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1.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 588-594, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155777

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: In shoulder arthroscopy, on an outpatient basis, the patient needs a good control of the postoperative pain that can be achieved through regional blocks. Perineural dexamethasone may prolong the effect of these blocks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of perineural dexamethasone on the prolongation of the sensory block in the postoperative period for arthroscopic shoulder surgery in outpatient setting. Methods: After approval by the Research Ethics Committee and informed consent, patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia and ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block were randomized into Group D - blockade performed with 30 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine with vasoconstrictor and 6 mg (1.5 mL) of dexamethasone and Group C - 30 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine with vasoconstrictor and 1.5 mL of 0.9% saline. The duration of the sensory block was evaluated in 4 postoperative moments (0, 4, 12 and 24 hours) as well as the need for rescue analgesia, nausea and vomiting incidence, and Visual Analog Pain Scale (VAS). Results: Seventy-four patients were recruited and 71 completed the study (Group C, n = 37; Group D, n = 34). Our findings showed a prolongation of the mean time of the sensitive blockade in Group D (1440 ± 0 min vs. 1267 ± 164 min, p < 0.001). It was observed that Group C had a higher mean pain score according to VAS (2.08 ± 1.72 vs. 0.02 ± 0.17, p < 0.001) and a greater number of patients (68.4% vs. 0%, p < 0.001) required rescue analgesia in the first 24 hours. The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Perineural dexamethasone significantly prolonged the sensory blockade promoted by levobupivacaine in interscalene brachial plexus block, reduced pain intensity and rescue analgesia needs in the postoperative period.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Na artroscopia de ombro em regime ambulatorial, o paciente necessita de um bom controle da dor pós-operatória, que pode ser conseguido por meio de bloqueios regionais. A dexametasona perineural pode prolongar o efeito desses bloqueios. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da dexametasona perineural quanto ao prolongamento do bloqueio sensitivo no período pós-operatório para cirurgia artroscópica de ombro em regime ambulatorial. Métodos: Após aprovação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa e consentimento informado, foram incluídos no estudo pacientes submetidos a cirurgia artroscópica de ombro sob anestesia geral e bloqueio de plexo braquial interescalênico guiado por ultrassonografia. Eles foram randomizados nos Grupo D - bloqueio com 30 mL de levobupivacaína 0,5% com vasoconstritor e 6 mg (1,5 mL) de dexametasona, e Grupo C - bloqueio com 30 mL de levobupivacaína 0,5% com vasoconstritor e 1,5 mL solução salina. A duração do bloqueio sensitivo foi avaliada em quatro momentos pós-operatórios (0, 4, 12 e 24 horas), assim como a necessidade de analgesia de resgate, incidência de náuseas e vômitos e Escala Visual Analógica de Dor (EVA). Resultados: Setenta e quatro pacientes foram randomizados e 71 completaram o estudo (Grupo C, n = 37; Grupo D, n = 34). Observou-se um prolongamento do tempo médio de bloqueio sensitivo no Grupo D (1440 ± 0 min vs. 1267 ± 164 min; p< 0,001). Pacientes do Grupo C apresentaram maior média de escore de dor de acordo com a EVA (2,08 ± 1,72vs. 0,02 ± 0,17; p< 0,001) e um maior número de pacientes solicitou analgesia de resgate nas primeiras 24 horas (68,4%vs.0%; p< 0,001). A incidência de náuseas e vômitos não foi estatisticamente significante. Conclusão: A dexametasona perineural prolongou significativamente o bloqueio sensitivo da levobupivacaína no bloqueio de plexo braquial interescalênico, reduziu a intensidade de dor e a necessidade de analgesia de resgate pelo paciente no período pós-operatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Arthroscopy/methods , Shoulder Joint/surgery , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Arthroscopy/adverse effects , Time Factors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Pain Measurement , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/epidemiology , Saline Solution/administration & dosage , Levobupivacaine , Analgesia , Anesthetics, Local , Middle Aged
2.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(1): 28-35, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137137

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: To evaluate the single-injection and triple-injection techniques in infraclavicular blocks with an ultrasound-guided medial approach in terms of block success and the need for supplementary blocks. Methods: This study comprised 139 patients who were scheduled for elective or emergency upper-limb surgery. Patients who received an infraclavicular blocks with a triple-injection technique were included in Group T (n = 68). Patients who received an infraclavicular blocks with a single-injection technique were included in Group S (n = 71). The number of patients who required supplementary blocks or had complete failure, the recovery time of sensory blocks and early and late complications were noted. Results: The block success rate was 84.5% in Group S, and 94.1% in Group T without any need for supplementary nerve blocks. The blocks were supplemented with distal peripheral nerve blocks in 8 patients in Group S and in 3 patients in Group T. Following supplementation, the block success rate was 95.8% in Group S and 98.5% in Group T. These results were not statistically significant. A septum preventing the proper distribution of local anesthetic was clearly visualized in 4 patients. The discomfort rate during the block was significantly higher in Group T (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In ultrasound-guided medial-approach infraclavicular blocks, single-injection and triple-injection techniques did not differ in terms of block success rates. The need for supplementary blocks was higher in single injections than with triple injections. The presence of a fascial layer could be the reason for improper distribution of local anesthetics around the cords.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Avaliar as técnicas de injeção única e tripla no bloqueio infraclavicular, empregando-se acesso medial guiado por ultrassonografia, comparando-se o sucesso do bloqueio e a necessidade de bloqueios complementares. Método: O estudo incluiu 139 pacientes com indicação de cirurgia de membro superior eletiva ou de emergência. O Grupo T (n = 68 pacientes) recebeu bloqueio infraclavicular com técnica de injeção tripla e o Grupo S (n = 71), bloqueio infraclavicular com injeção única. Registrou-se o número de pacientes que necessitaram bloqueio complementar de nervo ou que apresentaram falha completa do bloqueio, o tempo de recuperação do bloqueio sensorial e as complicações precoces e tardias. Resultados: A taxa de sucesso do bloqueio infraclavicular, sem necessidade de bloqueio complementar de nervo, foi 84,5% e 94,1% para os Grupos S e T, respectivamente. No bloqueio infraclavicular foi necessário bloqueio de nervos periféricos distais em 8 e 3 pacientes dos Grupos S e T, respectivamente. Após a complementação, a taxa de sucesso do bloqueio foi 95,8% e 98,5% para os Grupos S e T, respectivamente. Os resultados não foram estatisticamente significantes. Imagem de septo impedindo a distribuição adequada do anestésico local foi claramente visualizada em quatro pacientes. A taxa de desconforto durante a realização do bloqueio foi estatatisticamente mais alta no Grupo T (p< 0,05). Conclusões: As técnicas de injeção única e tripla em bloqueio infraclavicular guiado por ultrasonografia com acesso medial não diferiram quanto à taxa de sucesso. A necessidade de bloqueio complementar foi maior com a técnica de injeção simples. A ocorrência de invólucro de fascia poderia justificar a distribuição inadequada do anestésico local ao redor dos fascículos do plexo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Peripheral Nerves/anatomy & histology , Brachial Plexus/anatomy & histology , Clavicle , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Injections/methods , Middle Aged
3.
Clinics ; 75: e2026, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133409

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We compared the analgesic efficacy of a continuous suprascapular nerve block (C-SSNB) and a single-shot interscalene brachial plexus block (S-ISNB) for postoperative pain management in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. METHODS: A total of 118 patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were randomly allocated to the S-ISNB or C-SSNB groups. Postoperative pain was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) at 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h postoperatively. Supplemental analgesic use was recorded as total equianalgesic fentanyl consumption. RESULTS: The C-SSNB group showed significantly higher VAS scores at 0−1 h and 1−2 h after the surgery than the S-ISNB group (4.9±2.2 versus 2.3±2.2; p<0.0001 and 4.8±2.1 versus 2.4±2.3; p<0.0001, respectively). The C-SSNB group showed significantly lower VAS scores at 6−12 h after the surgery than the S-ISNB group (4.1±1.8 versus. 5.0±2.5; p=0.031). The C-SSNB group required significantly higher doses of total equianalgesic fentanyl in the post-anesthesia care unit than the S-ISNB group (53.66±44.95 versus 5.93±18.25; p<0.0001). Total equianalgesic fentanyl in the ward and total equianalgesic fentanyl throughout the hospital period were similar between the groups (145.99±152.60 versus 206.13±178.79; p=0.052 and 199.72±165.50 versus 212.15±180.09; p=0.697, respectively) CONCLUSION: C-SSNB was more effective than S-ISNB at 6−12 h after the surgery for postoperative analgesia after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brachial Plexus Block , Rotator Cuff Injuries/surgery , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Arthroscopy , Rotator Cuff/surgery , Anesthetics, Local
4.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(6): 580-586, nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057470

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: The frequent onset of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis during interscalene block restricts its use in patients with respiratory insufficiency. Supraclavicular block could be a safe and effective alternative. Our primary objective was to assess the incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis following ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block and compare it to that of interscalene block. Methods: Adults warranting elective shoulder surgery under regional anesthesia (Toulouse University Hospital) were prospectively enrolled from May 2016 to May 2017 in this observational study. Twenty millilitres of 0.375% Ropivacaine were injected preferentially targeted to the "corner pocket". Diaphragmatic excursion was measured by ultrasonography before and 30 minutes after regional anesthesia. A reduction ≥25% in diaphragmatic excursion during a sniff test defined the hemidiaphragmatic paralysis. Dyspnoea and hypoxaemia were recorded in the recovery room. Predictive factors of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis (gender, age, weight, smoking, functional capacity) were explored. Postoperative pain was also analysed. Results: Forty-two and 43 patients from respectively the supraclavicular block and interscalene block groups were analysed. The incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis was 59.5% in the supraclavicular block group compared to 95.3% in the interscalene block group (p < 0.0001). Paradoxical movement of the diaphragm was more common in the interscalene block group (RR = 2, 95% CI 1.4-3; p = 0.0001). A similar variation in oxygen saturation was recorded between patients with and without hemidiaphragmatic paralysis (p = 0.08). No predictive factor of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis could be identified. Morphine consumption and the highest numerical rating scale numerical rating scale (NRS) at 24 hours did not differ between groups. Conclusions: Given the frequent incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis following supraclavicular block, this technique cannot be recommended for patients with an altered respiratory function.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O aparecimento frequente de paralisia hemidiafragmática durante o bloqueio interescalênico restringe seu uso em pacientes com insuficiência respiratória. O bloqueio supraclavicular pode ser uma opção segura e eficaz. Nosso objetivo primário foi avaliar a incidência de paralisia hemidiafragmática após bloqueio supraclavicular guiado por ultrassom e compará-lo com o bloqueio interescalênico. Métodos: Os adultos agendados para cirurgia eletiva do ombro sob anestesia regional (Hospital Universitário de Toulouse) foram prospectivamente incluídos neste estudo observacional, de maio de 2016 a maio de 2017. Vinte mililitros de ropivacaína a 0,375% foram injetados, preferencialmente objetivando a interseção da primeira costela e da artéria subclávia. A excursão diafragmática foi medida por ultrassonografia antes e 30 minutos após a anestesia regional. Uma redução ≥ 25% na excursão diafragmática durante um sniff test definiu a paralisia hemidiafragmática. Dispneia e hipoxemia foram registradas na sala de recuperação. Fatores preditivos de paralisia hemidiafragmática (sexo, idade, peso, tabagismo, capacidade funcional) foram explorados. A dor pós-operatória também foi avaliada. Resultados: Quarenta e dois e 43 pacientes dos grupos bloqueio supraclavicular e bloqueio interescalênico, respectivamente, foram avaliados. A incidência de paralisia hemidiafragmática foi de 59,5% no grupo bloqueio supraclavicular em comparação com 95,3% no grupo bloqueio interescalênico (p < 0,0001). O movimento paradoxal do diafragma foi mais comum no grupo bloqueio interescalênico (RR = 2, 95% IC 1,4-3; p = 0,0001). Uma variação semelhante na saturação de oxigênio foi registrada entre os pacientes com e sem paralisia hemidiafragmática (p = 0,08). Nenhum fator preditivo de paralisia hemidiafragmática pôde ser identificado. O consumo de morfina e o maior escore na escala numérica (NRS) em 24 horas não diferiram entre os grupos. Conclusão: Devido à frequente incidência de paralisia hemidiafragmática após bloqueio supraclavicular, essa técnica não pode ser recomendada para pacientes com função respiratória alterada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Respiratory Paralysis/etiology , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Ropivacaine/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/epidemiology , Respiratory Paralysis/epidemiology , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Brachial Plexus Block/adverse effects , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Morphine/administration & dosage
5.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(5): 510-513, Sept.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057461

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Costoclavicular brachial plexus block is an anesthesia performed through the infraclavicular route described in the literature as a safe and effective route for upper limb anesthesia distal to the elbow. The following report describes the case of a patient whose traditional plexus blocking techniques presented ultrasound visualization difficulty, but the costoclavicular approach was easy to visualize for anesthetic blockade. Case report: A grade 3 obese patient scheduled for repair of left elbow fracture and dislocation. Ultrasound examination revealed a distorted anatomy of the supraclavicular region and the axillary region with skin lesions, which made it impossible to perform the blockade in these regions. It was decided to perform an infraclavicular plexus block at the costoclavicular space, where the brachial plexus structures are more superficial and closer together, supported by a muscular structure, lateral to all adjacent vascular structures and with full view of the pleura. The anesthetic block was effective to perform the procedure with a single injection and uneventfully. Conclusion: Costoclavicular brachial plexus block is a good alternative for upper limb anesthesia distal to the elbow, being a safe and effective option for patients who are obese or have other limitations to the use of other upper limb blocking techniques.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O bloqueio de plexo braquial via costoclavicular é uma anestesia feita por via infraclavicular, já descrita na literatura como uma via segura e efetiva para anestesia de membro superior distal ao cotovelo. O relato a seguir trata de um paciente em que as técnicas tradicionais para bloqueio de plexo apresentavam dificuldade de visibilização à ultrassonografia, já a via costoclavicular foi de fácil visibilização para execução do bloqueio anestésico. Relato de caso: Paciente com obesidade grau 3 a ser submetido a correção de fratura e luxação de cotovelo esquerdo apresentava anatomia da região supraclavicular distorcida à avaliação ultrassonográfica e região axilar com lesões de pele, que impossibilitavam o bloqueio nessas regiões. Optou-se por fazer o bloqueio de plexo via infraclavicular no espaço costoclavicular, região onde as estruturas do plexo braquial estão mais superficiais e unidas, amparadas por uma estrutura muscular, laterais a todas as estruturas vasculares adjacentes e com a visibilização plena da pleura. O bloqueio anestésico foi efetivo para a realização do procedimento sob punção única em pele e sem intercorrências. Conclusão: O bloqueio de plexo braquial via costoclavicular é uma boa opção para anestesia de membro superior distal ao cotovelo, é uma opção segura e efetiva para pacientes obesos ou que tenham outras limitações à aplicação de outras técnicas de bloqueio de membro superior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Arm , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Joint Dislocations/surgery , Joint Dislocations/complications , Elbow Joint/injuries , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Fractures, Bone/complications , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Obesity/complications , Elbow Joint/surgery
6.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(7): 392-398, agosto 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1022103

ABSTRACT

Background Th supraclavicular brachial plexus block (SCBPB) exhibits a good anesthetic and analgesic effect to the upper extremity below the shoulder and reduces the need for opioid consumption. Among many medications, dexamethasone and ondansetron had been used as effective adjuvants to the local anesthetics in BPB. Aim: to compare the block characteristics with dexamethasone versus ondansetron as adjuvant to bupivacaine hydrochloride (BPV) in SCBPB. Materials and methods: 75 patients were allocated and divided into three equal groups. Combined ultrasound and nerve stimulation (CUSNS) - guided SCBPB had been done. Control group (C) received thirty ml of 0,5% bupivacaine with 2 ml of normal saline. Ondansetron group (O) received thirty l of 0.5% bupivacaine with 2 ml of 4 mg of ondasetron. In dexamethasone group (D), patient received thirty ml of 0.5% BPV plus 2 ml of 8 mg dexamethasone. Results: A prolonged effect of both sensory and motor block were observed in both group D and group O (more significant in D) than group C. Total dose of analgesic (tramadol in mgs in 24 hours) was obviously reduced in group D and group O than group C. Conclusion: Dexamethasone had better effects on sensory and motor block duration in comparison with ondansetron. The first time to analgesic request in dexamethasone group was longer than ondansetron group (AU)


Subject(s)
Adult , Bupivacaine , Dexamethasone , Ondansetron , Brachial Plexus Block , Chi-Square Distribution
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1193-1197, jul.-ago. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038637

ABSTRACT

A anestesia locorregional reduz o requerimento de agentes inalatórios e diminui as respostas autonômicas a estímulos cirúrgicos nocivos. Objetiva-se descrever um bloqueio anestésico do plexo braquial guiado por neuroestimulador em jumento, submetido à amputação do membro anterior direito. Foi realizada medicação pré-anestésica com detomidina 0,01mg.kg-1, indução com diazepam 0,05mg.kg-1 e cetamina 2mg.kg-1, todos pela via intravenosa (IV), e a manutenção da anestesia com isoflurano. O plexo braquial foi bloqueado por acesso subescapular, sendo usado neuroestimulador. Utilizou-se 1mg.kg-1 de bupivacaína 0,5% sem vasoconstritor, associada a 1mg.kg-1 de lidocaína 2% sem vasoconstrictor. Os valores de FC e ƒ durante o procedimento cirúrgico variaram de 62 a 78bpm e de 24 a 32rpm, respectivamente. Foram coletadas quatro amostras de sangue para dosagem de cortisol. Este, antes da aplicação da medicação pré-anestésica, foi de 6,4µg/dL e, 30 minutos após a MPA, foi de 2,8µg/dL. A recuperação anestésica foi rápida e sem complicações. O bloqueio do plexo braquial guiado por neuroestimulador mostrou-se eficaz em jumentos, fornecendo analgesia e anestesia satisfatória.(AU)


Locoregional anesthesia reduces the requirement for inhaled agents and reduces the autonomic responses to noxious surgical stimuli. The aim of this study was to describe an anesthetic block of the brachial plexus guided by a neurostimulator in a donkey submitted to right limb amputation. Preanesthetic medication was performed with detomidine 0.01mg.kg-1 induction with diazepam 0.05mg.kg-1 and ketamine 2mg.kg-1 all intravenously, and maintenance of anesthesia with isoflurane. The brachial plexus was blocked by subscapular access, using a neurostimulator. For this purpose, 1mg.kg -1 of bupivacaine 0.5%, without vasoconstrictor, and 1mg.kg- 1 of lidocaine 2%, without vasoconstrictor were used. The values of HR and ƒ during the surgical procedure ranged from 62 to 78bpm, and 24 to 32bpm, respectively. Four blood samples were collected for cortisol dosing. This, prior to the application of the pre-anesthetic medication was 6.4µg/dL and 30 minutes was 2.8µg/dL. Anesthesia recovery was rapid and uncomplicated. Neurostimulator-guided brachial plexus blockade proved to be effective in donkeys, providing satisfactory analgesia and anesthesia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Equidae/surgery , Implantable Neurostimulators/veterinary , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Brachial Plexus Block/veterinary , Analgesia/veterinary , Anesthesia/veterinary
8.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 253-258, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013415

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: The current study aimed to determine the minimum effective volume (MEV) of bupivacaine 0.5% in 50% of patients for an ultrasound-guided retroclavicular approach to infraclavicular brachial plexus block. Methods: A total of 25 adult patients who were scheduled for upper limb surgery received an ultrasound-guided retroclavicular approach to infraclavicular brachial plexus block with bupivacaine 0.5%. The needle insertion point was posterior to the clavicle and the needle was advanced from cephalad to caudal. Block success was defined as a composite score of 14 at 30 min after local anesthetic (LA) injection. The minimum effective volume in 50% of patients was determined using the Dixon-Massey up-and-down staircase method. Minimum effective volume for a successful block in 95% of the patients was also calculated using logistic regression and probit transformation. Results: The minimum effective volume of bupivacaine 0.5% resulting in successful block in 50% of patients (MEV50) according to the up-and-down staircase method was found to be 9.6 mL (95% confidence interval (CI), 5.7-13.4). The calculated minimum effective volume required for a successful block in 95% of patients (MEV95) using the probit transformation and logistic regression analysis was 23.2 mL (95% CI, 18.8-36.7). Conclusions: The MEV50 of bupivacaine 0.5% for US-guided retroclavicular approach to infraclavicular brachial plexus block was 9.6 mL and the calculated MEV95 was 23.2 mL. Future studies are required for infraclavicular brachial plexus block with different approaches, other LA agents and different concentrations of bupivacaine.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Determinar o volume mínimo efetivo (VE) de bupivacaína a 0,5% em 50% dos pacientes para uma abordagem retroclavicular guiada por ultrassom no bloqueio do plexo braquial por via infraclavicular. Métodos: Um total de 25 pacientes adultos agendados para cirurgia do membro superior receberam abordagem retroclavicular guiada por ultrassom para o bloqueio do plexo braquial por via infraclavicular com bupivacaína a 0,5%. O ponto de inserção da agulha foi posterior à clavícula e a agulha foi avançada de cefálica para caudal. O sucesso do bloqueio foi definido como um escore composto de 14 aos 30 min após a injeção do anestésico local. O VE em 50% dos pacientes foi determinado com o método de escalonamento progressivo-regressivo de Dixon-Massey. O VE para um bloqueio bem-sucedido em 95% dos pacientes também foi calculado com regressão logística e transformação probit. Resultados: O volume mínimo efetivo (VE50) de bupivacaína a 0,5% que resultou em bloqueio bem-sucedido em 50% dos pacientes, de acordo com o método de escalonamento progressivo-regressivo, foi de 9,6 ml (intervalo de confiança de 95%, IC 5,7-13,4). O cálculo do volume mínimo efetivo necessário para um bloqueio bem-sucedido em 95% dos pacientes (VE95) com a análise de transformação probit e regressão logística foi de 23,2 ml (IC 95%, 18,8-36,7). Conclusões: O VE50 de bupivacaína a 0,5% para abordagem retroclavicular guiada por US para o bloqueio do plexo braquial por via infraclavicular foi de 9,6 ml e o VE95 calculado foi de 23,2 ml. Estudos futuros são necessários para o bloqueio do plexo braquial por via infraclavicular com diferentes abordagens, outros anestésicos locais e diferentes concentrações de bupivacaína.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Upper Extremity/surgery , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Middle Aged
9.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(2): 168-176, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003399

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: YouTube, the most popular video-sharing website, contains a significant number of medical videos including brachial plexus nerve blocks. Despite the widespread use of this platform as a medical information source, there is no regulation for the quality or content of the videos. The goals of this study are to evaluate the content of material on YouTube relevant to performance of brachial plexus nerve blocks and its quality as a visual digital information source. Methods: The YouTube search was performed using keywords associated with brachial plexus nerve blocks and the final 86 videos out of 374 were included in the watch list. The assessors scored the videos separately according to the Questionnaires. Questionnaire-1 (Q1) was prepared according to the ASRA guidelines/Miller's Anesthesia as a reference text book, and Questionnaire-2 (Q2) was formulated using a modification of the criteria in Evaluation of Video Media Guidelines. Results: 72 ultrasound-guided and 14 nerve-stimulator guided block videos were evaluated. In Q1, for ultrasound-guided videos, the least scores were for Q1-5 (1.38) regarding the complications, and the greatest scores were for Q1-13 (3.30) regarding the sono-anatomic image. In videos with nerve stimulator, the lowest and the highest scores were given for Q1-7 (1.64) regarding the equipment and Q1-12 (3.60) regarding the explanation of muscle twitches respectively. In Q2, 65.3% of ultrasound-guided and 42.8% of blocks with nerve-stimulator had worse than satisfactory scores. Conclusion: The majority of the videos examined for this study lack the comprehensive approach necessary to safely guide someone seeking information about brachial plexus nerve blocks.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O YouTube, site de compartilhamento de vídeos mais popular, contém um número significativo de vídeos médicos, incluindo bloqueios do plexo braquial. Apesar do uso generalizado dessa plataforma como fonte de informação médica, não há regulamentação para a qualidade ou o conteúdo dos vídeos. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar o conteúdo do material no YouTube relevante para o desempenho do bloqueio do plexo braquial e sua qualidade como fonte de informação visual digital. Métodos: A pesquisa no YouTube foi realizada usando palavras-chave associadas ao bloqueio do plexo braquial e, de 374 vídeos, 86 foram incluídos na lista de observação. Os avaliadores classificaram os vídeos separadamente, de acordo com os questionários. O questionário-1 (Q1) foi preparado de acordo com as diretrizes da ASRA/Miller's Anesthesia como livro de referência e o Questionário-2 (Q2) foi formulado usando uma modificação dos critérios em Avaliação de Diretrizes para Mídia de Vídeo. Resultados: No total, 72 vídeos sobre bloqueios guiados por ultrassom e 14 vídeos sobre bloqueios com estimulador de nervos foram avaliados. No Q1, para os vídeos apresentando bloqueios guiados por ultrassom, os menores escores foram para Q1-5 (1,38) em relação às complicações e os maiores escores foram para Q1-13 (3,30) em relação à imagem sonoanatômica. Nos vídeos que apresentaram bloqueios com estimulador de nervos, os menores e os maiores escores foram dados para Q1-7 (1,64) em relação ao equipamento e Q1-12 (3,60) em relação à explicação das contrações musculares, respectivamente. No Q2, 65,3% dos bloqueios guiados por ultrassom e 42,8% dos bloqueios com estimulador de nervos apresentaram escores abaixo de satisfatórios. Conclusões: A maioria dos vídeos examinados para este estudo carece da abordagem abrangente necessária para orientar com segurança as pessoas que buscam informações sobre o bloqueio do plexo braquial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Consumer Health Information/methods , Social Media/standards , Brachial Plexus Block , Video Recording , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Patient Education as Topic/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires , Consumer Health Information/standards
10.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(1): 99-103, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977428

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Ultrasound-guided upper limb blocks may provide great benefits to patients with serious diseases. Patients with Steinert's disease have muscle weakness and risk of triggering myotony or malignant hyperthermia due to the use of anesthetic agents and surgical stress. The objective of this report was to demonstrate a viable alternative for clavicle fracture surgery with upper trunk and supraclavicular nerve block, thus reducing the spread of local anesthetic to the phrenic nerve in a patient with muscular dystrophy. Case report: A 53-year-old male patient with Steinert's disease, associated with dyspnea, hoarseness and dysphagia, referred to the surgical theater for osteosynthesis of clavicle fracture. Upper limb (1 mL 0.75% ropivacaine) and supraclavicular nerve block (1 mL 0.75% ropivacaine in each branch) were combined with venous anesthesia with propofol under laryngeal mask (infusion pump target of 4 mcg.mL-1). Upon awakening, the patient had no pain or respiratory complaints. He was transferred to the ICU for immediate postoperative follow-up with discharge from this unit after 24 h without complications. Conclusions: The superior trunk and cervical plexus block associated with venous anesthesia under laryngeal mask, without the use of opioids, proved to be adequate in the case of a patient with clavicle fracture and Steinert's disease. With the use of ultrasonography in regional anesthesia it is possible to perform increasingly selective blocks, thus allowing greater security for the anesthetic-surgical procedure and lower morbidity for the patient.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Bloqueios seletivos dos membros superiores guiados por ultrassom podem trazer grandes benefícios em pacientes portadores de doenças graves. Pacientes portadores da doença de Steinert apresentam fraqueza muscular e riscos de desencadear miotonia ou hipertermia maligna devido ao uso de agentes anestésicos e ao estresse cirúrgico. O objetivo deste relato foi mostrar uma opção viável para a cirurgia de fratura de clavícula com bloqueio do tronco superior e nervo supraclavicular, diminui-se assim a dispersão do anestésico local para o nervo frênico em paciente com distrofia muscular. Relato de caso: Paciente do sexo masculino, 53 anos, portador de doença de Steinert, associada a dispneia, rouquidão e disfagia. Encaminhado ao bloco cirúrgico para osteossíntese de fratura de clavícula. Feito bloqueio de tronco superior (1 mL ropivacaína a 0,75%) e de nervo supraclavicular (1 mL de ropivacaína 0,75 em cada ramificação) associado à anestesia venosa com propofol sob máscara laríngea (alvo de 4 mcg.mL-1 em bomba de infusão). Ao despertar, o paciente apresentava-se sem dor ou queixas respiratórias. Admitido em CTI para acompanhamento do pós-operatório imediato com alta dessa unidade após 24 horas sem intercorrências. Conclusões: O bloqueio do tronco superior e do plexo cervical associado à anestesia venosa sob máscara laríngea, sem uso de opioides, mostrou-se adequado no caso de fratura da clavícula em paciente com doença de Steinert. Com o uso da ultrassonografia em anestesia regional é possível fazer bloqueios cada vez mais seletivos e possibilitar assim maior segurança para o procedimento anestésico-cirúrgico e menor morbidade para o paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Clavicle/surgery , Clavicle/injuries , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Brachial Plexus Block , Cervical Plexus Block , Myotonic Dystrophy/complications , Fractures, Bone/complications , Middle Aged
11.
The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine ; 76(7): 4643-4648, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1272785

ABSTRACT

Background: in orthopedic procedures more blood is lost from raw bone and muscle surface than from identifiable blood vessels. Moderate hypotensive anesthesia was found to significantly decrease the average blood loss by nearly 40%, reduce the need for transfusion by 45% and shorten the average operating time by nearly 10%. Objective: The aim of the current study was to compare magnesium sulphate and dexmedetomidine with nitroglycerin as regard hypotensive effect as primary outcome, volume of blood loss, blood substitution and pattern of recovery as secondary outcome during lumbar spine surgery. Patients and Methods: This prospective, controlled, comperative, randomized, double blind study included a total of ninty patients aged 21-50 years of both sex, ASA I-II scheduled for elective lumber spine surgery, attending at Department of Orthopedic, AL-Azher university Hospital in Assuit as single center study. Patients have received either dexmedetomidine, magnesium sulfate or nitroglycerine. Results: There were highly significant difference (P <0.000) with duration of surgery between different study groups with duration of surgery shortest in dexmedetomidine group followed by magnesium sulfate group and then nitroglycerine group. There were highly significant differences between different study groups with fluid maintenance with higher volume in nitroglycerine group then magnesium sulfate group and then dexmedetomidine group. There were highly significant differences (P <0.000) with systolic blood pressure between study groups at A1 and hypotensive agent discontinuation with lowest systolic blood pressure in dexmedetomidine group followed by magnesium sulfate group and then nitroglycerine group. Conclusion: nitroglycerine, magnesium sulfate and dexmedetomidine could induce hypotension, but dexmedetomidine showed more favorable hemodynamic profile as regard blood pressure and heart rate


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus Block , Brachial Plexus Neuritis , Ketamine , Ultrasonics
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) harvesting is associated with significant perioperative pain and opioid consumption. This randomized controlled trial sought to determine if the transversalis fascia plane (TFP) block provides effective analgesia for anterior ICBG harvesting. METHODS: Fifty patients undergoing wrist fusion surgery with anterior ICBG harvesting were randomized to receive a TFP block with either 20 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine or 5% dextrose. Patients additionally received a brachial plexus block for primary surgical-site anesthesia and either a general or spinal anesthetic depending on patient preference. Primary outcomes of interest were perioperative opioid consumption (measured as intravenous morphine equivalents [IME]), pain intensity at the ICBG harvest site for up to 48 h postoperatively, and the incidence of persistent postoperative pain at 6 and 12 months after surgery. RESULTS: The TFP group used less opioid in the post-anesthetic care unit (PACU) (median 0 vs. 2.5 mg IME, P = 0.01) and in the first 8 h following PACU discharge (median 2.5 vs. 13.0 mg IME, P = 0.02). The patients who received a TFP block also had lower pain scores in PACU (median 0 vs. 4.0 out of 10, P < 0.001). Although opioid consumption and pain scores were lower in the TFP group at later timepoints, this difference was not statistically significant. Persistent pain at the ICBG site was reported in only 4.3% and 6.5% of all patients at 6 and 12 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The TFP block provides effective early analgesia for anterior ICBG harvesting. The incidence of persistent postoperative pain was low.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Local , Brachial Plexus Block , Fascia , Glucose , Humans , Incidence , Morphine , Nerve Block , Pain, Postoperative , Patient Preference , Transplants , Wrist
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Phase-lag entropy (PLE) was recently described as a measurement of temporal pattern diversity in the phase relationship between two electroencephalographic signals from prefrontal and frontal montages. This study was performed to evaluate the performance of PLE for assessing the depth of sedation. METHODS: Thirty adult patients undergoing upper limb surgery with a brachial plexus block were administered propofol by target-controlled infusion. The depth of sedation was assessed using the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) scale. The effect-site concentration (Ce) of propofol was initially started at 0.5 μg/ml and was increased in increments of 0.2 μg/ml until an OAA/S score of 1 was reached. Three minutes after the target Ce was reached, the PLE, bispectral index (BIS), and level of sedation were assessed. Correlations between the OAA/S score and PLE or BIS were determined. The prediction probabilities (P(k)) of PLE and BIS were also analyzed. RESULTS: The PLE values were closely correlated with the OAA/S scores (Spearman's Rho = 0.755; P < 0.001) to an extent comparable with the correlation between the BIS and OAA/S score (Spearman's Rho = 0.788; P < 0.001). The P(k) values of PLE and BIS were 0.731 and 0.718, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PLE is a new and reliable consciousness monitoring system for assessing the depth of sedation induced by propofol, which is comparable with the BIS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brachial Plexus Block , Consciousness Monitors , Electroencephalography , Entropy , Humans , Propofol , Upper Extremity
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The breast is innervated by the intercostal nerves and the brachial plexus. We propose a technique to perform breast surgery without general anesthesia using the erector spinae plane (ESP) block and selective block of four nerves that arise from the brachial plexus innervate the breast and the axilla (SBP block). CASE: A 77-year-old man with breast cancer was scheduled for radical mastectomy and axillary clearance. He had a previous history of myocardial infarction with dilated cardiomyopathy and severely impaired ejection fraction. The surgery was performed under regional anesthesia with combined ESP and SBP block. The patient did not require opioids or other supplemental analgesics intra- or postoperatively and was discharged uneventfully. CONCLUSIONS: SBP is a novel block that selectively blocks branches of the brachial plexus that innervate the breast.


Subject(s)
Aged , Analgesics , Analgesics, Opioid , Anesthesia, Conduction , Anesthesia, General , Axilla , Brachial Plexus Block , Brachial Plexus , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated , Humans , Intercostal Nerves , Mastectomy, Radical , Myocardial Infarction
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To identify trends in injuries and substandard care associated with anesthesia, we analyzed the Korean Society of Anesthesiologists database for anesthesia-related case files from July 2009 to June 2018. METHODS: Case characteristics, injuries, and outcomes were compared between the first part (July 2009–June 2014, n = 105) and the second part (July 2014–June 2018, n = 92) of the analyzed time period. RESULTS: Overall, 132 cases resulted in death. The proportion of fatal cases for sedation was similar to general anesthesia (66.2% vs. 76.3%). The proportion of cases with permanent injury or death decreased significantly in the second part of the period compared with the first part (76.1% vs. 93.3%, P = 0.002). With a growing trend in the proportion of sedation cases, a similar number of sedation and general anesthesia cases were referred during the overall period (77 and 76 cases, respectively). Propofol-based regimens remained the dominant sedation method (89.7% in the first part vs. 78.9% in the second part). The most common adverse event in cases of permanent injury or death was identified as being respiratory in origin (98/182, 53.8%). Permanent injuries or deaths were related to local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST) and beach-chair positioning for shoulder surgery, in 8 and 5 cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the decreasing trend in injury severity with time, several characteristic injury profiles were identified: lack of vigilance in propofol-based sedation, neurological injuries related to the beach-chair position, and LAST occurring during tumescent anesthesia or brachial plexus block.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Brachial Plexus Block , Dissent and Disputes , Malpractice , Methods , Shoulder
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients awakening from general anesthesia may experience emergence delirium (ED), often due to inadequate pain control. Nerve block completely inhibits innervation of the surgical site and is superior to systemic analgesics. This study assessed whether pain control through nerve block relieves ED after general anesthesia. METHODS: Fifty patients aged 2–7 years with humerus condyle fractures were randomly assigned to receive ultrasound guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block (BPB group) or intravenous fentanyl (Opioid group). The primary outcome was score on the pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium (PAED) scale on arrival at the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Secondary outcomes were severity of agitation and pain in the PACU, the incidence of ED, and postoperative administration of rescue analgesics over 24 h. RESULTS: PAED scale was significantly lower in the BPB group at arrival in the PACU (7.2 ± 4.9 vs. 11.6 ± 3.2; mean difference [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 4.4 [2.0–6.8], P < 0.001) and at all other time points. The rate of ED was significantly lower in the BPB group (36% vs. 72%; relative risk [95% CI] = 0.438 [0.219–0.876], P = 0.023). The BPB group also had significantly lower pain scores and requiring rescue analgesics than Opioid group in the PACU. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound guided BPB, which is a good option for postoperative acute phase pain control, also contributes to reducing the severity and incidence of ED.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Brachial Plexus Block , Brachial Plexus , Child , Delirium , Dihydroergotamine , Fentanyl , Humans , Humerus , Incidence , Nerve Block , Pain, Postoperative , Ultrasonography
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766417

ABSTRACT

This paper reports the use of a traction device for the treatment of neglected proximal interphalangeal fracture dislocations. A 44-year-old man with a fracture dislocation of a right ring finger proximal interphalangeal joint was admitted 17 days after the injury. Closed reduction and external fixation were performed using a dynamic traction device and C-arm under a brachial plexus block. Passive range of motion exercise was started after two weeks postoperatively and active range of motion exercise was started after three weeks. The traction device was removed after five weeks. No infection occurred during the traction period. No subluxation or displacement was observed on the X-ray taken two months postoperatively. The active range of motion of the proximal interphalangeal joint was 90°. The patient was satisfied with the functional result of the treatment with the traction device. The dynamic traction device is an effective treatment for neglected fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint of a finger.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brachial Plexus Block , Joint Dislocations , External Fixators , Fingers , Humans , Joints , Range of Motion, Articular , Traction
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761393

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recently, the cases about successful regional anesthesia using combined superficial cervical plexus block and interscalene brachial plexus block for clavicle surgery have been reported. The aim of this study was to compare regional anesthesia using combined superficial cervical plexus block and interscalene brachial plexus block with general anesthesia. METHODS: In this prospective randomized study, 26 patients scheduled for elective clavicle surgery were divided into two groups: the first group was general anesthesia group (GA group, n=13) and the second group for peripheral nerve block group (PNB group, n=13). Standardized general anesthesia was done to the patients assigned to the GA group and ultrasonography-guided combined superficial cervical plexus block and interscalene brachial plexus block was done to the patients assigned to the PNB group. Postoperative sedation scale was assessed at post-anesthesia care unit, and pain scale using 10-cm Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was assessed at immediate postoperative, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 6 hours, and 24 hours. Patients needed additional analgesics, and time for first analgesic demand and duration from surgery to discharge was recorded. RESULTS: The pain VAS scales were less in PNB group than GA group from immediate postoperative time to 6 hours. The patients' immediate postoperative sedation scale less than 4 were significantly less in PNS group than GA group. The duration from surgery to discharge was shorter in PNS group than GA group. CONCLUSION: Regional anesthesia using combined superficial cervical plexus block and interscalene brachial plexus block is a successful alternative to general anesthesia for clavicle surgery.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Anesthesia, Conduction , Anesthesia, General , Brachial Plexus Block , Brachial Plexus , Cervical Plexus Block , Cervical Plexus , Clavicle , Humans , Peripheral Nerves , Prospective Studies , Visual Analog Scale , Weights and Measures
19.
Rev. medica electron ; 40(3): 638-647, may.-jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-961246

ABSTRACT

Introducción: actualmente se usan más técnicas regionales para la anestesia en las cirugías y para analgesia de los dolores posoperatrios de miembros superiores. El empleo de adyuvantes junto con anestésicos locales para el bloqueo del plexo braquial vía axilar, proporciona anestesia-analgesia adecuada de la extremidad superior para cirugías de mano y antebrazo. Objetivo: evaluar la utilidad de mepivacaína-fentanilo en el bloqueo del plexo braquial vía axilar para la analgesia postoperatoria. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico, longitudinal y prospectivos en el Hospital Militar Docente "Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy", en el período comprendido entre enero de 2014 a noviembre de 2016. La muestra fueron 40 pacientes consecutivos divididos en dos grupos homogéneos de 20 pacientes cada uno. Se evaluó la calidad y duración de la analgesia postoperatoria mediante escala análoga visual del dolor (EVA) en 2da, 4ta y 6ta h postoperatoria, se consideró analgesia satisfactoria cuando (EVA) ≤ 3, analgesia moderada de 4 a 6 y analgesia no satisfactoria ≥ 7. Para el análisis estadístico descriptivo se determinó la media y la desviación estándar, se utilizó el test de la T de Student. Resultados: en la 2da hora grupo I EVA ≤ 3: 20 pacientes (100 %) y Grupo II: 19 pacientes (95 %) p=0.5; 4ta hora GI EVA ≤ 3: 20 pacientes (10 %) y GII: 17 pacientes (85 %) p=1; 6ta hora GI EVA ≤ 3: 19 pacientes (95 %) y GII: 10 pacientes (50 %) p=1. Las complicaciones ocuparon 10 % en ambos grupos. Conclusiones: la aplicación de mepivacaína-fentanilo para la analgesia postoperatoria resultó ser útil, con calidad y duración de la analgesia postoperatoria y con escasas complicaciones (AU).


Introduction: currently, more regional techniques are used for anesthesia in surgeries and for analgesia in postoperative pains of upper limbs. The use of adjuvants together with local anesthetics for the brachial plexus blockade by axillary way provides the adequate anesthesia-analgesia of the high limb for hand and forearm surgery. Objective: to assess the utility of mepivacaine-fentanyl in the brachial plexus blockade by axillary way for postoperative anesthesia. Materials and methods: an observational, analytic, longitudinal and prospective study was carried out in the Teaching Military Hospital ¨Dr. Mario Munoz Monroy¨ in the period from January 2014 to November 2016. The sample were 40 consecutive patients divided into two homogenous groups of 20 patients each. The quality and duration of postoperative analgesia were assessed through the pain visual analogue scale (EVA in Spanish) in the 2nd, 4th and 6th postoperative hour; analgesia was considered satisfactory when EVA ≤3; moderated when from 4 to 6, and nonsatisfactory ≥7. The media and standard deviation were determined for the descriptive statistical analysis; the T Student test was used. Results: In the 2nd hour, Group I, EVA ≤ 3: 20 patients (100 %), and Group II: 19 patients (95 %) p=0.5; in the 4th hour, Group I, EVA ≤3: 20 patients (10 %) and Group II: 17 patients (85 %) p=1. Complications were 10 % in both groups. Conclusions: the application of mepivacaine-fentanyl for postoperative analgesia was useful, with quality and duration of postoperative analgesia and scarce complications (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Pain, Postoperative , Axilla , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Brachial Plexus Block , Anesthesia and Analgesia/methods , Postoperative Care , Analytical Methods , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Cuba , Observational Study , Ambulatory Surgical Procedures , Forearm , Hand
20.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(1): 62-68, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897805

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Randomized prospective study comparing two perivascular techniques with the perineural technique for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block (US-ABPB). The primary objective was to verify if these perivascular techniques are noninferior to the perineural technique. Method 240 patients were randomized to receive the techniques: below the artery (BA), around the artery (AA) or perineural (PN). The anesthetic volume used was 40 mL of 0.375% bupivacaine. All patients received a musculocutaneous nerve blockade with 10 mL. In BA technique, 30 mL were injected below the axillary artery. In AA technique, 7.5 mL were injected at 4 points around the artery. In PN technique, the median, ulnar, and radial nerves were anesthetized with 10 mL per nerve. Results Confidence interval analysis showed that the perivascular techniques studied were not inferior to the perineural technique. The time to perform the blockade was shorter for the BA technique (300.4 ± 78.4 s, 396.5 ± 117.1 s, 487.6 ± 172.6 s, respectively). The PN technique showed a lower latency time (PN - 655.3 ± 348.9 s; BA - 1044 ± 389.5 s; AA - 932.9 ± 314.5 s), and less total time for the procedure (PN - 1132 ± 395.8 s; BA - 1346.2 ± 413.4 s; AA - 1329.5 ± 344.4 s). BA technique had a higher incidence of vascular puncture (BA - 22.5%; AA - 16.3%; PN - 5%). Conclusion The perivascular techniques are viable alternatives to perineural technique for US-ABPB. There is a higher incidence of vascular puncture associated with the BA technique.


Resumo Introdução Estudo prospectivo randomizado, compara duas técnicas perivasculares com a técnica perineural para o bloqueio do plexo braquial via axilar guiado por ultrassom (BPVA-USG). Objetivo primário foi verificar se essas técnicas perivasculares são não inferiores à técnica perineural. Método Foram randomizados 240 pacientes para receber as técnicas: abaixo da artéria (TA), ao redor da artéria (TR) ou perineural (PN). O volume de anestésico usado foi 40 ml de bupivacaína 0,375%. Em todos os pacientes, fez-se o bloqueio do nervo musculocutâneo com 10 ml. Na técnica TA, injetaram-se 30 ml abaixo da artéria axilar. Na técnica TR, injetaram-se 7,5 ml em quatro pontos ao redor da artéria. Na técnica PN, os nervos mediano, ulnar e radial foram anestesiados com 10 ml por nervo. Resultados Análise dos intervalos de confiança mostrou que as técnicas perivasculares estudadas não são inferiores à técnica perineural. A técnica TA apresentou menor tempo para o bloqueio (300,4 ± 78,4 seg; 396,5 ± 117,1 seg; 487,6 ± 172,6 seg; respectivamente). A técnica PN apresentou menor tempo de latência (PN - 655,3 ± 348,9 seg; TA - 1044 ± 389,5 seg; TR - 932,9 ± 314,5 seg) e menor tempo total de procedimento (PN - 1132 ± 395,8 seg; TA -1346,2 ± 413,4 seg; TR 1329,5 ± 344,4 seg). A técnica TA apresentou maior incidência de punção vascular (TA - 22,5%, TR - 16,3%; PN - 5%). Conclusão As técnicas perivasculares são opções viáveis à técnica perineural para o BPVA-USG. Ressalta-se maior incidência de punção vascular associada à técnica TA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Young Adult , Brachial Plexus Block/methods
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