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Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1751-1757, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528791


SUMMARY: To observe the effect of sevoflurane combined with brachial plexus block (BPB) in children with humeral fracture surgery and its effect on hemodynamics. 84 children who received surgical treatment of humeral fracture in our hospital from September 2019 to September 2022 were selected. According to different anesthesia methods, the children were divided into control group and study group. The control group only received laryngeal mask sevoflurane; the study group received laryngeal mask sevoflurane combined with BPB. The operation situation, hemodynamic indexes, stress level, pain and adverse reactions of children was observed. The postoperative awakening time in the study group was lower than control group, the postoperative pain onset time in the study group was higher than control group (P0.05). Postoperative 2h, the levels of serum cortisol, b-endorpin, norepinephrine and epinephrine in the study group were lower than control group (P0.05). Sevoflurane combined with BPB is helpful to shorten the postoperative awakening time of children with humeral fracture, reduce the degree of postoperative pain, improve hemodynamics, and reduce stress response, and has good safety.

El objetivo fue observar el efecto del sevoflurano combinado con bloqueo del plexo braquial (BPB) en niños con cirugía de fractura de húmero y su efecto sobre la hemodinámica. Se seleccionaron 84 niños que recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico de fractura de húmero en nuestro hospital desde septiembre de 2019 hasta septiembre de 2022. Según diferentes métodos de anestesia, los niños se dividieron en grupo control y grupo de estudio. El grupo control solo recibió sevoflurano en mascarilla laríngea; el grupo de estudio recibió sevoflurano con mascarilla laríngea combinado con BPB. Se observó la situación operatoria, índices hemodinámicos, nivel de estrés, dolor y reacciones adversas de los niños. El tiempo hasta el despertar postoperatorio en el grupo de estudio fue menor que el del grupo control, el tiempo de aparición del dolor postoperatorio en el grupo de estudio fue mayor que el del grupo control (P0,05). A las 2 horas postoperatorias, los niveles séricos de cortisol, β-endorfina, norepinefrina y epinefrina en el grupo de estudio fueron más bajos que los del grupo control (P 0,05). El sevoflurano combinado con BPB es útil para acortar el tiempo de despertar del posoperatorio de los niños con fractura de húmero, reduce el grado de dolor postoperatorio, mejora la hemodinámica y reduce la respuesta al estrés, además de tener buena seguridad.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Brachial Plexus Block , Sevoflurane/administration & dosage , Humeral Fractures/surgery , Anesthetics, Inhalation , Hemodynamics/drug effects
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 736-743, Nov.Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520386


Abstract Background: Brachial plexus block (BPB) has been accepted as a reliable alternative for general anesthesia in upper limb surgeries. Adding adjuvant drugs like dexmedetomidine and sufentanil has been shown to have clinical and pharmacologic advantages. In this randomized parallel clinical trial, we aim to compare the effects of these two adjuvants for bupivacaine in BPB. Methods: In this double-blinded study, by using computer-assisted block randomization, 40 patients ranged from 20 to 65 years old and scheduled for elective upper limb surgeries were assigned to two equal study groups (n = 20), receiving 1 mL of 5 μg.mL-1 sufentanil (group S) or 1 mL of 100 μg.mL-1 dexmedetomidine (group D) in adjunction to 30 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine for supraclavicular BPB under the guidance of ultrasonography. Characteristics of local anesthesia and postoperative analgesia were evaluated (n = 40). Results: The duration of blocks significantly improved in group S (sensory: estimated median difference (EMD) [95%CI] = 100.0 [70.0~130.0], p < 0.001; motor: EMD [95%CI] = 120.0 [100.0~130.0], p < 0.001). Group S also had significantly longer postoperative analgesia and lower opioid consumption within 24 hours after the surgery (EMD [95%CI] = 4.0 [3.0~7.0], p < 0.001; EMD [95%CI] = -5.0 [-5.0~-5.0], p < 0.001; respectively). None of the patients showed adverse effects concerning vital signs, nausea, or vomiting. Conclusion: Our study showed that during ultrasound-guided supraclavicular BPB, sufentanil is a fairly better choice than dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant for bupivacaine and can provide preferable sensory and motor blocks. No significant side effects were seen in either of the study groups.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Brachial Plexus Block , Bupivacaine , Sufentanil , Upper Extremity/surgery , Anesthetics, Local
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 744-750, Nov.Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520387


Abstract Background and aims: Dexamethasone as adjunct to local anesthetic solution improves the quality of brachial plexus block (BPB). However, evidence for its efficacy at low doses (< 4 mg) is lacking. This study was designed to evaluate the duration of analgesia attained with low dose dexamethasone as adjuvant to local anesthetic for creation of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) under BPB. Methods: Sixty-six patients scheduled for AVF creation were randomly allocated to receive either saline (control) or 2 mg dexamethasone, together with 0.5% ropivacaine and 0.2% lignocaine. The primary outcome was duration of analgesia, defined as time from performing the block to the first analgesic request. The secondary outcomes were time from injection to complete sensory block, time from injection to complete motor block, duration of motor block, postoperative analgesic consumption, and fistula patency at three months. Results: All the blocks were effective. In the group that received dexamethasone, the time to first analgesic request was significantly delayed (432 ± 43.8 minutes vs. 386.4 ± 40.2 minutes; p < 0.01). The onset of sensory and motor blockade occurred faster in dexamethasone group and overall analgesic consumption was also reduced. However, dexamethasone addition did not prolong the duration of motor block. There was no statistically significant difference in the patency of fistulas between the two groups at three months. (p = 0.34). Conclusion: Addition of low-dose perineural dexamethasone to local anesthetic solution significantly prolonged the duration of analgesia. Further trials are warranted to compare the adverse effects between dexamethasone doses of 4 mg and lower.

Humans , Arteriovenous Fistula , Brachial Plexus Block , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Pain, Postoperative , Dexamethasone , Analgesics , Anesthetics, Local
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 347-350, May-June 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439615


Abstract In five patient undergoing surgery for proximal humerus fracture we investigated into postoperative analgesia provided by continuous costoclavicular block using continuous stimulating catheter. The postoperative pain scores were less than 4 in all patients except in two patients who required intravenous tramadol 50 mg as a rescue analgesic. The radiocontrast dye study executed in two patients revealed contiguous contrast spread through the brachial plexus sheath with the catheter tip in the interscalene space. We propose that a continuous costoclavicular block with a retrograde stimulating catheter is a feasible alternative regional anesthesia technique for postoperative analgesia in shoulder surgery.

Humans , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Analgesia , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Shoulder/surgery , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Catheters , Ropivacaine , Anesthetics, Local
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(1): 112-114, Jan.-Feb. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420639


Abstract The subscapularis plane block is an effective approach to anesthetize axillary and upper subscapular nerves. There have been no reports regarding brachial plexus paralysis as a potential complication to date. Described here is a case of median nerve palsy following ultrasound-guided subscapularis plane block for awake frozen shoulder manipulation that was performed on a 52-year-old female diagnosed with adhesive capsulitis. The patient could not flex digits two and three, and ipsilateral inner palm numbness occurred shortly after the block commenced, with complete resolution in the next two hours. The local anesthetics spillage towards brachial plexus with possible partial paralysis should always be expected after subscapularis plane block.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Brachial Plexus Block/adverse effects , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Paralysis , Rotator Cuff , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Anesthetics, Local/adverse effects , Median Nerve
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(1): 104-107, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420656


Abstract The regional techniques for axillary analgesia are well established. However, few studies have investigated surgical anesthesia. In this report, extensive debridement of axillary necrotizing fasciitis, including the posteromedial region of the right arm, performed under exclusive regional anesthesia in a patient with probable difficult airway is described. The procedure was accomplished under a Serratus Plane Block (SPB) and supraclavicular brachial plexus block, guided by ultrasound, and with venous sedation. We observed satisfactory anesthesia 15 minutes after the intervention, efficient intraoperative pain control and within the following 24 hours. Surgical axilla anesthesia is feasible with the described blocks.

Humans , Brachial Plexus , Fasciitis, Necrotizing/surgery , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Pain , Axilla , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Debridement , Anesthetics, Local
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 665-675, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520356


Abstract Objective: This meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine and Clonidine as an adjuvant to local anesthetics in BPBs. Methods: Two investigators independently searched databases to identify all RCTs comparing the efficacy and/or safety of dexmedetomidine and Clonidine as an adjuvant to local anesthetics in BPBs. All outcomes were pooled using the inverse variance method with a random-effect model. An I2 test was used to assess heterogeneity. The source of heterogeneity was explored through meta-regression. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Results: Out of 123 full texts assessed, 24 studies (1448 patients) were included in the analysis. As compared to Clonidine, dexmedetomidine groups showed significantly longer sensory block duration (MD = 173.31; 95% CI 138.02-208.59; I2 = 99%; GRADE approach evidence: high); motor block duration (MD = 158.35; 95% CI 131.55-185.16; I2 = 98%; GRADE approach evidence: high), duration of analgesia (MD = 203.92; 95% CI 169.25-238.58; I2 = 99%; GRADE approach evidence-high), and provided higher grade quality of block (RR = 1.97; 95% CI 1.60-2.41 ; I2 = 0%; GRADE approach evidence: moderate). The block positioning technique (regression coefficient: 51.45, p = 0.005) was observed as a significant predictor of the heterogeneity in the case of sensory block duration. No significant difference was observed for the risk of hypotension (RR = 2.59; 95% CI 0.63-10.66; I2 = %). Conclusion: Moderate to high-quality evidence suggests dexmedetomidine is a more efficacious adjuvant to local anesthetic in BPBs than Clonidine.

Brachial Plexus Block , Clonidine , Meta-Analysis , Dexmedetomidine
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 72(6): 774-779, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420624


Abstract Background Interscalene brachial plexus block is associated with phrenic nerve paralysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate an alternative approach to interscalene brachial plexus blocks in terms of efficacy, grade of motor and sensory blockade, and phrenic nerve blockade. Methods The study was prospective and interventional. The ten living patients studied were 18 to 65 years old, ASA physical status I or II, and submitted to correction of rotator cuff injury. A superior trunk blockade was performed at the superior trunk below the omohyoid muscle, without blocking the phrenic nerve. The needle was advanced below the prevertebral layer until contacting the superior trunk. In order to guarantee the correct positioning of the needle tip, an intracluster pattern of the spread was visualized. The block was performed with 5 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine in ten patients. In the six cadavers, 5 mL of methylene blue was injected. Diaphragmatic excursion was assessed by ultrasonography of the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm. In three patients, pulmonary ventilation was evaluated with impedance tomography. Pain scores and analgesic consumption were assessed in the recovery room for 6 hours after the blockade. Results In the six cadavers, methylene blue didn't reach the phrenic nerve. Ten patients underwent arthroscopic surgery, and no clinically phrenic nerve paralysis was observed. No patient reported pain during the first 6 hours. Conclusions This study suggests that this new superior trunk approach to block the superior trunk may be an alternative technique to promote analgesia for shoulder surgery in patients with impaired respiratory function.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Brachial Plexus , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Pain , Pain, Postoperative , Paralysis , Arthroscopy/methods , Shoulder/innervation , Cadaver , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Anesthetics, Local , Methylene Blue
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 72(5): 669-672, Sept.-Oct. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420584


Abstract Interscalene brachial plexus (ISB) block is considered the analgesic technique of choice for shoulder surgery. However, the hemidiaphragmatic paresis that may occur after the block has led to the search for an alternative to the ISB block. In this case report, the pericapsular nerve group (PENG) block was performed for both surgical anesthesia and postoperative analgesia in two patients who underwent shoulder surgery. It is suggested that the PENG block can be safely applied for analgesia and can be part of surgical anesthesia, but alone is not sufficient for anesthesia. The block of this area did not cause motor block or pulmonary complications, nor result in muscle laxity, blocking only the shoulder and the upper third of the humerus. It was demonstrated that the PENG block may be safely applied for both partial anesthesia and analgesia in selected shoulder surgery cases.

Humans , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Analgesia , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Arthroscopy/methods , Shoulder/surgery , Shoulder/innervation , Femoral Nerve
Artrosc. (B. Aires) ; 29(2): 59-63, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1380192


Introducción: El bloqueo interescalénico se utiliza de forma estandarizada durante la cirugía mayor de hombro, sin embargo, ninguna técnica realizada por encima de la clavícula ha demostrado reducir la tasa de bloqueo del nervio frénico por debajo del 20%. El interés en buscar una prueba diagnóstica que permita identificar la afectación del nervio frénico ha ido en incremento en los últimos años y varias han sido las pruebas diagnósticas empleadas. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la utilidad clínica del ultrasonido para identificar la parálisis hemidiafragmática posterior al bloqueo interescalénico para la cirugía de hombro.Materiales y métodos: estudio diagnóstico observacional prospectivo en treinta y tres pacientes programados para cirugía de hombro. Se les realizó una espirometría forzada y se evaluó el grosor del músculo diafragma. Estas determinaciones se realizaron antes y a los veinte minutos de realizar el bloqueo interescalénico.Resultados: el total de los pacientes estudiados (100%) presentó bloqueo del nervio frénico según uno o los dos métodos utilizados en este estudio para su diagnóstico. Todos los pacientes presentaron variaciones en la ratio del grosor diafragmático en el lado del bloqueo frénico por debajo de 1.2.Conclusión: la exploración ecográfica del diafragma es una gran herramienta para la examinación de una víscera cuya alteración implica graves trastornos en el paciente crítico, a su vez el índice del grosor diafragmático <1.2 puede ser de utilidad en el diagnóstico de paresia frénica asociada al bloqueo del plexo braquial a nivel interescalénico. Tipo de Estudio: Diagnóstico prospectivo. Nivel de Evidencia: II

Introduction: the interscalene block is used in a standardized way during major shoulder surgery, however, no technique performed above the clavicle has been shown to reduce the rate of phrenic nerve block below 20%. The interest for a diagnostic test to allows identifying the involvement of the phrenic nerve has been increasing in recent years and several diagnostic tests have been used. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the clinical utility of ultrasound to identify hemidiaphragmatic paralysis after interscalene block for shoulder surgery.Materials and methods: prospective observational diagnostic study in thirty-three patients scheduled for shoulder surgery. A forced spirometry was performed and the thickness of the diaphragm muscle was evaluated with ultrasound. These determinations were made before and twenty minutes after performing the interscalene block.Results: all the patients studied (100%) presented phrenic nerve block according to one or the two methods used in this study for its diagnosis. All patients presented variations in the diaphragm thickness ratio on the side of the phrenic block below 1.2.Conclusion: the ultrasound examination of the diaphragm is a great tool for the examination of a viscera whose alteration implies serious disorders in the critical patient, in turn, the diaphragm thickness index <1.2 can be useful in the diagnosis of phrenic paresis associated with interscalene brachial plexus block. Level of Evidence: II

Adult , Paralysis , Phrenic Nerve , Shoulder Joint/surgery , Ultrasonography/methods , Brachial Plexus Block , Analgesia
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 588-594, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155777


Abstract Background and objectives: In shoulder arthroscopy, on an outpatient basis, the patient needs a good control of the postoperative pain that can be achieved through regional blocks. Perineural dexamethasone may prolong the effect of these blocks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of perineural dexamethasone on the prolongation of the sensory block in the postoperative period for arthroscopic shoulder surgery in outpatient setting. Methods: After approval by the Research Ethics Committee and informed consent, patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia and ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block were randomized into Group D - blockade performed with 30 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine with vasoconstrictor and 6 mg (1.5 mL) of dexamethasone and Group C - 30 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine with vasoconstrictor and 1.5 mL of 0.9% saline. The duration of the sensory block was evaluated in 4 postoperative moments (0, 4, 12 and 24 hours) as well as the need for rescue analgesia, nausea and vomiting incidence, and Visual Analog Pain Scale (VAS). Results: Seventy-four patients were recruited and 71 completed the study (Group C, n = 37; Group D, n = 34). Our findings showed a prolongation of the mean time of the sensitive blockade in Group D (1440 ± 0 min vs. 1267 ± 164 min, p < 0.001). It was observed that Group C had a higher mean pain score according to VAS (2.08 ± 1.72 vs. 0.02 ± 0.17, p < 0.001) and a greater number of patients (68.4% vs. 0%, p < 0.001) required rescue analgesia in the first 24 hours. The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Perineural dexamethasone significantly prolonged the sensory blockade promoted by levobupivacaine in interscalene brachial plexus block, reduced pain intensity and rescue analgesia needs in the postoperative period.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Na artroscopia de ombro em regime ambulatorial, o paciente necessita de um bom controle da dor pós-operatória, que pode ser conseguido por meio de bloqueios regionais. A dexametasona perineural pode prolongar o efeito desses bloqueios. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da dexametasona perineural quanto ao prolongamento do bloqueio sensitivo no período pós-operatório para cirurgia artroscópica de ombro em regime ambulatorial. Métodos: Após aprovação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa e consentimento informado, foram incluídos no estudo pacientes submetidos a cirurgia artroscópica de ombro sob anestesia geral e bloqueio de plexo braquial interescalênico guiado por ultrassonografia. Eles foram randomizados nos Grupo D - bloqueio com 30 mL de levobupivacaína 0,5% com vasoconstritor e 6 mg (1,5 mL) de dexametasona, e Grupo C - bloqueio com 30 mL de levobupivacaína 0,5% com vasoconstritor e 1,5 mL solução salina. A duração do bloqueio sensitivo foi avaliada em quatro momentos pós-operatórios (0, 4, 12 e 24 horas), assim como a necessidade de analgesia de resgate, incidência de náuseas e vômitos e Escala Visual Analógica de Dor (EVA). Resultados: Setenta e quatro pacientes foram randomizados e 71 completaram o estudo (Grupo C, n = 37; Grupo D, n = 34). Observou-se um prolongamento do tempo médio de bloqueio sensitivo no Grupo D (1440 ± 0 min vs. 1267 ± 164 min; p< 0,001). Pacientes do Grupo C apresentaram maior média de escore de dor de acordo com a EVA (2,08 ± 1,72vs. 0,02 ± 0,17; p< 0,001) e um maior número de pacientes solicitou analgesia de resgate nas primeiras 24 horas (68,4%vs.0%; p< 0,001). A incidência de náuseas e vômitos não foi estatisticamente significante. Conclusão: A dexametasona perineural prolongou significativamente o bloqueio sensitivo da levobupivacaína no bloqueio de plexo braquial interescalênico, reduziu a intensidade de dor e a necessidade de analgesia de resgate pelo paciente no período pós-operatório.

Humans , Male , Female , Arthroscopy/methods , Shoulder Joint/surgery , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Arthroscopy/adverse effects , Time Factors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Pain Measurement , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/epidemiology , Saline Solution/administration & dosage , Levobupivacaine , Analgesia , Anesthetics, Local , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(1): 28-35, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137137


Abstract Background and objectives: To evaluate the single-injection and triple-injection techniques in infraclavicular blocks with an ultrasound-guided medial approach in terms of block success and the need for supplementary blocks. Methods: This study comprised 139 patients who were scheduled for elective or emergency upper-limb surgery. Patients who received an infraclavicular blocks with a triple-injection technique were included in Group T (n = 68). Patients who received an infraclavicular blocks with a single-injection technique were included in Group S (n = 71). The number of patients who required supplementary blocks or had complete failure, the recovery time of sensory blocks and early and late complications were noted. Results: The block success rate was 84.5% in Group S, and 94.1% in Group T without any need for supplementary nerve blocks. The blocks were supplemented with distal peripheral nerve blocks in 8 patients in Group S and in 3 patients in Group T. Following supplementation, the block success rate was 95.8% in Group S and 98.5% in Group T. These results were not statistically significant. A septum preventing the proper distribution of local anesthetic was clearly visualized in 4 patients. The discomfort rate during the block was significantly higher in Group T (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In ultrasound-guided medial-approach infraclavicular blocks, single-injection and triple-injection techniques did not differ in terms of block success rates. The need for supplementary blocks was higher in single injections than with triple injections. The presence of a fascial layer could be the reason for improper distribution of local anesthetics around the cords.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Avaliar as técnicas de injeção única e tripla no bloqueio infraclavicular, empregando-se acesso medial guiado por ultrassonografia, comparando-se o sucesso do bloqueio e a necessidade de bloqueios complementares. Método: O estudo incluiu 139 pacientes com indicação de cirurgia de membro superior eletiva ou de emergência. O Grupo T (n = 68 pacientes) recebeu bloqueio infraclavicular com técnica de injeção tripla e o Grupo S (n = 71), bloqueio infraclavicular com injeção única. Registrou-se o número de pacientes que necessitaram bloqueio complementar de nervo ou que apresentaram falha completa do bloqueio, o tempo de recuperação do bloqueio sensorial e as complicações precoces e tardias. Resultados: A taxa de sucesso do bloqueio infraclavicular, sem necessidade de bloqueio complementar de nervo, foi 84,5% e 94,1% para os Grupos S e T, respectivamente. No bloqueio infraclavicular foi necessário bloqueio de nervos periféricos distais em 8 e 3 pacientes dos Grupos S e T, respectivamente. Após a complementação, a taxa de sucesso do bloqueio foi 95,8% e 98,5% para os Grupos S e T, respectivamente. Os resultados não foram estatisticamente significantes. Imagem de septo impedindo a distribuição adequada do anestésico local foi claramente visualizada em quatro pacientes. A taxa de desconforto durante a realização do bloqueio foi estatatisticamente mais alta no Grupo T (p< 0,05). Conclusões: As técnicas de injeção única e tripla em bloqueio infraclavicular guiado por ultrasonografia com acesso medial não diferiram quanto à taxa de sucesso. A necessidade de bloqueio complementar foi maior com a técnica de injeção simples. A ocorrência de invólucro de fascia poderia justificar a distribuição inadequada do anestésico local ao redor dos fascículos do plexo.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Peripheral Nerves/anatomy & histology , Brachial Plexus/anatomy & histology , Clavicle , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Injections/methods , Middle Aged
Rev. chil. anest ; 49(5): 683-690, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512223


The continuous interscalene block represents the analgesic standard for shoulder surgery. However, the incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis can reach up to 100% of cases. We hypothesized that more dilute local anesthetics would decrease the phrenic palsy at 24 hours. METHODS: Prospective series of patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery with continuous interscalene block. A 15-ml bolus of lidocaine 1%-levobupivacaine 0.25% plus an infusion of levobupivacaine 0.04% at an 8 mL/h rate plus 5 mL boluses on-demand with a 20-minutes lockout was used until discharge. Hemidiaphragmatic excursion was evaluated with M-mode ultrasound in the subcostal region before blocks, in the post-anesthetic unit, and at 24 h. The primary outcome was the presence of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included postoperative pain, amount of rescue boluses, postoperative opioids consumption, and side effects. RESULTS: Thirty patients were recruited and analyzed. The incidence of diaphragm paralysis at 24 h was 96.7%. The median [IQR] of pain at rest (patients with shoulder immobilizer) in a NRS from 0 to 10 at 0.5; 1; 3; 6; 12; 24; 48; 72 hours were 0 [0-0]; 0 [0-0]; 0 [0-0]; 0 [0-0]; 0 [0-0]; 0 [0-2]; 0 [0-2.5]; 0 [0-2], respectively. The median [IQR] consumption of LA boluses was 1.5 [0-7]. There were no postoperative morphine requirements. The most frequent side effect was Horner´s syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous interscalene block with 0.04% levobupivacaine provides adequate analgesia for arthroscopic shoulder surgery but does not prevent hemidiaphragmatic paralysis at 24 hours under the conditions of this study.

El bloqueo interescalénico representa el estándar analgésico para cirugía de hombro. No obstante, la incidencia de parálisis hemidiafragmática puede alcanzar 100% de los casos. Nuestra hipótesis es que infusiones con anestésicos locales más diluidos disminuirían la PHD 24 horas postbloqueo. MÉTODOS: Serie prospectiva de pacientes sometidos a cirugía artroscópica electiva de hombro con bloqueo interescalénico continuo. Un bolo de 15 mL de lidocaína 1%-levobupivacaína 0,5% más infusión postoperatoria de levobupivacaína al 0,04% a 8 ml/h más bolos a demanda de 5 mL con intervalo de 20 minutos hasta el alta. La excursión hemidiafragmática se evaluó con ultrasonido con transductor curvo 2-5 MHz en modo M en la región infracostal antes del bloqueo, en la unidad postanestésica y a las 24 h, antes del alta. El outcome primario fue la presencia de parálisis hemidiafragmática 24 horas postbloqueo. Los resultados secundarios incluyeron dolor postoperatorio, total de bolos de rescate, requerimiento de opioides postoperatorios y efectos secundarios. RESULTADOS: Treinta pacientes fueron reclutados y analizados. La incidencia de PHD a las 24 h fue 96,7%. La mediana [RIC] de dolor en reposo (pacientes con inmovilizador de hombro) medido en escala numérica de 0 a 10, a las 0,5; 1; 3; 6; 12; 24; 48; 72 horas fueron 0 [0-0]; 0 [0-0]; 0 [0-0]; 0 [0-0]; 0 [0-0]; 0 [0-2]; 0 [0-2.5]; 0 [0-2] respectivamente. La mediana [RIC] de consumo de bolos de rescate fue 1,5 [0-7]. No hubo pacientes con requerimientos de morfina postoperatoria. El efecto colateral más frecuente fue el síndrome de Horner. CONCLUSIONES: El bloqueo interescalénico continuo con levobupivacaína 0,04% proporciona analgesia postoperatoria adecuada, pero no evita la PHD a las 24 h en las condiciones de esta serie.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Arthroscopy/adverse effects , Respiratory Paralysis/prevention & control , Shoulder/surgery , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Respiratory Paralysis/etiology , Respiratory Paralysis/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Levobupivacaine/administration & dosage
Clinics ; 75: e2026, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133409


OBJECTIVES: We compared the analgesic efficacy of a continuous suprascapular nerve block (C-SSNB) and a single-shot interscalene brachial plexus block (S-ISNB) for postoperative pain management in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. METHODS: A total of 118 patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were randomly allocated to the S-ISNB or C-SSNB groups. Postoperative pain was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) at 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h postoperatively. Supplemental analgesic use was recorded as total equianalgesic fentanyl consumption. RESULTS: The C-SSNB group showed significantly higher VAS scores at 0−1 h and 1−2 h after the surgery than the S-ISNB group (4.9±2.2 versus 2.3±2.2; p<0.0001 and 4.8±2.1 versus 2.4±2.3; p<0.0001, respectively). The C-SSNB group showed significantly lower VAS scores at 6−12 h after the surgery than the S-ISNB group (4.1±1.8 versus. 5.0±2.5; p=0.031). The C-SSNB group required significantly higher doses of total equianalgesic fentanyl in the post-anesthesia care unit than the S-ISNB group (53.66±44.95 versus 5.93±18.25; p<0.0001). Total equianalgesic fentanyl in the ward and total equianalgesic fentanyl throughout the hospital period were similar between the groups (145.99±152.60 versus 206.13±178.79; p=0.052 and 199.72±165.50 versus 212.15±180.09; p=0.697, respectively) CONCLUSION: C-SSNB was more effective than S-ISNB at 6−12 h after the surgery for postoperative analgesia after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

Humans , Brachial Plexus Block , Rotator Cuff Injuries/surgery , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Arthroscopy , Rotator Cuff/surgery , Anesthetics, Local
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(6): 580-586, nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057470


Abstract Background and objectives: The frequent onset of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis during interscalene block restricts its use in patients with respiratory insufficiency. Supraclavicular block could be a safe and effective alternative. Our primary objective was to assess the incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis following ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block and compare it to that of interscalene block. Methods: Adults warranting elective shoulder surgery under regional anesthesia (Toulouse University Hospital) were prospectively enrolled from May 2016 to May 2017 in this observational study. Twenty millilitres of 0.375% Ropivacaine were injected preferentially targeted to the "corner pocket". Diaphragmatic excursion was measured by ultrasonography before and 30 minutes after regional anesthesia. A reduction ≥25% in diaphragmatic excursion during a sniff test defined the hemidiaphragmatic paralysis. Dyspnoea and hypoxaemia were recorded in the recovery room. Predictive factors of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis (gender, age, weight, smoking, functional capacity) were explored. Postoperative pain was also analysed. Results: Forty-two and 43 patients from respectively the supraclavicular block and interscalene block groups were analysed. The incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis was 59.5% in the supraclavicular block group compared to 95.3% in the interscalene block group (p < 0.0001). Paradoxical movement of the diaphragm was more common in the interscalene block group (RR = 2, 95% CI 1.4-3; p = 0.0001). A similar variation in oxygen saturation was recorded between patients with and without hemidiaphragmatic paralysis (p = 0.08). No predictive factor of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis could be identified. Morphine consumption and the highest numerical rating scale numerical rating scale (NRS) at 24 hours did not differ between groups. Conclusions: Given the frequent incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis following supraclavicular block, this technique cannot be recommended for patients with an altered respiratory function.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O aparecimento frequente de paralisia hemidiafragmática durante o bloqueio interescalênico restringe seu uso em pacientes com insuficiência respiratória. O bloqueio supraclavicular pode ser uma opção segura e eficaz. Nosso objetivo primário foi avaliar a incidência de paralisia hemidiafragmática após bloqueio supraclavicular guiado por ultrassom e compará-lo com o bloqueio interescalênico. Métodos: Os adultos agendados para cirurgia eletiva do ombro sob anestesia regional (Hospital Universitário de Toulouse) foram prospectivamente incluídos neste estudo observacional, de maio de 2016 a maio de 2017. Vinte mililitros de ropivacaína a 0,375% foram injetados, preferencialmente objetivando a interseção da primeira costela e da artéria subclávia. A excursão diafragmática foi medida por ultrassonografia antes e 30 minutos após a anestesia regional. Uma redução ≥ 25% na excursão diafragmática durante um sniff test definiu a paralisia hemidiafragmática. Dispneia e hipoxemia foram registradas na sala de recuperação. Fatores preditivos de paralisia hemidiafragmática (sexo, idade, peso, tabagismo, capacidade funcional) foram explorados. A dor pós-operatória também foi avaliada. Resultados: Quarenta e dois e 43 pacientes dos grupos bloqueio supraclavicular e bloqueio interescalênico, respectivamente, foram avaliados. A incidência de paralisia hemidiafragmática foi de 59,5% no grupo bloqueio supraclavicular em comparação com 95,3% no grupo bloqueio interescalênico (p < 0,0001). O movimento paradoxal do diafragma foi mais comum no grupo bloqueio interescalênico (RR = 2, 95% IC 1,4-3; p = 0,0001). Uma variação semelhante na saturação de oxigênio foi registrada entre os pacientes com e sem paralisia hemidiafragmática (p = 0,08). Nenhum fator preditivo de paralisia hemidiafragmática pôde ser identificado. O consumo de morfina e o maior escore na escala numérica (NRS) em 24 horas não diferiram entre os grupos. Conclusão: Devido à frequente incidência de paralisia hemidiafragmática após bloqueio supraclavicular, essa técnica não pode ser recomendada para pacientes com função respiratória alterada.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Respiratory Paralysis/etiology , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Ropivacaine/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/epidemiology , Respiratory Paralysis/epidemiology , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Brachial Plexus Block/adverse effects , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Morphine/administration & dosage
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(5): 510-513, Sept.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057461


Abstract Background and objectives: Costoclavicular brachial plexus block is an anesthesia performed through the infraclavicular route described in the literature as a safe and effective route for upper limb anesthesia distal to the elbow. The following report describes the case of a patient whose traditional plexus blocking techniques presented ultrasound visualization difficulty, but the costoclavicular approach was easy to visualize for anesthetic blockade. Case report: A grade 3 obese patient scheduled for repair of left elbow fracture and dislocation. Ultrasound examination revealed a distorted anatomy of the supraclavicular region and the axillary region with skin lesions, which made it impossible to perform the blockade in these regions. It was decided to perform an infraclavicular plexus block at the costoclavicular space, where the brachial plexus structures are more superficial and closer together, supported by a muscular structure, lateral to all adjacent vascular structures and with full view of the pleura. The anesthetic block was effective to perform the procedure with a single injection and uneventfully. Conclusion: Costoclavicular brachial plexus block is a good alternative for upper limb anesthesia distal to the elbow, being a safe and effective option for patients who are obese or have other limitations to the use of other upper limb blocking techniques.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O bloqueio de plexo braquial via costoclavicular é uma anestesia feita por via infraclavicular, já descrita na literatura como uma via segura e efetiva para anestesia de membro superior distal ao cotovelo. O relato a seguir trata de um paciente em que as técnicas tradicionais para bloqueio de plexo apresentavam dificuldade de visibilização à ultrassonografia, já a via costoclavicular foi de fácil visibilização para execução do bloqueio anestésico. Relato de caso: Paciente com obesidade grau 3 a ser submetido a correção de fratura e luxação de cotovelo esquerdo apresentava anatomia da região supraclavicular distorcida à avaliação ultrassonográfica e região axilar com lesões de pele, que impossibilitavam o bloqueio nessas regiões. Optou-se por fazer o bloqueio de plexo via infraclavicular no espaço costoclavicular, região onde as estruturas do plexo braquial estão mais superficiais e unidas, amparadas por uma estrutura muscular, laterais a todas as estruturas vasculares adjacentes e com a visibilização plena da pleura. O bloqueio anestésico foi efetivo para a realização do procedimento sob punção única em pele e sem intercorrências. Conclusão: O bloqueio de plexo braquial via costoclavicular é uma boa opção para anestesia de membro superior distal ao cotovelo, é uma opção segura e efetiva para pacientes obesos ou que tenham outras limitações à aplicação de outras técnicas de bloqueio de membro superior.

Humans , Male , Adult , Arm , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Joint Dislocations/surgery , Joint Dislocations/complications , Elbow Joint/injuries , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Fractures, Bone/complications , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Obesity/complications , Elbow Joint/surgery
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1193-1197, jul.-ago. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038637


A anestesia locorregional reduz o requerimento de agentes inalatórios e diminui as respostas autonômicas a estímulos cirúrgicos nocivos. Objetiva-se descrever um bloqueio anestésico do plexo braquial guiado por neuroestimulador em jumento, submetido à amputação do membro anterior direito. Foi realizada medicação pré-anestésica com detomidina 0,, indução com diazepam 0, e cetamina, todos pela via intravenosa (IV), e a manutenção da anestesia com isoflurano. O plexo braquial foi bloqueado por acesso subescapular, sendo usado neuroestimulador. Utilizou-se de bupivacaína 0,5% sem vasoconstritor, associada a de lidocaína 2% sem vasoconstrictor. Os valores de FC e ƒ durante o procedimento cirúrgico variaram de 62 a 78bpm e de 24 a 32rpm, respectivamente. Foram coletadas quatro amostras de sangue para dosagem de cortisol. Este, antes da aplicação da medicação pré-anestésica, foi de 6,4µg/dL e, 30 minutos após a MPA, foi de 2,8µg/dL. A recuperação anestésica foi rápida e sem complicações. O bloqueio do plexo braquial guiado por neuroestimulador mostrou-se eficaz em jumentos, fornecendo analgesia e anestesia satisfatória.(AU)

Locoregional anesthesia reduces the requirement for inhaled agents and reduces the autonomic responses to noxious surgical stimuli. The aim of this study was to describe an anesthetic block of the brachial plexus guided by a neurostimulator in a donkey submitted to right limb amputation. Preanesthetic medication was performed with detomidine induction with diazepam and ketamine all intravenously, and maintenance of anesthesia with isoflurane. The brachial plexus was blocked by subscapular access, using a neurostimulator. For this purpose, -1 of bupivacaine 0.5%, without vasoconstrictor, and 1 of lidocaine 2%, without vasoconstrictor were used. The values of HR and ƒ during the surgical procedure ranged from 62 to 78bpm, and 24 to 32bpm, respectively. Four blood samples were collected for cortisol dosing. This, prior to the application of the pre-anesthetic medication was 6.4µg/dL and 30 minutes was 2.8µg/dL. Anesthesia recovery was rapid and uncomplicated. Neurostimulator-guided brachial plexus blockade proved to be effective in donkeys, providing satisfactory analgesia and anesthesia.(AU)

Animals , Equidae/surgery , Implantable Neurostimulators/veterinary , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Brachial Plexus Block/veterinary , Analgesia/veterinary , Anesthesia/veterinary
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(7): 392-398, agosto 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1022103


Background Th supraclavicular brachial plexus block (SCBPB) exhibits a good anesthetic and analgesic effect to the upper extremity below the shoulder and reduces the need for opioid consumption. Among many medications, dexamethasone and ondansetron had been used as effective adjuvants to the local anesthetics in BPB. Aim: to compare the block characteristics with dexamethasone versus ondansetron as adjuvant to bupivacaine hydrochloride (BPV) in SCBPB. Materials and methods: 75 patients were allocated and divided into three equal groups. Combined ultrasound and nerve stimulation (CUSNS) - guided SCBPB had been done. Control group (C) received thirty ml of 0,5% bupivacaine with 2 ml of normal saline. Ondansetron group (O) received thirty l of 0.5% bupivacaine with 2 ml of 4 mg of ondasetron. In dexamethasone group (D), patient received thirty ml of 0.5% BPV plus 2 ml of 8 mg dexamethasone. Results: A prolonged effect of both sensory and motor block were observed in both group D and group O (more significant in D) than group C. Total dose of analgesic (tramadol in mgs in 24 hours) was obviously reduced in group D and group O than group C. Conclusion: Dexamethasone had better effects on sensory and motor block duration in comparison with ondansetron. The first time to analgesic request in dexamethasone group was longer than ondansetron group (AU)

Adult , Bupivacaine , Dexamethasone , Ondansetron , Brachial Plexus Block , Chi-Square Distribution