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1.
Rev. cienc. salud ; 20(1): 1-9, ene.-abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367576

ABSTRACT

Introducción:el síndrome de Dravet, también conocido como epilepsia mioclónica grave de la infancia, corresponde a una encefalopatía epiléptica resistente a fármacos que inicia generalmente en el primer año de vida. Se caracteriza por crisis epilépticas que suelen tener múltiples desencadenantes; el más asociado es la presencia de episodios febriles previos. Se considera una enfermedad rara, debido a su baja incidencia y prevalencia. Presentación del caso: niño de 10 años de edad con un cuadro de epilepsia de origen estructural, asociada con un retraso en el neurodesarrollo y anomalías craneofaciales meno-res, con antecedente de cardiopatía congénita no corregida, colpocefalia y agenesia del cuerpo calloso. Debido a la persistencia de las crisis convulsivas y su consiguiente resistencia farmacológica, se le rea-lizó un exoma genético que evidenció una mutación del gen SCN9. Discusión: el síndrome de Dravet debe ser sospechado en todo paciente menor de un año que tenga crisis convulsivas a repetición asociadas con episodios febriles cuantificados. Aproximadamente, entre el 70 % y el 85 % de los pacientes con el diagnóstico de síndrome de Dravet presenta una mutación en el gen SCN1A, por lo que mutaciones en otros genes que codifican para canales de sodio, ubicados en el mismo cromosoma, como el SCN9A, podrían contribuir de forma multifactorial a dicha entidad


Introduction: Dravet syndrome, also known as severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy, is a drug resistant epileptic encephalopathy that usually begins in the first year of life. It is characterized by the presence of epileptic seizures that usually have multiple triggers; the most currently associated is the presence of previous febrile episodes. It is considered as a rare disease due to its low incidence and prevalence. Case presentation: We reported the case of a ten-year-old boy with structural epilepsy associated with a neuro-developmental delay and minor craniofacial anomalies. He had a history of uncorrected congenital heart disease, colpocephaly, and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Due to the persistence of seizures secondary to drug resistance, it was decided to perform a genetic exome that evidenced a mutation of the SCN9A gene. Conclusions: Dravet syndrome should be suspected in all patients under one year of age who have recu-rrent seizures associated with fever that does not respond to medication and modifies its presentation. Approximately 70%−85% of the patients diagnosed with Dravet syndrome have a mutation in the SCN1A gene; therefore, mutations in other genes that encode sodium channels located on the same chromosome, such as SCN9A, could contribute in a multifactorial way.


Introdução: a síndrome de Dravet, também conhecida como epilepsia mioclônica grave da infância, corresponde a uma encefalopatia epiléptica resistente a medicamentos que geralmente se inicia no primeiro ano de vida. É caracterizada pela presença de crises epilépticas que costumam ter múltiplos detonantes, sendo que o mais associado atualmente é a presença de episódios febris prévios. É conside-rada uma doença rara devido à sua baixa incidência e prevalência. Apresentação do caso: é apresentado o caso de um menino de 10 anos de idade com quadro de epilepsia de origem estrutural, associada a atraso no desenvolvimento neurológico e pequenas anomalias craniofaciais; com histórico de cardio-patia congênita não corrigida, colpocefalia e agenesia do corpo caloso. Devido à persistência das crises epilépticas e consequente resistência farmacológica, optou-se pela realização de um exoma genético que apresenta uma mutação do gene SCN9. Discussão: a síndrome de Dravet deve ser suspeitada em todos os pacientes com menos de um ano de idade que apresentam convulsões repetidas associadas a episódios febris quantificados. Aproximadamente 70 a 85% dos pacientes com diagnóstico de síndrome de Dravet apresentam mutação no gene SCN1A, portanto mutações em outros genes que codificam canais de sódio, localizados no mesmo cromossomo, como o SCN9A, poderiam contribuir de forma multifatorial para essa entidade


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Epilepsies, Myoclonic , Seizures , Brain Diseases , Drug Resistance , Child , Epilepsy, Generalized , Drug Resistant Epilepsy
2.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(3): e1370, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357301

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La cirrosis hepática representa en Perú el 9,1 por ciento de las causas de mortalidad. Existe poca evidencia sobre la influencia de variables epidemiológicas y clínicas en la mortalidad de pacientes con cirrosis hepática en Latinoamérica, en especial en países en vías de desarrollo, como Perú. Objetivo: Identificar los factores asociados a la mortalidad en pacientes cirróticos. Métodos: Estudio trasversal en pacientes cirróticos atendidos en el Hospital Cayetano Heredia, de Piura, Perú, en el año 2017. La variable dependiente fue la mortalidad hospitalaria y las variables independientes fueron las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y de laboratorio. Se utilizó la prueba exacta de Fisher y la prueba de t para estimar los factores asociados a la mortalidad. Resultados: De 52 pacientes, la frecuencia de mortalidad debido a cirrosis fue de 35,4 por ciento. Tener ascitis moderada (p = 0,004), grado de encefalopatía (p = 0,001), leucocitosis (p = 0,004), enfermedad descompensada según índice de Child Pugh (p = 0,023), índice de Meld entre 30-39 puntos (p < 0,001) y niveles de creatinina (p = 0,009) resultaron asociados a una mayor frecuencia de mortalidad. Conclusión: La presencia de ascitis moderada, grado de encefalopatía, leucocitosis, enfermedad descompensada según índice de Child Pugh, índice de Meld entre 30-39 y los niveles de creatinina, están asociados a la mortalidad en pacientes cirróticos(AU)


Introduction: Liver cirrhosis represents 9,1 percent of causes of mortality in Peru. There is little evidence on the influence of epidemiological and clinical variables on the mortality of patients with liver cirrhosis in Latin America, especially in developing countries such as Peru. Objective: To identify the factors associated with mortality in cirrhotic patients. Methods: Cross-sectional study in cirrhotic patients treated at the Cayetano Heredia Hospital in Piura, Peru, year 2017. The dependent variable was hospital mortality and the independent variables were epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics. Fisher's exact test and the T test were used to estimate the factors associated with mortality. Results: Of 52 patients, the frequency of mortality due to cirrhosis was 35,4 percent. Have moderate ascites (p = 0,004), degree of encephalopathy (p = 0,001), leukocytosis (p = 0,004), decompensated disease according to the Child Pugh index (p = 0,023), Meld index between 30-39 points (p < 0,001) and creatinine levels (p = 0,009) were associated with a higher frequency of mortality. Conclusion: The presence of moderate ascites, degree of encephalopathy, leukocytosis, decompensated disease according to the Child Pugh index, Meld index between 30-39, creatinine levels are associated with mortality in cirrhotic patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascites/complications , Hospital Mortality , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality , Peru , Brain Diseases/mortality , Epidemiologic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Medisan ; 25(3)2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1287298

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El método clínico por sí solo no es definitivo para diagnosticar una enfermedad cerebrovascular, por lo que es importante el uso de medios de diagnóstico imagenológicos como la tomografía axial computarizada, que permite investigar los aspectos morfológicos y funcionales del cerebro. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas y tomográficas de pacientes con infarto cerebral. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 269 pacientes con infarto cerebral, atendidos en el Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico Saturnino Lora Torres de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre de 2019. Resultados: Predominaron el sexo masculino (54,6 %), el grupo etario de 70-79 años, las afectaciones motoras (76,5 %), la alteración de la conciencia (51,3 %) y el trastorno del lenguaje (50,5 %). En 38 pacientes los resultados de la tomografía fueron negativos antes de las 24 horas de evolución y 64,0 % se consideraron mejorados con secuelas. Conclusiones: La tomografía antes de las 24 horas demuestra una baja positividad y los hallazgos evolucionan con el tiempo, aunque es posible reconocer varios signos precoces de ictus agudo en menos de 4-6 horas.


Introduction: The clinical method by itself is not definitive to diagnose a cerebrovascular disease, reason why the use of imaging diagnostic means, as the computerized axial tomography is important, as it allows to investigate the morphological and functional aspects of the brain. Objective: To describe the clinical and tomographic characteristics of patients with complete stroke. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 269 patients with complete stroke, assisted in Saturnino Lora Torres Teaching Clinical Surgical Provincial Hospital was carried out in Santiago de Cuba, from January to December, 2019. Results: There was a prevalence of the male sex (54.6 %), 70-79 age group, motor disorders (76.5 %), alteration of the conscience (51.3 %) and language disorder (50.5 %). In 38 patients the results of the tomography were negative before the 24 hours of clinical course and 64.0 % were better with aftereffects of the disease. Conclusions: Tomography before the 24 hours demonstrates a low positivity and findings have a favorable clinical course as time goes by, although it is possible to recognize several early signs of acute ictus in less than 4-6 hours.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Spiral Computed
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): e142-e148, abril 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1152045

ABSTRACT

La gripe se asocia al aparato respiratorio, especialmente en invierno, y puede causar complicaciones neurológicas. Se evaluó a pacientes pediátricos con manifestaciones neurológicas graves por gripe desde septiembre de 2018 hasta febrero de 2019 para determinar características clínicas, neuroimagenología, tratamiento y resultados. El objetivo fue evaluar la encefalitis asociada a la gripe y destacar diferentes manifestaciones neurológicas y cambios de neuroimagenología. El estudio incluyó a 13 pacientes. Los síntomas neurológicos ocurrieron tras los síntomas típicos de la gripe. Los cambios de neuroimagenología incluyen alteraciones de señal de la sustancia blanca cortical y subcortical, edema localizado o generalizado y lesiones multifocales simétricas bilaterales en el tálamo y la médula del cerebelo. Las opciones terapéuticas incluyen metilprednisolona en inyección intravenosa, inmunoglobulina intravenosa, plasmaféresis y oseltamivir. Es fundamental considerar la encefalitis asociada a la gripe en pacientes con convulsiones, la encefalopatía con hallazgos radiológicos compatibles, e iniciar el tratamiento lo antes posible


Influenza is mostly associated with the respiratory tract system, especially in the winter season. Various neurological complications could occur due to influenza infection. Pediatric patients who had severe neurological manifestations due to influenza infection from September 2018 to February 2019 were evaluated for clinical characteristics, neuroimaging studies, treatment, and outcome. We aimed to assess Influenza-associated encephalitis in children, emphasize different neurological manifestations and neuroimaging changes. Thirteen patients were included in the study. Neurological symptoms occurred after flu-like symptoms. Neuroimaging changes of influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy include cortical and subcortical white matter signal alterations, localized or generalized edema, and bilateral symmetrical multifocal lesions on the thalamus and cerebellar medulla. Pulse methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange, and oseltamivir are the therapy choices. It is essential to consider influenza-associated encephalitis in patients with seizures, encephalopathy with supporting radiological findings, especially during the influenza season and starting treatment as fast as possible for better outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Encephalitis/diagnostic imaging , Influenza, Human/complications , Turkey/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/therapy , Encephalitis/therapy , Neuroimaging , Neurologic Manifestations
6.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(2): 331-335, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289078

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Uma mulher com 37 anos de idade, gestante de 35 semanas, foi admitida em um hospital local em razão de epistaxe grave, que resultou em choque e em necessidade de realização de cesárea emergencial. Após falha do tamponamento para controlar a hemorragia, decidiu-se por tratamento angiográfico. Após o procedimento, ela foi admitida à unidade de terapia intensiva neurocrítica, encontrando-se confusa e agitada, com necessidade de sedação e intubação orotraqueal. Na unidade de terapia intensiva, as investigações incluíram exames de ressonância magnética, punção lombar com painel viral, eletroencefalograma, testes para autoimunidade e avaliações hidroeletrolítica e metabólica. O exame de ressonância magnética mostrou área puntiforme restrita na corona radiata esquerda nas sequências de imagens pesadas em difusão, além de leve edema cortical posterior (sem restrição à difusão), e o eletroencefalograma mostrou atividade lenta difusa moderada, atividade frontoparietal lenta e escassos componentes paroxísticos associados no hemisfério esquerdo. Outros exames não mostraram alterações relevantes. Por causa da relação temporal e da história clínica, assim como imagens de ressonância magnética, formulou-se o diagnóstico de encefalopatia induzida por contraste. A sedação foi retirada após 2 dias na unidade de terapia intensiva, e a paciente foi extubada, verificando-se completa recuperação neurológica dentro das 24 horas seguintes.


ABSTRACT A 37-year-old woman (35 weeks pregnant) was admitted to a local hospital due to severe epistaxis resulting in shock and the need for emergency cesarean section. After failure to tamponade the bleeding, angiographic treatment was provided. After the procedure, she was admitted to the neurocritical intensive care unit and was confused and agitated, requiring sedation and endotracheal intubation. In the intensive care unit, diagnostic investigations included brain magnetic resonance imaging, lumbar puncture with viral panel, electroencephalogram, tests for autoimmunity, and hydroelectrolytic and metabolic evaluations. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a puntiform restricted diffusion area on the left corona radiata on diffusion weighted imaging and mild cortical posterior edema (without restricted diffusion), and an electroencephalogram showed moderate diffuse slow activity and fronto-temporal slow activity of the left hemisphere with associated scarce paroxysmal components. The other exams did not show any relevant alterations. Due to the temporal relationship, the clinical history and the magnetic resonance imaging results, a diagnosis of contrast-induced encephalopathy was made. After 2 days in the intensive care unit, sedation was withdrawn, the patient was extubated, and total neurological recovery was verified within the next 24 hours.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Brain Diseases/chemically induced , Brain Diseases/therapy , Cesarean Section , Brain , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Epistaxis
7.
Med. U.P.B ; 40(1): 65-76, 03/03/2021. Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1177500

ABSTRACT

Esta revisión abarca la historia, el origen, la síntesis biológica del cannabidiol (CBD), su interacción con el sistema de cannabinoides endógenos, las presentaciones para uso clínico, su farmacocinética, tolerabilidad y la evidencia actual de los usos en psiquiatría. Además del origen de su nombre y las precisiones de la taxonomía botánica de la cannabis, es de interés conocer a partir de estudios de polen fósil la cronología y ruta que siguió ancestralmente hasta la llegada a Europa y cómo allí se inició su estudio con la idea de introducirla en la farmacopea del momento y como modelo de estudio de trastornos cerebrales como las psicosis. Jacques Joseph Moreau de Tours (1804-1884), psiquiatra francés, la usó en forma de hachís y propició el consumo experimental por intelectuales de la época. Basado en la presunción de que intelectuales e individuos con una educación eran sujetos de estudio que podían proveer relatos más detallados y floridos de las experiencias vividas bajo sus efectos, Moreau de Tours concibió por primera vez que los efectos de la cannabis eran un paradigma experimental para el estudio de las psicosis. Luego experimentó su uso terapéutico con resultados negativos. En el caso del CBD, extraído de la cannabis, la psiquiatría contemporánea podría vislumbrar resultados más promisorios a través de la investigación clínica en diferentes indicaciones


This review covers the history, origin, and biological synthesis of Cannabidiol (CBD), together with its interaction with the endogenous cannabinoid system, its options for clinical use, its pharmacokinetics, its tolerability, and current evidence for indications in psychiatry. In addition to the origin of its name and the details of the botanical taxonomy of cannabis, it is a matter of interest to review fossil pollen studies to help us trace the chronology and route that it followed until it got to be known in Europe, and how was included in the pharmacological studies of the time, with the aim to use it as a model for studying brain disorders such as psychoses. French psychiatrist Jacques Joseph Moreau de Tours (1804-1884) used it in the form of hashish and encouraged its experimental consumption by intellectuals and famous artists of the time, who were then asked to provide detailed descriptions of their experiences under the effects of cannabis. Moreau de Tours was the first to conceive that the effects of cannabis were an experimental paradigm for the study of psychoses. He went on to experiment its therapeutic use with negative results. In the case of CBD, extracted from cannabis, contemporary psychiatry could foresee more promising results in its therapeutic effects through clinical research in different indications.


Esta revisão cobre a história, origem, síntese biológica do canabidiol (CBD), sua interação com o sistema canabinoide endógeno, apresentações para uso clínico, sua farmacocinética, tolerabilidade e evidências atuais de uso em psiquiatria. Além da origem do seu nome e dos detalhes da taxonomia botânica da cannabis, é interessante saber pelos estudos do pólen fóssil a cronologia e o percurso que ele percorreu ancestralmente até chegar à Europa e como começou seu estudo com a ideia lá para introduzi-lo na farmacopeia do momento e como um modelo para estudar distúrbios cerebrais como as psicoses. Jacques Joseph Moreau de Tours (1804-1884), psiquiatra francês, utilizou-o na forma de haxixe e estimulou o consumo experimental pelos intelectuais da época. Com base na suposição de que intelectuais e indivíduos educados eram sujeitos de estudo que poderiam fornecer relatos mais detalhados e floreados de experiências sob sua influência, Moreau de Tours primeiro concebeu que os efeitos da cannabis eram um paradigma experimental para o estudo das psicoses. Ele então experimentou seu uso terapêutico com resultados negativos. No caso do CBD, extraído da cannabis, a psiquiatria contemporânea poderia ver resultados mais promissores por meio de pesquisas clínicas em diferentes indicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cannabidiol , Psychiatry , Psychotic Disorders , Botany , Brain Diseases , Cannabinoids , Cannabis , Therapeutic Uses
8.
Infectio ; 25(1): 67-70, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154406

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por enterobacterias desencadena usualmente síntomas gastrointestinales caracterizados por vómito, diarrea y dolor abdominal, de severidad y curso variable. El compromiso extraintestinal esta descrito, inclusive sin las manifestaciones gastrointestinales clásicas lo que favorece diagnósticos y tratamientos tardíos pudiendo llegar a ser incapacitantes y letales. El síndrome de Ekiri, también denominado síndrome de encefalopatía letal tóxico, se caracteriza por una disfunción aguda del sistema nervioso central secundaria a infección por enterobacterias las cuales favorecen el desarrollo de microtrombos a nivel cerebral con inflamación mediada por el factor de necrosis tumoral α e IL- 1β y disfunción de la barrera hematoencefálica con una alta tasa de mortalidad. Dentro de nuestro conocimiento, presentamos el primer caso reportado en Colombia sobre el síndrome de Ekiri.


Abstract Gastrointestinal infection usually manifests with nausea, vomit and abdominal pain, all of them wit course and variable severity. Extrainstestinal compromise is described, even without gastrointestinal symptoms, what causes a delay on diagnosis and treatment, worsening the prognosis. Ekiri syndrome, also known as lethal toxic encephalopathy is characterized by an acute neurological dysfunction secondary to enterobacterial infection which favor thrombi development and local inflammation mediated by tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-1β with blood brain barrier dysfunction and high mortality. As we know, we present the first Ekiri syndrome case reported in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Brain Diseases , Syndrome , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Diarrhea , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Escherichia coli , Nausea
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879143

ABSTRACT

Pharmacology network was used to investigate the common key target and signaling pathway of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma in the protection against diabetic nephropathy(DN), diabetic encephalopathy(DE) and diabetic cardiomyopathy(DCM). The chemical components of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were obtained through TCMSP database and literature mining, and SwissTargetPrediction database was used to predict potential targets of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma. The disease targets of DN, DE and DCM were obtained through OMIM and GeneCards databases. The overlapped targets of component targets and disease targets of DN, DE and DCM were obtained, and the network of "chemical component-target-disease" was established. The enriched GO and KEGG of the overlapped genes were investigated by using ClueGo plug-in with Cytoscape. At the same time, the PPI network was constructed through STRING database, and the common key targets for the treatment of three diseases by Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were obtained through topological parametric mathematical analysis by Cytoscape. A total of 166 chemical components and 835 component targets were screened out from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma. Briefly, 216, 194 and 230 disease targets of DN, DE and DCM were collected, respectively. And 54, 45 and 57 overlapped targets were identified when overlapping these disease targets with component targets of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, respectively. Enrichment analysis indicated that the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway and FoxO signaling pathway were the common pathways in the protection of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma against DN, DE and DCM. Network analysis of the overlapped targets showed that TNF, STAT3, IL6, VEGFA, MAPK8, CASP3 and SIRT1 were identified as key targets of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma against DN, DE and DCM, the selected key targets were verified by literature review, and it was found that TNF, IL6, VEGFA, CASP3 and SIRT1 had been reported in the literature. In addition, there were the most compounds corresponding to the commom core target STAT3, indicating that more compounds in Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma could regulate STAT3. This study indicated that Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma potentially protected against DN, DE and DCM through regulating AGE-RAGE signaling pathway and FoxO signaling pathway and 7 common targets including TNF, STAT3, IL6, VEGFA, MAPK8, CASP3 and SIRT1. This study provided a reference for the research of "different diseases with same treatment" and also elucidated the potential mechanism of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma against DN, DE and DCM.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/genetics , Diabetic Nephropathies/genetics , Humans , Research Design , Signal Transduction
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877546

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe clinical effect of acupuncture combined with conventional visual stimulation on cerebral visual impairment (CVI) in children aged 3-10 years and influence on the pattern visual evoked potential (P-VEP).@*METHODS@#A total of 60 cases of children aged 3-10 years with CVI were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each group. The children in the control group received conventional visual stimulation therapy, 1 month as a course of treatment. On the basis of the control group, the children in the observation group was treated with acupuncture at Baihui (GV 20), Jingming (BL 1), Taiyang (EX-HN 5), Sibai (ST 2), etc. 3 times a week, and the treatment was given 4 weeks continuously as a course. Both groups received 3 courses of treatment. The visual acuity and P-VEP improvement were compared between the two groups before and after treatment.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the incubation period (P100-L) of the two groups was shorter than before treatment, and the amplitude (P100-A) was higher than before treatment (@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture combined with conventional visual stimulation can improve the incubation period (P100-L) and amplitude (P100-A) of P-VEP in children with CVI, and improve the best corrected visual acuity in children, the clinical effect is better than the conventional visual stimulation alone.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Brain Diseases , Child , Child, Preschool , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Humans , Vision Disorders/therapy
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879875

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features of children with influenza A virus infection and neurological symptoms.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of children with laboratory-confirmed influenza A and neurological symptoms who were treated in Xi'an Children's Hospital Affiliated to Xi'an Jiaotong University from January to December, 2019.@*RESULTS@#A total of 895 children were diagnosed with influenza A, among whom 291 had neurological symptoms. Boys had a significantly higher incidence rate of influenza A than girls (@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is a high incidence rate of neurological symptoms in children with influenza A, and seizures are the most common symptom. Most of the patients with neurological symptoms tend to have a good prognosis, but those with ANE may have a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Seizures
12.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 89(1): 57-61, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283018

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Susac es una entidad rara, descrito como una tríada clínica de encefalopatía, sordera neurosensorial y trastorno visual por oclusión de ramas de arteria retiniana, aunque no siempre se presenta como tríada, se carac- teriza por evolución prolongada y no necesariamente secuencial ni correlacionada con la presentación clínica, que es variable, por lo que el diagnóstico puede ser tardío e influenciar el pronóstico. Es más frecuente en mujeres. La patogénesis se considera como una enfermedad microangiopática autoinmune a nivel cerebral, retiniana y coclear. Descripción del caso clínico: Se presenta caso de paciente masculino de 36 años, con cuadro de cefalea, cambios conductuales, déficit motor y sensitivo de hemicuerpo derecho, seguido por alteraciones visuales y disminución de per- cepción auditiva. Se realiza diagnóstico con imagen de resonancia magnética cerebral con lesiones redondeadas hiperintensas en cuerpo calloso y regiones cortico-subcorticales; audiometría con sordera neurosensorial; y angiografía con fluoresceína de retina con obstrucción de arteria retiniana, confirmando este último recur- so el diagnóstico de síndrome de Susac. Conclusiones: Esta es una enfermedad probablemente subdiagnosticada que debe ser contemplada en el diagnóstico diferencial de enfermedades vas- culares cerebrales o desmielinizantes e implica importantes com- plicaciones y secuela sobre el paciente, el diagnóstico temprano influencia el pronóstico, por lo que debe establecerse tratamiento agresivo y temprano a fin de minimizar daños...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Susac Syndrome/diagnosis , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/complications , Brain Diseases , Fluorescein Angiography/methods
14.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(6): 707-709, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250298

ABSTRACT

Resumen Varón de 33 años con antecedentes de convulsiones febriles y discapacidad intelectual moderada grave, inició a los 2 años convulsiones tanto focales como generalizadas atónicas diarias, que ocasionaron traumas faciales. Debido a la farmacorresistencia se implantó un estimulador del nervio vago, con respuesta parcial al mismo. Durante su seguimiento, se hizo diagnóstico de enfermedad celíaca. Al realizar una tomografía de encéfalo se evidenciaron calcificaciones piriformes occipitales bilaterales, estableciéndose el diagnostico de enfermedad celiaca, epilepsia y calcificaciones cerebrales. Se le indicó dieta libre de gluten y continuar el tratamiento farmacológico, logrando de esta manera una reducción de las crisis.


Abstract A 33-year-old man with a history of febrile seizures and moderate-severe intellectual disability began, at 2 years, both focal and generalized daily atonic seizures, which caused facial trauma. Due to drug resistance, a vagus nerve stimulator was implanted, with partial response to it. During his follow-up, he was diagnosed with celiac disease. When performing a brain tomography, bilateral occipital pyriform calcifications were evidenced, establishing the diagnosis of celiac disease, epilepsy and cerebral calcifications. A gluten-free diet was indicated and pharmacological treatment continued, thus achieving a reduction in seizures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Brain Diseases , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Celiac Disease/complications , Epilepsy , Electroencephalography
15.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 15(1): 01-05, oct. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353755

ABSTRACT

El VIH/SIDA es una enfermedad neurotrópica que afecta al sistema nervioso central y dependiendo de la fase clínica de la enfermedad genera deterioro neurológico, psiquiátrico y neuropsicológico en grado variable. Se describe el caso de un paciente que presentó un cuadro de deterioro cognitivo severo (demencia SIDA) con posterior mejoría de signos y síntomas, y establecimiento posterior de secuelas neuropsicológicas después de un año de su diagnóstico. Se comparó una evaluación neuropsicológica en etapa de deterioro cognitivo severo con otra de seguimiento, realizada un año después de iniciar el tratamiento antirretroviral. Se presentan las características clínicas del paciente utilizando el estudio de caso como herramienta metodológica y sobre la base de un procedimiento clínico y psicométrico.


HIV/AIDS is a neurotropic disease that affects the central nervous system and depending on the clinical phase of the disease generates neurological, psychiatric and neuropsychological impairment to varying degrees. The case of a patient who presented severe cognitive impairment (AIDS dementia) is described with subsequent remission of signs and symptoms, and establishment of neuropsychological sequelae after one year of diagnosis. A neuropsychological evaluation in stage of severe cognitive impairment was compared with another follow-up one year after initiating antiretroviral treatment. The clinical characteristics of the patient are presented using the case study as a methodological tool and based on a clinical and psychometric procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Brain Diseases/etiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , HIV Infections/complications , AIDS Dementia Complex , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Neuropsychological Tests
16.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(3): 297-306, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144893

ABSTRACT

Resumen La mucormicosis rino-órbito-cerebral (ROC) crónica es una patología poco frecuente, con un número reducido de casos publicados en la literatura, cuyas manifestaciones son muy diversas e inespecíficas. El tratamiento se basa en la experiencia de casos y series de casos. Las herramientas terapéuticas incluyen el uso de antifúngicos endovenosos y orales por tiempo prolongado, asociado o no a debridamiento quirúrgico amplio, pudiendo requerir incluso exenteración orbitaria. Presentamos a continuación un caso de mucormicosis ROC crónica, junto con las dificultades para su diagnóstico y manejo, en el que destaca el enfrentamiento multidisciplinario. Dada la poca frecuencia de esta enfermedad, nos parece relevante difundirlo.


Abstract Chronic rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis is a rare condition with a small number of cases that have been published, whose manifestations are very diverse and nonspecific. The treatment is based on case series experiences. Therapeutic options include the use of long-term intravenous and oral antifungals, associated or not with extensive surgical debridement, and may even require orbital exenteration. We present below a case of chronic rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis with the challenge of diagnosis and management in which multidisciplinary work is fundamental. Since it is an uncommon pathology, it seems relevant to share the information.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/surgery , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Diseases , Paranasal Sinuses/pathology , Exophthalmos , Orbit Evisceration , Diagnosis, Differential , Orbital Cellulitis/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(5): 290-300, May 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131705

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: As the COVID-19 pandemic unfolds worldwide, different forms of reports have described its neurologic manifestations. Objective: To review the literature on neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: Literature search performed following systematic reviews guidelines, using specific keywords based on the COVID-19 neurological complications described up to May 10th, 2020. Results: A total of 43 articles were selected, including data ranging from common, non-specific symptoms, such as hyposmia and myalgia, to more complex and life-threatening conditions, such as cerebrovascular diseases, encephalopathies, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Conclusion: Recognition of neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 should be emphasized despite the obvious challenges faced by clinicians caring for critical patients who are often sedated and presenting other concurrent systemic complications.


RESUMO Introdução: À medida que a pandemia da COVID-19 se desenvolve em todo o mundo, diferentes tipos de publicações descreveram suas manifestações neurológicas. Objetivo: Revisar a literatura sobre complicações neurológicas da infecção por SARS-CoV-2. Métodos: A pesquisa bibliográfica foi realizada seguindo diretrizes de revisões sistemáticas, usando palavras-chave específicas baseadas nas complicações neurológicas da COVID-19 descritas até 10 de maio de 2020. Resultados: Foram selecionados 43 artigos, incluindo descrições que variam de sintomas comuns e inespecíficos, como hiposmia e mialgia, a condições mais complexas e com risco de vida, como doenças cerebrovasculares, encefalopatias e síndrome de Guillain-Barré. Conclusão: O reconhecimento das manifestações neurológicas da SARS-CoV-2 deve ser enfatizado apesar dos óbvios desafios enfrentados pelos clínicos que cuidam de pacientes críticos, muitas vezes sedados e apresentando outras complicações sistêmicas concomitantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Brain Diseases/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Ageusia/complications , Pandemics , Myalgia/complications , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology
19.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(1): 47-52, jan-abr. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095996

ABSTRACT

A fisioterapia utiliza vários recursos e métodos para intervenções no tratamento da Encefalopatia Crônica Não Progressiva da Infância (ECNPI) ou paralisia cerebral (PC), entre eles a Kinesio Taping® (KT) e a Terapia Neuromotora Intensiva (TNMI). Esses métodos podem ser considerados relativamente novos, o que leva à necessidade do desenvolvimento de pesquisas para verificar seus efeitos em crianças com PC. O presente estudo objetivou verificar os efeitos da KT® e da TNMI na postura sentada de crianças com PC do tipo quadriparesia/quadriplegia espástica. Para isso, foram avaliadas 6 crianças, com uma média de idade de 6,25±2,69 anos. As avaliações aconteceram por meio do software SAPO, no qual os dados são obtidos em centímetros e a análise consiste na avaliação da vertical (eixo Y), comparando os lados esquerdo e direito, sendo assim possível a análise das assimetrias de maneira precisa. Com relação aos resultados, não foi identificada diferença significativa (p > 0,05) da aplicação de KT® na comparação entre efeitos imediato, agudo e crônico para os momentos pré e pós aplicação imediata da KT®. No entanto, de forma descritiva, o uso de KT® associado à TNMI favoreceu o alinhamento na postura sentada, principalmente para acrômios e Espinha ilíaca ânterossuperior (EIAS). Nota-se, portanto, que as evidências do uso de KT®, como coadjuvante durante a TNMI, ainda são inconclusivas em crianças com PC do tipo quadriparesia/plegia.


Physical therapy uses various resources and methods for intervention in the Chronic Non-Progressive Childhood Encephalopathy (CNPCE) or cerebral palsy (CP) interventions, including Kinesio Taping® (KT) and Intensive Neuromotor Therapy (INMT). These methods are relatively new, which leads to the need for the development of research to verify effects in children with CP. The present study analyzed the effects of KT® and INMT on the sitting posture of children with spastic quadriplegia. In order to do this, six (6) children (mean age 6.25±2.69 years) were evaluated. The evaluations took place through SAPO software, where data are obtained in centimeters and the analysis consists of the evaluation of the vertical (Y) axis, comparing the left and right side, thus being possible to precisely analyze any asymmetries. Regarding the results, no significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed with the application of KT® in the comparison between immediate, acute and chronic effect for the moments before and immediately after KT® application. However, descriptively, the use of KT® associated with INMT favored alignment in sitting posture, mainly for acromial and anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS). The results show that evidence of the use of KT® as an adjuvant during INMT is still inconclusive in children with CP quadriparesis/plegia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Brain Diseases/rehabilitation , Cerebral Palsy/rehabilitation , Sitting Position , Quadriplegia/rehabilitation , Software/supply & distribution , Child, Institutionalized , Physical Therapy Modalities
20.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Impr.) ; 14(1): 71-75, 31-03-2020. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097171

ABSTRACT

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare spongiform encephalopathy characterized by a rapid neurodegenerative progress, caused by a misfolded variant of the cellular prion protein (PrP) known as PrPSc. The clinical presentation of sCJD includes a wide range of neurological signs of cortical, subcortical, or cerebellar origin, either isolated or in various combinations. Due to this protean clinical presentation form, sCJD must be distinguished from other dementias. In this case report, we discuss the Heidenhain variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (HvCJD), a rare variant characterized by early visual symptoms and typical findings in imaging scans. Our patient presented rapidly progressive dementia and a history of visual hallucinations. As for other prion diseases, only symptomatic treatment is available for HvCJD. Thirty years of clinical investigation of patients with prion disease have resulted in little progress in either defining or evaluating potential treatments.


A doença de Creutzfeldt-Jakob (DCJ) é uma encefalopatia rara caracterizada por rápida progressão neurodegenerativa, causada pelo enovelamento incorreto da proteína priônica celular (PrP), conhecido como PrPSc. O quadro clínico da DCJ esporádica inclui um amplo espectro de sinais neurológicos de origens cortical, subcortical ou cerebelar, seja de forma isolada, seja combinada. Por causa da sua apresentação clínica variável, a DCJ esporádica deve ser distinguida de outras demências. Neste relato de caso, discutimos a variante Heidenhain da DCJ (vHDCJ), uma variante rara caracterizada por sintomas visuais precoces e características específicas no exame de imagem. Nossa paciente apresentou demência rapidamente progressiva e histórico de alucinações visuais. Assim como para as demais doenças priônicas, apenas o tratamento sintomático está disponível para a vHDCJ. Trinta anos de investigação clínica de pacientes com doença priônica têm resultado em pouco progresso, seja definindo os potenciais tratamentos, seja avaliando-os.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Brain Diseases , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome/complications , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome/diagnosis , Prion Diseases/complications , Prion Diseases/diagnosis , Brain Diseases/complications , Brazil , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Prion Proteins
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