Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 336
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921319

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To find the different electrophoretic profiles of prion protein in carcinous and individual pericarcinous tissues in lysates of gastric, colon, liver, lung, thyroid, and laryngeal cancers.@*Methods@#Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot were used to test the amounts and electrophoretic patterns of total PrP and the tolerance of PK (protease K) digestion among six various cancer tissue types.@*Results@#A mass of PrP signals with a large molecular weight were identified in the homogenates of peripheral tissues. The amounts and electrophoretic patterns of total PrP did not differ significantly between carcinous and pericarcinous tissues. PrPs in all types of the tested cancer samples were PK sensitive but showed diversity in the tolerance of PK digestion among various tissue types.@*Conclusions@#The study revealed that the included electrophoretic patterns of carcinous and pericarcinous tissues were almost similar. Unlike PrP-specific immunohistochemical assay, evaluation of PrP electrophoretic patterns in the peripheral organs and tissues by Western blot does not reflect tumor malignancy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Brain , Brain Chemistry , Cricetinae , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Humans , Neoplasms/chemistry , Prion Proteins/analysis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773251

ABSTRACT

Curcumin( Cur) is a natural active substance extracted from the roots or tubers of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities on brain diseases. Due to the poor stability,low solubility,poor absorption and low bioavailability of curcumin,N-acetyl-L-cysteine( NAC) was used as an absorption enhancer and mixed with curcumin to improve the absorption of curcumin in the body. In this paper,curcumin was smashed by airflow pulverization,and Cur-NAC mixtures were prepared by being grinded with liquid. Then,the raw material and the product were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry( DSC),X-ray diffraction( XRD) for structural characterization. The dissolution was determined by high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC) analysis. The characteristic peaks of the samples prepared by grinding method were similar to those of the raw materials,while the melting temperature and the accumulated dissolution degree were not significantly changed. The crystal forms of the products were not changed,and no new crystal form was formed after grinding. After the administration of intranasal powder,blood samples were collected from the orbit,while the whole brain tissues were removed from the skull and dissected into 10 anatomical regions. The concentrations of curcumin in these samples were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The concentrations of curcumin in plasma and brain were compared at different time points. After intranasal administration of two drugs,it was found that the concentration of curcumin after sniffing up the mixtures in plasma was high,and the concentration of the drug in the olfactory bulb,hippocampus,and pons was increased significantly. Within 0. 083-0. 5 h,the olfactory bulb,piriform lobe and hippocampus remained high concentrations,the endodermis,striatum,hypothalamus and midbrain reached high concentrations within 1-3 h; and the cerebellum,pons and brain extension maintained relatively high concentrations within 3-7 h. The experiment showed that nasal administration of Cur-NAC mixtures can significantly improve the bioavailability of curcumin,and lead to significant differences in brain tissue distribution.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine , Pharmacology , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Biological Availability , Brain , Brain Chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid , Curcumin , Pharmacokinetics , Rats , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Tissue Distribution
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 992-1006, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775482

ABSTRACT

Inhibitory GABAergic interneurons are fundamental elements of cortical circuits and play critical roles in shaping network activity. Dysfunction of interneurons can lead to various brain disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and anxiety. Based on the electrophysiological properties, cell morphology, and molecular identity, interneurons could be classified into various subgroups. In this study, we investigated the density and laminar distribution of different interneuron types and the co-expression of molecular markers in epileptic human cortex. We found that parvalbumin (PV) and somatostatin (SST) neurons were distributed in all cortical layers except layer I, while tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were abundant in the deep layers and white matter. Cholecystokinin (CCK) neurons showed a high density in layers IV and VI. Neurons with these markers constituted ~7.2% (PV), 2.6% (SST), 0.5% (TH), 0.5% (NPY), and 4.4% (CCK) of the gray-matter neuron population. Double- and triple-labeling revealed that NPY neurons were also SST-immunoreactive (97.7%), and TH neurons were more likely to express SST (34.2%) than PV (14.6%). A subpopulation of CCK neurons (28.0%) also expressed PV, but none contained SST. Together, these results revealed the density and distribution patterns of different interneuron populations and the overlap between molecular markers in epileptic human cortex.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Brain Chemistry , Genetics , Physiology , Cerebral Cortex , Metabolism , Pathology , Child , Cholecystokinin , Metabolism , Epilepsy , Pathology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Physiology , Humans , Interneurons , Metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropeptide Y , Metabolism , Parvalbumins , Metabolism , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase , Metabolism , Somatostatin , Metabolism , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Metabolism , Young Adult
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773625

ABSTRACT

Given the limited studies and conflicting findings, the transport character of ginsenosides crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains unclear. The present study was designed to qualitatively determine the distribution of ginsenosides in brain tissues after oral administration of ginseng total saponins, using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) combined with immunohistochemistry. In brain tissue homogenates, ginsenoside Rg1 was detectable and no other ginsenosides or their metabolites were found. No ginsenosides were detected in cerebrospinal fluid. Immunohistochemistry staining of brain tissue sections by using anti-ginsenoside polyclonal antibodies revealed the localization of ginsenosides in brain tissues. Furthermore, immunofluorescence double staining revealed that ginsenosides widely existed in vascular endotheliocytes and astrocytes, and in few neurons. These results indicated that Rg1 was the main component that entered the brain after oral administration of ginseng total saponins and that ginsenosides could cross the BBB, although the transport capability of ginsenosides through the BBB may be poor.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Antibodies , Blood-Brain Barrier , Metabolism , Brain , Metabolism , Brain Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Metabolism , Ginsenosides , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Panax , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812415

ABSTRACT

Given the limited studies and conflicting findings, the transport character of ginsenosides crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains unclear. The present study was designed to qualitatively determine the distribution of ginsenosides in brain tissues after oral administration of ginseng total saponins, using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) combined with immunohistochemistry. In brain tissue homogenates, ginsenoside Rg1 was detectable and no other ginsenosides or their metabolites were found. No ginsenosides were detected in cerebrospinal fluid. Immunohistochemistry staining of brain tissue sections by using anti-ginsenoside polyclonal antibodies revealed the localization of ginsenosides in brain tissues. Furthermore, immunofluorescence double staining revealed that ginsenosides widely existed in vascular endotheliocytes and astrocytes, and in few neurons. These results indicated that Rg1 was the main component that entered the brain after oral administration of ginseng total saponins and that ginsenosides could cross the BBB, although the transport capability of ginsenosides through the BBB may be poor.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Antibodies , Blood-Brain Barrier , Metabolism , Brain , Metabolism , Brain Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Metabolism , Ginsenosides , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Panax , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300831

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of neuronal histamine on spatial memory acquisition impairment in rats with pentylenetetrazole-kindling epilepsy, and to explore its mechanisms.A subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (35 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected in rats every 48 h to induce chemical kindling until fully kindled. Morris water maze was used to measure the spatial memory acquisition of the rats one week after fully pentylenetetrazole-kindled, and the histamine contents in different brain areas were measured spectrofluorometrically. Different dosages of hitidine (the precursor of histamine), pyrilamine (H1 receptor antagonist), and zolantidine (H2 receptor antagonist) were intraperitoneally injected, and their effects on spatial memory acquisition of the rats were observed.Compared with control group, escape latencies were significantly prolonged on Morris water maze training day 2 and day 3 in pentylenetetrazole-kindling epilepsy rats (all<0.05); and the histamine contents in hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus were decreased significantly (all<0.05). Escape latencies were markedly shortened on day 3 by intraperitoneally injected with histidine 500 mg/kg, and on day 2 and day 3 by intraperitoneally injected with histidine 1000 mg/kg in pentylenetetrazole-kindling epilepsy rats (all<0.05). The protection of histidine was reversed by zolantidine (10 and 20 mg/kg), but not by pyrilamine.Neuronal histamine can improve the spatial memory acquisition impairment in rats with pentylenetetrazole-kindling epilepsy, and the activation of H2 receptors is possibly involved in the protective effects of histamine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzothiazoles , Pharmacology , Brain Chemistry , Epilepsy , Hippocampus , Chemistry , Histamine H1 Antagonists , Pharmacology , Histamine H2 Antagonists , Pharmacology , Histidine , Pharmacology , Hypothalamus , Chemistry , Kindling, Neurologic , Physiology , Memory Disorders , Drug Therapy , Pentylenetetrazole , Phenoxypropanolamines , Pharmacology , Piperidines , Pharmacology , Pyrilamine , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Histamine H2 , Physiology , Spatial Memory , Spectrometry, Fluorescence , Thalamus , Chemistry
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300829

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, which is not only related to the imbalance between excitatory glutamic neurons and inhibitory GABAergic neurons, but also related to abnormal central cholinergic regulation. This article summarizes the scientific background and experimental data about cholinergic dysfunction in epilepsy from both cellular and network levels, further discusses the exact role of cholinergic system in epilepsy. In the cellular level, several types of epilepsy are believed to be associated with aberrant metabotropic muscarinic receptors in several different brain areas, while the mutations of ionotropic nicotinic receptors have been reported to result in a specific type of epilepsy-autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. In the network level, cholinergic projection neurons as well as their interaction with other neurons may regulate the development of epilepsy, especially the cholinergic circuit from basal forebrain to hippocampus, while cholinergic local interneurons have not been reported to be associated with epilepsy. With the development of optogenetics and other techniques, dissect and regulate cholinergic related epilepsy circuit has become a hotspot of epilepsy research.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Physiology , Basal Forebrain , Pathology , Brain Chemistry , Genetics , Physiology , Cholinergic Neurons , Chemistry , Classification , Pathology , Physiology , Epilepsy , Genetics , Pathology , Epilepsy, Frontal Lobe , Genetics , GABAergic Neurons , Physiology , Hippocampus , Pathology , Humans , Mutation , Genetics , Physiology , Neurons , Non-Neuronal Cholinergic System , Genetics , Physiology , Receptors, Muscarinic , Genetics , Physiology , Receptors, Nicotinic , Genetics , Physiology , Synaptic Transmission , Genetics , Physiology
9.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(9): 784-790, Sept. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757393

ABSTRACT

Inflammation and oxidative stress have important roles in memory impairment. The effect of 7-nitroindazole (7NI) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory impairment was investigated. Rats were used, divided into four groups that were treated as follows: (1) control (saline); (2) LPS; (3) 7NI-LPS; and (4) 7NI before passive avoidance (PA). In the LPS group, the latency for entering the dark compartment was shorter than in the controls (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001); while in the 7NI-LPS group, it was longer than in the LPS group (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001). Malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) metabolite concentrations in the brain tissues of the LPS group were higher than in the controls (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05); while in the 7NI-LPS group, they were lower than in the LPS group (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). The thiol content in the brain of the LPS group was lower than in the controls (p < 0.001); while in the 7NI-LPS group, it was higher than in the LPS group (p < 0.001). It is suggested that brain tissue oxidative damage and NO elevation have a role in the deleterious effects of LPS on memory retention that are preventable using 7NI.


Inflamação e estresse oxidativo tem importante papel no déficit de memória. O efeito do 7-nitroindazol (7NI) no déficit de memória induzido por lipossacarídeos (LPS) foi investigado. Foram utilizados ratos que foram divididos em quatro grupos e tratados da seguinte maneira: (1) controles (solução salina); (2) LPS; (3) 7NI-LPS; e (4) 7NI antes da esquiva passiva (PA). No grupo LPS, a latência para entrar no compartimento escuro foi mais curta que nos controles (p < 0,01 e p < 0,001); enquanto no grupo 7NI-LPS, a latência foi maior que aquela do grupo LPS (p < 0,01 e p < 0,001). Concentrações de malondialdeído (MDA) e metabólitos do ácido nítrico (NO) no tecido cerebral do grupo LPS foram maiores que aquelas dos controles (p < 0,001 e p < 0,05); enquanto no grupo 7NI-LPS, as concentrações foram menores do que no grupo LPS (p < 0,001 e p < 0,05, respectivamente). O conteúdo cerebral de tiol no grupo LPS foi menos do que nos controles (p < 0,001); enquanto no grupo 7NI-LPS, este conteúdo foi maior que no grupo LPS (p < 0,001). Sugere-se que o dano oxidativo cerebral e o aumento de NO tenham um papel nos efeitos deteriorativos dos LPS na memória de retenção, e que isto possa ser prevenido com o uso de 7NI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Indazoles/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Memory Disorders/prevention & control , Memory/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Brain Chemistry , Memory Disorders/chemically induced , Rats, Wistar
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(4): 342-349, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745750

ABSTRACT

Many studies of protein expression after traumatic brain injury (TBI) have identified biomarkers for diagnosing or determining the prognosis of TBI. In this study, we searched for additional protein markers of TBI using a fluid perfusion impact device to model TBI in S-D rats. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to identify differentially expressed proteins. After proteomic analysis, we detected 405 and 371 protein spots within a pH range of 3-10 from sham-treated and contused brain cortex, respectively. Eighty protein spots were differentially expressed in the two groups and 20 of these proteins were identified. This study validated the established biomarkers of TBI and identified potential biomarkers that could be examined in future work.


Muitos estudos de expressão proteica após lesão cerebral traumática (LCT) identificam biomarcadores para determinação diagnóstica ou prognóstica do LCT. No presente estudo, foram investigados marcadores proteicos adicionais de LCT, através de um aparelho de impacto no fluxo e perfusão em ratos S-D. Eletroforese bidimensional em gel e espectrometria de massa foram utilizadas para identificar diferentes proteínas expressas. Após a análise proteômica, detectamos marcas de proteínas 405 e 371, com pH variando entre 3-10 no córtex de ratos sham e naqueles com contusão cerebral, respectivamente. Oitenta marcas proteicas foram expressas nos dois grupos e 20 destas proteínas foram identificadas. Este estudo validou o estabelecimento de biomarcadores de LCT e identificou potencial biomarcadores que poderão ser estudados em estudos futuros.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Biomarkers/analysis , Brain Injuries/diagnosis , Cerebral Cortex/chemistry , Proteomics , Brain Chemistry , Brain Injuries/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Mass Spectrometry , Prognosis , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reference Values , Time Factors
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(1): 224-228, Jan-Mar/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744331

ABSTRACT

Differential Display (DD) is a technique widely used in studies of differential expression. Most of these analyses, especially those involving fish species, are restricted to species from North America and Europe or to commercial species, as salmonids. Studies related to South American fish species are underexplored. Thus, the present work aimed to describe DD technique modifications in order to improve outcomes related to the isolation of DETs (Differentially Expressed Transcripts), using Leporinus macrocephalus, a large commercially exploited South American species, as a fish design. Different DDRT-PCR approaches were applied to brain samples and the products of the reactions were analyzed on 6% polyacrylamide gels stained with 0.17% Silver Nitrate (AgNO3). The use of PCR reactions under high stringency conditions and longer oligonucleotides based on VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) core sequences led to better results when compared to low stringency PCR conditions and the use of decamer oligonucleotides. The improved approach led to the isolation of differentially expressed transcripts on adult males and females of L. macrocephalus. This study indicates that some modifications on the DDRT-PCR method can ensure isolation of DETs from different fish tissues and the development of robust data related to this approach.


Display Diferencial (DD) é uma técnica amplamente utilizada em estudos de expressão diferencial. A maioria desses estudos envolvendo espécies de peixes está restrita a espécies da América do Norte e Europa ou a espécies comerciais, como os salmoniformes. Estudos relacionados a peixes da América do Sul são ainda pouco explorados. Desse modo, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo descrever modificações na técnica de DD, a fim de melhorar os resultados relacionados ao isolamento de DETs (Transcritos Diferencialmente Expressos), utilizando Leporinus macrocephalus, peixe explorado comercialmente na América do Sul, como espécie para tal delineamento. Diferentes abordagens de DDRT-PCR foram desenvolvidas a partir de amostras de tecido cerebral e os produtos das reações foram analisados em gel de poliacrilamida 6% corados com 0,17% de nitrato de Prata (AgNO3). A utilização de reações de PCR sob condições de elevada estringência e oligonucleotídeos mais longos, com base em sequências cerne de VNTR (Número Variável de Repetições em Tandem), mostrou melhores resultados quando comparada a condições de baixa estringência e ao uso de oligonucleotídeos decâmeros. A estratégia empregada permitiu o isolamento de transcritos diferencialmente expressos em machos e fêmeas adultos de L. macrocephalus. Este estudo evidencia que modificações no método de DDRT-PCR garantem o melhor isolamento de DETs a partir de diferentes tecidos de peixes e asseguram a obtenção de dados mais sólidos relacionados a essa abordagem.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Brain Chemistry , Characiformes , Estrenes/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Characiformes/classification , Gene Expression Profiling , RNA, Messenger
12.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(2): 147-154, 02/2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741177

ABSTRACT

The aim was to describe current reports in the scientific literature on sleep in the intensive care environment and sleep deprivation associated with painful experiences in premature infant. A systematic search was conducted for studies on sleep, pain, premature birth and care of the newborn. Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, VHL and SciELO databases were consulted. The association between sleep deprivation and pain generates effects that are observed in the brain and the behavioral and physiological activity of preterm infants. Polysomnography in intensive care units and pain management in neonates allow comparison with the first year of life and term infants. We have found few references and evidence that neonatal care programs can influence sleep development and reduce the negative impact of the environment. This evidence is discussed from the perspective of how hospital intervention can improve the development of premature infants.


O objetivo foi descrever o estado atual na literatura científica sobre privação do sono associado a experiências dolorosas no prematuro e o papel na evolução do sono em ambiente de terapia intensiva. Realizou-se uma busca sistemática para estudos sobre sono, dor, prematuridade e programas de atenção ao neonato. Foram consultados as bases Web-of-Knowledge, MEDLINE, LILACS, Biblioteca Cochrane, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, BVS e SciELO. A associação entre privação do sono e dor gera efeitos que são observados na atividade cerebral, fisiológica e comportamental dos prematuros. A polissonografia nas unidades intensivas e o manejo da dor em neonatos permitem comparação no primeiro ano de vida com crianças nascidas a termo. Encontraram-se poucas evidências de que programas de cuidado neonatal podem influenciar o desenvolvimento do sono e diminuir o impacto negativo do ambiente. Estas evidências são discutidas na perspectiva de como a intervenção hospitalar pode melhorar o desenvolvimento do prematuro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Betamethasone/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Brain/embryology , Cytoskeleton/drug effects , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Presynaptic Terminals/drug effects , Body Weight , Brain Chemistry/drug effects , Cytoskeleton/chemistry , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/analysis , Papio
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337963

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of Chinese herbal formula in treating depression has been proved in many studies. In this study, six different Kaixin San formulas were compared to investigate their effects on central monoamine neurotransmitters of chronic stress rats and against depression based on their different components in plasma, in order to discuss the efficacy-comparability relationship and the possible efficacy mechanism. The classic isolation method and the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) depression model were combined to investigate the changes in contents in hippocampus and monoamine neurotransmitters (NE, DA, 5-HT) and the components of some formulas in plasma with HPLC and UPLC-Q-TOF-MSE methods. As a result, Dingzhi Xiaowan recorded in Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand significantly increased the behavioral scores, NE and 5-HT contents in hippocampus and NE, DA and 5-HT contents in cortex, with the best anti-depressant effect. Dingzhi Xiaowan recorded in Complete Records of Ancient and Modern Medical Works showed a notable increase in sucrose preference and open field score in model rats, NE content in hippocampus and NE, DA and 5-HT contents in cortex, with a certain anti anti-depressant effect. Kaixin San recorded in Ishinpo showed remarkable rise in weight of model rats. NE content in hippocampus and DA content in cortex. Puxin Decoction recorded in A Supplement to Recipes Worth A Thousand Gold showed 5-HT content in hippocampus and DA content in cortex. Kaixin San recorded in Yimenfang only showed DA content in cortex. Kaixin Wan recorded in Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand did not mention the antidepressant effect. According to the results, the formulas' different anti-depressant effects may be related to the different plasma components.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal , Biogenic Monoamines , Brain Chemistry , Chronic Disease , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neurotransmitter Agents , Norepinephrine , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin , Stress, Psychological , Metabolism
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-326011

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of noise on the antioxidant capacity in different regions of brain tissue in guinea pigs.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty male white red-eye guinea pigs were equally and randomly divided into five groups: 1-, 3-, 7-, and 14-day groups after noise exposure and control group. The guinea pigs of the experimental groups were exposed to steady white noise with a sound pressure level at 100 dB for 8 h per day and for 2 consecutive days. The auditory brainstem response (ABR) of guinea pigs, as well as the glutathione (GSH) level, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) level, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and hippocampus, was determined prior to and 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after noise exposure.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After noise exposure, the shifts in ABR threshold of the experimental groups were significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). Compared with those in the control group, the SOD activity and GSH level both significantly decreased in the cerebrum tissue of each experimental group after noise exposure (P<0.05) and MDA content significantly increased in the 1-day group (P<0.05). As for cerebellum tissue, the SOD activity and GSH level in the 7-day group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05), but there was no difference in MDA level between each experimental group and the control group (P>0.05). In comparison with those in the control group, the GSH and MDA levels in the 1-day group after noise exposure were significantly higher, and the GSH and MDA levels in the 3-day group and the MDA level in the 7-day group after noise exposure were significantly lower (all P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Noise exposure can lead to hearing loss and affect the antioxidant capacity of brain tissue, which indicates that the improvement in antioxidant levels may alleviate noise-induced damage.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Chemistry , Brain , Metabolism , Brain Chemistry , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Glutathione , Chemistry , Guinea Pigs , Male , Malondialdehyde , Chemistry , Noise , Superoxide Dismutase , Chemistry
15.
Salud colect ; 10(3): 313-323, sep.-dic. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-733292

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar, desde una perspectiva feminista, la diversidad y homogeneidad en las trayectorias profesionales de las médicas de familia que ejercían en Andalucía a comienzos del siglo XXI, a través del análisis de los significados que ellas mismas confieren a su desarrollo profesional y de la influencia de los factores personales, familiares y laborales. Realizamos un estudio cualitativo con seis grupos de discusión. Participaron 32 médicas de familia que se encontraban trabajando en los centros de salud urbanos de la red sanitaria pública de Andalucía. El análisis del discurso revela que la mayoría de las médicas no planifican sus metas profesionales y que, cuando lo hacen, las van entrelazando con las necesidades familiares. Esto se traduce en que sus trayectorias profesionales sean discontinuas. Por el contrario, las trayectorias orientadas al desarrollo profesional y a la planificación consciente de metas son más frecuentes entre las médicas que ocupan cargos de dirección en centros de salud.


The purpose of this article was to study, from a feminist perspective, the diversity and homogeneity in the career paths of female primary care physicians from Andalusia, Spain in the early 21st century, by analyzing the meanings they give to their careers and the influence of personal, family and professional factors. We conducted a qualitative study with six discussion groups. Thirty-two female primary care physicians working in urban health centers of the public health system of Andalusia participated in the study. The discourse analysis revealed that most of the female physicians did not plan for professional goals and, when they did plan for them, the goals were intertwined with family needs. Consequently, their career paths were discontinuous. In contrast, career paths oriented towards professional development and the conscious planning of goals were more common among the female doctors acting as directors of health care centers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ferric Compounds/chemistry , Ferrous Compounds/chemistry , Iron/chemistry , Sarcosine/analogs & derivatives , tau Proteins/chemistry , Aluminum/chemistry , Brain Chemistry , Chlorides , Immunoblotting , Macromolecular Substances , Phosphorylation , Phosphates/chemistry , Protein Binding/physiology , Reducing Agents/chemistry , Sarcosine/chemistry
16.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Feb; 52(2): 168-174
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150346

ABSTRACT

Calcium calmodulin dependent protein ser/thr phosphatase, also referred to as protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B), is rich in neural tissue, and plays an important role in the overall function of the nervous system. Routinely phosphatase assay employs, para-Nitrophenlylphosphate (p-NPP), as a substrate, is also extended to assay PP2B. However, in the present study, the differential spectral characterstic property of tyrosine and phopshotyrosine has been exploited to employ the latter as a candidate substrate for the PP2B assay. The specific activity of PP2B using phosphortyrosine in bovine Bos Taurus indicus brain extract (Bos Taurus indicus), was measured in presence of different metal ions like Ca2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+. Further modulators like dithiothreitol (DTT), calmodulin (CaM) and metal chelators such as EGTA and EDTA were applied to confirm the role of divalent cations and to determine calcium calmodulin dependent phoshphatase activity. PP2B activity was higher with phosphotyrosine in presence of Ca2+ than with p-NPP. Further experiments, involving calmodulin as a modulator, confirmed phosphotyrosine as a better substrate over p-NPP. Calmodulin further enhanced the effect of phosphotyrosine as a potential substrate confirming calcium calmodulin dependent phosphatase activity. Phosphotyrosine is proposed as a better substrate in assaying calcium dependent phosphatase activity when compared to para-nitrophenylphosphate.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Brain Chemistry , Calcineurin/chemistry , Calcineurin/isolation & purification , Calcineurin/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Calmodulin/metabolism , Cattle , Kinetics , Phosphotyrosine/chemistry , Tissue Extracts/chemistry , Tyrosine/chemistry
18.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2014 Jan; 17(1): 10-15
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149684

ABSTRACT

Aims and Objectives: We used near‑infrared spectroscopy to document changes in cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) in response to ventilation mode alterations after bidirectional Glenn (BDG; superior cavopulmonary connection) procedure. We also determined whether spontaneous ventilation have a beneficial effect on hemodynamic status, lactate and SctO2 when compared with other ventilation modes. Materials and Methods: 20 consecutive patients undergoing BDG were included. We measured SctO2 during three ventilator modes (intermittent positive‑pressure ventilation [IPPV]; synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation [SIMV]; and continuous positive airway pressure + pressure support ventilation [CPAP + PSV]). We, also, measured mean airway pressure (AWP), arterial blood gases, lactate and systolic arterial pressures (SAP). Results: There was no change in SctO2 in IPPV and SIMV modes; the SctO2 measured during CPAP + PSV and after extubation increased significantly (60.5 ± 11, 61 ± 10, 65 ± 10, 66 ± 11 respectively) (P < 0.05). The differences in the SAP measured during IPPV and SIMV modes was insignificant; the SAP increased significantly during CPAP + PSV mode and after extubation compared with IPPV and SIMV (109 ± 11, 110 ± 12, 95 ± 17, 99 ± 13 mmHg, respectively) (P < 0.05). Mean AWP did not change during IPPV and SIMV modes, mean AWP decreased significantly during CPAP + PSV mode (14 ± 4, 14 ± 3, 10 ± 1 mmHg, respectively) (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The SctO2 was higher during CPAP + PSV ventilation and after extubation compared to IPPV and SIMV modes of ventilation. The mean AWP was lower during CPAP + PSV ventilation compared to IPPV and SIMV modes of ventilation.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Brain Chemistry/physiology , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Female , Humans , Infant , Critical Care , Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation , Male , Oxygen/blood , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Vascular Surgical Procedures , Ventilators, Mechanical
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819738

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the antioxidant efficacy of a biologically active diterpenoid compound sugiol isolated from Metasequoia glyptostroboides (M. glyptostroboides) in various antioxidant models.@*METHODS@#An abietane type diterpenoid sugiol, isolated from ethyl acetate extract of M. glyptostroboides cones, was analyzed for its antioxidant efficacy as reducing power ability and lipid peroxidation inhibition as well as its ability to scavenge free radicals such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl, nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals.@*RESULTS@#The sugiol showed significant and concentration-dependent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Consequently, the sugiol exerted lipid peroxidation inhibitory effect by 76.5% as compared to α-tocopherol (80.13%) and butylated hydroxyanisole (76.59%). In addition, the sugiol had significant scavenging activities of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl, nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner by 78.83%, 72.42%, 72.99% and 85.04%, when compared to the standard compound ascorbic acid (81.69%, 74.62%, 73.00% and 73.79%) and α-tocopherol/butylated hydroxyanisole (84.09%, 78.61%, 74.45% and 70.02%), respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings justify the biological and traditional uses of M. glyptostroboides or its secondary metabolites as confirmed by its promising antioxidant efficacy.


Subject(s)
Analysis of Variance , Animals , Antioxidants , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Biphenyl Compounds , Metabolism , Brain Chemistry , Cattle , Cupressaceae , Chemistry , Diterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Free Radical Scavengers , Lipid Peroxidation , Phospholipids , Chemistry , Metabolism , Picrates , Metabolism , Seeds , Chemistry
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819701

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the neuroprotective effect of pAkt and HIF-1 α on ischemia rats.@*METHODS@#The rat model of cerebral ischemia which induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion was established, Silybin were given respectively. The behavior was measured by modified Longa method, brain water content were measured by the dry-wet method. Infarct volume was measured by image analysis method, Akt, HIF-1 α, Bcl-2, Bax, NF-κ B protein expressions were detected by Western blotting. The Akt, HIF-1 α, Bcl-2, Bax, NF-κ B mRNA expression were detected by RT-PCR.@*RESULTS@#The control group, low-dose silibinin group and high-dose silibinin group showed paralytic of the left body of rats in various degrees, the brain water content increased and different infarction size. There was no abnormal of the neurobehavioral assessment and no cerebral infarction in the blank group. Compared with the control group, there was no significant improvement of neurological function (t=1.341, P=0.188) or significant changes of the infarct volume (t=1.737, P=0.091) in the low-dose silibinin group, while there was significantly improvement of the neurological function in the high dose silibinin group (t=12.979, P0.05). In the high dose silybin group, the p-Akt 473, p-Akt 308, HIF-1α, Bcl-2 protein and Akt, Bcl-2 mRNA expression were increased, while the Bax, NF-κ B protein and Bax, NF-κ B mRNA expression were decreased, the differences were statistically significant (P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#pAkt, HIF-1 α have neuroprotective effect on ischemia rats.


Subject(s)
Analysis of Variance , Animals , Body Water , Metabolism , Brain Chemistry , Brain Infarction , Metabolism , Brain Ischemia , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit , Genetics , Metabolism , Male , NF-kappa B , Genetics , Metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Genetics , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Genetics , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Silymarin , Silymarin , Pharmacology , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Genetics , Metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL