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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-7, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468826

ABSTRACT

Water magnetization and geoprocessing are increasingly utilized tools in weed management. Our objective was to study the influence of water magnetization on herbicide efficiency and to verify whether there is a relationship between control scores and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In the laboratory experiment, water was subjected to magnetization and evaluated with respect to four characteristics. In the field experiment, plots of Brachiaria grass were subjected to treatments in a factorial scheme (6 × 2 + 1). Six herbicidal factors (doses of glyphosate and glyphosate + 2,4-D) and the magnetization or absence of magnetization of the spray solution were evaluated and compared against the control treatment (without spraying). Weed control assessments were carried out six times. Images were obtained using an embedded multispectral camera to determine the NDVI values. Data related to water characteristics were analyzed using the t test. Weed control and NDVI data were subjected to analysis of variance and are presented in regression graphs. Dispersion analysis of NDVI data was performed according to the control scores. The magnetization process decreased the pH of the water and increased the surface tension, but it did not influence the control scores or the NDVI. As the glyphosate dose was increased, the control scores were higher and the NDVI values were lower. Magnetized water did not affect the biological efficiency of the herbicides, and there was a strong correlation between the control scores and the NDVI values.


A magnetização da água e o geoprocessamento são ferramentas cada vez mais utilizadas no manejo de ervas daninhas. Nosso objetivo foi estudar a influência da magnetização da água na eficiência do herbicida e verificar se existe uma relação entre os escores de controle e o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI). No experimento de laboratório, a água foi submetida à magnetização e avaliada em relação a quatro características. No experimento de campo, parcelas de capim-braquiária foram submetidas a tratamentos em esquema fatorial (6 × 2 + 1). Seis fatores herbicidas (doses de glyphosate e glyphosate + 2,4-D) e a magnetização ou ausência de magnetização da calda foram avaliados e comparados com o tratamento controle (sem pulverização). Avaliações de controle de plantas daninhas foram realizadas seis vezes. As imagens foram obtidas usando uma câmera multiespectral incorporada para determinar os valores de NDVI. Os dados relacionados às características da água foram analisados por meio do teste t. O controle de plantas daninhas e os dados de NDVI foram submetidos à análise de variância e são apresentados em gráficos de regressão. A análise de dispersão dos dados NDVI foi realizada de acordo com os escores de controle. O processo de magnetização diminuiu o pH da água e aumentou a tensão superficial, mas não influenciou nos escores de controle ou no NDVI. Conforme a dose de glyphosate foi aumentada, os escores de controle foram maiores e os valores de NDVI foram menores. A água magnetizada não afetou a eficiência biológica dos herbicidas, e houve uma forte correlação entre os escores de controle e os valores de NDVI.


Subject(s)
Brachiaria/growth & development , Brachiaria/drug effects , Weed Control/methods , Herbicides/administration & dosage , Herbicides/adverse effects
2.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38075, Jan.-Dec. 2022. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397078

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to carry out the in vitro establishment of Echynochloa polystachya aiming at obtaining a micropropagation protocol for works involving the selection of superior genotypes and the cultivation of the species. E. polystachya stems were collected in the municipality of Manaus-AM. Explants were inoculated in test tubes containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Thirty days after in vitro establishment, the rate of sprouting and contamination were evaluated. Experiments were also carried out to assess the effects of sucrose and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) concentrations on the tillering rate of explants. It was found that during the successive subcultures there was a decrease in internodes and the consequent loss of vigor. There were responses in the multiplication rate at concentrations starting from 45 g L-1 sucrose. In addition, BAP and sucrose interfered the development and in vitro multiplication. Sucrose in conjunction with BAP was harmful and shortened internodes. The physiological state of the explants for the species under study was intrinsically linked to the concentrations of sucrose used for the culture medium and the concentrations of BAP. However, the sucrose and BAP concentrations suggested for in vitro cultivation of E. Polystachya must be adjusted during successive subcultures. Absence of contamination in the in vitro establishment occurred at concentrations 15, 30 and 60 g L-1 sucrose. The combination of 1.5 mg L-1 BAP and 30 g L-1 sucrose promoted greater induction of sprouts. In addition, the in vitro rooting of E. polystachya was 45%.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques , Brachiaria , Tissue Culture Techniques
3.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38060, Jan.-Dec. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396545

ABSTRACT

The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of Stylosanthes spp. (Campo Grande© styles) and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu in the vertical migration of Haemonchus spp. infective larvae, in the region of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Seeds of Stylosanthes spp. and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu were planted in 50 pots of five liters (20 cm diameter) evenly disposed in an area of the Capim Branco Experimental Farm, Federal University of Uberlândia. When both species reached the minimum height of 20 cm, the pots were experimentally contaminated with sheep feces coprocultures. Samplings were performed, with complete removal of the vegetal material contained in the pots, on days one, three, six, 10 and 14 after contamination. Nematoids were recovered from the plant samples by thermo and hydrotropism, counted under an optical microscope and identified. For statistical analysis, the data were analyzed in a completely randomized design (DIC) in a 2X5 factorial scheme (two fodder species X 5 collection dates). No effect of the forage species was observed on the number of L3 of Haemonchus sp. recovered in the feces (p = 0.7790), upper stratum (p = 0.1755) or lower stratum (p = 0.7883) of the forage, however, there was a significant decrease in the number of L3 found with the passing of the days. When comparing the mean L3 recovered in the upper (0.06±0.31 L3) and lower (2.94±0.39) strata, a higher number of larvae was observed in the lower stratum (p < 0.0001). Therefore, in both forage species studied, the upper stratum of the plants, preferably pastured by the animals, remained with less contamination of infective larvae and the contamination tended to decrease over the days.


Subject(s)
Trichostrongyloidea , Communicable Disease Control , Brachiaria , Haemonchus
4.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38023, Jan.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395407

ABSTRACT

The pasture mowing in late winter removes the old forage, improving the pasture structure in spring and summer. However, the residue after mowing can affect tillering, thus limiting forage production and the structural characteristics of pasture. We hypothesized that the high amount of cut vegetal residues on the plants in late winter causes a decrease in forage production and modifies the structural characteristics of the forage canopy during the spring and summer. The treatments were four cut vegetal residues (0; 2,000; 4,000 and 8,000 t ha-1 of natural material) deposited on Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu canopy in late winter. After that, the forage production and structure characteristics were evaluated during the spring and summer for two years. The complete randomized block design, with four replications, was used. The defoliation management was characterized by the adoption of pre- and post-cut heights of 25 and 15 cm, respectively. For both years, there was no effect of cut vegetal residue on all the characteristics evaluated. No variable was affected by the interaction cut vegetal residue amount × year of evaluation. The dead leaf blade percentage was greater in year 2 (6.9%) than in year 1 (3.5%). The average values of variables were live leaf blade percentage = 84.2%; live stem percentage = 8.7%; dead stem percentage = 1.9%; number of vegetative tiller = 653 tiller/m2; number of reproductive tiller = 5 tiller m-2. The forage production rate presented an average value of 46 kg/ha/day of dry matter. The cut vegetal residue amount of up to 8,000 t/ha of natural material on the plants in late winter does not affect the forage production or modifies the structural characteristics of marandu palisadegrass during the subsequent spring and summer.


Subject(s)
Plant Structures , Brachiaria/anatomy & histology
5.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38021, Jan.-Dec. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395405

ABSTRACT

The use of light-transparent acetate sheet (LAS) may generate variations in the height measured in the sward. However, we compared the use or non-use of LAS to measure the average sward height of marandu palisadegrass (Urochloa brizantha syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu) pastures. In the first experiment, the methods were applied in pastures with different average heights (15, 25, 35, and 45 cm), managed under continuous stocking with sheep, and with predominance of vegetative tillers. The shorter pastures (15 and 25 cm) had similar heights with or without the use of the LAS. However, in the taller pastures (35 and 45 cm), the use of LAS resulted in lower height values, compared with its absence. In the second experiment, we compared both methods for measuring the height of deferred marandu palisadegrass and fertilized with two nitrogen levels (50 and 200 kg ha-1) and with high presence of reproductive tillers. A completely randomized design with four replicates was adopted. With 200 kg ha-1 of N, the canopy height was greater than when it was fertilized with 50 kg ha-1 of N. With the use of LAS, the height of deferred and reproductive canopy was greater than without it. In a taller marandu palisadegrass pasture with predominance of vegetative tillers, the use of LAS results in smaller height, contrary to what occurs in deferred swards with reproductive tillers.


Subject(s)
Pasture , Brachiaria/anatomy & histology
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38020, Jan.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395403

ABSTRACT

The control of sward height at the early stockpiling period influences the structural characteristics of stockpiled sward in winter. So, we conducted this work on the Cerrado region of Brazil based on the hypothesis that the reduction of pasture height at the beginning of stockpiling period results in: (i) lower stock of forage mass; and (ii) higher live leaf mass, but lower stem mass in stockpiled pasture during the winter. The treatments were four sward heights (15, 25, 35, and 45 cm) at early stockpiling period of marandu palisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha syn. Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu). The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, with three replications (paddocks with 800 m²). The stockpiled swards were evaluated during the grazing period in winter on days 7 (beginning), 45 (middle) and 90 (end). The vegetative tiller number (VEGT), live leaf mass (LLM) and leaf area index (LAI) were greater in the 15 cm stockpiled pasture than the other treatments. Greater heights (35 and 45 cm) at stockpiling resulted in greater forage mass than lower heights (15 and 25 cm). The VEGT, LLM, number of reproductive tillers, live stem mass, forage mass and LAI values were higher at the beginning than at the end of the grazing period. Our hypothesis has been proven, so that the reduction of sward height of the marandu palisadegrass at the beginning of the stockpiling period results in lesser forage mass, but with better structural characteristics.


Subject(s)
Pasture , Brachiaria/anatomy & histology
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38019, Jan.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395402

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability of structural characteristics of deferred pastures of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk (signal grass) subjected to associations of sward heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm) at the beginning of deferment and grazing periods (1, 28, 56, 85, and 113 days). The experiment was arranged in a split-plot and completely randomized-block design with two replicates. Pastures remained deferred from March to June 2010. From June to the beginning of October 2010, deferred pastures were utilized by steers under continuous grazing and at a fixed initial stocking rate of 3.5 AU ha-1. At the beginning of the deferment, the coefficient of variation (CV) for pasture height was reduced linearly with the pasture height. During the grazing period, in the winter, the CV for pasture height was not influenced by initial pasture height; however, it responded quadratically to the grazing period, with a maximum value of 36.4% at 71 days of the period of utilization. The CV for tiller height was reduced linearly with pasture height at the beginning of deferment but increased linearly along with the grazing period. The initial pasture height did not change the CV of the falling index. However, the latter was quadratically influenced by the grazing period, with a maximum value of 59.5% at 67 days of the utilization period. Signal grass pastures deferred at a lower height have a higher spatial variability of the vegetation. In the grazing period, there are changes in the spatial variability of the vegetation of the deferred signal grass.


Subject(s)
Pasture , Brachiaria/anatomy & histology
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e07038, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360627

ABSTRACT

We report two outbreaks of nitrate and nitrite poisoning in Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. The first, due to Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass), and the second, due to P. purpureum and Brachiaria spp. (brachiaria grass), both occurred during a prolonged drought. In the first outbreak, the irrigation of the pastures with wastewater and sewage contributed to nitrate accumulation. The second outbreak occurred in pastures cultivated in the border of a dam, that had been submerged for long time accumulating large amounts of organic matter in the soil. Other probably risk factors for nitrate accumulation included the use of chemical fertilizers and herbicides and burning of the vegetation. In the first outbreak, four calves out of a total of 42 cattle died, and in the second outbreak 49 out of 243 cattle, including adults, yearlings, and a 2-day-old calf died. The clinical signs included dyspnea, cyanosis, ataxia, and falls, leading to death. The presence of nitrates was detected in both outbreaks using the diphenylamine test. Quantitative tests were performed in the second outbreak using a portable nitrate meter, and high nitrate concentrations were found. The characteristic macroscopic findings and absence of microscopic lesions and response to treatment with methylene blue were key to the diagnosis of poisoning by nitrates and nitrites. We conclude that poisoning by nitrates and nitrites in ruminants in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil is frequent due to the cultivation of grasses in the border of dams that had been covered by water for long periods or in areas irrigated by wastewater and/or sewage. In addition, the use of a portable measuring device is an effective alternative for the quantification of nitrates in pastures.(AU)


Relatamos dois surtos de intoxicação por nitrato e nitrito na Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil. O primeiro por Pennisetum purpureum (capim-elefante), e o segundo por P. purpureum e Brachiaria spp. (capim braquiária); ambos ocorreram durante uma estiagem prolongada. No primeiro surto, a irrigação das pastagens com água poluída e esgoto contribuiu para o acúmulo de nitrato. O segundo surto ocorreu em pastagens cultivadas na borda de uma barragem, que há muito tempo ficavam submersas, acumulando grande quantidade de matéria orgânica no solo. Outros prováveis fatores de risco para o acúmulo de nitrato incluíram o uso de fertilizantes químicos e herbicidas e a queima da vegetação. No primeiro surto, quatro bezerros de um total de 42 bovinos morreram, e no segundo surto 49 de 243 bovinos, incluindo adultos, jovens de um ano e um bezerro de 2 dias de idade morreram. Os sinais clínicos incluíram dispneia, cianose, ataxia e quedas, levando à morte. A presença de nitratos foi detectada em ambos os surtos pelo teste de difenilamina. Testes quantitativos foram realizados no segundo surto usando um medidor portátil de nitrato, e altas concentrações de nitrato foram encontradas. Os achados macroscópicos característicos e a ausência de lesões microscópicas e a resposta ao tratamento com azul de metileno foram fundamentais para o diagnóstico de intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos. Concluímos que a intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos em ruminantes na região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil é frequente devido ao cultivo de gramíneas nas bordas de barragens que estiveram cobertas por água por longos períodos ou em áreas irrigadas por água poluída e/ou esgoto. Além disso, o uso de medidor portátil é uma alternativa eficaz para a quantificação de nitratos em pastagens.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Plant Poisoning/etiology , Plant Poisoning/epidemiology , Brachiaria/poisoning , Pennisetum/poisoning , Nitrates/poisoning , Nitrites/poisoning , Water Pollution, Chemical/adverse effects , Pasture , Agricultural Irrigation
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e07038, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1487703

ABSTRACT

We report two outbreaks of nitrate and nitrite poisoning in Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. The first, due to Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass), and the second, due to P. purpureum and Brachiaria spp. (brachiaria grass), both occurred during a prolonged drought. In the first outbreak, the irrigation of the pastures with wastewater and sewage contributed to nitrate accumulation. The second outbreak occurred in pastures cultivated in the border of a dam, that had been submerged for long time accumulating large amounts of organic matter in the soil. Other probably risk factors for nitrate accumulation included the use of chemical fertilizers and herbicides and burning of the vegetation. In the first outbreak, four calves out of a total of 42 cattle died, and in the second outbreak 49 out of 243 cattle, including adults, yearlings, and a 2-day-old calf died. The clinical signs included dyspnea, cyanosis, ataxia, and falls, leading to death. The presence of nitrates was detected in both outbreaks using the diphenylamine test. Quantitative tests were performed in the second outbreak using a portable nitrate meter, and high nitrate concentrations were found. The characteristic macroscopic findings and absence of microscopic lesions and response to treatment with methylene blue were key to the diagnosis of poisoning by nitrates and nitrites. We conclude that poisoning by nitrates and nitrites in ruminants in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil is frequent due to the cultivation of grasses in the border of dams that had been covered by water for long periods or in areas irrigated by wastewater and/or sewage. In addition, the use of a portable measuring device is an effective alternative for the quantification of nitrates in pastures.


Relatamos dois surtos de intoxicação por nitrato e nitrito na Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil. O primeiro por Pennisetum purpureum (capim-elefante), e o segundo por P. purpureum e Brachiaria spp. (capim braquiária); ambos ocorreram durante uma estiagem prolongada. No primeiro surto, a irrigação das pastagens com água poluída e esgoto contribuiu para o acúmulo de nitrato. O segundo surto ocorreu em pastagens cultivadas na borda de uma barragem, que há muito tempo ficavam submersas, acumulando grande quantidade de matéria orgânica no solo. Outros prováveis fatores de risco para o acúmulo de nitrato incluíram o uso de fertilizantes químicos e herbicidas e a queima da vegetação. No primeiro surto, quatro bezerros de um total de 42 bovinos morreram, e no segundo surto 49 de 243 bovinos, incluindo adultos, jovens de um ano e um bezerro de 2 dias de idade morreram. Os sinais clínicos incluíram dispneia, cianose, ataxia e quedas, levando à morte. A presença de nitratos foi detectada em ambos os surtos pelo teste de difenilamina. Testes quantitativos foram realizados no segundo surto usando um medidor portátil de nitrato, e altas concentrações de nitrato foram encontradas. Os achados macroscópicos característicos e a ausência de lesões microscópicas e a resposta ao tratamento com azul de metileno foram fundamentais para o diagnóstico de intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos. Concluímos que a intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos em ruminantes na região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil é frequente devido ao cultivo de gramíneas nas bordas de barragens que estiveram cobertas por água por longos períodos ou em áreas irrigadas por água poluída e/ou esgoto. Além disso, o uso de medidor portátil é uma alternativa eficaz para a quantificação de nitratos em pastagens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Brachiaria/poisoning , Plant Poisoning/epidemiology , Plant Poisoning/etiology , Nitrates/poisoning , Nitrites/poisoning , Pennisetum/poisoning , Agricultural Irrigation , Pasture , Water Pollution, Chemical/adverse effects
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1422-1430, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355676

ABSTRACT

This work was conducted to evaluate the effect of deferred pasture condition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu in the late winter on tillering during the growing season. The treatments were three pasture conditions at late winter: short pasture, tall pasture and tall/mown pasture. In September and October, tiller appearance rate (TApR) and tiller mortality rate (TMoR) were greater in the tall/mown pasture. In November and December, tall pasture presented greater TApR. From November to January the TMoR was greater in the tall pasture. The tiller stability index of short and tall/mown pastures were greater in October. The short pasture presented a greater tiller number than the tall and tall/mown pastures during the entire experimental period. Deferred and short pasture of marandu palisade grass at late winter presents in general lower tiller mortality and higher population density of tillers from the early spring onwards, in comparison to tall pasture. The mowing of marandu palisade grass with high forage mass at the late winter, although it only temporarily compromises the population stability of tillers, also stimulates its fast tillering from spring on.(AU)


Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da condição da pastagem diferida de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu ao final do inverno sobre o perfilhamento durante a estação de crescimento. Os tratamentos foram três condições de pastagem no final do inverno: pasto baixo, pasto alto e pasto alto/roçado. Nos meses de setembro e outubro, a taxa de aparecimento de perfilhos (TApP) e a taxa de mortalidade de perfilhos (TMoP) foram maiores na pastagem alta/roçada. Nos meses de novembro e dezembro, a pastagem alta apresentou maior TApP. De novembro a janeiro, a TMoP foi maior na pastagem alta. Os índices de estabilidade de perfilhos das pastagens baixas e altas/roçadas foram maiores em outubro. A pastagem baixa apresentou maior número de perfilhos do que as pastagens altas e altas/roçadas durante todo o período experimental. A pastagem diferida e baixa de capim-marandu no final do inverno apresenta, em geral, menor mortalidade de perfilhos e maior densidade populacional de perfilhos no início da primavera, em comparação com a pastagem alta. A roçada do capim-marandu com alta massa de forragem ao final do inverno, embora comprometa apenas temporariamente a estabilidade populacional dos perfilhos, também estimula o perfilhamento rápido a partir da primavera.(AU)


Subject(s)
Seasons , Pasture/analysis , Brachiaria/growth & development
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1413-1421, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355684

ABSTRACT

The objective this study was to identify differences in the morphogenic patterns of four Urochloa brizantha cultivars (marandu, piatã, xaraés and paiaguás grasses) during the stockpiling period. A completely randomized design was used, with three replications, in experimental plots of 9m². The evaluations took place over 2 years. The grasses were stockpiled for 92 (Year 1) and 95 (Year 2) days. The leaf appearance rate of paiaguás grass was higher, compared to other grasses. In Year 1, the stem elongation rate of xaraés grass was higher than other grasses. At the end of stockpiling period of Year 1, the tiller population density (TPD) was higher in the paiaguás grass, intermediate in the xaraés and marandu grasses and lower in the piatã grass. At the end of the stockpiling period in Year 2, TPD was higher in the paiaguás grass canopy, intermediate in the marandu and piatã grasses canopies, and lower in the xaraés grass canopy. Paiaguás grass has greater leaf growth during the stockpiling period and is therefore suitable for use under stockpiled grazing. Xaraés grass has high stem elongation during the stockpiling period, which is why its use under stockpiled grazing must be accompanied by adjustments in pasture management.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar diferenças nos padrões morfogênicos de quatro cultivares de Urochloa brizantha (marandu, piatã, xaraés e paiaguás) durante o período de diferimento. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições, em parcelas experimentais de 9m². As avaliações ocorreram por dois anos. Os capins foram diferidos por 92 (Ano 1) e 95 (Ano 2) dias. A taxa de aparecimento foliar do capim-paiaguás foi maior, em comparação aos demais capins. No Ano 1, a taxa de alongamento do colmo do capim-xaraés foi superior aos demais capins. No final do diferimento do Ano 1, a densidade populacional de perfilho (DPP) foi maior no capim-paiaguás, intermediária nos capins xaraés e marandu e inferior no capim-piatã. No fim do período de diferimento do Ano 2, a DPP foi superior no dossel de capim-paiaguás, intermediária nos dosséis dos capins marandu e piatã, e menor no dossel de capim-xaraés. O capim-paiaguás tem maior crescimento foliar durante o período de diferimento, sendo, portanto, apropriado para uso sob pastejo diferido. O capim-xaraés apresenta elevado alongamento de colmo durante o período de diferimento, razão pela qual seu uso sob pastejo diferido deve vir acompanhado de ajustes no manejo da pastagem.(AU)


Subject(s)
Plant Stems , Brachiaria/growth & development , Morphogenesis/physiology
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1403-1412, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355685

ABSTRACT

The objective was to identify lowering strategies for Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu in the beginning of the stockpiling period that increase forage production and improve the structure of stockpiled canopies. Three lowering strategies were evaluated: maintenance of marandu palisade grass with 15cm four months before the stockpiling period; maintenance of palisade grass with 30cm for four months, and lowering to 15cm before the stockpiling period; and maintaining of palisade grass at 45cm for four months, and lowering to 15cm before the stockpiling period. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications. At the end of stockpiling, the number of reproductive tillers and forage mass were higher in the canopy under 15/15cm than in the others; the percentage of live leaf was higher in the canopy under 45/15cm than under 15/15cm. Forage production during the stockpiling period was higher in the canopy under 15/15cm and lower in the under 45/15cm. Maintaining 15cm marandu palisadegrass for four months before the stockpiling period increases forage production during this period. The lowering of the marandu palisadegrass from 45 to 15cm at the beginning of the stockpiling period improves the structure of the stockpiled canopy.(AU)


Objetivou-se identificar estratégias de rebaixamento da Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu no início do diferimento, as quais resultem em aumento da produção e em melhoria da estrutura do dossel diferido. Foram avaliadas três estratégias de rebaixamento no início do diferimento: manutenção do capim-marandu com 15cm por quatro meses antes do início do diferimento; manutenção do capim-marandu com 30cm por quatro mese, e rebaixamento para 15cm no início do diferimento; e manutenção do capim com 45cm por quatro meses e rebaixamento para 15cm no início do diferimento. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições. No fim do diferimento, o número de perfilho reprodutivo e a massa de forragem foram superiores no dossel sob 15/15cm do que nos demais; a percentagem de folha viva foi maior no dossel sob 45/15cm do que sob 15/15cm. A produção de forragem durante o diferimento foi superior no dossel sob 15/15cm e inferior no sob 45/15cm. A manutenção do capim-marandu com 15cm por quatro meses antes do período de diferimento aumenta a produção de forragem neste período. O rebaixamento do capim-marandu de 45 para 15cm no início do diferimento melhora a estrutura do dossel diferido.(AU)


Subject(s)
24444 , Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology , Brachiaria/growth & development
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 658-664, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278358

ABSTRACT

Most sandy soils have low natural fertility and low levels of organic matter, making nitrogen (N) fertilization essential. Thus, five doses of N were applied (0, 75, 125, 175 and 225mg dm-³) in a randomized block design to evaluate the effects of nitrogen fertilization on the morphogenetic, structural and production characteristics of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu in a Quartzarenic neosoil. The doses of N did not affect the height of the canopy. The leaf elongation rate, final leaf length and number of live leaves increased linearly at the doses of N. Leaf appearance rate, stem elongation rate, leaf lifespan, phyllochron, leaf senescence rate and tiller density showed a quadratic response to the rates There was also an effect of N rates in herbage mass, leaf mass, stem mass, which increased linearly. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu cultivated in Quartzarenic neosoil requires higher doses of N, 175 and 225mg dm-³. Under these conditions, increases in its morphogenetic, structural and productive characteristics are observed. These findings may not be repeated in the most fertile soils with the greatest capacity to supply N.(AU)


A maioria dos solos arenosos tem baixa fertilidade natural e baixos teores de matéria orgânica, tornando a adubação com nitrogênio (N) essencial. Assim, foram aplicadas cinco doses de N (0, 75, 125, 175 e 225mg dm-³) em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, para se avaliarem os efeitos da adubação com nitrogênio nas características morfogênicas, estruturais e produtivas da Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, em um Neossolo Quartzarênico. As doses de N não afetaram a altura do dossel. A taxa de alongamento foliar, o comprimento final da folha e o número de folhas vivas aumentaram linearmente em função das doses de N. A taxa de aparecimento de folhas, a taxa de alongamento do caule, o tempo de vida da folha, o filocrono, a taxa de senescência foliar e a densidade de perfilhos apresentaram resposta quadrática às doses de N. A massa da forragem, a massa foliar e a massa do caule aumentaram linearmente. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu cultivada em Neossolo Quartzarênico requer maiores doses de N, 175 e 225mg dm-³. Nessas condições, são observados aumentos em suas características morfogenéticas, estruturais e produtivas. Esses achados podem não se repetir nos solos mais férteis e com maior capacidade de suprir N.(AU)


Subject(s)
Urea , Brachiaria/anatomy & histology , Brachiaria/chemistry , Soil Characteristics/analysis , Composting
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 665-674, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278354

ABSTRACT

The objective was to test the response of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu in monoculture and in silvopastoral system (SPS), at two distances from the trees, and define the best defoliation height for SPS. Four intermittent defoliation heights (25, 35, 45 and 55cm) and two distances from tree lines (2.5 and 5.0m) were evaluated in the SPS with a control defoliated with 25cm in full sun. The experiment was performed in a randomized block design with 3 replicates in a 4 × 2 + 1 split plot scheme. The control had higher forage accumulation (46.9kg/ha. day) than the SPS (31.1kg/ha. day). The bulk density was also higher in the control (0.89mg/cm³) than in SPS (0.48mg/cm³). The percentage of leaves (78.06%) and leaf/stem ratio (6.04) did not differ among the treatments. In the SPS, there was an increase of 31.07% in forage accumulation from 25 to 55cm. The forage accumulation and bulk density of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu in monoculture is greater than in the SPS regardless of the management goal and the distance from trees. The goal of 55cm in the SPS presented greater forage accumulation.(AU)


O objetivo foi testar a resposta de pastos de Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu em monocultivo e em sistema silvipastoril (SSP), a diferentes distâncias das árvores, bem como definir qual altura de desfolhação é a mais indicada para manejo em SPS. Foram avaliadas quatro alturas de desfolhação intermitente (25, 35, 45 e 55cm) e duas distâncias das linhas de árvores (2,5 e 5,0m), no SPS, e uma testemunha desfolhada com 25cm, em pleno sol. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas 4 × 2 + 1. O controle apresentou maior acúmulo de forragem (46,9kg/ha.dia) que a média do SSP (31,1kg/ha.dia). A densidade volumétrica da forragem do controle (0,89mg/cm³) foi maior que a do SSP (0,48mg/cm³). A porcentagem de folhas (78,06%) e a relação folha/colmo (6,04) não diferiram entre os tratamentos. O aumento das alturas de 25 para 55cm no SSP resultou em aumento de 31,07% no acúmulo de forragem. O acúmulo e a densidade volumétrica da forragem são maiores no monocultivo, independentemente da meta de manejo e da distância das árvores no sistema silvipastoril. A meta de 55cm no silvipastoril apresenta maior acúmulo de forragem.(AU)


Subject(s)
Plant Leaves/growth & development , Brachiaria/growth & development , 24444 , Forests
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 675-683, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278351

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to evaluate losses, production and polluting potential of the effluent, nutritional value and aerobic stability of silages of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Paiaguás grass, in different particle sizes and compaction density in silage. Three theoretical particle sizes (TTP 5; 8 and 12mm) and three compaction densities (DC 550; 600 and 650kg/m3) were evaluated, distributed in a factorial design (3 x 3), with four repetitions. The highest volume of effluent was found in silages with higher compaction densities (600 and 650kg/m3) and lower TTP (5 and 8mm). The highest chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand were registered in the treatment with TTP of 5mm and higher DC (600 and 650kg/m3). Greater in vitro digestibility of DM was verified in the silage chopped at 5 and 8mm. There was no break in aerobic stability for 216 hours. Silage with a low compaction density 550kg/m3 and processing with a theoretical particle size of 12mm reduces effluent losses. In general, the nutritional value of Paiaguás grass was not influenced by the treatments. Different particle sizes and compaction density did not change the aerobic stability of silages.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar perdas, produção e potencial poluidor do efluente, valor nutricional e estabilidade aeróbia de silagens do capim Brachiaria brizantha cv. Paiaguás, em diferentes tamanhos de partícula e densidade de compactação na ensilagem. Foram avaliados três tamanhos teóricos de partícula (TTP 5; 8 e 12mm) e três densidades de compactação (DC 550; 600 e 650kg/m3), distribuídos em arranjo fatorial (3 x 3), com quatro repetições. O maior volume de efluente foi verificado nas silagens com maiores densidades de compactação (600 e 650kg/m3) e menores TTP (5 e 8mm). As maiores demanda química de oxigênio e demanda bioquímica de oxigênio foram registradas no tratamento com TTP de 5mm e nas maiores DC (600 e 650kg/m3). Maior digestibilidade in vitro da MS (média de 57,2%) foi verificada na silagem picada a 5 e 8mm. Não houve quebra da estabilidade aeróbia durante 216 horas. A ensilagem com baixa densidade de compactação (550kg/m3) e o processamento com tamanho teórico de partículas 12mm reduzem as perdas por efluente. O valor nutricional da silagem de capim-paiaguás, em geral, não foi influenciado pelos tratamentos. Diferentes tamanhos de partícula e densidade de compactação não alteraram a estabilidade aeróbia das silagens.(AU)


Subject(s)
Solid Waste Compaction/analysis , Waste Management/methods , Brachiaria , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Particulate Matter , Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis/methods
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 477-486, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248929

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate different supplementation strategies concentrated to F1 Holstein x Zebu lactating cows managed in deferred signal grass pasture on the yield and composition of milk and body weight gain. Thirty six F1 Holstein x Zebu cows with an average lactation period of 267 ± 10 days, mean body weight of 548 ± 19kg were used following a completely randomized design in a 4 x 5 factorial scheme, being four feeding strategies and five days under evaluation. The treatments consisted of four nutritional strategies: deferred pasture as a source of roughage without supplementation (PDSS); deferred pasture as a source of roughage with protein supplement offer (PDCS); deferred pasture supplemented with 15 kilos of corn silage (natural base) + 1,200 grams of protein supplement (PDSP) and corn silage (ad libitum) + 700 grams of protein supplement (SMP). There was no interaction (P> 0.05) between the nutritional plans and days under evaluation for any of the variables. It was found that cows fed SMP showed milk production 26.06% higher than the other nutritional plans (mean of 11.46kg/day). F1 Holstein/Zebu cows handled in deferred pasture in a traditional way supplemented with protein maintains milk yield.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar diferentes planos nutricionais para vacas F1 Holandês/Zebu mantidas em pasto diferido de capim-braquiária sobre a produção e a composição do leite e no ganho em peso corporal. Foram utilizadas 36 vacas F1 Holandês/Zebu com período médio de lactação de 267 ± 10 dias, peso corporal médio de 548 ± 19kg, seguindo o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 5, sendo quatro estratégias de alimentação e cinco dias em avaliação. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro planos nutricionais: pasto diferida como fonte de forragem sem suplementação (PDSS); pastagem diferida como fonte de forragem com oferta de suplemento de proteico (PDCS); pasto diferido suplementado com 15 quilos de silagem de milho (base natural) + 1.200 gramas de suplemento proteico (PDSP) e silagem de milho (ad libitum) + 700 gramas de suplemento de proteína (SMP). Verificou-se que as vacas alimentadas com SMP apresentaram produção de leite 26,06% superior aos demais planos nutricionais (média de 11,46kg/dia). Vacas F1 Holandês/Zebu tratadas em pastagem diferida de maneira tradicional, suplementada com proteína, mantêm o rendimento de leite.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Brachiaria , Milk/chemistry , Animal Feed/analysis , Pasture/analysis
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06921, 2021. tab
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1287506

ABSTRACT

Plants of the genus Brachiaria, used in several countries as forage, are poisonous to some livestock species. Their toxic principle is protodioscin, and the main form of clinical presentation of the toxicosis is hepatogenous photosensitization. Here we compare protodioscin levels in B. decumbens and B. brizantha and review the literature on the concentrations and methodologies of collection and analysis of the toxic principle in Brachiaria spp. and the risk of contamination of pastures by more toxic species that may facilitate poisoning by plants of this genus in sheep. The experiment was conducted in pastures originally formed by B. brizantha, with many B. decumbens invasion points. The occurrence of cases of poisoning by Brachiaria spp. was the criterion for confirming pasture toxicity. The forage samples were collected at ten random points every 28 days through manual grazing simulation. The samples were analyzed for protodioscin by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with light scattering by evaporation (ELSD) after being dried and crushed. In the flock of 69 sheep, five poisoning cases occurred, three sheep died, and two recovered. The protodioscin levels found in the evaluated pastures ranged from 0.70 to 0.45%; higher levels appeared in B. decumbens (7.09%) compared to 1.04% in B. brizantha. We suggest that Brachiaria spp. should be avoided in pastures where sheep are grazing.(AU)


Plantas do gênero Brachiaria, utilizadas em vários países como forragem, são tóxicas para várias espécies pecuárias. Seu princípio tóxico é a protodioscina, e a principal forma de apresentação clínica da toxicose é a fotossensibilização hepatógena. Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar os níveis de protodioscina em B. decumbens e B. brizantha e revisar a literatura sobre as concentrações e metodologias de coleta e análise do princípio tóxico em Brachiaria spp. e o risco de contaminação das pastagens por espécies mais tóxicas que podem facilitar a intoxicação por plantas desse gênero em ovinos. O experimento foi conduzido em pastagens originalmente formadas por B. brizantha, com diversos pontos de invasão por B. decumbens. Ocorrência de casos de intoxicação por Brachiaria spp. foi o critério para confirmação da toxicidade da pastagem. As amostras de forragem foram coletadas a cada 28 dias em dez pontos aleatórios por meio de simulação de pastejo manual. As amostras foram analisadas para protodioscina por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC) com dispersão de luz por evaporação (ELSD) após serem secadas e trituradas. No rebanho de 69 ovelhas, cinco desenvolveram a intoxicação, três morreram e duas se recuperaram. Os níveis de protodioscina encontrados nas pastagens avaliadas variaram de 0,70 a 0,45%; níveis mais elevados apareceram em B. decumbens (7,09%) em comparação com 1,04% em B. brizantha. Sugerimos que Brachiaria spp. deve ser evitada no pasto de ovelhas em pastejo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Poisoning , Ruminants , Sheep , Pasture , Brachiaria , Photosensitivity Disorders , Toxicity , Literature
18.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06807, 2021. tab, graf, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1180878

ABSTRACT

A survey carried out in the dairy region of Pernambuco was conducted to determine the most important poisonous plants for ruminants in the region. A total of 95 farmers from 19 municipalities were interviewed and the grazing areas of ruminants were inspected. According to the survey, the most important poisonous plants for ruminants were Manihot esculenta, Palicourea aeneofusca, Brachiaria decumbens, Indigofera suffruticosa, Ricinus communis and Cestrum axillare. Less reported classes of poisonous plants included nephrotoxic plants and plants that cause abortions or congenic malformations. Psychotria hoffmannseggiana, Psychotria colorata and Psychotria capitata were reported by farmers as the cause of sudden death in cattle. These plants should be better investigated to evaluate their importance as the cause of cattle deaths.(AU)


Neste estudo prospectivo, realizou-se um levantamento sobre a ocorrência das principais plantas tóxicas e a ocorrência de intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes na bacia leiteira de Pernambuco. Para isso, foram entrevistados 95 produtores rurais de 19 municípios e as áreas de pastagem de ruminantes foram inspecionadas. De acordo com o levantamento, as plantas tóxicas mais importantes para ruminantes foram Manihot esculenta, Palicourea aeneofusca, Brachiaria decumbens, Indigofera suffruticosa e Ricinus communis. As classes menos importantes de plantas tóxicas incluíram plantas nefrotóxicas e plantas que causam abortos e malformações congênitas. Psychotria hoffmannseggiana, Psychotria colorata e Psychotria capitata foram relatadas por produtores rurais como a causa de mortes súbitas em bovinos. Essas plantas devem ser investigadas melhor para avaliar sua importância como a causa de mortes de bovinos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Plants, Toxic , Ruminants , Manihot/toxicity , Rubiaceae/toxicity , Brachiaria/toxicity , Poisoning , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190323, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285545

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Brachiaria decumbens pasture associated with kudzu Pueraria phaseloides legume represents an alternative for higher arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Higher lime doses presented high rates of AMF and improved soil chemical properties (SCP). Higher lime doses were the most influential technological factor than the type of pasture and the N, P, K fertilizer sources on AMF.


Abstract In order to improve the sustainability of livestock systems at Cumaral, Meta, under tropical conditions of Colombia, implementation of different Brachiaria decumbens production technologies can be beneficial for a better soil fertility. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two pastures type (Factor A): (a) Brachiaria decumbens grass (B1) and Brachiaria decumbens grass associated with kudzu Pueraria phaseloides legume (B2); (b) Factor B: Four lime (CaCO3) doses: L0 = 0 tons ha-1, L1 = 1.1 tons ha-1, L2 = 2.2 tons ha-1 and L3 = 3.3 tons ha-1; and (c) Factor C: three N, P, K fertilizers sources: 100 kg ha-1 Urea, 200 kg ha-1 triple superphosphate (TSP) and 100 kg ha-1 potassium chloride (PCl) on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and soil chemical properties (SCP). Cluster analysis showed that B2*L3, L2*Urea, TSP, PCl increased the number of AMF spores per g soil and improved soil chemical properties (SCP), as B1*L3*Urea, TSP, PCl, in cluster 1, higher lime doses were the most influential factor, indistinctly pasture type, as N, P, K fertilizer sources showed low effect in cluster conformation. Farmers in the area can implement these B. decumbens technological practices that help improve the sustainability of livestock systems at tropical zones.


Subject(s)
Soil Biology/methods , Brachiaria , Agriculture/methods , Fertilizers
20.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200397, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285557

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Brachiaria brizantha proved to be a promising biomass for ethanol production. Fermentation was not impaired by the inhibitors furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural.


Abstract Different lignocellulosic biomasses are found worldwide and each country has its own important industrial crop that can be converted into high-value products, such as ethanol. Therefore, evaluation of new biomasses to be used in biorefineries is important to decrease the dependence on non-renewable resources and to guarantee sustainable development. This work evaluated Brachiaria brizantha, a grass commonly used as animal forage, and the standard biomass for 2G-ethanol, sugarcane bagasse. The chemical compositions of both biomasses were determined and different times and temperature of acid pretreatment were tested. Morphological analysis via scanning electron microscopy showed more deconstructed fibers after harsher biomass pretreatments. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated Brachiaria brizantha presented higher efficiency than when using sugarcane bagasse as the carbon source. A biomass conversion of 46 % was achieved when Brachiaria brizantha grass was pretreated with 2% sulfuric acid for 60 minutes. Moreover, fermentation was not impaired by the inhibitors furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural. It was concluded that Brachiaria brizantha is a promising biomass for ethanol production.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Brachiaria/chemistry , Saccharum/chemistry , Ethanol , Microscopy, Electron/instrumentation
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