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1.
Rev. ADM ; 78(5): 251-257, sept.-oct. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344244

ABSTRACT

asistencia ventilatoria cuando la vía aérea y la consciencia están comprometidas. Los elementos utilizados en este procedimiento se encuentran en contacto directo con estructuras dentofaciales, causando diversos tipos de lesiones, principalmente bucales. Aunque existen cuidados clínicos durante procesos de intubación, hay poca información, particularmente de la zona norte del país donde se hayan evaluado las posibles asociaciones entre los motivos de consulta más frecuentes y las diversas características, tanto clínicas como no clínicas de pacientes que han sido intubados. Objetivo: Identificar las alteraciones bucodentales más frecuentes en pacientes intubados, así como explorar las posibles asociaciones de acuerdo con los motivos de intubación más frecuentes. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, transversal y comparativo en el cual se evaluaron alteraciones bucodentales y sistémicas de pacientes intubados. Los grupos de estudio se desarrollaron de acuerdo con el motivo de intubación y la determinación de las asociaciones fue con cada una de las alteraciones bucodentales y sistémicas. Resultados: El motivo de intubación más frecuente fue el evento cerebral vascular (EVC) y las alteraciones dentofaciales más prevalentes fueron caries, lengua saburral y cálculo dental, entre otras. Además, se encontraron diferencias significativas entre pacientes con EVC, mostrando una mayor frecuencia en tabaquismo, hipertensión arterial y diabetes mellitus, así como en la presencia de gingivitis y úlceras. Pacientes con traumatismo craneoencefálico (TCE) tuvieron mayor frecuencia en la presencia de periodontitis. Conclusión: El motivo de hospitalización y las condiciones sistémicas preexistentes pueden ser un factor de riesgo para desarrollar lesiones bucales específicas antes y durante el periodo de intubación (AU)


Introduction: Intubation is a procedure that allows ventilatory assistance when the airway and consciousness are compromised. The elements used in this procedure are in direct contact with dentofacial structures causing various types of injuries, mainly oral. Although there is clinical care during intubation processes, there is little information, particularly from the northern part of the country where the possible associations between the most frequent reasons for consultation and the various clinical and non-clinical characteristics of patients who have been intubated have been evaluated. Objective: The objectives of the present study were to identify the most frequent oral alterations in intubated patients, as well as to explore possible associations according to the most frequent reasons for intubation. Material and methods: An observational, cross-sectional and comparative study was carried out in which oral and systemic alterations of intubated patients were evaluated. The study groups were formed according to the reason for intubation and the association was determined with each of the oral and systemic disorders. Results: The most frequent reason for intubation was the vascular cerebral event (CVA) and the most prevalent dentofacial alterations were caries, coated tongue, and dental calculus, among others. In addition, significant differences were found between patients with CVA, showing a higher frequency in smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, as well as in the presence of gingivitis and ulcers. Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) had a higher frequency in the presence of periodontitis. Conclusion: The reason for hospitalization and pre-existing systemic conditions can be a risk factor for developing specific oral lesions before and during the intubation period (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Hospitalization , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Mouth Mucosa/injuries , Periodontal Diseases/etiology , Tooth Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistical Analysis , Risk Factors , Stroke , Diabetes Mellitus , Observational Study , Brain Contusion , Hypertension , Mexico
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-309492

ABSTRACT

<p><b>INTRODUCTION</b>High performing clinical decision rules (CDRs) have been derived to predict which head-injured child requires a computed tomography (CT) of the brain. We set out to evaluate the performance of these rules in the Singapore population.</p><p><b>MATERIALS AND METHODS</b>This is a prospective observational cohort study of children aged less than 16 who presented to the emergency department (ED) from April 2014 to June 2014 with a history of head injury. Predictor variables used in the Canadian Assessment of Tomography for Childhood Head Injury (CATCH), Children's Head Injury Algorithm for the Prediction of Important Clinical Events (CHALICE) and Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) CDRs were collected. Decisions on CT imaging and disposition were made at the physician's discretion. The performance of the CDRs were assessed and compared to current practices.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 1179 children were included in this study. Twelve (1%) CT scans were ordered; 6 (0.5%) of them had positive findings. The application of the CDRs would have resulted in a significant increase in the number of children being subjected to CT (as follows): CATCH 237 (20.1%), CHALICE 282 (23.9%), PECARN high- and intermediate-risk 456 (38.7%), PECARN high-risk only 45 (3.8%). The CDRs demonstrated sensitivities of: CATCH 100% (54.1 to 100), CHALICE 83.3% (35.9 to 99.6), PECARN 100% (54.1 to 100), and specificities of: CATCH 80.3% (77.9 to 82.5), CHALICE 76.4% (73.8 to 78.8), PECARN high- and intermediate-risk 61.6% (58.8 to 64.4) and PECARN high-risk only 96.7% (95.5 to 97.6).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The CDRs demonstrated high accuracy in detecting children with positive CT findings but direct application in areas with low rates of significant traumatic brain injury (TBI) is likely to increase unnecessary CT scans ordered. Clinical observation in most cases may be a better alternative.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Algorithms , Brain Contusion , Diagnostic Imaging , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Diagnostic Imaging , Child , Child, Preschool , Craniocerebral Trauma , Diagnostic Imaging , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Infant , Intracranial Hemorrhage, Traumatic , Diagnostic Imaging , Male , Pediatric Emergency Medicine , Pneumocephalus , Diagnostic Imaging , Prospective Studies , Singapore , Skull Fractures , Diagnostic Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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