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1.
Rev. Asoc. Med. Bahía Blanca ; 34 (1), 2024;34(1): 28-32, 20240301.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1554743

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN La Encefalitis de Hashimoto (EH) es una encefalopatía de naturaleza autoinmune, con buena respuesta al tratamiento con corticoides, títulos séricos elevados de anticuerpos antitiroideos y de curso subagudo con recaídas-remisiones. Es una enfermedad poco frecuente, con una presentación clínica variable y fisiopatología aún desconocida. PRESENTACIÓN DEL CASO: Paciente femenina de 76 años con antecedentes de hipotiroidismo primario. Ingresó con un síndrome confusional agudo. Al examen físico vigil, Glasgow 13/15, subfebril (37.8°C) desorientada temporoespacialmente, ecolalia, pupilas isocóricas y reactivas, sin focalidad neurológica. Signos meníngeos negativos. Laboratorio: Hipocalcemia leve (7.8mg/dl), hipopotasemia (K 3,2 mmol/l), PCR 221.9 mg/L. Test rápido para VIH negativo. TC de encéfalo sin alteraciones. Punción lumbar líquido cristal de roca, proteínas 1 g/l, glucosa 0.67 g/l, láctico 1.3, leucocitos 77 células/microL (100% mononucleares). Se interpretó inicialmente como Encefalitis de etiología viral y se le indicó aciclovir. Presentó sensorio alternante, excitación psicomotriz y convulsión tónica clónica generalizada. Debido a deterioro súbito del sensorio, se realizó intubación orotraqueal y se trasladó a Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Permaneció bajo asistencia mecánica ventilatoria y con vasopresores. Laboratorio: VDRL, p24 y anticuerpos HIV negativos, TSH 27,82, T4 0,41. PCR de LCR: Virus herpes simple 1 y 2, citomegalovirus y JC negativos. Hemocultivos negativos. Ante sospecha clínica de Encefalitis de Hashimoto, se solicitaron anticuerpos antitiroideo peroxidasa (aTPO), antitiroglobulina (aTG) y Anticuerpos Anti-Receptor de TSH (TRABS), que resultaron positivos. Recibió tratamiento con levotiroxina endovenosa e hidrocortisona. Normaliza valores. Por fallo en el weaning, se realizó traqueostomía. Luego de 21 días de internación en Terapia Intensiva pasó a clínica con posterior alta hospitalaria. Discusión: La EH se puede considerar como diagnóstico, solo después de descartar otras causas. En el caso expuesto se llegó al diagnóstico luego de descartar otras causas posibles, con anticuerpos antitiroideos positivos en altas concentraciones y respuesta al tratamiento con corticoides. Conclusión: Se destaca la necesidad de ampliar el conocimiento de esta patología con el fin de disminuir el subdiagnóstico y promover un inicio precoz del tratamiento, mejorando así su progresión y calidad de vida de los pacientes.


INTRODUCTION: Hashimoto's Encephalitis (HE) is an autoimmune encephalopathy, with a good response to treatment with corticosteroids, high serum titers of antithyroid antibodies and a subacute course with relapses-remissions. It is a rare disease, with a variable clinical presentation and still unknown pathophysiology. CASE REPORT: A 76-year-old female patient with a history of primary hypothyroidism. She was admitted with acute confusional syndrome. On physical examination, she was awake, she was Glasgow 13/15, she was subfebrile (37.8°C), disoriented temporally, echolalia, isochoric and reactive pupils, without neurological focality. Negative meningeal signs. Laboratory: Mild hypocalcemia (7.8 mg/dl), hypokalemia (K 3.2 mmol/l), CRP 221.9 mg/L. Rapid test for HIV negative. Brain CT without alterations. Lumbar puncture rock crystal liquid, proteins 1 g/l, glucose 0.67 g/l, lactic acid 1.3, leukocytes 77 cells/microL (100% mononuclear). It was initially interpreted as Encephalitis of viral etiology and acyclovir was prescribed. He presented alternating sensory, psychomotor excitement, and generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Due to sudden deterioration of the sensorium, orotracheal intubation was performed and he was transferred to the Intensive Care Unit. He remained under mechanical ventilatory assistance and with vasopressors. Laboratory: VDRL, p24 and HIV antibodies negative, TSH 27.82, T4 0.41. CSF PCR: Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus and JC negative. Negative blood cultures. Due to clinical suspicion of Hashimoto's Encephalitis, anti-thyroid peroxidase (aTPO), anti-thyroglobulin (aTG) antibodies and Anti-TSH Receptor Antibodies (TRABS) were requested, which were positive. She was treated with intravenous levothyroxine and hydrocortisone. Normalized values. Due to weaning failure, a tracheostomy was performed. After 21 days of hospitalization in the Intensive Care Unit, she was admitted to the clinic and subsequently discharged from the hospital. Discussion: HD can be considered as a diagnosis, only after ruling out other causes. In the case presented, the diagnosis was made after ruling out other possible causes, with positive antithyroid antibodies in high concentrations and response to treatment with corticosteroids. Conclusion: The need to expand knowledge of this pathology is highlighted in order to reduce underdiagnosis and promote early initiation of treatment, thus improving its progression and quality of life of patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Hashimoto Disease , Autoimmune Diseases , Thyroid Diseases , Case Reports , Diagnosis
2.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 1-8, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006541

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to determine the incidence of encephalopathy among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective observational study conducted in a tertiary hospital in Cebu City, Philippines. This study is a complete enumeration of all records of adult patients admitted for COVID-19 detected through polymerase chain reaction from March 1, 2020 to September 30, 2021. The cases were then classified as to the presence or absence of encephalopathy. @*Results@#The study determined that 6 in every 1000 admitted COVID-19 patients developed encephalopathy. The clinico-demographic profile of patients with encephalopathy were mostly elderly with a mean age of 67, males (55.7%), and obese stage I (61.1%). Encephalopathy was more likely to develop in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (80.1%) and coronary artery disease (40.0%). Most patients who did not have encephalopathy however had a history of CVD. Most patients (66.7%) who developed encephalopathy were dyspneic on presentation. Laboratory examination results showed an increase in fasting blood sugar and elevated levels of LDH, CRP, serum ferritin, procalcitonin, and D-dimer. Majority of patients (66.7%) with encephalopathy were intubated. Taking into consideration the stage of infection and the incidence of encephalopathy, most patients (66.6%) were in the hyperinflammatory stage. The number of hospitalization days and severity of illness did not have any association with developing encephalopathy. Dichotomous categorization of outcomes into deceased and discharged showed that clinical outcomes and the development of encephalopathy were significantly associated, with 66.7% of patients with encephalopathy expiring during their course of hospitalization.@*Conclusion@#The incidence of encephalopathy among admitted COVID-19 patients was 6 in every 1000 patients. Encephalopathy was more common in elderly males who were obese with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. The most common presentation of patients who developed encephalopathy was dyspnea. Collated laboratory results showed an increase in fasting blood sugar and elevated levels of LDH, CRP, serum ferritin, procalcitonin, and D-dimer. Majority of patients with encephalopathy were intubated and were in the hyperinflammatory stage of COVID-19 infection. Dichotomous categorization of outcomes into deceased and discharged showed that clinical outcomes and the development of encephalopathy were significantly associated, with most patients with encephalopathy expiring during their course of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brain Diseases , Brain , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22 (2), 2023;22(2): 915, 16 octubre 2023. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526592

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad cerebral de pequeño vaso es una causa principal de pérdida funcional, discapacidad y deterioro cognitivo. OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de la enfermedad de pequeño vaso y características clínicas que se asocian a mayor deterioro funcional, cognitivo y afectivo en adultos mayores con enfermedad cerebrovascular atendidos en el Servicio de Neurología del Hospital Carlos Andrade Marín en el período 2020 ­ 2021. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio observacional, analítico transversal con 80 pacientes mayores de 65 años con enfermedad cerebrovascular previamente diagnosticada. Se determinó cuáles presentaban enfermedad cerebral de pequeño vaso. Se compararon los dos grupos el de enfermedad cerebro vascular isquémico con y sin enfermedad cerebral de pequeño vaso. Se midió el grado de deterioro funcional con escala de Barthel; Lawton y Brody. El deterioro cognitivo con test de Montreal Cognitive Assessment ­Basic, estado afectivo con escala de Yesavage. Se utilizó razón de momios y se consideró significativo un valor p <0,05. Se utilizó el programa Statistical Package for Social Sciences versión 25. RESULTADOS: Los hombres representaron el 51,2%. La edad promedio fue 76,2 años. Prevalencia de enfermedad cerebral de pequeño vaso (87,5%). Escala de Fazekas grado 1 (46,3%), Factores asociados con enfermedad cerebral de pequeño vaso: tabaquismo [RR: 7,27; IC 95%: 1,69-31,3); enfermedad renal crónica [RR: 4,0; IC 95%: 1,01-15,7]. Dependencia moderada [RR: 6,42; IC 95%: 1,02-40,3]. Factores asociados con pérdida funcionalidad: gravedad del ictus. Factores asociados con deterioro cognitivo: infarto con doble territorio. Factores asociados con deterioro afectivo: infarto con doble territorio y síndrome metabólico (p<0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: La enfermedad cerebral de pequeño vaso tiene una elevada prevalencia entre los adultos mayores con enfermedad cerebrovascular y representó un deterioro cognitivo, funcional y afectivo considerable, en relación a los pacientes sin esta enfermedad.


INTRODUCTION: Cerebral small vessel disease is a leading cause of functional loss, disability, and cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of small vessel disease and clinical characteristics associated with greater functional, cognitive and affective impairment in older adults with cerebrovascular disease attended at the Neurology Service of the Carlos Andrade Marín Hospital in the period 2020 - 2021. METHODOLOGY: Observational, analytical cross-sectional study with 80 patients over 65 years of age with previously diagnosed cerebrovascular disease. It was determined which patients had cerebral small vessel disease. The two groups of ischemic cerebrovascular disease with and without cerebral small vessel disease were compared. The degree of functional impairment was measured with the Barthel, Lawton and Brody scales. Cognitive impairment was measured with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Basic test, and affective state with the Yesavage scale. Odds ratio was used and a p value <0,05 was considered significant. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 25 was used. RESULTS: Males represented 51,2%. Mean age was 76,2 years. Prevalence of cerebral small vessel disease (87,5%). Fazekas scale grade 1 (46,3%), Factors associated with cerebral small vessel disease: smoking [RR: 7,27; 95% CI: 1,69-31,3); chronic kidney disease [RR: 4,0; 95% CI: 1,01-15,7]. Moderate dependence [RR: 6,42; 95% CI: 1,02-40,3]. Factors associated with loss of function: severity of stroke. Factors associated with cognitive impairment: infarction with double territory. Factors associated with affective impairment: dual territory infarction and metabolic syndrome (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Cerebral small vessel disease has a high prevalence among older adults with cerebrovascular disease and represented a considerable cognitive, functional and affective deterioration, in relation to patients without this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Brain Diseases , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction , Porencephaly , Ischemic Stroke , Functional Status , Ecuador , Geriatrics
4.
Rev. cuba. med ; 62(2)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1530125

ABSTRACT

La encefalopatía de Hashimoto es una entidad poco frecuente, con una amplia gama de manifestaciones neurológicas que incluyen déficits focales, alteraciones cognitivas, crisis convulsivas, trastorno del movimiento e incluso el coma. Con un curso de la enfermedad de subagudo a fluctuante. Afecta más a mujeres que a hombres, con edad de presentación alrededor de los 44 años, aunque se han reportado casos en la edad pediátrica. De etiología poco clara, se desarrolla en el contexto de la presencia de anticuerpos antitiroideos, independientemente de la función tiroidea. La presencia de estos anticuerpos, sumado a la exclusión de otras etiologías y la respuesta al manejo esteroide son claves para su diagnóstico. Presentamos un caso clínico de una mujer de 57 años de edad que evoluciona con psicosis, alteración del lenguaje, deterioro cognitivo, mioclonías y crisis convulsivas de 5 meses de evolución, quien se excluyó otras causas de demencia rápidamente progresiva con presencia de anticuerpos anti tiroglobulina de 83,6 UI/mL (V.R. < 100 UI/mL) normal y anti tiroperoxidasa en 217 UI/mL (V.R. < 100 UI/mL) elevado. Recibió valoración por el Servicio de Endocrinología, donde se detectó hipotiroidismo y se indicó manejo con levotiroxina sin mejoría del cuadro neurológico. Se indicó manejo esteroide con pulsos de metilprednisona a 500 mg/día por 5 días, con mejoría clínica y se concluyó por criterios de exclusión como una encefalopatía de Hashimoto(AU)


Hashimoto encephalopathy is a rare entity, with wide range of neurological manifestations including focal deficits, cognitive alterations, seizures, movement disorders, and even coma, with a subacute to fluctuating disease course. It affects more women than men, it has age of presentation around 44 years, although cases have been reported in the pediatric age. Its etiology is unclear, it develops in the presence of antithyroid antibodies, regardless of thyroid function. The presence of these antibodies, added to the exclusion of other etiologies and the response to steroid management are key to the diagnosis. We report a clinical case of a 57-year-old woman who evolved with psychosis, language impairment, cognitive impairment, myoclonus, and seizures of 5 month-duration. Other causes of rapidly progressive dementia with the presence of normal antithyroglobulin antibodies of 83.6 IU/mL (RV < 100 IU/mL) and elevated antithyroperoxidase 217 IU/mL (RV < 100 IU/mL) were excluded. She was evaluated in the Endocrinology Department that detected hypothyroidism and indicated management with levothyroxine with no improvement in the neurological condition. Steroid management with methylprednisone pulses at 500 mg/day for 5 days was indicated. Clinical improvement was observed and was concluded to be a Hashimoto encephalopathy by exclusion criteria(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Neurologic Manifestations
5.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 30(1)mar. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536233

ABSTRACT

IgG4-related disease is a recently described disease that can involve various organs and systems. Single organ involvement is the exception to the rule, it is generally a multi-system entity. We present a 36-year-old woman, with no previous pathological history or autoimmune disease, with headache caused by cystic macroadenoma. A transsphenoidal resection was performed and pathology documented areas of fibrosis with a predominantly plasmolymphocytic infíltrate and positive IgG4 staining in more than 20 cells per high-power field, meeting diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related sclerosing disease. Involvement of other organs was ruled out, and the patient improved clinically after management.


La enfermedad relacionada con IgG4 es una entidad recientemente descrita, capaz de involucrar diversos órganos y sistemas. El compromiso de órganos aislados es la excepción a la regla, dado que generalmente se trata de una entidad multisistémica. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 36 años, sin antecedentes patológicos previos, en quien como causa de cefalea se documenta un macroadenoma quístico llevado a resección transesfenoidal, cuyo resultado de patología documenta zonas de fibrosis con infiltrado de predominio plasmo-linfocitario y la tinción para IgG4 positiva en más de 20 células por campo de alto poder, lo que configura criterios diagnósticos para enfermedad esclerosante relacionada con IgG4; se descartó compromiso de otros órganos y hubo mejoría clínica posterior al manejo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Brain Diseases , Immunoglobulin G , Proteins , Hypophysitis , Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins , Nervous System Diseases
6.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(1): 17-27, Jan-Abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414719

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever as consequências do herpes tipo 1 no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. Metodologia: Trata-se de uma revisão narrativa das consequências da Herpes do tipo 1 no Desenvolvimento Neuropsicomotor. Questão norteadora: "Quais os efeitos da infecção congênita da Herpes tipo 1 no Desenvolvimento Neuropsicomotor observadas entre os anos de 2010 a 2020?". O levantamento dos dados ocorreu: dezembro/2021 a janeiro/2022 nas bases de dados: Scientific Eletronic Library Online, Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde e National Library of Medicine. Descritores: "Herpes"; "Desenvolvimento Neuropsicomotor"; "Herpes Congênita" e "Neuropsychomotor Development" com operadores booleanos AND e OR. Critérios de inclusão: artigos originais, texto completo. Exclusão: cartas ao editor, teses, dissertações e revisões de literatura. Resultados: Foram encontrados 21 artigos nas bases de dados pesquisadas, contudo, após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão, 3 artigos foram considerados elegíveis. Após a análise, pode-se afirmar os impactos do Vírus Herpes pode gerar ao desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor, podendo ocasionar disfagia, disartria, alterações motoras, cognitivas e sociais, bem como outros sinais e sintomas que levarão ao atraso no desenvolvimento. Conclusão: O Herpes Vírus Simples pode ocasionar transtornos cerebrais em crianças, o que acarreta distúrbios para o amadurecimento normal, com consequente atrasos no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor.


Objective: To describe the consequences of herpes type 1 on neuropsychomotor development. Methodology: This is a narrative review of the consequences of Herpes type 1 on Neuropsychomotor Development. Guiding question: "What are the effects of congenital Herpes type 1 infection on Neuropsychomotor Development observed between the years 2010 to 2020?". Data collection took place: December/2021 to January/2022 in the following databases: Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences and National Library of Medicine. Keywords: "Herpes"; "Neuropsychomotor Development"; "Herpes Congenita" and "Neuropsychomotor Development" with Boolean operators AND and OR. Inclusion criteria: original articles, full text. Exclusion: letters to the editor, theses, dissertations and literature reviews. Results: 21 articles were found in the searched databases, however, after applying the inclusion criteria, 3 articles were considered eligible. After the analysis, it can be said the impacts of the Herpes Virus can generate neuropsychomotor development, which can cause dysphagia, dysarthria, motor, cognitive and social changes, as well as other signs and symptoms that will lead to developmental delay. Conclusion: Herpes Simplex Virus can cause brain disorders in children, which causes disturbances to normal maturation, with consequent delays in neuropsychomotor development.


Objetivo: Describir las consecuencias del herpes tipo 1 en el desarrollo neuropsicomotor. Metodología: Se trata de una revisión narrativa de las consecuencias del Herpes Tipo 1 en el Desarrollo Neuropsicomotor. Pregunta norteadora: "¿Cuáles son los efectos de la infección congénita por Herpes tipo 1 en el desarrollo neuropsicomotor observados entre los años 2010 y 2020?". Los datos se recopilaron entre diciembre de 2021 y enero de 2022 en las siguientes bases de datos: Scientific Eletronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences y National Library of Medicine. Descriptores: "Herpes"; "Desarrollo neuropsicomotor"; "Herpes congénito" y "Desarrollo neuropsicomotor" con operadores booleanos AND y OR. Criterios de inclusión: artículos originales, texto completo. Criterios de exclusión: cartas al director, tesis, disertaciones y revisiones bibliográficas. Resultados: Se encontraron 21 artículos en las bases de datos consultadas, sin embargo, tras aplicar los criterios de inclusión, se consideraron elegibles 3 artículos. Después del análisis, se puede afirmar los impactos que el Herpes Virus puede tener en el desarrollo neuropsicomotor, que puede causar disfagia, disartria, alteraciones motoras, cognitivas y sociales, así como otros signos y síntomas que conducirán a un retraso en el desarrollo. Conclusión: El virus del herpes simple puede causar alteraciones cerebrales en los niños, lo que conduce a trastornos de la maduración normal, con los consiguientes retrasos en el desarrollo neuropsicomotor.


Subject(s)
Psychomotor Performance , Developmental Disabilities , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases , Brain Diseases , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic , Dysarthria , Failure to Thrive
7.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1157-1163, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010919

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize clinical predictors and imaging characteristics of critically ill children infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron with neurological complications in Shenzhen during the peak of the first round of infections.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 11 critically ill children with neurological complications infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron in Shenzhen Children's Hospital from December 12 to 31, 2022, were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Laboratory test results related to liver parenchymal injury, histiocytic injury, inflammation, and coagulation function were collected, and imaging characteristics including CT and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were analyzed. The differences in CT/MRI score, acute necrotizing encephalopathy severity scale (ANE-SS) score and total score (CT/MRI score + ANE-SS score) were compared between the two groups with different prognosis during hospitation.@*RESULTS@#Among 11 children, 7 were male and 4 were female. The age ranged from 10 months to 16 years. There were 5 cases of acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) and 6 cases of acute fulminant cerebral edema (AFCE). During hospitalization, 3 patients survived and 8 patients died of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), including 2 cases of ANE and 6 cases of AFCE. All cases had fever (> 38.5 centigrade), and 3 cases had ultra-high fever (> 41 centigrade). Within 48 hours of onset, all cases had disorders of consciousness and 9 cases had seizures. The 8 dead children had complications with multisystem involvement, including shock, respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), liver failure, renal failure or myocardial damage, and the laboratory predictors related to hepatocellular injury [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)], histocyte injury [creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)], inflammation [procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), serum ferritin (SF)], coagulation function (D-dimer) and blood glucose (Glu) increased in different quantities, of which PCT was specifically increased in 6 cases with AFCE, PLT was specifically decreased in 3 cases with AFCE, and ALT and LDH were significantly increased in 2 cases with ANE. Imaging analysis showed subarachnoid hemorrhage, basal ganglia and thalamus lesions in all 6 cases with AFCE, while thalamus lesions in all 5 cases with ANE. The ANE-SS score of 8 deceased children ranged from 2 to 7 (of which 6 cases were ≥ 5), and the ANE-SS score of 3 surviving children ranged from 0 to 2. Eight dead children had a CT/MRI score of 1-4 (of which 6 cases were 4), and 3 surviving children had a CT/MRI score of 1-2 (of which 2 cases were 1). The total score of 8 deceased children was 6-10 (of which 6 cases ≥ 8), and 3 surviving children was 1-4.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The neurological complications of critically ill children infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron in Shenzhen progressed rapidly to ANE and AFCE, with high mortality. High fever (> 40 centigrade), convulsion/disturbance of consciousness, and multiple organ failure were the most common symptoms in ANE and AFCE cases. PCT increased and PLT decreased specifically in AFCE cases. Poor prognosis (death) was more common in age < 4 years old, predictors of ALT, AST, CK, LDH, PCT, D-dimer, Glu, IL-6 increased significantly, PLT decreased significantly. The common imaging feature of ANE and AFCE is the involvement of dorsal thalamus, a new imaging sign of AFCE (subarachnoid hemorrhage) was found. The higher the ANE-SS score, CT/MRI score and total score, the greater the risk of death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-6 , Retrospective Studies , Critical Illness , COVID-19/complications , Procalcitonin , Inflammation , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging
8.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 726-742, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010774

ABSTRACT

Abnormal brain-gut interaction is considered the core pathological mechanism behind the disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBI), in which the intestinal microbiota plays an important role. Microglia are the "sentinels" of the central nervous system (CNS), which participate in tissue damage caused by traumatic brain injury, resist central infection and participate in neurogenesis, and are involved in the occurrence of various neurological diseases. With in-depth research on DGBI, we could find an interaction between the intestinal microbiota and microglia and that they are jointly involved in the occurrence of DGBI, especially in individuals with comorbidities of mental disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This bidirectional regulation of microbiota and microglia provides a new direction for the treatment of DGBI. In this review, we focus on the role and underlying mechanism of the interaction between gut microbiota and microglia in DGBI, especially IBS, and the corresponding clinical application prospects and highlight its potential to treat DGBI in individuals with psychiatric comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/therapy , Microglia , Brain Diseases , Brain
9.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 989-994, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013213

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical and imaging features of acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion(AESD) in children. Methods: For the case series study, 21 children with AESD from Peking University First Hospital, Provincial Children's Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, and Shanxi Children's Hospital who were diagnosed and treated from October 2021 to July 2023 were selected. Clinical data were collected to summarize their clinical information, imaging, and laboratory tests, as well as treatment and prognostic characteristics. Descriptive statistical analysis was applicated. Results: Of the 21 cases with AESD, 11 were males and 10 were females, with the age of onset of 2 years and 6 months (1 year and 7 months, 3 years and 6 months). Of the 21 cases, 18 were typical cases with biphasic seizures. All typical cases had early seizures within 24 hours before or after fever onset. Among them, 16 cases had generalized seizures, 2 cases had focal seizures, and 7 cases reached the status epilepticus. Of the 21 cases, 3 atypical cases had late seizures in biphasic only. The late seizures in the 21 cases occurred on days 3 to 9. The types of late seizures included focal seizures in 12 cases, generalized seizures in 6 cases, and both focal and generalized seizures in 3 cases. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) test on days 3 to 11 showed reduced diffusion of subcortical white matter which was named "bright tree sign" in all cases. The diffuse cerebral atrophy predominantly presented in the front-parietal-temporal lobes was found in 19 cases between day 12 and 3 months after the onset of the disease. Among 21 cases, 20 had been misdiagnosed as autoimmune encephalitis, central nervous system infection, febrile convulsions, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome. All the cases received high-dose gammaglobulin and methylprednisolone pulse therapy with poor therapeutic effect. By July 2023, 18 cases were under follow-up. Among them, 17 cases were left with varying degrees of neurologic sequelae, including 11 cases with post-encephalopathic epilepsy; 1 recovered completely. Conclusions: AESD is characterized by biphasic seizures clinically and "bright tree sign" on DWI images. Symptomatic and supportive treatments are recommended. The immunotherapy is ineffective. The prognosis of AESD is poor, with a high incidence of neurological sequelae and a low mortality.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Child , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/complications , Seizures/etiology , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Status Epilepticus , Seizures, Febrile/diagnostic imaging
10.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1170-1174, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009865

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical characteristics and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection-associated acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) in children .@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was conducted on the medical data of 12 children with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection-associated ANE who were admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Qingdao Women and Children's Hospital from December 18 to 29, 2022. The children were divided into two groups based on outcomes: death group (7 cases) and survival group (5 cases). The clinical manifestations and auxiliary examination results were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The median age of the 12 patients was 30 months, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. All patients presented with persistent high fever, with a median highest body temperature of 41℃. The median time from fever onset to seizure or consciousness disturbance was 18 hours. The death group had a higher proportion of neurogenic shock, coagulation dysfunction, as well as elevated lactate, D-dimer, interleukin-6, interleukin--8, and interleukin-10 levels compared to the survival group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Children with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection-associated with ANE commonly present with persistent high fever, rapidly progressing disease, and have a high likelihood of developing consciousness disorders and multiorgan dysfunction within a short period. The occurrence of neurogenic shock, coagulation dysfunction, and significantly elevated cytokine levels suggests an increased risk of mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Male , Infant , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Brain Diseases/etiology , Prognosis , Fever , Blood Coagulation Disorders
11.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 541-552, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971571

ABSTRACT

Astrocytes (ASTs) and oligodendroglial lineage cells (OLGs) are major macroglial cells in the central nervous system. ASTs communicate with each other through connexin (Cx) and Cx-based network structures, both of which allow for quick transport of nutrients and signals. Moreover, ASTs interact with OLGs through connexin (Cx)-mediated networks to modulate various physiological processes in the brain. In this article, following a brief description of the infrastructural basis of the glial networks and exocrine factors by which ASTs and OLGs may crosstalk, we focus on recapitulating how the interactions between these two types of glial cells modulate myelination, and how the AST-OLG interactions are involved in protecting the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and regulating synaptogenesis and neural activity. Recent studies further suggest that AST-OLG interactions are associated with myelin-related diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. A better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying AST-OLG interactions may inspire the development of novel therapeutic strategies for related brain diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myelin Sheath , Astrocytes , Oligodendroglia , Brain , Brain Diseases
12.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1363-1369, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007495

ABSTRACT

Acupuncture-moxibustion is remarkably effective on encephalopathy, but its mechanism is unclear. With the continuous development of imaging technology, the in vivo brain imaging technology has been used increasingly in life science research and it also becomes a more effective tool for the basic research of acupuncture-moxibustion in treatment of encephalopathy. The paper summarizes the application of its technology in the basic research of acupuncture-moxibustion for encephalopathy and the characteristics of imaging, as well as the advantages and shortcomings. It is anticipated that the references may be provided for the basic research of acupuncture-moxibustion in treatment of encephalopathy and be conductive to the modernization of acupuncture-moxibustion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Moxibustion , Acupuncture Therapy , Acupuncture , Brain Diseases/therapy , Neuroimaging
13.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 659-674, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982427

ABSTRACT

Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder mainly characterized by progressive calcium deposition bilaterally in the brain, accompanied by various symptoms, such as dystonia, ataxia, parkinsonism, dementia, depression, headaches, and epilepsy. Currently, the etiology of PFBC is largely unknown, and no specific prevention or treatment is available. During the past 10 years, six causative genes (SLC20A2, PDGFRB, PDGFB, XPR1, MYORG, and JAM2) have been identified in PFBC. In this review, considering mechanistic studies of these genes at the cellular level and in animals, we summarize the pathogenesis and potential preventive and therapeutic strategies for PFBC patients. Our systematic analysis suggests a classification for PFBC genetic etiology based on several characteristics, provides a summary of the known composition of brain calcification, and identifies some potential therapeutic targets for PFBC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Diseases/therapy , Xenotropic and Polytropic Retrovirus Receptor , Brain/pathology
14.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 845-862, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982425

ABSTRACT

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is well-known as a universal source of energy in living cells. Less known is that this molecule has a variety of important signaling functions: it activates a variety of specific metabotropic (P2Y) and ionotropic (P2X) receptors in neuronal and non-neuronal cell membranes. So, a wide variety of signaling functions well fits the ubiquitous presence of ATP in the tissues. Even more ubiquitous are protons. Apart from the unspecific interaction of protons with any protein, many physiological processes are affected by protons acting on specific ionotropic receptors-acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). Both protons (acidification) and ATP are locally elevated in various pathological states. Using these fundamentally important molecules as agonists, ASICs and P2X receptors signal a variety of major brain pathologies. Here we briefly outline the physiological roles of ASICs and P2X receptors, focusing on the brain pathologies involving these receptors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acid Sensing Ion Channels , Protons , Neurons , Brain Diseases , Adenosine Triphosphate/physiology
15.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 543-549, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985906

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical features and short-term prognosis of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection associated acute encephalopathy (AE). Methods: Retrospective cohort study. The clinical data, radiological features and short-term follow-up of 22 cases diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection associated AE in the Department of Neurology, Beijing Children's Hospital from December 2022 to January 2023 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into cytokine storm group, excitotoxic brain damage group and unclassified encephalopathy group according to the the clinicopathological features and the imaging features. The clinical characteristics of each group were analyzed descriptively. Patients were divided into good prognosis group (≤2 scores) and poor prognosis group (>2 scores) based on the modified Rankin scale (mRS) score of the last follow-up. Fisher exact test or Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the two groups. Results: A total of 22 cases (12 females, 10 males) were included. The age of onset was 3.3 (1.7, 8.6) years. There were 11 cases (50%) with abnormal medical history, and 4 cases with abnormal family history. All the enrolled patients had fever as the initial clinical symptom, and 21 cases (95%) developed neurological symptoms within 24 hours after fever. The onset of neurological symptoms included convulsions (17 cases) and disturbance of consciousness (5 cases). There were 22 cases of encephalopathy, 20 cases of convulsions, 14 cases of speech disorders, 8 cases of involuntary movements and 3 cases of ataxia during the course of the disease. Clinical classification included 3 cases in the cytokine storm group, all with acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE); 9 cases in the excitotoxicity group, 8 cases with acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) and 1 case with hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome; and 10 cases of unclassified encephalopathy. Laboratory studies revealed elevated glutathione transaminase in 9 cases, elevated glutamic alanine transaminase in 4 cases, elevated blood glucose in 3 cases, and elevated D-dimer in 3 cases. Serum ferritin was elevated in 3 of 5 cases, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light chain protein was elevated in 5 of 9 cases, serum cytokines were elevated in 7 of 18 cases, and CSF cytokines were elevated in 7 of 8 cases. Cranial imaging abnormalities were noted in 18 cases, including bilateral symmetric lesions in 3 ANE cases and "bright tree appearance" in 8 AESD cases. All 22 cases received symptomatic treatment and immunotherapy (intravenous immunoglobulin or glucocorticosteroids), and 1 ANE patient received tocilizumab. The follow-up time was 50 (43, 53) d, and 10 patients had a good prognosis and 12 patients had a poor prognosis. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of epidemiology, clinical manifestations, biochemical indices, and duration of illness to initiate immunotherapy (all P>0.05). Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection is also a major cause of AE. AESD and ANE are the common AE syndromes. Therefore, it is crucial to identify AE patients with fever, convulsions, and impaired consciousness, and apply aggressive therapy as early as possible.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Male , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Brain Diseases/etiology , Prognosis , Seizures , Cytokines
16.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 57-62, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970713

ABSTRACT

Acute carbon monoxide poisoning and its delayed encephalopathy have obvious damage to the central nervous system. There are different neuroimaging changes in different stages of the disease, and they are relatively specific. This article reviews the clinical research progress on the imaging changes of carbon monoxide poisoning and delayed encephalopathy, including computed tomography (CT) , conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) , diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) , diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) , diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) , magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and other imaging changes reflecting the function and metabolic state of the brain tissue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Diseases/etiology , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning/diagnostic imaging , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
17.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 39-43, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970708

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on nerve injury markers and prognosis in patients with acute severe carbon monoxide poisoning (ASCOP) . Methods: In May 2021, 103 ASCOP patients were treated in the emergency department of Harrison International Peace Hospital of Hebei Medical University from November 2020 to January 2021. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether they received tDCS treatment. The control group (50 cases) were given oxygen therapy (hyperbaric oxygen and oxygen inhalation) , reducing cranial pressure, improving brain circulation and cell metabolism, removing oxygen free radicals and symptomatic support, and the observation group (53 cases) was treated with 2 weeks of tDCS intensive treatment on the basis of conventional treatment. All patients underwent at least 24 h bispectral index (BIS) monitoring, BIS value was recorded at the hour and the 24 h mean value was calculated. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and serum S100B calcium-binding protein (S100B) were detected after admission, 3 d, 7 d and discharge. Follow-up for 60 days, the incidence and time of onset of delayed encephalopathy (DEACMP) with acute carbon monoxide poisoning in the two groups were recorded. Results: The NSE and S100B proteins of ASCOP patients were significantly increased at admission, but there was no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.711, 0.326) . The NSE and S100B proteins were further increased at 3 and 7 days after admission. The increase in the observation group was slower than that in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P(3 d)=0.045, 0.032, P(7 d)=0.021, 0.000) ; After 14 days, it gradually decreased, but the observation group decreased rapidly compared with the control group, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.009, 0.025) . The 60 day follow-up results showed that the incidence of DEACMP in the observation group was 18.87% (10/53) , compared with 38.00% (19/50) in the control group (P=0.048) ; The time of DEACMP in the observation group[ (16.79±5.28) d] was later than that in the control group[ (22.30±5.42) d], and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.013) . Conclusion: The early administration of tDCS in ASCOP patients can prevent the production of NSE and S100B proteins, which are markers of nerve damage. and can improve the incidence and time of DEACMP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Brain Diseases/therapy , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning/therapy , Oxygen , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase , Prognosis , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e23037, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520322

ABSTRACT

Abstract Resolution 658/2022 of the Brazilian Regulatory Agency requires the determination of the permitted daily exposure (PDE) of pharmaceutical agents. Ginkgo biloba L. is used therapeutically to treat memory deficits and other brain diseases. However, published results indicate that more studies are needed to confirm the safety of Ginkgo biloba. This study aimed to evaluate the dry extract of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves PDE as an ingredient in an oral pharmaceutical product in preclinical studies using mice. Acute oral toxicity and repeated dose experiments were performed based on OECD guidelines, as well as genotoxicity tests. The results indicate that Ginkgo biloba L. has low acute toxicity, no liver toxicity, and does not alter blood glucose levels. No changes in weight gain were observed, but food intake decreased in males during the first week of treatment at the highest dose. Hematological parameters were not altered in males, whereas females presented lower leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and higher neutrophil counts at the highest dose. The lipid profile was not altered in males, whereas total cholesterol was increased in females. The estimated PDE was 0.1 mg/day and, when related to the maximum residual concentration, indicates that the cleaning process used is safe and does not require reassessment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Plant Extracts/agonists , Genotoxicity , Ginkgo Extract/analysis , Brain Diseases/pathology , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Lymphocyte Count/classification , Toxicity
19.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1515276

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome de Lennox Gastaut se considera una encefalopatía epiléptica. Las anomalías epileptiformes en este síndrome contribuyen a la discapacidad intelectual gradual, a las comorbilidades psiquiátricas y alteraciones conductuales. En la práctica clínica aparecen atipicidades del síndrome, con focalización funcional cuyo tratamiento constituye un desafío. Objetivo: Describir la evolución clínica, cognitiva y calidad de vida en un caso con síndrome de Lennox Gastaut antes, y después del tratamiento quirúrgico. Presentación del caso: Paciente masculino de 16 años con síndrome de Lennox Gastaut. Se revisó la historia clínica y se tomaron en consideración, los resultados del video-electroencefalograma, de la resonancia magnética nuclear y de la tomografía computarizada por emisión de fotón único. Se evaluó, además, el proceder quirúrgico, la evaluación clínica y neuropsicológica. Se realizó una descripción cualitativa de la evolución del paciente a los 6 meses y al año de la intervención quirúrgica. Conclusiones: el paciente con síndrome de Lennox Gastaut presentó una evolución favorable después del tratamiento quirúrgico, lo cual se reflejó en una disminución en la frecuencia de las crisis. mejoría cognitiva, conductual y mejor calidad de vida(AU)


Introduction: Lennox Gastaut syndrome is considered an epileptic encephalopathy. Epileptiform abnormalities in this syndrome contribute to gradual intellectual disability, psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral disturbances. In clinical practice, atypicalities of the syndrome appear with functional focalization whose treatment constitutes a challenge. Objective: To describe the clinical and cognitive evolution and quality of life in a case with Lennox Gastaut syndrome before and after surgical treatment. Case presentation: A 16-year-old male patient with Lennox Gastaut syndrome. The clinical history was reviewed and the results of the video-electroencephalogram, nuclear magnetic resonance and single photon emission computed tomography were taken into consideration. The surgical procedure, clinical and neuropsychological evaluation were also evaluated. A qualitative description of the patient's evolution past 6 months and one year after surgery was prepared. Conclusions: the patient with Lennox Gastaut syndrome has a favorable evolution after surgical treatment, which is reflected in a decrease in seizure frequency, cognitive and behavioral improvement and better quality of life(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Quality of Life , Brain Diseases/etiology , Clinical Evolution/methods , Epilepsy/surgery , Lennox Gastaut Syndrome/surgery , Intellectual Disability , Neuropsychology
20.
Más Vita ; 4(2): 196-214, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1392174

ABSTRACT

La hipertensión arterial (HTA) es una de las causas de muertes a nivel mundial, esta enfermedad incrementa significativamente los riesgos de sufrir cardiopatías, encefalopatías, nefropatías y otras enfermedades. Su prevalencia está asociada a países de bajos y medianos ingresos, y se consideran factores de riesgos al estrés, alcoholismo, obesidad, tabaquismo, drogas, alimentación, genética, raza, y ciertas patologías como diabetes mellitus, algunas de ellas consideradas como factores de riesgo modificables y que pueden ser medidas de prevención y control en su tratamiento. Objetivo: Recopilar información sobre los transcriptores riesgos modificables relacionados a la hipertensión arterial. Materiales y Métodos: El estudio es del tipo descriptivo, La metodología es una revisión narrativa, con recopilación de literatura referente al tema y disponible en la web, se emplearon los descriptores: hipertensión, factores de riesgo. Resultados: Aporte de información relevante sobre los factores de riesgos modificables entre ellos el consumo de tabaco y alcohol, reducción de peso, alimentación, actividades físicas, reducción del consumo de sal, aumento del consumo de hortalizas y frutas, además de la disminución en el consumo de alimentos grasos, sales, y un control periódico de la tensión arterial, bajo la supervisión médica que son considerados para la prevención y control de la HTA, como métodos alternativos para control y prevención de esta enfermedad. Conclusiones: Los factores de riesgo modificables que predominan son el consumo de grasas, ausencia del control del índice de masa corporal y de la presión arterial, así como el consumo excesivo de sal y presencia de estrés. Los factores de riesgo no modificables que predisponen a hipertensión arterial prevalentemente son los antecedentes familiares de HTA y de obesidad. Se ha determinado que los cambios en el estilo de vida, así como una conducta sana para la prevención y control de riesgos que son modificables atenúan la prevalencia de la misma(AU)


Arterial hypertension (AHT) is one of the causes of death at the Worldwide, this disease significantly increases the risk of heart disease, encephalopathies, nephropathies and other diseases. Its prevalence is associated with countries of low and medium income, and are considered risk factors for stress, alcoholism, obesity, smoking, drugs, food, genetics, race, and certain pathologies such as diabetes mellitus, some of them considered as modifiable risk factors and that can be prevention and control measures in their treatment. Objective: Collect information on transcriptionists modifiable risks related to hypertension arterial. Materials and methods: The study is of the descriptive type, the methodology is a narrative review, with a compilation of literature on the subject and available on the web, used the descriptors: hypertension, risk factors. Results: Contribution of relevant information on modifiable risk factors, including the consumption of tobacco and alcohol, weight reduction, nutrition, physical activities, reduction of salt intake, increased consumption of vegetables and fruits, in addition to the decrease in the consumption of fatty foods, salts, and periodic control of blood pressure, under the medical supervision that are considered for the prevention and control of hypertension, such as alternative methods for control and prevention of this disease. Conclusions: The modifiable risk factors that predominate are the consumption of fats, absence of control of body mass index and blood pressure, as well as excessive consumption of salt and presence of stress. Non-modifiable risk factors that predispose to high blood pressure are predominantly a family history of hypertension and obesity. It has been determined that changes in lifestyle, as well as behavior healthy for the prevention and control of risks that are modifiable attenuate the prevalence ofthe same(AU)


Subject(s)
Risk Factors , Hypertension/diagnosis , Life Style , Tobacco Use Disorder , Brain Diseases , Prevalence , Alcoholism , Heart Diseases , Kidney Diseases , Obesity
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