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Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(2): e589, mayo.-ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126361


Introducción: El cáncer de labio es el tumor más frecuente de la cavidad oral que afecta, sobre todo, el labio inferior. La braquiterapia es un tratamiento único eficaz en estadios tempranos y como terapia adyuvante a la cirugía en estadios avanzados. Esta técnica es un proceso doloroso por lo que para su realización se han empleado sedaciones profundas, infiltraciones intramusculares de anestésico local y técnicas de anestesia regional, entre otras. Objetivo: Presentar una técnica anestésica diferente y poco descrita como alternativa para disminuir el dolor de la intervención. Presentación del caso: Paciente con carcinoma de labio programado para braquiterapia. Se realiza bloqueo del nervio mentoniano de manera bilateral para el tratamiento en labio inferior. Conclusiones: Este tipo de bloqueo, por su sencillez y eficacia, es una alternativa útil a la sedación profunda para la realización de braquiterapia en el labio inferior(AU)

Introduction: Lip cancer is the most frequent tumor of the oral cavity that affects, above all, the lower lip. Brachytherapy is a unique treatment which is effective in early stages and, as adjuvant therapy to surgery, it is also effective in advanced stages. This technique is a painful process, a reason why deep sedation, intramuscular infiltrations of local anesthetic, and regional anesthesia techniques, among others, have been used. Objective: To present a different and scarcely described anesthetic technique as an alternative to reduce the pain of this intervention. Case presentation: Patient with lip carcinoma scheduled for brachytherapy. Bilateral mental nerve block is performed in the lower lip. Conclusions: This type of block, due to its simplicity and effectiveness, is a useful alternative to deep sedation for brachytherapy in the lower lip(AU)

Humans , Male , Aged , Lip Neoplasms/surgery , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Nerve Block/methods , Brachytherapy/methods
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(6): 808-812, jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020731


Eighty percent of hepatocarcinomas are inoperable at the moment of diagnosis. Liver transplantation is the treatment of choice in these cases, but local therapies are another alternative. Among these, Image-Guided BrachyAblation is a safe choice. We report a 76-year-old male with a hepatocarcinoma, who was considered inoperable due to the high surgical risk of the patient. A local treatment with Image-Guided BrachyAblation was decided. A brachytherapy needle was placed in the tumor under computed tomography guidance and a 15 Gy single dose was delivered from an Iridium-192 source. The patient had no immediate complications and at one month of follow up he continued without incidents.

Humans , Male , Aged , Brachytherapy/methods , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/radiotherapy , Ablation Techniques/methods , Radiotherapy, Image-Guided/methods , Liver Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiation Dosage , Iridium Radioisotopes , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(2): 288-298, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002196


ABSTRACT Objectives: Brachytherapy (BT) with iodine-125 seeds placement is a consolidated treatment for prostate cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes in patients with prostate cancer who underwent low-dose-rate (LDR) -BT alone in a single Brazilian institution. Materials and Methods: Patients treated with iodine-125 BT were retrospectively assessed after at least 5 years of follow-up. Patients who received combination therapy (External beam radiation therapy-EBRT and BT) and salvage BT were not included. Results: 406 men were included in the study (65.5% low-risk, 30% intermediate-risk, and 4.5% high-risk patients). After a median follow-up of 87.5 months, 61 (15.0%) patients developed biochemical recurrence. The actuarial biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS) at 5 and 10 years were 90.6% and 82.2%, respectively. A PSA nadir ≥ 1 ng / mL was associated with a higher risk of biochemical failure (HR = 5.81; 95% CI: 3.39 to 9.94; p ≤ 0.001). The actuarial metastasis-free survival (MFS) at 5 and 10 years were 98.3% and 94%, respectively. The actuarial overall survival (OS) at 5 and 10 years were 96.2% and 85.1%, respectively. Acute and late grade 2 and 3 gastrointestinal toxicities were observed in 5.6%, 0.5%, 4.6% and 0.5% of cases, respectively. For genitourinary the observed acute and late grade 2 and 3 toxicities rates were 57.3%, 3.6%, 28% and 3.1%, respectively. No grade 4 and 5 were observed. Conclusions: BT was effective as a definitive treatment modality for prostate cancer, and its endpoints and toxicities were comparable to those of the main series in the literature.

Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Brachytherapy/methods , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms/mortality , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Brachytherapy/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Disease-Free Survival , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(2): 273-287, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002208


ABSTRACT Introduction: Several recent randomized clinical trials have evaluated hypofractionated regimens against conventionally fractionated EBRT and shown similar effectiveness with conflicting toxicity results. The current view regarding hypofractionation compared to conventional EBRT among North American genitourinary experts for management of prostate cancer has not been investigated. Materials and Methods: A survey was distributed to 88 practicing North American GU physicians serving on decision - making committees of cooperative group research organizations. Questions pertained to opinions regarding the default EBRT dose and fractionation for a hypothetical example of a favorable intermediate - risk prostate cancer (Gleason 3 + 4). Treatment recommendations were correlated with practice patterns using Fisher's exact test. Results: Forty - two respondents (48%) completed the survey. We excluded from analysis two respondents who selected radical hypofractionation with 5 - 12 fractions as a preferred treatment modality. Among the 40 analyzed respondents, 23 (57.5%) recommend conventional fractionation and 17 (42.5%) recommended moderate hypofractionation. No demographic factors were found to be associated with preference for a fractionation regimen. Support for brachytherapy as a first choice treatment modality for low - risk prostate cancer was borderline significantly associated with support for moderate hypofractionated EBRT treatment modality (p = 0.089). Conclusions: There is an almost equal split among North American GU expert radiation oncologists regarding the appropriateness to consider moderately hypofractionated EBRT as a new standard of care in management of patients with prostate cancer. Physicians who embrace brachytherapy may be more inclined to support moderate hypofractionated regimen for EBRT. It is unclear whether reports with longer follow-ups will impact this balance, or whether national care and reimbursement policies will drive the clinical decisions. In the day and age of patient - centered care delivery, patients should receive an objective recommendation based on available clinical evidence. The stark division among GU experts may influence the design of future clinical trials utilizing EBRT for patients with prostate cancer.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Brachytherapy/methods , Radiation Oncology/standards , Radiation Dose Hypofractionation/standards , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , United States , Brachytherapy/standards , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Factors , Radiation Oncology/methods , Neoplasm Grading
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(4): 330-335, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950476


ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the incidence, potential correlation with transcleral fine needle aspiration biopsy, and treatment of scleral necrosis in patients with posterior uveal melanomas treated by 125I plaque radiotherapy and assessed by transcleral fine needle aspiration biopsy. Methods: We per­formed a retrospective review of posterior uveal melanoma treated by 125I plaque radiotherapy at a single academic institution between July 2006 and July 2013. Consecutive patients diagnosed with a posterior uveal melanoma during the study period that had an anterior margin at or anterior to the equator who were evaluated by transcleral fine needle aspiration biopsy prior to 125I plaque radiotherapy were included. The main outcome measure was development of scleral necrosis, and the secondary outcome was treatment of this complication. Statistical analysis included computation of conventional descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation and chi-square tests of potential factors related to the development of scleral necrosis, and summarizing of treatment approaches and results. The incidence of treatment of scleral necrosis was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: During the 7-year study period, 87 posterior uveal melanomas were evaluated by transcleral fine needle aspiration biopsy and treated by 125I plaque radiotherapy. The median largest basal diameter of the tumor was 13.3 mm, and the median thickness was 6.8 mm. Eight patients (9.2%) developed scleral necrosis during follow-up. Thicker tumors (> 6.5 mm) were more likely to develop scleral necrosis (n=7) than thinner tumors (p=0.05). The median interval between 125I plaque radiotherapy and detection of scleral necrosis was 19.1 months. The overall cumulative probability of scleral necrosis was 6.2% at 6 months and 14.3% at 24 months, subsequently remaining stable. For thicker tumors, the probability of scleral necrosis was 23.5% at 45.4 months. Five patients were treated by scleral patch graft (62.5%) and three by observation (37.5%). One patient underwent enucleation after two failed scleral patch attempts and recurrent scleral necrosis. The mean follow-up period for patients with scleral necrosis was 34.5 months. Conclusions: Thicker posterior uveal melanomas are more likely to develop scleral necrosis after 125I plaque radiotherapy and transcleral fine needle aspiration biopsy. While observation is sufficient for managing limited scleral necrosis, scleral patch graft is a viable alternative for eye preservation in extensive scleral necrosis.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar incidência, possível correlação da biópsia aspirativa com agulha fina trans-escleral e manejo da necrose escleral em pacientes com melanoma da úvea posterior tratados com placa de Iodo-125 (PLACA) avaliados pela biópsia aspirativa com agulha fina trans-escleral. Métodos: Revisão retrospectiva de melanoma da úvea posterior tratados com placa de Iodo-125 entre 07/2006 e 07/2013 em uma única instituição acadêmica. Pacientes diagnosticados consecutivamente com melanoma da úvea posterior durante o intervalo desse estudo cuja margem anterior está no equador ou anterior ao mesmo e foram avaliados pela biópsia aspirativa com agulha fina trans-escleral antes do tratamento com PLACA foram incluídos. O principal desfecho avaliado foi desenvolvimento de necrose escleral e o desfecho secundário foi o manejo dessa complicação. Análise estatística incluiu computação de variáveis descritivas convencionais; tabulação e teste do Chi-quadrado de fatores potencialmente relacionados com o desenvolvimento de necrose escleral e sumarização do manejo dessa complicação. A incidência de necrose escleral foi calculada usando o método de Kaplan-Meier. Resultados: Durante o período de 7 anos desse estudo, 87 melanomas da úvea posterior foram avaliados pela biópsia aspirativa com agulha fina trans-escleral e tratados com placa. A mediana do maior diâmetro basal tumoral foi 13,3 mm e a mediana da espessura foi 6,8 mm. Oito pacientes (9,2%) desenvolveram necrose escleral durante o período de acompanhamento. Tumores mais espessos (> 6,5 mm) foram mais propensos a desenvolver necrose escleral (n=7) que tumores mais finos (p=0,05). O intervalo mediano entre PLACA e a detecção da necrose escleral foi 19,1 meses. Probabilidade cumulativa de desenvolvimento de necrose escleral foi 6,2% em 6 meses e 14,3% em 24 meses permanecendo estável subsequentemente. Em tumores espessos, a probabilidade de necrose escleral foi 23,5% em 45,4 meses. Cinco pacientes foram manejados com enxerto escleral (62,5%), 3 foram observados (37,5%). Um paciente foi enucleado após 2 enxertos esclerais com necrose escleral recidivada. Tempo de seguimento médio dos pacientes com necrose escleral foi 34,5 meses. Conclusões: Tumores espessos pareceram mais propensos a desenvolver necrose escleral após PLACA e biópsia aspirativa com agulha fina trans-escleral para melanoma da úvea posterior. Apesar de observação para necrose escleral limitada ser suficiente, enxerto de esclera é uma alternativa viável para preservação ocular em necrose escleral extensa.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Sclera/pathology , Uveal Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Melanoma/radiotherapy , Uveal Neoplasms/pathology , Brachytherapy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Melanoma/pathology , Necrosis
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(2): 216-223, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840817


ABSTRACT Introduction There is a growing interest in achieving higher survival rates with the lowest morbidity in localized prostate cancer (PC) treatment. Consequently, minimally invasive techniques such as low-dose rate brachytherapy (BT) and robotic-assisted prostatectomy (RALP) have been developed and improved. Comparative analysis of functional outcomes and quality of life in a prospective series of 51BT and 42Da Vinci prostatectomies DV Materials and Methods Comparative analysis of functional outcomes and quality of life in a prospective series of 93 patients with low-risk localized PC diagnosed in 2011. 51patients underwent low-dose rate BT and the other 42 patients RALP. IIEF to assess erectile function, ICIQ to evaluate continence and SF36 test to quality of life wee employed. Results ICIQ at the first revision shows significant differences which favour the BT group, 79% present with continence or mild incontinence, whereas in the DV group 45% show these positive results. Differences disappear after 6 months, with 45 patients (89%) presenting with continence or mild incontinence in the BT group vs. 30 (71%) in the DV group. 65% of patients are potent in the first revision following BT and 39% following DV. Such differences are not significant and cannot be observed after 6 months. No significant differences were found in the comparative analysis of quality of life. Conclusions ICIQ after surgery shows significant differences in favour of BT, which disappear after 6 months. Both procedures have a serious impact on erectile function, being even greater in the DV group. Differences between groups disappear after 6 months.

Humans , Male , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Quality of Life , Brachytherapy/methods , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Postoperative Complications , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Time Factors , Urinary Incontinence/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Brachytherapy/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Robotic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Erectile Dysfunction/etiology , Middle Aged
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(1): 47-52, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777332


ABSTRACT We analyzed the long-term oncologic outcome for patients with prostate cancer and transurethral resection who were treated using low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: From January 2001 to December 2005, 57 consecutive patients were treated with clinically localized prostate cancer. No patients received external beam radiation. All of them underwent LDR prostate brachytherapy. Biochemical failure was defined according to the "Phoenix consensus". Patients were stratified as low and intermediate risk based on The Memorial Sloan Kettering group definition. Results: The median follow-up time for these 57 patients was 104 months. The overall survival according to Kaplan-Meier estimates was 88% (±6%) at 5 years and 77% (±6%) at 12 years. The 5 and 10 years for failure in tumour-free survival (TFS) was 96% and respectively (±2%), whereas for biochemical control was 94% and respectively (±3%) at 5 and 10 years, 98% (±1%) of patients being free of local recurrence. A patient reported incontinence after treatment (1.7%). The chronic genitourinary complains grade I were 7% and grade II, 10%. At six months 94% of patients reported no change in bowel function.Conclusions: The excellent long-term results and low morbidity presented, as well as the many advantages of prostate brachytherapy over other treatments, demonstrates that brachytherapy is an effective treatment for patients with transurethral resection and clinical organ-confined prostate cancer

Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Brachytherapy/methods , Transurethral Resection of Prostate/methods , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/mortality , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Radiotherapy Dosage , Urinary Incontinence/etiology , Brachytherapy/adverse effects , Reproducibility of Results , Follow-Up Studies , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Risk Assessment , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 79(1): 48-49, Jan.-Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771909


ABSTRACT A 68-year-old man diagnosed with choroidal melanoma (CM) in the right eye underwent treatment with episcleral brachytherapy (I125) and transpupillary thermotherapy. Ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and revealed ocular recurrence of CM. Treatment with extended enucleation was performed. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations revealed extraocular extension and malignant cells, respectively. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated tumoral Melan-A and HMB-45 expression. No cytogenic abnormalities were detected with fluorescence in situhybridization of tumor cells using probes against chromosomes 3q27 and 8q24. The patient underwent adjuvant external beam radiotherapy for treatment of residual tumor tissue. This case represents the first reported case of recurrent CM with no cytogenetic abnormalities and the absence of metastatic disease, despite a number of the poorest prognostic factors.

RESUMO Um homem de 68 anos de idade com diagnóstico de melanoma de coroide no olho direito foi submetido a tratamento com braquiterapia episcleral (I125) e termoterapia transpupilar. Ultrassonografia, tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética foram realizadas para avaliar a presença de recorrência ocular ou doença sistêmica. Enucleação ampliada foi realizada para tratar a recorrência ocular. O exame macroscópico e microscópico revelou o tipo de célula tumoral e a extensão extraocular. Colorações por Melan-A e HMB-45 foram realizadas. A fluorescência por hibridização in situ com sondas para os cromossomos 3q27 e 8q24 não mostraram anormalidades citogenéticas. O paciente foi submetido a radioterapia externa adjuvante para o tratamento de tumor residual orbitário. Este caso representa a o primeiro relato de paciente sem anomalias citogenéticas e sem doença metastática, apesar de demonstrar alguns dos mais pobres fatores prognósticos.

Aged , Humans , Male , Choroid Neoplasms/pathology , Choroid Neoplasms/therapy , Melanoma/pathology , Melanoma/therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/therapy , Brachytherapy/methods , Hyperthermia, Induced/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Sclera/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Clinics ; 71(1): 10-16, Jan. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771947


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy using a two-channel Y applicator combined with external beam radiotherapy for the treatment of endometrial cancer. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with stage I-III endometrial cancer were recruited for this study. The stage I patients received only 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy with a two-channel applicator. The stage II and III patients received both 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy using a two-channel applicator and parallel-opposed whole pelvic radiotherapy. RESULTS: The five-year local control rate was 80.6% (25/31), the overall survival rate was 51.6% (16/31), and the disease-free survival rate was 54.8% (17/31). The incidence of serious late complications was 12.9% (4/31). CONCLUSIONS: 252Californium neutron intracavitary brachytherapy using a two-channel applicator combined with external beam radiotherapy was effective for treating endometrial cancer and the incidence of serious late complications related to this combination was within an acceptable range.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/radiotherapy , Brachytherapy/methods , Californium/therapeutic use , Endometrial Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Adenocarcinoma/mortality , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Brachytherapy/instrumentation , Combined Modality Therapy , Carmustine/therapeutic use , Cytarabine/therapeutic use , Endometrial Neoplasms/mortality , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Follow-Up Studies , Melphalan/therapeutic use , Podophyllotoxin/therapeutic use , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 61(5): 431-439, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766252


Summary Objective: this study analyzes the survival of prostate cancer patients cared for at a hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil according to one of the following treatments: iodine-125 seed implantation or radical prostatectomy. From January 2002 to December 2005, 129 patients underwent either brachytherapy (64 patients) or surgery (65 patients). Methods: all had prostate-specific antigen, Gleason scores and clinical stage recorded prior to treatment. Biochemical relapse was defined as prostate-specific antigen (PSA)>0.4ng/mL for radical prostatectomy, and any elevation equal or higher than 2ng/mL over the PSA nadir for implanted patients. To analyze the effect of treatment on biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS), Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were generated. Mean follow-up time was 56.1 months for patients with the implant, and 26.6 months for those operated on. BRFS in 5 years was 69% (95% CI: 58.18-77.45) for the whole cohort. Discussion: when stratified according to treatment, survival of patients who had undergone brachytherapy (79.70%) was higher to those operated on (44.30%; pvalue= 0.0056). Upon multivariate analysis, independent predictors were iPSA (HR: 2.91, 95% CI: 1,32-6,42), Gleason score (HR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1,00-4,81) and treatment modality (HR: 2.61, 95% CI: 1.18-5,75). Risk of biochemical failure was higher with surgery than brachytherapy, which may be related to the failure criteria adopted, which is different for each therapy, as well as the high rate of histological progression between preoperative prostate biopsy and surgical specimen. Conclusion: it was found that brachytherapy is a good therapeutic option for low risk prostate cancer.

Resumo Introdução: este estudo avaliou a sobrevida de portadores de câncer localizado de próstata assistidos em um hospital de Minas Gerais, segundo duas modalidades terapêuticas: implante de sementes iodo-125 e prostatectomia radical. A população estudada foi de 129 pacientes tratados no período de janeiro de 2002 a dezembro de 2005 – 64 submetidos à braquiterapia e 65 à cirurgia. Métodos: todos obtiveram registro do antígeno prostático específico, escores de Gleason e estadiamento clínico anterior ao tratamento. A recidiva bioquímica foi definida como PSA > 0,4 ng/mL para prostatectomia radical, e qualquer elevação de 2 ng/mL ou mais a partir do PSA nadir para os pacientes implantados. Para análise do efeito do tratamento na sobrevida livre de recidiva bioquímica (SLRb), foram geradas curvas de Kaplan-Meier e foi efetuada regressão de Cox. O tempo mediano de seguimento foi de 56,1 meses para os implantados e de 26,6 meses para os operados. Discussão: a SLRb em 5 anos para toda coorte foi de 69% (IC95%:58,18-77,45), sendo superior para aqueles submetidos à braquiterapia (79,70%) em relação aos operados (44,30%; p-valor 0,0056). Na análise multivariada, os fatores preditores independentes foram iPSA (HR:2,91; IC95%:1,32-6,42), escore de Gleason (HR:2,18; IC95%:1,00- 4,81) e modalidade de tratamento (HR:2,61; IC95%:1,18- 5,75). O risco de falha bioquímica foi maior com a cirurgia, comparado à braquiterapia, o que pode estar relacionado ao elevado índice de progressão histológica entre biópsia prostática pré-operatória e peça cirúrgica, e pelo critério de falha adotado, distinto para cada terapêutica. Conclusão: foi possível constatar que a braquiterapia é uma boa opção terapêutica para o câncer de próstata de baixo risco.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brachytherapy/methods , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Grading , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Risk Assessment , Survival Analysis
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(3): 435-441, May-June 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755887



To evaluate dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with HDR brachytherapy for large prostate volumes.

Materials and Methods

One hundred and two prostate cancer patients with prostate volumes >50 mL (range: 5-29 mL) were treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy ± intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions between 2009 and 2013. HDR brachytherapy monotherapy doses consisted of two 1,350-1,400 cGy fractions separated by 2-3 weeks, and HDR brachytherapy boost doses consisted of two 950-1,150 cGy fractions separated by 4 weeks. Twelve of 32 (38%) unfavorable intermediate risk, high risk, and very high risk patients received androgen deprivation therapy. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.


Median follow-up was 14 months. Dosimetric goals were achieved in over 90% of cases. Three of 102 (3%) patients developed Grade 2 acute proctitis. No variables were significantly associated with Grade 2 acute proctitis. Seventeen of 102 (17%) patients developed Grade 2 acute urinary retention. American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score was the only variable significantly associated with Grade 2 acute urinary retention (p=0.04). There was no ≥ Grade 3 acute toxicity.


Dosimetric coverage of the prostate and normal tissue sparing were adequate in patients with prostate volumes >50 mL. Higher pre-treatment AUA symptom scores increased the relative risk of Grade 2 acute urinary retention. However, the overall incidence of acute toxicity was acceptable in patients with large prostate volumes.


Aged , Humans , Male , Brachytherapy/adverse effects , Dose Fractionation, Radiation , Organ Sparing Treatments/methods , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Brachytherapy/methods , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Logistic Models , Neoplasm Grading , Prostate/radiation effects , Reference Values , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Burden
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(3): 237-240, 03/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741198


Topical treatments have gained popularity for general use as an adjunct to systemic drugs in neuropathic pain, but their use produces variable clinical results and local adverse events. Objective To evaluate the safety and analgesic effect of a formulation of liposomal capsaicin (LC) (0.025%) in patients with post herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Method Patients who remained symptomatic after first-and second-line treatment were randomized to receive LC for six weeks in a placebo-controlled, crossover design study. Clinical assessment was performed at baseline, in the second, fourth and sixth week of treatment. Results Thirteen patients completed both treatment periods. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was significantly decreased after the end of the study (p = 0.008), however the effect of treatment was not significant (p = 0.076). There was no difference on global impression of change and other pain characteristics. LC was safe and well tolerated. However, at the concentration used, its analgesic effects were marginal and not significant. .

Os tratamentos tópicos ganharam popularidade para uso geral como um adjuvante de medicamentos sistêmicos na dor neuropática, mas seu uso produz resultados clínicos variáveis e eventos adversos locais. Objetivo Avaliar o efeito de segurança e analgesia de uma formulação de capsaicina lipossomal (LC) (0,025%) em pacientes com neuralgia pós-herpética. Método Os pacientes que permaneceram sintomáticos após tratamento de primeira e de segunda linha foram randomizados para receber LC durante seis semanas em um estudo cruzado controlado por placebo. A avaliação clínica foi realizada no início do estudo, na segunda, quarta e sexta semana de tratamento. Resultados Treze pacientes completaram dois períodos de tratamento. Escala Visual Analógica diminuiu significativamente após o final do estudo (p = 0,008), no entanto, o efeito do tratamento não era significativo (p = 0,076). Não houve diferença na impressão global de mudança e de outras características da dor. LC foi segura e bem tolerada. No entanto, para a concentração utilizada, os seus efeitos analgésicos foram marginais e não significativos. .

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brachytherapy/methods , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Asians , Radiotherapy Dosage , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(1): 40-45, jan-feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742862


Purpose There is little information in the literature on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) changes due to high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy monotherapy for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods We conducted a prospective study of HRQOL changes due to HDR brachytherapy monotherapy for low risk or favorable intermediate risk prostate cancer. Sixty-four of 84 (76%) patients who were treated between February 2011 and April 2013 completed 50 questions comprising the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) before treatment and 6 and/or 12 months after treatment. Results Six months after treatment, there was a significant decrease (p<0.05) in EPIC urinary, bowel, and sexual scores, including urinary overall, urinary function, urinary bother, urinary irritative, bowel overall, bowel bother, sexual overall, and sexual bother scores. By one year after treatment, EPIC urinary, bowel, and sexual scores had increased and only the bowel overall and bowel bother scores remained significantly below baseline values. Conclusions HDR brachytherapy monotherapy is well-tolerated in patients with low and favorable intermediate risk prostate cancer. EPIC urinary and sexual domain scores returned to close to baseline 12 months after HDR brachytherapy. .

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brachytherapy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Quality of Life , Biopsy , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Epidemiologic Methods , Neoplasm Grading , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Radiotherapy Dosage , Reproducibility of Results , Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological/physiopathology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Urination Disorders/physiopathology
Int. braz. j. urol ; 40(4): 474-483, Jul-Aug/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723961


Purpose To assess outcomes with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and a low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy boost without or with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods From January 2001 through August 2011, 120 intermediate-risk or high-risk prostate cancer patients were treated with EBRT to a total dose of 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions and a palladium-103 LDR brachytherapy boost of 10,000 cGy (n = 90) or an iodine-125 LDR brachytherapy boost of 11,000 cGy (n = 30). ADT, consisting of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist ± an anti-androgen, was administered to 29/92 (32%) intermediate-risk patients for a median duration of 4 months and 26/28 (93%) high-risk patients for a median duration of 28 months. Results Median follow-up was 5.2 years (range, 1.1-12.8 years). There was no statistically-significant difference in biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), or overall survival (OS) without or with ADT. Also, there was no statistically-significant difference in bDFS, DMFS, or OS with a palladium-103 vs. an iodine-125 LDR brachytherapy boost. Conclusions There was no statistically-significant difference in outcomes with the addition of ADT, though the power of the current study was limited. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0815 and 0924 phase III trials, which have accrual targets of more than 1,500 men, will help to clarify the role ADT in locally-advanced prostate cancer patients treated with EBRT and a brachytherapy boost. Palladium-103 and iodine-125 provide similar bDFS, DMFS, and OS. .

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Brachytherapy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal/methods , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Palladium/therapeutic use , Radiotherapy Dosage , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Int. braz. j. urol ; 40(4): 454-462, Jul-Aug/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723967


Introduction Brachytherapy is an option for treating low-risk prostate cancer (PC). Biochemical control of low-risk disease can reach 95%. The practice advocated is that a review of prostate biopsies should be mandatory before choosing the best treatment for patients with PC. Our objective was to evaluate the change in PC risk after review of a prostate biopsy by an experienced uropathologist at a reference hospital. Materials and Methods Between December 2003 and August 2012, 182 men were referred to our institution for brachytherapy to treat PC. Their slides were reviewed by the same uropathologist. Results and Discussion Classification risk disagreement occurred in 71 (39%) cases, including one in which no tumor was observed. The main cause of risk change was related to the Gleason score (GS), with 57 (81.4%) cases upgraded to GS 7 or 8. Tumor volume was also compared, although only the number of fragments was reported in most original reports. The concordance of the number of cores affected by tumor was 43.9%, and in 49% of the cases, the number was decreased by the uropathologist. Perineural invasion (PNI) was reported in one quarter of original reports, and the agreement was 58%. Conclusion Slide review by an uropathologist remains essential at reference radiotherapy centers for the treatment of PC. The change in PC risk evaluation is mainly due to the GS, but tumor volume and PNI, which are important for the characterization of tumor aggressiveness, are also misinterpreted and could drive a change in the therapy choice. .

Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Risk Assessment/methods , Biopsy, Needle , Brachytherapy/methods , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Staging , Observer Variation , Predictive Value of Tests , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostate/pathology , Reference Values , Risk Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Tumor Burden
Indian J Cancer ; 2014 Feb; 51(6_Suppl): s9-12
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156777


PURPOSE: The aim was to evaluate the safety, feasibility and efficacy of computed tomography (CT)‑guided percutaneous interstitial brachytherapy using radioactive iodine‑125 (125I) seeds for the treatment of lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Included in this study were 45 male and 35 female patients aged 52–85 years (mean 72‑year) who were diagnosed with lung cancer. Of the 80 cases of lung cancer, 38 were pathologically confirmed as squamous cell carcinoma, 29 as adenocarcinoma, 2 as small cell lung cancer, and 11 as metastatic lung cancer. Percutaneous interstitial implantation of radioactive 125I seeds was performed under CT guidance. The treatment planning system was used to reconstruct three‑dimensional images of the tumor to determine the quantity and distribution of 125I seeds to be implanted. Under CT guidance, 125I seeds were embedded into the tumor, with the matched peripheral dose set at 100–130 Gy. Follow‑up CT scan was done in 2‑month to explore the treatment efficacy. RESULTS: The procedure was successful in all patients. No major procedure‑associated death occurred. The duration of follow‑up was 6‑month. Complete response (CR) was seen in 38 cases (47.5%), partial response (PR) in 27 cases (33.75%), stable disease (SD) in 10 cases (12.5%), and progressive disease in 5 cases (6.25%), with a local control rate (CR + PR + SD) of 93.75%. The 2‑, 4‑ and 6‑month overall response rate (CR + PR) was 78%, 83% and 81%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Implantation of CT‑guided 125I seeds is a safe and effective alternative option for the treatment of lung cancer.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brachytherapy/methods , Female , Humans , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Male , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
GEN ; 67(3): 166-169, sep. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-702771


La cápsula endoscópica es un método, que ha modificado el enfoque diagnóstico de numerosos procesos patológicos en el intestino delgado, sin embargo presenta complicaciones como la retención de la misma. Se estima en la literatura mundial que esta suele ocurrir en menos del 2% de los casos. Femenino de 40 años de edad, con antecedente de cáncer de cuello uterino (2011) en tratamiento con quimioterapia, radioterapia convencional y braquiterapia, que presenta cuadro clínico caracterizado por dolor urente en mesogastrio, y emesis de aspecto biliosos. Ruidos hidroaéreos presentes, dolor a la palpación de mesogastrio sin irritación peritoneal. Radiografía de abdomen y ecosonograma abdominal normales. TAC abdomino pélvica con contraste oral con adecuada progresión de contraste hasta el recto. Se practica gastroscopia y colonoscopia sin evidencia de alteraciones. En vista de persistencia de sintomatología se indica realización de cápsula endoscópica observando en íleon distal, a los 246 minutos del paso duodenal, área muy congestiva, con una úlcera circunferencial friable, que no permite el avance de la misma. Se indica tratamiento médico con laxantes por 72 horas, el cual es infructuoso, por lo cual es llevada a mesa operatoria por presentar signos francos de obstrucción intestinal. Los hallazgos fueron: adherencias en flanco y fosa ilíaca derecha, las cuales fueron liberadas, y segmento de íleon a 10 cm de la válvula ileocecal con inflamación franca, practicándose resección y anastomosis termino-lateral. El estudio histopatológico reportó enteritis crónica activa exulcerada, necrosis fibrinoide de pequeños vasos, y fibrosis en la submucosa. Paciente con post-operatorio exitoso decidiéndose el egreso de la institución. Excelente correlación entre los hallazgos de la cápsula endoscópica y la intervención quirúrgica. Los hallazgos de la cirugía se encuentran relacionados al uso de radioterapia convencional, por lo cual recomendamos la realización de pexia...

Capsule endoscopy is a method that has changed the diagnostic approach to many pathological processes in the small intestine, but it has complications such as retention of the same, is estimated in the literature that this usually occurs in less than 2% cases. Women 40 years of age, with a history of cervical cancer (2011) undergoing chemotherapy, conventional radiation therapy, and brachytherapy, presenting clinical picture characterized by burning pain in midgut, and bilious emesis aspect. Present bowel sounds, tenderness of mesogastrium without peritoneal irritation. Abdominal radiography and abdominal ultrasonography normal. Pelvic CT with oral contrast Abdomino with progression adequate contrast to the rectum. Gastroscopy and colonoscopy was performed without evidence of tampering. In view of the persistence of symptoms embodiment shown in watching endoscopic capsule distal ileum, to 246 minutes of step duodenal study, very congestive area with a circumferential friable ulcer which does not allow the advance thereof. Indicated medical treatment with laxatives for 72 hours being fruitless, operating table being carried by presenting overt signs of intestinal obstruction. The findings were: adhesions flank and right lower quadrant, which were released and ileal segment 10 cm from the ileocecal valve with frank inflammation resection and end-side anastomosis. Histopathological study reported chronic active enteritis exulcerada, fibrinoid necrosis of small vessels, and fibrosis in the submucosa. Postoperative patient deciding successful graduation from the institution. Excellent correlation between the findings of capsule endoscopy and surgery. The findings at surgery are related to the use of conventional radiotherapy, so we recommend an pexia of the organs that are in the radiation field, prior to it, and intestinal transit before indicating capsule endoscopy

Female , Middle Aged , Brachytherapy/methods , Capsule Endoscopy/adverse effects , Capsule Endoscopy/methods , Enteritis/complications , Enteritis/diagnosis , Intestine, Small/injuries , Necrosis/pathology , Gastroenterology
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 72(4): 249-252, jul.-ago. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-690261


Objetivo: Avaliar, retrospectivamente, num longo intervalo de tempo, os resultados da termoterapia transpupilar em casos selecionados do melanoma de coróide. Métodos: Foram identificados todos os casos com melanoma de coróide tratados com termoterapia transpupilar, como terapia única ou suplementar. Foram excluídos os casos com seguimento inferior a 60 meses, prontuários incompletos ou com o abandono do acompanhamento. Resultados: De um total de 18 olhos, 7 (38.9%) foram incluídos no estudo. Cinco (71,4%) pacientes foram tratados exclusivamente com termoterapia transpupilar, em 1 (14,2%) olho a crioterapia foi simultânea, 1 (14,2%) suplementou braquiterapia - placa episcleral. Três (42.8%) sofreram recorrência, 2 (28.5%) apresentaram metástases (um óbito), 2 foram enucleados. Complicações foram encontradas em 3 olhos: dobras maculares em 2, hemorragia vítrea em 1. Nos olhos enucleados, não havia extensão extraescleral, porém células interesclerais foram identificadas. Conclusão: Termoterapia transpupilar mostra um declínio em sua eficácia e conserva os riscos de metástases em períodos mais longos de acompanhamento, sendo necessária uma definição mais exata de seu papel nos melanomas de coróide.

Objective: To evaluate, retrospectively, in a long time interval, the results of transpupillary thermotherapy in selected cases of choroidal melanoma (CM). Methods: All patients with melanoma treated with transpupillary thermotherapy as sole therapy or supplement were identified. Cases with less than 60 months follow-up, incomplete records or abandonment of monitoring were excluded. Results: A total of 18 eyes, seven (38.9%) were included. Five (71,4%) patients were treated exclusively with transpupillary thermotherapy, in one (14,2%) eye criotherapy was used simultaneously, one (14,2%) was supplemented with brachytherapy - episcleral plate. Three (42.8%) had recurrence, two (28.5%) had metastases (one death), two eyes were enucleated. Complications were found in three eyes: two with macular folds, one with vitreous hemorrhage. In the enucleated eyes, extraescleral did not occur, however intrascleral tumoral cells were identified. Conclusion: Transpupillary thermotherapy shows a decline in its effectiveness and retains the risk of metastases in longer periods of follow-up, requiring a more exact definition of its role in choroidal melanoma.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Brachytherapy/methods , Cryotherapy/methods , Hyperthermia, Induced/methods , Melanoma/therapy , Choroid Neoplasms/therapy , Retrospective Studies