes del norte de Chile. Se evaluaron en 101 voluntarios (18 y 30 años), los niveles urinarios y de agua potable de boro, usando "Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry". Los parámetros del semen se midieron con métodos estandarizados. Cada individuo se clasificó en 3 niveles de exposición: bajo (niveles B en la orina 2,94 mgL-1 o agua potable 3,0 mgL-1), medio (B urinario entre 2,95-7,4 mgL-1 y B en agua de beber con 3,0- 7,0 mgL-1) y alto (B urinario >7,4 mgL-1 o agua potable > 7,0 mgL-1). No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos por pH, concentración de espermatozoides (45,1; 48,2 y 38 millones/mL), motilidad a 1 hora (38,1; 40,0 y 45,5%) y vitalidad 1 hora (88,6; 88,0 y 76,9%) respectivamente. La morfología anormal fue significativamente diferente (83,3; 90 y 83%). Los hombres jóvenes expuestos a B en el agua potable presentan variaciones espermáticas asociadas con el nivel de exposición. La mayoría de estos cambios son positivos en niveles intermedios de B. Para las exposiciones más altas se observaron cambios negativos en la morfología, concentración, motilidad y vitalidad del esperma, parámetros relevantes de la fertilidad. Un efecto beneficioso se observa en la exposición media, como una "curva U".

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Boron/toxicity , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Boron/urine , Chemical Compound Exposure , Chile , Fertility/drug effects , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Semen/chemistry , Semen/drug effects , Spermatozoa/pathology , Water Pollutants, Chemical/urine
Int. j. morphol ; 33(1): 255-261, Mar. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-743794


Boron is an essential element for life and intake via different sources into the body. Because effects of boron and compounds on the body has not been studied enough especially in tissue level, we planned this study to evaluate the effects of borax the most intaken form of boron compound on different intraabdominal organs histologically and also clinically. 42 male rats divided into equal 7 groups and different toxicological doses consistent with its LD50 dose (5000 mg/kg/d) were administered by gavage except control and sham groups. In the study, 2 different kinds of borax one of which was produced for research and the other for agriculture but the same formulation, were used and their effects were also compared. As a result it was found that borax did not cause any histological changes in kidney, large intestine, liver and stomach in lower doses. But if doses were increased, a slightly inflammatory cell migration was detected without clinical signs in liver and large intestine. However, when a single very high dose of borax was administered, very high edema, inflammatory cell migration and neovascularization was observed and clinically 2 out of 6 rats died within 5 hours. We suggested that very high dose intake of borax may cause sudden death and also during long periods and higher dose intake may pave the way of inflammatory bowel diseases. At the same time, in boron related studies we advice that the kind of boron and also their source should be evaluated carefully and the most suitable compound should be chosen in case of faulty results.

El boro es un elemento esencial para la vida e ingresa a través de diferentes fuentes al cuerpo. Dado que los efectos del boro y sus compuestos en el cuerpo no se han estudiado lo suficiente, especialmente a nivel tisular, se planificó este estudio para evaluar sus efectos y la forma de consumo más común del compuesto de boro sobre diferentes órganos intraabdominales a nivel histológico y clínico. Cuarenta y dos ratas macho divididas en 7 grupos, con diferentes dosis toxicológicas de acuerdo con su dosis DL50 (5000 mg/kg/d) administradas por sonda, excepto en los grupos control y simulado. En el estudio fueron usados 2 tipos diferentes de boro, uno producido para la investigación y el otro para la agricultura, pero de la misma formulación, y sus efectos fueron comparados. Se encontró que el boro no causó cambios histológicos en el riñón, intestino grueso, hígado y estómago en dosis bajas. Sin embargo, al aumentar la dosis, se detectó una leve migración de células inflamatorias, sin signos clínicos, en el hígado e intestino grueso. Por otra parte, cuando se administró una sola dosis muy alta de boro, se observó un amplio edema, migración de células inflamatorias y neovascularización; clínicamente 2 de 6 ratas murieron dentro de 5 horas. Sugerimos que la ingesta de dosis muy altas de bórax pueden causar la muerte súbita, además la ingesta de dosis altas y durante periodos de tiempo prolongado puede causar enfermedades inflamatorias del intestino. Es recomendable que en los estudios relacionados con el boro, el tipo de boro así como su fuente sean evaluados cuidadosamente, eligiendo el compuesto más adecuado en caso de resultados erróneos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Boron/toxicity , Digestive System/drug effects , Digestive System/pathology , Intestine, Large/drug effects , Intestine, Large/pathology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Stomach/drug effects , Stomach/pathology
Int. j. morphol ; 30(3): 1106-1114, Sept. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665534


It has been reported that boron causes changes in various systems, including the male reproductive system. Residents in some towns in northern Chile were consuming a few years ago in the drinking water 20 times more than the amount established as permissible limit by WHO. This study evaluates the effects in an animal model of high intake of boron on the testis. Boron was administered in the drinking water. Twenty male mice (Mus domesticus), sexually mature, were used, divided into 2 groups: the experimental group was given Boron at a dose of 12 mg/L, and the control group 0.6 mg/L, for 42 days. Sections of testis were obtained for: HE staining (Morphometry and Histopathology), Immunohistochemistry (Cox-2), Mallory and Picrosirious stain (evaluation of tunica albuginea). The results indicate that ingestion of a dose of 12 mg Boron/L produces vacuolization, tubular epithelial desquamation and tamponade. Morphometry revealed decreased tubular diameter and epithelial height and lumen diameter and increased interstitial area in the exposed group. Immunodetection of COX-2 was positive in high percentage of tubules in the intoxicated group. The tunica albuginea was thinner, with decreased percentage of type I collagen fibers and an increase in the percentage of type III collagen fibers in animals exposed to boron in contrast to the control group. Exposure to critical levels of boron produces severe histopathological changes in the testis, altering morphometric parameters and causing overexpression of Cox-2. Finally, evaluation of collagen fibers suggests that Boron produced a degradation of the collagen of the tunica albuginea, causing a decrease in the thickness of it and altering the percentage ratio collagen I/collagen III, a process called collagenolysis...

Se ha reportado que el Boro provoca alteraciones en diversos sistemas, incluido el sistema reproductor masculino. Los habitantes de algunas localidades del norte de Chile estuvieron hasta hace algunos años consumiendo en el agua de bebida 20 veces más que la cantidad establecida como límite permisible por la OMS. El presente estudio evalúa en modelo animal los efectos del alto consumo de Boro sobre el testículo, administrado en el agua de bebida. Se utilizaron veinte ratones (Mus musculus) machos, sexualmente maduros, divididos en 2 grupos; al grupo experimental se administró Boro a una dosis de 12 mg/L, y al grupo control 0.6 mg/L, durante 42 días. Posteriormente se obtuvieron secciones de testículo para: Tinción H-E (Morfometría e Histopatología); Inmunohistoquímica (Cox-2); Tinción de Mallory y Picrosirious Red (evaluación de túnica albugínea). Los resultados indican que la ingestión de Boro a dosis de 12 mg/L produce vacuolización, descamación epitelial y taponamiento tubular. La morfometría revela disminución en el diámetro tubular y altura epitelial, así como aumento del diámetro luminal y del área intersticial en el grupo expuesto. La inmunodetección de COX-2 resultó positiva en gran porcentaje de túbulos en el grupo intoxicado. La túnica albugínea, demostró menor grosor, así como una disminución en el porcentaje de fibras colágenas tipo I y un aumento en el porcentaje de fibras colágenas tipo III en los animales expuestos a Boro en contraste con el grupo control. La exposición a niveles críticos de Boro genera alteraciones histopatológicas severas en el testículo, alterando parámetros morfométricos y provocando la sobreexpresión de COX-2. Finalmente, la evaluación de fibras colágenas sugiere que el Boro produjo una degradación del colágeno de la túnica albugínea, provocando una disminución en el espesor de ésta y alterando la relación porcentual Colágeno I/Colágeno III, proceso llamado colagenólisis...

Male , Animals , Mice , Boron/toxicity , Collagen Type I , Collagen Type III , Testis , Testis/pathology , Fertility , Immunohistochemistry
Rev. méd. Chile ; 138(12): 1510-1516, dic. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-583047


Background: Semen analysis is one of the parameters used to predict male fertility. Semen can be altered by environmental pollutants; therefore it could be used as a biological marker of exposure in contaminated areas. Aim: To analyze the spermogram values in a sample of healthy young males, residing in Arica, Chile. Material and methods: One hundred and two healthy university students volunteers aged 18 to 30 years answered a questionnaire about fertility, habits and andrologic diseases and provided a semen sample. Within three hours after ejaculation, semen volume, pH, sperm concentration, motility and morphology were analyzed. Results: Six percent of volunteers had offspring, 1 percent declared to be infertile, 32 percent smoked and 78 percent con-sumed alcohol. Semen pH was 7.6 ± 0.5, volume, 2.9 ± 1.6 ml, sperm concentration, 62.8 ± 62.3 x 10(6)/ml, normal morphology, 15.0 ± 7.9 percent, overall motility, 42.2 ± 23.2 percent and grade A motility, 19.2 ± 18.6 percent. The percentage of subjects that had normal semen values was 82 percent for total sperm count, 76 percent for sperm concentration, 72 percent for volume, 64 percent for vitality, 63 percent for pH, 57 percent for morphology, 38 percent for overall motility and 26 percent for grade A motility. Conclusions: This sample of healthy young males had a normal sperm count in comparison with international reports. However it is necessary to characterize the spermogram in uncontaminated areas of Chile to ensure that our results are within the expected values for the country.

Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Fertility/drug effects , Semen Analysis , Semen/drug effects , Biomarkers/analysis , Boron/toxicity , Chile , Reproducibility of Results , Sperm Count , Semen/physiology , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Sperm Motility/physiology
Int. j. morphol ; 27(3): 765-770, sept. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-598934


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of boron (B) using as a biological model Drosophila malanogaster. Analizing specifically the responses over descendency to doses of 6,0 and 12 mg/L, comparing a control group which culture medium was prepared with water with boron concentrations of 0,6 mg/L, according to World Health Organization. The results show a significative alteration in the number of descendency from F1 to F3 and then a tendency to normalization in F4 and F5. Also a significant change in proportions between the males and females, with an acute effect on F1 and then a possible chronic effect from F2 to F5, increasing the proportion of females over males. This differences between genders are significant only until F4, on F5 these proportions are not significant. In F3 in doses of 12.0 mg/L of boron, it is observed a larger range of changes, altering the phenotypic expression, where the numbers of males which increase their size are significantly higher of those females who increase their size, 10 percent and 5,2 percent respectively. There is a tendency to normality in every pattern of study from the descendants of F4 and F5, above all the percentage of survival, possibly due action of steroid hormones of resistance to stress such as "ecdysone hormone".

El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto del boro (B), usando como modelo biológico a Drosophila melanogaster. Específicamente analizar las respuestas sobre la descendencia a dosis de 6,0 y 12 mg/L y comparar con el grupo control cuya concentración de boro en el agua del medio de cultivo no supera los 0,6 mg/L, según los estándares de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Los resultados muestran una alteración significativa en el número de la descendencia desde F1 a F3 y luego una tendencia a la normalización a partir de la F4 y F5. También hay un cambio significativo en las proporciones entre machos y hembras, con un efecto agudo en F1 y luego un posible efecto crónico desde F2 a F5, aumentando la proporción de hembras con respecto a los machos. Sin embargo estas diferencias entre sexos ya no son significativas solamente hasta F4. En F5 estas proporciones no son significativas. En F3 en dosis de 12 mg/L de boro, se observan los mayores cambios, alterando la expresión fenotípica, donde el número de machos que incrementan su tamaño, son significativamente más altos con respecto a las hembras que aumentan de tamaño. La tendencia a la normalidad en todos los patrones de estudio a partir de la descendencia F4 a F5, sobre todo en el porcentaje de sobreviva, posiblemente se deba a la acción de hormonas esteroidales de resistencia al estrés, tal como la hormona "Ecdysona".

Animals , Male , Female , Boron/toxicity , Drosophila melanogaster/growth & development , Drosophila melanogaster , Boron/pharmacology , Culture Media , Reproduction
Rev. biol. trop ; 56(3): 1053-1061, sep. 2008. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-637846


Experimental tolerance to boron of the plant species Nicotiana glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Tecoma stans, Medicago sativa y Spinacea oleracea in Argentina. The activity of boron industries is a punctual and diffuse source of air, soil and water pollution. Therefore, it is a priority to study possible ways of reducing this impact. A relatively new technology for reducing soil pollution is phytoremediation, which uses plants and associate microorganisms. The first step in phytoremediation is to detect tolerant plant species, which is the objective of this work. A laboratory experiment to assess the germination, survival and growth of different species at different boron concentrations was carried out following a factorial design with two factors: plant species and boron concentration. Boron concentrations were determined at the beginning and the end of the experiment, taking into account substrates with and without vegetation. We found significant differences for treatment, species and the interaction species*treatment. N. glauca, M. sativa and J. mimosifolia were the most tolerant species. The other species had a decrease in the response variables, with the concentration of the pollutant. All the species had a low survival at the highest boron concentration. The reduction in boron concentration at the end of the experiment was higher in the 30 ppm treatment with M. sativa and the lower was registered in the 20 ppm treatment with J. mimosifolia and in 30 ppm with T. stans and S. oleraceae. We conclude that N. glauca, M. sativa and J. mimosifolia can be considered in remediation plans. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3): 1053-1061. Epub 2008 September 30.

La actividad de las industrias borateras constituye una fuente puntual y difusa de contaminación del aire, suelo y aguas superficiales y profundas. Por lo tanto, el estudio y experimentación acerca de las posibles formas de contrarrestar este impacto constituye una prioridad. Una técnica relativamente nueva para descontaminar suelos es la fitorremediación, que emplea plantas y microorganismos asociados. El primer paso es detectar las especies vegetales tolerantes, lo que constituye el objetivo de este trabajo. Se realizó un experimento en laboratorio para evaluar la germinación, la supervivencia y el crecimiento de distintas especies en diferentes concentraciones de boro. Al comienzo y al final del experimento se determinó la concentración de boro en el sustrato para cada tratamiento y para sustratos con y sin vegetación. Se encontraron diferencias significativas debidas al tratamiento, la especie y la interacción especie *tratamiento. M. sativa, N. glauca y J. mimosifolia fueron las especies de mayor tolerancia al boro. Las otras especies presentaron una disminución en todas las variables-respuesta en función de la concentración del contaminante. Todas presentaron una baja supervivencia en la máxima concentración. La disminución de boro fue máxima en el tratamiento de 30 ppm de boro con M. sativa y la menor se registró en los tratamiento de 20 ppm de boro con J. mimosifolia y de 30 ppm de boro con T. stans y S. oleraceae. Se concluye que N. glauca, M. sativa y J. mimosifolia podrían considerarse como prometedoras en remediación.

Magnoliopsida/drug effects , Boron/toxicity , Germination/drug effects , Argentina , Magnoliopsida/growth & development , Bignoniaceae/drug effects , Bignoniaceae/growth & development , Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods , Medicago sativa/drug effects , Medicago sativa/growth & development , Spinacia oleracea/drug effects , Spinacia oleracea/growth & development , Time Factors , Tobacco/drug effects , Tobacco/growth & development
Int. j. morphol ; 26(1): 155-164, 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-558590


Boron is a non-metal element, commonly found in Nature as borates in sedimentary rocks, charcoal, oceans and soils. In Chile, it is found in high concentrations in the drinkable water of the XV region, in Arica city, in concentrations that exceed the WHO normative. The present work evaluates the effect of boron at a dose of 12 mg/L of water (equivalent to 0.0686 g of boric acid) given orally for 8,42 and 49 days to 3 experimental groups of 10 mice each. Liver sections were stained with PAS-hematoxyline (to evaluate glycogen), Mallory (to identify collagen fibers) and Picrosirius red with polarizing light to classify collagen fibers. Results indicate that boron evokes diverse effects in liver. Binucleated cells were evaluated and counted and results were analyzed with the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Control group (8-day-old mice) had 22.9 binucleated cells per 200 hepatocytes and the boron exposed group (8-day-old mice) showed 28.5 (p>0.05). Therefore, there are not significant differences among these groups. In the 126-day-old mice, the control group had 43.9 binucleated cells per 200 hepatocytes and the boron exposed group showed 76.0, a statistically significant difference (p<0.01). Regarding PAS staining, intensity was classified as low, moderate or intense and analysis was done with the Chi-Square test. All control and experimental groups differed with slight statistical significance (p=0.05). With regard to Mallory staining, intensity was examined in two specific areas: portal triads (PTr) and central veins (CV). There were significant augments in both PTr and CV results after experimental and control groups comparison. Picrosirius red staining examined in polarized microscopy revealed that collagen III was predominant in boron treated mice, denoting collagenolysis of collagen I as toxical effect of boron. In conclusion, boron alters glycogen distribution and collagen quality and deposition in the two examined areas, whereas...

El boro es un elemento metaloide que se encuentra presente en la naturaleza en forma de boratos en rocas sedimentarias, carbón, océanos y algunos suelos. En nuestro país se encuentra en altas concentraciones en el agua potable de la XV región, en la ciudad de Arica, superando el límite máximo recomendado por la OMS. Se evaluó el efecto del boro, en una dosis de 12 mg/L de agua (equivalente 0,0686 G de ac. bórico) administrado por vía oral durante 8, 42 y 49 días a 3 grupos experimentales (10 animales cada uno). Cortes de hígado se tiñieron con Hematoxilina-eosina (células binucleadas), PAS hematoxilina (glicógeno hepático), Mallory y Rojo Picrosirius (fibras de colágeno). El boro produce diversos efectos en el hígado. Para el estudio de células binucleadas se utilizó el test no paramétrico de Mann-Whitney. El grupo C1 tuvo 22,9 células binucleadas cada 200 hepatocitos, en cambio E1 mostró 28,5 (p> 0,05) el análisis no arrojó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre ambos grupos. Grupo C2-3 mostró 43,9 células binucleadas cada 200 hepatocitos, por su parte E2-3 76 (p menor a 0,01) en este caso sí existe diferencia significa entre ambos grupos. La tinción de PAS fue clasificada como leve, moderada e intensa y su análisis realizado mediante Chi- Cuadrado. Todos los grupos controles y experimentales arrojaron diferencias significativas (p<0,01). La tinción de Mallory fue examinada en: triadas portales (TrP) y venas centrales (VC). En ambas hubo incremento significativo. La tinción con Rojo Picrosirius analizada por microscopía de polarización, demostró que el colágeno III predomina en los animales tratados con boro, indicando colagenolisis de colágeno I como efecto tóxico del boro. En conclusión, el boro altera la distribución del glicógeno, la calidad del colágeno y el depósito de ambos en las dos áreas examinadas, en tanto que la cantidad de células binucleadas se comportan de forma distinta en los animales jóvenes respecto a los adultos.

Animals , Mice , Boron/toxicity , Liver , Liver/pathology