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1.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(2): 114-121, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138524

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El cierre percutáneo del foramen oval permeable (FOP) se ha posicionado como el tratamiento de elección para la prevención secundaria de pacientes con infartos encefálicos (IE) criptogénicos asociados a FOP. OBJETIVO: Revisar los cierres de FOP realizados en nuestra institución, evaluando las características clínicas y del procedimiento, los resultados a mediano plazo luego del procedimiento y la tendencia en el número de intervenciones durante el período estudiado. MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron 101 pacientes consecutivos en que se realizó cierre de FOP, con una mediana de seguimiento de 4,6 años. Se analizaron las características basales de los pacientes, la indicación del cierre de FOP, el éxito del procedimiento y la presencia de shunt residual en ecocardiografía al año. Se realizó una encuesta telefónica estructurada a todos los pacientes, en la cual se preguntó por nuevo IE o crisis isquémica transitoria (CIT), otros eventos cardiovasculares y la presencia de sangrados. El seguimiento fue completado en el 95%. Se calculó el puntaje RoPE ("Risk of Paradoxical Embolism") el cual provee una estimación de la posibilidad de que ese IE se haya debido al FOP y del riesgo de repetir un nuevo IE en caso de no cerrar el FOP para cada paciente. RESULTADOS: La edad promedio fue de 49,1±13,7 años, con 53% mujeres. Sólo en 3 pacientes se diagnosticó una trombofilia. En 96 pacientes la indicación fue para prevención de embolía paradojal e IE (74% IE, 17% CIT y 4% embolía periférica), mientras que en 5% por síndrome de ortodeoxia/platipnea. El cierre de FOP fue exitoso en todos los pacientes. Shunt residual en ecocardiograma al año se observó en 5% - ninguno de estos pacientes presentó un nuevo evento encefálico durante el seguimiento. Se registraron 2 nuevos IE (4 IE por 1000 pacientes/año) y 1 nueva CIT (2 CIT por 1000 pacientes/año) en el seguimiento, con un promedio de presentación de 3,6 años post procedimiento. Esta tasa de eventos fue significativamente menor a lo predicho por el puntaje RoPE en nuestra cohorte. Se observó un marcado aumento en el número de procedimientos desde el año 2017 en adelante. CONCLUSIONES: En nuestra cohorte, el cierre de FOP fue un procedimiento exitoso y seguro. Se asoció a una baja tasa de nuevos eventos cerebrales, marcadamente menor a lo estimado por el puntaje de riesgo actualmente disponible (RoPE).


INTRODUCTION: The percutaneous closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been established as the preferred treatment for those with an ischemic stroke (IS) and associated PFO. AIMS: To review the PFO closure experience at our institution, characterizing the patients and procedures, mid-term results and the trend in the number of interventions during the study period. METHODS: One hundred and one consecutive patients undergoing PFO closure were included, with a median follow-up of 4.6 years. Baseline demographics, PFO closure indications, procedural success rates and residual shunt at 1-year were recorded. A telephonic survey was performed to complete follow-up, asking for new IS or transient ischemic attacks (TIA), other cardiovascular events and bleeding. Follow-up was completed by 95%. The RoPE score was calculated for each patient, providing an estimate of the chance a given IS being due to a PFO and the risk of a new event when the defect is not closed. RESULTS: Mean age was 49.1±13.7 years and 53% were females. Whereas the indication for PFO closure was paradoxical embolism in 96 patients (74% IS, 17% TIA and 4% peripheral embolism), in 5 it was for platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome. All patients had a successful PFO closure procedure. Residual shunt at 1 year was found in 5% - yet, none of these patients experienced a new stroke during the study period. During follow-up there were 2 new IS (4 IS per 1,000 patients/year) and 1 new TIA (2 TIA per 1,000 patients/year), with a mean incidence time of 3.6 years after the procedure. This rate of new events was significantly lower than the one predicted by the RoPE score. From 2017 onwards, there was a marked increase in the number of procedures performed at our institution. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, PFO closure was a successful and safe procedure. It was associated to a low rate of new cerebral events during mid-term follow-up, markedly lower than the RoPE predicted rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Septal Occluder Device , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Embolism, Paradoxical/prevention & control , Brain Infarction/prevention & control , Secondary Prevention
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(5): e9162, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098111

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship among miR-22, deep cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and post-stroke depression (PSD) 1 month after ischemic stroke. We consecutively recruited 257 patients with first-ever and recurrent acute cerebral infarction and performed PSD diagnosis in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV criteria for depression. Clinical information, assessments of stroke severity, and imaging data were recorded on admission. We further detected plasma miR-22 using quantitative PCR and analyzed the relationship among miR-22, clinical data, and PSD using SPSS 23.0 software. Logistic regression showed that deep (OR=1.845, 95%CI: 1.006-3.386, P=0.047) and brain stem CMBs (OR=2.652, 95%CI: 1.110-6.921, P=0.040), as well as plasma miR-22 levels (OR=2.094, 95%CI: 1.066-4.115, P=0.032) were independent risk factors for PSD. In addition, there were significant differences in baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores (OR=1.881, 95%CI: 1.180-3.011, P=0.007) and Widowhood scores (OR=1.903, 95%CI: 1.182-3.063, P=0.012). Analysis of the receiver operating curve (AUC=0.723, 95%CI: 0.562-0.883, P=0.016) revealed that miR-22 could predict PSD one month after ischemic stroke. Furthermore, plasma miR-22 levels in brainstem and deep CMBs patients showed an upward trend (P=0.028) relative to the others. Patients with acute ischemic stroke, having brainstem and deep cerebral microbleeds, or a higher plasma miR-22 were more likely to develop PSD. These findings indicate that miR-22 might be involved in cerebral microvascular impairment and post-stroke depression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cerebral Hemorrhage/psychology , Brain Infarction/psychology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Depression/psychology , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Recurrence , Socioeconomic Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brain Stem/blood supply , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cerebral Hemorrhage/metabolism , Acute Disease , Risk Factors , Depression/metabolism
3.
In. Verga, Federico; Burghi, Gastón. Encares de paciente crítico. Montevideo, Oficina del Libro FEFMUR, 2020. p.59-75.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1342637
4.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(1): 109-112, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977412

ABSTRACT

Abstract The report describes a case of peri-operative stroke that presented as diplopia and gait difficulty on 2nd post-operative day after routine orchidopexy under spinal anesthesia in an otherwise healthy young boy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed acute infarct in bilateral cerebellar hemispheres, left half of medulla and left thalamus. A diagnosis of acute stroke (infarct) was made and patient was started on oral aspirin 75 mg.day-1, following which his vision started improving after 2 weeks. Possible mechanisms of development of stroke in the peri-operative period are discussed, but, even after extensive investigations, the etiology of infarct may be difficult to determine. Acute infarct after elective non-cardiac, non-neurological surgery is rare; it may not be possible to identify the etiology in all cases. Clinicians must have a high index of suspicion to diagnose such unexpected complications even after routine surgical procedures in order to decrease the morbidity and long term sequelae.


Resumo O presente relato descreve um caso de acidente vascular cerebral perioperatório que resultou em diplopia e dificuldade de marcha no segundo dia após orquidopexia de rotina sob raquianestesia em um jovem, em outros aspectos, saudável. Ressonância magnética cerebral revelou infarto agudo em hemisférios cerebelares bilaterais, metade esquerda do bulbo e tálamo esquerdo. Um diagnóstico de acidente vascular cerebral agudo (infarto) foi feito e o paciente começou a receber tratamento com aspirina oral (75 mg.dia-1), após o qual sua visão começou a melhorar após duas semanas. Possíveis mecanismos de desenvolvimento de acidente vascular cerebral no período perioperatório são discutidos, mas, mesmo após extensas investigações, a etiologia do infarto pode ser difícil de determinar. O infarto agudo após cirurgia eletiva não cardíaca e não neurológica é raro; talvez não seja possível identificar a etiologia em todos os casos. Os médicos devem ter um elevado grau de suspeita para diagnosticar essas complicações inesperadas, mesmo após procedimentos cirúrgicos de rotina, para diminuir a morbidade e as sequelas em longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Cerebellum/blood supply , Brain Infarction/diagnosis , Brain Infarction/drug therapy , Orchiopexy , Anesthesia, Spinal
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Burden of acute stroke management is increasing according to aging population and advances in the therapeutic time window. However, reduction of resident numbers by the national policy in addition to the underlying low medical charge and reward gradually leaded to a lower rate of application to neurology department. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide survey from May 29, 2017 through July 11, 2017 to evaluate the real-world working conditions and issues of acute stroke management by stroke neurologists in Korea. Of 100 candidates of stroke professors/specialists, a total of 81 physicians participated the survey comprising 40 questionnaires. RESULTS: Stroke care physicians were suffering from heavy work load of inpatient care, outpatient clinic due to shortage of manpower for caring acute stroke. There were only three hospitals (3.7%) where neurologists independently take lead an endovascular therapy. About 43% of the participants were involving in primary duty for acute stroke management stroke, majority of whom (65.7%) were on by themselves. Participants pointed out that the biggest drawbacks were manpower shortage due to lack of residents, and numerous frequencies of primary duty. Approximately 80% of the participants forecasted a dismal future for stroke field. CONCLUSIONS: With the growing incidence of stroke, there is an emerging need for increasing number of neurologists due to contemporary grave shortage of stroke neurologists. It is necessary to investigate the effective demand forecasting for stroke neurologists for the strategy to improve an unmet quality of stroke care with the awareness and help of government.


Subject(s)
Aging , Ambulatory Care , Brain Infarction , Forecasting , Humans , Incidence , Inpatients , Korea , Neurology , Reward , Stroke
6.
Journal of Stroke ; : 190-194, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766247

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Preceding episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) among stroke patients can be easily overlooked in routine clinical practice. We aim to determine whether an unrecognized history of paroxysmal AF is associated with an increased risk of recurrent stroke. METHODS: We retrospectively identified all adult patients hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke who had no AF diagnosis on their discharge records, using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between January 2001 and December 2012. Patients were categorized into two groups: unrecognized AF history and no AF. Patients with unrecognized AF history were defined as having documented AF preceding the index ischemic stroke hospitalization, but not recording at the index ischemic stroke. Primary endpoint was recurrent stroke within 1 year after the index stroke. RESULTS: Among 203,489 hospitalized ischemic stroke patients without AF diagnosed at discharge, 6,731 patients (3.3%) had an unrecognized history of prior transient AF. Patients with an unrecognized AF history, comparing to those without AF, had higher adjusted risk of all recurrent stroke ([original cohort: hazard ratio (HR), 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30 to 1.53], [matched cohort: HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.37 to 1.68]) and recurrent ischemic stroke ([original cohort: HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.30 to 1.55], [matched cohort: HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.40 to 1.74]) during the 1-year follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Unrecognized history of AF among patients discharged after an index ischemic stroke hospitalization is associated with higher recurrent stroke risk. Careful history review to uncover a paroxysmal AF history is important for ischemic stroke patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Atrial Fibrillation , Brain Infarction , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Medical Records , National Health Programs , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Taiwan
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759989

ABSTRACT

Vertebral artery injuries associated with C1 lateral mass screw insertion rarely occur during C1-2 fusion. The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is uncommonly located at the C1 lateral mass insertion position. A 71-year-old woman with atlanto-axial subluxation and cord compression underwent C1-2 fusion. Sixth nerve palsy and diplopia were detected postoperatively, and decreased consciousness occurred on postoperative day 4. Brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) revealed PICA infarction. In the preoperative CT angiography, the PICA originated between the C1 and C2 level. In the postoperative CT scan, the PICA was not visible. The patient was treated conservatively for two weeks and recovered. PICA originating between the C1 and C2 level comprises 1.1–1.3% of cases. Therefore, vertebral artery anomalies should be evaluated prior to C1-2 fusion to prevent vessel injuries.


Subject(s)
Abducens Nerve Diseases , Aged , Angiography , Arteries , Brain , Brain Infarction , Consciousness , Diplopia , Female , Humans , Infarction , Pica , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vertebral Artery
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739327

ABSTRACT

Crossed aphasia (CA) is defined as language impairment following right-hemispheric brain lesion in right-handed person. Exact mechanism responsible for CA is ambiguous, and recently several brain lesions have been proposed to be associated with aphasia using lesion mapping method. Corpus callosum has dual bloody supply which makes it less vulnerable to infarction. Speech difficulties such as stuttering after corpus callosum infarction have been reported in the past, but aphasia is rare, which makes CA more unique. We report an extraordinary case of CA after right corpus callosum infarction. A 74-year-old female patient with a previous history of right thalamus infarction with no neurologic sequela has developed language disturbance without apraxia 1 month ago and a diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed newly developed infarction at right corpus callosum. The aphasia quotient of the Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery was 2.5, implying severe global aphasia. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography showed decreased metabolism in right corpus callosum and left frontal and temporal cortex, suggesting that interhemispheric diaschisis may be responsible for the CA. This is an extraordinary case report of an isolated manifestation of CA secondary to right corpus callosum infarction.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aphasia , Apraxias , Brain , Brain Infarction , Corpus Callosum , Electrons , Female , Humans , Infarction , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Metabolism , Methods , Stuttering , Temporal Lobe , Thalamus
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786525

ABSTRACT

Hyperleukocytosis (HL), defined by a peripheral white blood cell (WBC) count exceeding 100,000/mm³, is occasionally observed in childhood acute leukemia. The increased viscosity in the micro-circulation by HL and the interaction between the leukemic blasts and endometrium of blood vessels sometimes result in leukostasis. Leukostasis can incur life-threatening manifestations, such as respiratory distress, brain infarction and hemorrhage, and renal failure, needing an emergency care. Although early stage of leukostasis is difficult to detect due to nonspecific manifestations, an emergency care is mandatory because leukostasis can proceed to a fatal course. Initial management includes an aggressive fluid therapy that can reduce WBC count, and prevent other metabolic complications implicated by HL. Packed red blood cells should be judiciously transfused because it increases blood viscosity. Conversely, transfusion of platelet concentrates or fresh frozen plasma, which does not affect blood viscosity, is recommended for prevention of hemorrhage. To reduce tumor burden, leukapheresis or exchange transfusion is commonly performed. However, the efficacy is still controversial, and technical problems are present. Leukapheresis or exchange transfusion is recommended if WBC count is 200,000–300,000/mm³ or more, especially in acute myelocytic leukemia, or manifestations of leukostasis are present. In addition, early chemotherapy is the definite treatment of leukostasis.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Blood Vessels , Blood Viscosity , Brain Infarction , Disease Management , Drug Therapy , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Endometrium , Erythrocytes , Female , Fluid Therapy , Hemorrhage , Leukapheresis , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Leukocyte Disorders , Leukocytes , Leukocytosis , Leukostasis , Plasma , Renal Insufficiency , Tumor Burden , Viscosity
10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764215

ABSTRACT

Differentiating central vestibulopathy from more common vestibular disorders is crucial because it often necessitates different treatment strategies, and early detection can help to minimize potential complications. Isolated nodular infarct is one of the central brain lesions that can mimic peripheral vertigo. We present a case of isolated nodular infarct that had been misdiagnosed as vestibular neuritis on the contralateral side at the initial evaluation. The patient was successfully treated with anticoagulants and antihyperlipidemic agents. Clinicians should keep in mind that some causes of central vertigo mimic peripheral vestibulopathy at the early stage.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Brain , Brain Infarction , Humans , Infarction , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Vertigo , Vestibular Neuronitis
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764184

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate if double inversion recovery (DIR) imaging can have a role in the evaluation of brain ischemia, compared with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-seven patients within 48 hours of onset, underwent MRI scans with FLAIR, DWI with b-value of 0 (B0) and 1000 s/mm², and DIR sequences. Patients were categorized into four groups: within three hours, three to six hours, six to 24 hours, and 24 to 48 hours after onset. Lesion-to-normal ratio (LNR) value was calculated and compared among all sequences within each group, by the Friedman test and conducted among all groups, for each sequence by the Kruskal-Wallis test. In qualitative assessment, signal intensity changes of DIR, B0, and FLAIR based on similarity with DWI and image quality of each sequence, were graded on a 3-point scale, respectively. Scores for detectability of lesions were compared by the McNemar's test. RESULTS: LNR values from DWI were higher than DIR, but not statistically significant in all groups (P > 0.05). LNR values of DIR were significantly higher than FLAIR within 24 hours of onset (P < 0.05). LNR values were significantly different between, before, and after six hours onset time for DIR (P = 0.016), B0 (P = 0.008), and FLAIR (P = 0.018) but not for DWI (P = 0.051). Qualitative analysis demonstrated that detectability of DIR was higher, compared to that of FLAIR within 4.5 hours and six hours of onset (P < 0.05). Also, the DWI quality score was lower than that of DIR, particularly relative to infratentorial lesions. CONCLUSION: DIR provides higher detectability of hyperacute brain ischemia than B0 and FLAIR, and does not suffer from susceptibility artifact, unlike DWI. So, DIR can be used to replace evaluation of the FLAIR-DWI mismatch.


Subject(s)
Artifacts , Brain Infarction , Brain Ischemia , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Stroke
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758770

ABSTRACT

This study describes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results and changes in lateral ventricular size over time in a canine ischemic stroke model. T1- and T2-weighted (T1W, T2W) imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence MRI were performed at 3 h and 3, 8, and 35 days after brain infarct induction. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping were performed at 8 and 35 days. A total of 29 brain lesions were induced successfully in 12 of 14 beagle dogs. At 3 h, T2W and FLAIR detected hyperintense lesions in three randomly selected dogs. On T1W, all lesions appeared hypointense to isointense at 3 h, isointense (18/29) or hypointense (11/29) at 3 days, hypointense to isointense with peripheral hyperintensity (24/26) at 8 days, and hypointense (18/26) at 35 days. Infarcts on DWI/ADC were hypointense to isointense centrally, with the periphery hyperintense/hyperintense (17/26) at 8 days and hypointense/hyperintense (19/26) at 35 days. A marked increase in lateral ventricular size was observed in dogs with cerebral infarcts. In conclusion, T2W and FLAIR were useful for detecting early stage (3 h to 3 days) brain infarction. T1W and DWI were useful for detecting neuronal necrosis and providing supplemental information for phase evaluation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Infarction , Brain , Diffusion , Dogs , Lateral Ventricles , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Necrosis , Neurons , Stroke
13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 310-316, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713193

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Infarct core can expand rapidly in acute stroke patients receiving intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV t-PA). We investigated changes in the extent of infarct core during IV t-PA treatment, and explored the associative factors of this infarct core expansion in patients with proximal artery occlusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included patients who were considered for sequential intra-arterial therapy (IAT) due to occlusion of intracranial proximal artery after IV t-PA. Patients who had a baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography (CT) Score (ASPECTS) ≥6 and who underwent two consecutive CT scans before and shortly after IV t-PA infusion were enrolled. Patients were classified into no, moderate, and marked expansion groups based on decreases in ASPECTS (0–1, 2–3, and ≥4, respectively) on follow-up CT. Collateral status was graded using CT angiography. RESULTS: Of the 104 patients, 16 (15.4%) patients showed moderate and 13 (12.5%) patients showed marked infarct core expansion on follow-up CT scans obtained at 71.1±19.1 min after baseline CT scan. Sixteen (15.4%) patients had an ASPECTS value < 6 on the follow-up CT. None of the patients with marked expansion were independent at 3 months. Univariate analysis and ordinal logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the infarct core expansion was significantly associated with collateral status (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Among patients who were considered for IAT after IV t-PA treatment, one out of every seven patients exhibited marked expansion of infarct core on follow-up CT before IAT. These patients tend to have poor collaterals and poor outcomes despite rescue IAT.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Aged , Brain Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome
14.
Clinics ; 72(8): 474-480, Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890719

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Using magnetic resonance imaging, we aimed to assess the presence of silent brain vascular lesions in a sample of apparently healthy elderly individuals who were recruited from an economically disadvantaged urban region (São Paulo, Brazil). We also wished to investigate whether the findings were associated with worse cognitive performance. METHODS: A sample of 250 elderly subjects (66-75 years) without dementia or neuropsychiatric disorders were recruited from predefined census sectors of an economically disadvantaged area of Sao Paulo and received structural magnetic resonance imaging scans and cognitive testing. A high proportion of individuals had very low levels of education (4 years or less, n=185; 21 with no formal education). RESULTS: The prevalence of at least one silent vascular-related cortical or subcortical lesion was 22.8% (95% confidence interval, 17.7-28.5), and the basal ganglia was the most frequently affected site (63.14% of cases). The subgroup with brain infarcts presented significantly lower levels of education than the subgroup with no brain lesions as well as significantly worse current performance in cognitive test domains, including memory and attention (p<0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Silent brain infarcts were present at a substantially high frequency in our elderly sample from an economically disadvantaged urban region and were significantly more prevalent in subjects with lower levels of education. Covert cerebrovascular disease significantly contributes to cognitive deficits, and in the absence of magnetic resonance imaging data, this cognitive impairment may be considered simply related to ageing. Emphatic attention should be paid to potentially deleterious effects of vascular brain lesions in poorly educated elderly individuals from economically disadvantaged environments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Brain Infarction/complications , Brain Infarction/epidemiology , Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Reference Values , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Age Factors , Risk Assessment , Brain Infarction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Intelligence Tests , Neuropsychological Tests
15.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 11(2): 209-212, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891001

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Although catatonia is a well-known psychiatric syndrome, there are many possible systemic and neurological etiologies. The aim of this case report was to present a case of a patient with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and infarction in which catatonia was the clinical manifestation of a possible nonconvulsive status epilepticus. To our knowledge, only one such case has been reported in the literature, which had a simplified diagnostic investigation. It is important to correctly recognize the organic cause underlying catatonia in order to treat the patient as soon as possible thereby improving outcome. Therefore, physicians need to update their knowledge on catatonia, recognizing that it can be part of a psychiatric or neurologic condition.


RESUMO Embora a catatonia seja uma síndrome psiquiátrica bem conhecida, existem várias etiologias possíveis, tanto sistêmicas quanto neurológicas. O objetivo deste relato de caso é apresentar um quadro de trombose venosa central com infarto venoso em que a catatonia foi a manifestação clínica de um possível status não convulsivo. Na concepção dos autores, apenas um caso é encontrado na literatura, porém com uma propedêutica simplificada. É importante o correto reconhecimento das causas orgânicas que podem estar causando a catatonia para que sejam corrigidas assim que possível, melhorando o prognóstico do paciente. Além disso, os médicos precisam atualizar seus conhecimentos sobre a catatonia, uma vez que ela pode ser parte tanto de uma condição psiquiátrica quanto neurológica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Status Epilepticus , Catatonia , Brain Infarction
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(2): 264-268, feb. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845533

ABSTRACT

Eyelid retraction, has received limited attention and it has passively been interpreted as the result of an overactive levator palpebrae superioris muscle secondary to midbrain injury. However, eyelid retractions can occur in other neurological diseases, not directly related with the midbrain. We report three patients who developed eyelid retraction. One patient had a bilateral eyelid retraction, related with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Another patient had a unilateral right eyelid retraction associated with a thalamic-mesencephalic infarct. The third patient had a bilateral pontine infarction on magnetic resonance imaging. In the patient with CJD, eyelid retraction did not subside. Among patients with infarctions, the retraction persisted after focal symptoms had subsided, showing an evolution that was apparently independent of the basic process. The analysis of these patients allows us to conclude that the pathogenesis of eyelid retraction includes supranuclear mechanisms in both the development and maintenance of the phenomenon. Unilateral or bilateral eyelid retraction does not alter the normal function of eyelid, which ever had normal close eye blink. In these reported cases, a hyperactivity of levator palpebrae superioris muscle was clinically ruled out.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome/complications , Brain Infarction/complications , Eyelid Diseases/etiology , Muscular Diseases/complications , Oculomotor Muscles , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Brain Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Eyelid Diseases/diagnosis
17.
Journal of Stroke ; : 97-103, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Predictive factors associated with stent-retriever thrombectomy for patients with acute anterior circulation stroke remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate clinical and procedural factors predictive of good outcome and mortality after stent-retriever thrombectomy in a large cohort of patients with acute anterior circulation stroke. METHODS: We analyzed clinical and procedural data in 335 patients with acute anterior circulation stroke treated with stent-retriever thrombectomy. A good outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2 at 3 months. The associations between clinical, imaging, and procedural factors and good outcome and mortality, respectively, were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Using multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio [OR], 0.965; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.944-0.986; P=0.001), successful revascularization (OR, 4.658; 95% CI, 2.240-9.689; P<0.001), parenchymal hemorrhage (OR, 0.150; 95% CI, 0.049-0.460; P=0.001), and baseline NIHSS score (OR, 0.908; 95% CI, 0.855-0.965; P=0.002) were independent predictors of good outcome. Independent predictors of mortality were age (OR, 1.043; 95% CI, 1.002-1.086; P=0.041), successful revascularization (OR, 0.171; 95% CI, 0.079-0.370; P<0.001), parenchymal hemorrhage (OR, 2.961; 95% CI, 1.059-8.276; P=0.038), and a history of previous stroke/TIA (OR, 3.124; 95% CI, 1.340-7.281; P=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Age, revascularization status, and parenchymal hemorrhage are independent predictors of both good outcome and mortality after stent retriever thrombectomy for acute anterior circulation stroke. In addition, NIHSS score on admission is independently associated with good outcome, whereas a history of previous stroke is independently associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
Brain Infarction , Cohort Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Logistic Models , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Stents , Stroke , Thrombectomy
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112178

ABSTRACT

Psychiatric symptoms may be related to a silent cerebral infarct, a phenomenon that has been described previously in literature. Acute psychosis or other neuropsychiatric symptoms including depression may present in stroke patients and patients with lesions either within the prefrontal or occipital cortices, or in subcortical areas such as the basal ganglia, thalamus, mid-brain, and brainstem. Psychosis in clinical stroke or in silent cerebral infarction is uncommon and not well documented in the literature. Neurological deficits are the most common presentation in stroke, and nearly a third of patients that suffer a stroke may experience psychological disorders such as depression and anxiety, related to physical disability. The present case report describes an elderly female patient who presented with hallucinations and depressive symptoms, and was discovered to have a recent right frontal brain infarction, without other significant neurological deficits.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anxiety , Basal Ganglia , Brain Infarction , Brain Stem , Cerebral Infarction , Depression , Female , Frontal Lobe , Hallucinations , Humans , Occipital Lobe , Psychotic Disorders , Stroke , Thalamus
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the polymorphisms of CASP3 gene (rs4647602, intron A/C and rs1049216, UTR C/T) and CASP9 gene (rs1052576, Gln/Arg G/A and rs1052571, Ser/Val T/C) were associated with the development, and clinical severity of ischemic stroke and functional consequences after stroke. METHODS: Genomic DNA from 121 ischemic stroke patients and 201 healthy control subjects were extracted, and polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced. To investigate the association of polymorphisms and the development, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (K-NIHSS), logistic regression models were analyzed. RESULTS: Polymorphism of the untranslational region of CASP3 (rs1049216, UTR C/T) has been associated with the development of ischemic stroke—in codominant1 model (odds ratio [OR], 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29–0.88; p=0.017), in dominant model (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.34–0.97; p=0.034), and in the overdominant model (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.29–0.87; p=0.011). A missense SNP of CASP9 gene (rs1052571, Ser/Val T/C) was associated with the development of ischemic stroke (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.05–3.55; p=0.034 in recessive model). CONCLUSION: These results indicate the possibility that CASP3 and CASP9 genes are markers for the development of ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Brain Infarction , Caspase 3 , DNA , Humans , Introns , Logistic Models , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Stroke
20.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 88(5): 640-646, 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-900029

ABSTRACT

El Síndrome Hemolítico Urémico asociado a diarrea (SHU+D) es un desorden multisistémico en el cual el compromiso neurológico se asocia a empeoramiento del pronóstico. Una causa importante de daño neurológico permanente es el compromiso cerebrovascular. OBJETIVO: Reportar dos casos pediátricos de SHU+D con compromiso neurológico severo debido a patología cerebrovascular y revisar la literatura disponible. CASOS CLÍNICOS: Dos niños de 15 y 21 meses, previamente sanos, debutaron con convulsiones y compromiso de conciencia dentro de la primera semana de un SHU+D. Ambos presentaron hipertensión, falla renal aguda severa y déficit motor focal. Un niño mejoró significativamente su estado neurológico después de cinco sesiones de plasmaféresis. La resonancia magnética encefálica, mostró en el primer niño infartos bilaterales múltiples de vasos pequeños y lesiones de sustancia blanca. En el segundo paciente se identificaron extensos infartos bilaterales en territorios de ambas arterias cerebrales medias. Al año del evento agudo, ambos niños con déficit funcional marcado; el primer paciente evolucionó con retraso del desarrollo del lenguaje y hemiparesia espástica; el segundo persistió con cuadriparesia espástica, epilepsia con mal control de crisis y marcado deterioro funcional. CONCLUSIÓN: Aunque la mayoría de los niños con SHU+D y compromiso cerebral no presentan secuelas a largo plazo, la patología cerebrovascular en el período agudo puede causar daño permanente, por lo que, además del manejo de las alteraciones hidroelectrolíticas, hipertensión y falla renal, las terapias dirigidas a mecanismos fisiopatológicos específicos desencadenantes del compromiso vascular podrían mejorar el pronóstico.


Diarrhea-associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (D+HUS) is a multisystem disorder in which neurological involvement (35 to 50%) is associated to adverse outcome. An important cause of a permanent neurological impairment is the cerebrovascular pathology. OBJECTIVE: To report two pediatric cases of D+HUS with severe neurological involvement due to cerebrovascular disease, and review available literature. CLINICAL CASES: Two previously healthy 15- and 21-month-old children debuted with seizures and impairment of consciousness within the first week of a D+HUS. Both presented hypertension, severe acute renal failure, and focal motor deficit. One child showed significant improvement in neurologic status after five sessions of plasmapheresis. Brain magnetic resonance showed in the first child multiple bilateral infarcts of small vessels and lesions of white matter. In the second patient, large bilateral infarcts on both middle cerebral arteries territories were identified. One year after the acute event, both children showed functional impairment; The first patient evolved with language delay and spastic hemiparesis; the second patient with spastic quadriparesis, epilepsy with poor seizure control and marked functional impairment. CONCLUSION: Although most of the children with D+HUS and brain involvement do not have long-term sequelae, cerebrovascular disease in the acute period causes permanent damage, and in addition to the management of electrolyte disturbances, hypertension, and renal failure, therapies directed at specific pathophysiological mechanisms that trigger vascular compromise may improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Brain Infarction/etiology , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Acute Disease , Brain Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/complications
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