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Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(1): 37-43, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360694


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop and validate a practical nomogram to predict the occurrence of post-traumatic hydrocephalus in patients who have undergone decompressive craniectomy for traumatic brain injury. METHODS: A total of 516 cases were enrolled and divided into the training (n=364) and validation (n=152) cohorts. Optimal predictors were selected through least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression analysis of the training cohort then used to develop a nomogram. Receiver operating characteristic, calibration plot, and decision curve analysis, respectively, were used to evaluate the discrimination, fitting performance, and clinical utility of the resulting nomogram in the validation cohort. RESULTS: Preoperative subarachnoid hemorrhage Fisher grade, type of decompressive craniectomy, transcalvarial herniation volume, subdural hygroma, and functional outcome were all identified as predictors and included in the predicting model. The nomogram exhibited good discrimination in the validation cohort and had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.80 (95%CI 0.72-0.88). The calibration plot demonstrated goodness-of-fit between the nomogram's prediction and actual observation in the validation cohort. Finally, decision curve analysis indicated significant clinical adaptability. CONCLUSION: The present study developed and validated a model to predict post-traumatic hydrocephalus. The nomogram that had good discrimination, calibration, and clinical practicality can be useful for screening patients at a high risk of post-traumatic hydrocephalus. The nomogram can also be used in clinical practice to develop better therapeutic strategies.

Humans , Decompressive Craniectomy/adverse effects , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/surgery , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Hydrocephalus/etiology , Hydrocephalus/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Nomograms
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1368708


Investigar o uso de drogas vasoativas e a sua relação com a intolerância dietoterápica em pacientes críticos. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo longitudinal retrospectivo realizado em unidades de terapia intensiva (UTIs) de um hospital público de Goiânia, no período de setembro de 2020 a junho de 2021. Realizou-se o levantamento de dados em prontuários eletrônicos do início da terapia nutricional enteral (TNE) correlato ao uso de droga vasoativa (DVA) até o 3° dia de internação. Resultados: A análise incluiu 40 pacientes, observou-se a prevalência do sexo masculino (72,50%) e a média de idade observada foi de 53,67 ± 19,86 anos. Nesse estudo o uso de uma DVA (77,50%) foi mais prevalente do que o uso de duas ou mais DVAs. Verificou-se uma relação significativa entre desfecho clínico e uso de DVA, de modo que, o óbito foi mais frequente naqueles que usavam duas ou mais DVAs (p=0,016). Também foi observada a associação entre a hipoglicemia e o uso de DVA. Essa intercorrência foi frequente naqueles com uso de duas ou mais DVAs (p=0,030). O uso de DVA não se associou a intolerância dietoterápica, porém observamos que a obstipação foi a intercorrência mais prevalente (42,50%). Conclusão: O uso de DVA não se associou a intolerância dietoterápica nessa amostra. Porém observamos uma relação significativa entre o uso de DVA e o óbito. Ainda, verificou-se que a hipoglicemia também se relacionou ao uso de DVA

To investigate the use of vasoactive drugs and its relationship with dietary intolerance in critically ill patients. Methods: This is a retrospective longitudinal study carried out in intensive care units (ICUs) of a public hospital in Goiânia, from September 2020 to June 2021. Data were collected from electronic medical records from the beginning of the enteral nutritional therapy (ENT) correlated with the use of vasoactive drugs (VAD) until the 3rd day of hospitalization. Results: The analysis included 40 patients, there was a prevalence of males (72.50%) and the mean age observed was 53.67 ± 19.86 years. In this study, the use of one VAD (77.50%) was more prevalent than the use of two or more VADs. There was a significant relationship between clinical outcome and use of VAD, so that death was more frequent in those who used two or more VADs (p=0.016). An association between hypoglycemia and the use of VAD was also observed. This complication was more frequent in those using two or more VADs (p=0.030). The use of VAD was not associated with gastrointestinal intolerance (GI), but we observed that constipation was the most prevalent complication (42.50%). Conclusion: The use of VAD was not associated with GA in this sample. However, we observed a significant relationship between the use of VAD and death. Furthermore, it was found that hypoglycemia was also related to the use of VAD

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Enteral Nutrition , Nutrition Therapy , Food Intolerance , Longitudinal Studies , Constipation , Hematoma, Subdural, Acute , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Noncommunicable Diseases , Hypoglycemia , Aneurysm
South. Afr. j. crit. care (Online) ; 38(1): 44-49, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1371432


Background. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admissions in South Africa. Optimal care of these patients includes the prevention and control of post-traumatic seizures (PTS) in order to minimise secondary brain injury. Objectives. To describe the demographics of children admitted to a South African PICU, to describe the characteristics of PTS, and to describe the prophylactic and therapeutic management of PTS within the unit. Method. A 3-year retrospective chart review was conducted at the PICU of the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital (CHBAH) in Soweto, Johannesburg, from 1 July 2015 to 30 June 2018. Results. Seventy-eight patients were admitted to the PICU, all with severe TBI. A total of 66 patient files were available for analysis. The median age of admission was 6 years (interquartile range (IQR) 4 - 9) with the majority of trauma secondary to mechanical injury (89%). Prophylactic anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) were initiated in 44 (79%) patients. Early PTS occurred in 11 (25%) patients who received prophylaxis and 4 (33%) who did not. Three (5%) patients developed late PTS, resulting in an overall incidence of PTS of 43%. The most common seizure type was generalised tonic clonic (82%). Children diagnosed with PTS were a median of 2 years younger than those without PTS, with increased prevalence of seizures (83% v. 38%) in children below 2 years of age. Maintenance therapy was initiated in all patients consistent with recommended dosages. Of the total 167 anti-epileptic levels taken during maintenance, only 56% were within target range. Of the initial 78 patients, 8 died (10%). The median length of stay was 7 (IQR 5 - 12) and 8 (IQR 8 - 24) days longer in ICU and hospital respectively, in children with PTS. Conclusion. PTS is a frequent complication of severe TBI in children. There was considerable variation in the approach to both prophylaxis and maintenance therapy of PTS in terms of choice of agent, dosage, frequency of drug monitoring and approach to subtherapeutic levels. It is clear that more high-level studies are required in order to better inform these practices

Pediatrics , Seizures , Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Intensive Care Units
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 35: e35101, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364858


Abstract Introduction: The negative impact of prolonged immobilization results a physical decline during hospitalization in patients with acute brain injury. Objective: To investigate the benefits of early exercises on the mobility of patients with acute brain injury assisted at an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Methods: This is a prospective, single-blind, controlled clinical trial. A total of 303 patients were assessed. Due to eligibility criteria, exercise protocol was applied in 58 participants, 32 with brain injury caused by traumatic event and 26 with brain injury caused by cerebrovascular event. Exercise began 24 hours after patients' admission at the ICU. Participants were submitted to passive and active mobilization protocols, performed according to level of sedation, consciousness and collaboration. Statistical analysis was conducted with repeated measures analysis of variance. Significance was set at 5%. Results: The group of patients with traumatic brain injuries was younger (p = 0.001) and with more men (p = 0.025) than the group of patients with clinical events. Most exercise sessions were performed in sedated patients. By the end of the protocol, participants with traumatic and clinical brain injury were able to do sitting and standing exercises. Both groups were similar on ICU discharge (p = 0.290). The clinical group presented better improvement on level of consciousness than the traumatic group (p = 0.005). Conclusion: Participants with an acute brain injury presented at the time of discharge from the ICU good mobility and improvement in the level of consciousness.

Resumo Introdução: O impacto negativo da imobilização prolongada resulta em declínio funcional durante a hospitalização em pacientes com lesão cerebral aguda. Objetivo: Investigar os benefícios dos exercícios precoces na mobilidade dos pacientes com lesão cerebral aguda atendidos em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo clínico prospectivo, controlado e cego. Foram avaliados 303 pacientes. Devido aos critérios de elegibilidade, o protocolo de exercício foi aplicado em 58 participantes, 32 com lesão cerebral causada por evento traumático e 26 com lesão cerebral causada por evento cerebrovascular. O exercício começou 24 horas após a admissão dos pacientes na UTI. Os participantes foram submetidos a protocolos de mobilização passiva e ativa, realizados de acordo com o nível de sedação, consciência e colaboração. A análise estatística foi realizada com análise de medidas repetidas de variância. A significância foi estabelecida em 5%. Resultados: O grupo de pacientes com lesão cerebral traumática foi mais jovem (p = 0,001) e com mais homens (p = 0,025) do que o grupo de pacientes com eventos clínicos. A maioria das sessões de exercícios foi realizada em pacientes sedados. Ao final do protocolo, os participantes com lesão cerebral traumática e clínica foram capazes de fazer exercícios de sentar e ficar em pé. Ambos os grupos foram semelhantes na alta da UTI (p = 0,290). O grupo clínico apresentou melhor ganho no nível de consciência do que o grupo traumático (p = 0,005). Conclusão: Os participantes com lesão cerebral aguda apresentaram no momento da alta da UTI boa mobilidade e melhora do nível de consciência.

Humans , Neurological Rehabilitation , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Exercise , Immobilization , Intensive Care Units
Rev. méd. (La Paz) ; 27(2): 9-16, Jul. - Dic. 2021. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359944


Objetivo: Determinar si la aplicación de las reglas de la Red de Investigación Aplicada de Atención de Emergencia Pediátrica (PECARN) disminuye el uso de tomografías simples de cráneo en pacientes con traumatismo cráneo encefálico leve dentro de las primeras 24 horas, determinar la sensibilidad y especificidad de las reglas PECARN Lugar: Servicio de Emergencias del Hospital del Niño" Dr. Luis Ovidio Aliaga Uría" Participantes: 56 pacientes que acudieron al servicio de emergencias por traumatismo cráneo encefálico leve. Mediciones: se evaluó todas las variables que incluyen las reglas de PECARN. Resultados.- Se realizó la comparación en relación al número de tomografías pre y post implementación de las reglas PECARN evidenciándose una disminución del 78.4% (69/88) al 66.6% (36/56) post-PECARN (p = 0,01), y descendieron de forma significativa para los pacientes de bajo riesgo. Post PECARN se incluyeron 56 pacientes se dividen en alto riesgo 15 pacientes (26.7%), se realizó tomografía 100%, evidenciándose lesiones cerebrales en el 100%, 21 pacientes (37.5%) como pacientes de riesgo medio, se decidió realizar tomografía en el 100%, de los cuales 42.8% presentaron lesiones cerebrales. Dentro de los pacientes con bajo riesgo se clasificaron a 20 pacientes (35.7%), ninguno fue sometido a tomografía simple de cráneo debido al bajo riesgo. Se evidencio en este estudio, la sensibilidad de esta regla de decisión clínica fue del 100%, la especificidad fue del 62,5% y el valor predictivo negativo fue del 100%.

Brain Injuries, Traumatic
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 92(2): e308, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1339136


Se presentan los primeros tres pacientes pediátricos helitransportados con traumatismo encéfalo craneano (TEC) grave asistidos en nuestra institución. Se muestra el protocolo de asistencia utilizado en el hospital para la recepción, estabilización y oportuno traslado previa coordinación con sectores públicos y privados de asistencia médica. Se solicita consentimiento informado a los padres para el uso de los datos en actividades científicas y publicaciones.

We present the first three pediatric patients transported by helicopter with severe cranioencephalic trauma assisted at our institution. The assistance protocol used in our Hospital for the reception, stabilization and timely transfer is shown after coordination with public and private health providers. Informed consent was requested from the children's parents for the use of the data in scientific activities and publications.

Apresentamos os três primeiros pacientes pediátricos transportados de helicóptero com traumatismo cranioencefálico grave (TCE) atendidos em nossa instituição. Descrevemos o protocolo de atendimento utilizado em nosso Hospital para o acolhimento, estabilização e transferência oportuna prévia coordenação aos setores público e privado de assistência médica. Solicitamos consentimento informado aos pais para o uso dos dados em atividades e publicações científicas.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Air Ambulances/standards , Medical Care , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(3): e710, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1351982


Introducción: El neuromonitoreo no invasivo en pacientes críticos representa una opción de primera línea para el manejo de complicaciones fatales derivadas del aumento de la presión intracraneal. En esta modalidad se incluye la ultrasonografía del diámetro de la vaina del nervio óptico, la cual representa una técnica rápida, fácil de realizar y disponible a la cabecera del paciente. Objetivos: Describir aspectos fundamentales y actualizados sobre el uso de la ultrasonografía en el monitoreo de la presión intracraneal a través de la medición del diámetro de la vaina del nervio óptico en los diferentes escenarios neuroclínicos. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura publicada en bases de datos como: PubMed/Medline, SciELO y Google académico entre los meses mayo y julio de 2020. Se revisaron publicaciones en inglés y español. Se seleccionaron 46 bibliografías que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Se describen aspectos fundamentales como la anatomía ecográfica del nervio óptico, descripción de la técnica y su uso en entidades neurocríticas como el traumatismo craneoencefálico, ictus, muerte encefálica, entre otros. Conclusiones: La ecografía de la vaina del nervio óptico representa una alternativa no invasiva ampliamente aceptada para la medición del incremento de la presión intracranial. Con un diámetro de 5,0 hasta 5,9 mm o más se puede asumir el diagnóstico de hipertensión intracraneal con alta sensibilidad y especificidad, aunque debe individualizarse su uso en cada patología neurocrítica. La curva de aprendizaje para la realización del proceder es de breve tiempo y satisface las habilidades necesarias(AU)

Introduction: Noninvasive neuromonitoring in critically ill patients is a first-line option for the management of fatal complications derived from increased intracranial pressure. This modality includes ultrasound of optic nerve sheath diameter, which is a quick technique, easy to perform and available at the bedside. Objectives: To describe significant and state-of-the-art aspects regarding the use of ultrasound for monitoring intracranial pressure through measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter in different neuroclinical settings. Methods: A review was carried out, between May and July 2020, of the literature published in databases such as PubMed/Medline, SciELO and Google Scholar. Publications in English and Spanish were reviewed. Forty-six bibliographic sources were chosen, as long as they met the inclusion criteria. Fundamental aspects are described, such as the ultrasound anatomy of the optic nerve, the technique procedures and its use in neurocritical entities such as head trauma, stroke and brain death, among others. Conclusions: Ultrasound of the optic nerve sheath is a widely accepted noninvasive choice for measurement of increased intracranial pressure. With a diameter of 5.0 to 5.9 mm or more, the diagnosis of intracranial hypertension can be assumed with high sensitivity and specificity, although its use should be individualized in each neurocritical pathology. The learning curve for carrying out the procedure is short and satisfies the necessary skills(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Optic Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Pressure/physiology , Critical Illness , Stroke , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Craniocerebral Trauma
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(10): 933-935, Oct. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345315


Abstract Dmitri Shostakovich was one of the greatest composers of 20th century, famous for his piano and violin compositions. One of the compositions, the 5th symphony, is arguably his greatest work, which brought him back to the grace of the Soviet authorities in a moment of a political crisis in Russia. Among the experts, there is a theory which supports that Shostakovich's talent was due to a traumatic brain injury involving a shrapnel. Moreover, he might have suffered from a neurodegenerative process throughout his life. In this paper, we intend to discuss these viewpoints.

RESUMEN Dmitri Shostakovich fue uno de los más renombrados compositores del siglo XX, famoso por sus obras para violín y piano. Su Quinta Sinfonía, es para muchos su obra más importante. Esta pieza le trajo gran simpatía con las autoridades militares en un momento de crisis en la Unión Soviética. Entre opiniones de expertos, existe una teoría que postula que el talento de Shostakovich es secundario a un trauma craneoencefálico producido por herida de metralla. También se cree que pudo haber sufrido de un proceso neurodegenerativo. Nuestra intención en el presente artículo es discutir estos puntos de vista.

Humans , Male , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Famous Persons , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Music , Russia , Group Processes
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353440


ABSTRACT: Introduction: According to the world health organization, injuries represent more than 20% of health problems in the world. Head trauma and the absence of neurosurgery and radiology services in less populated areas make it difficult to assess and manage patients with brain injury. Objective: To describe the clinical findings and benefits derived from the implementation of teleradiology in neurotrauma in areas of difficult geographic access. Materials and methods: A systematic search was carried out in Pubmed, Scopus, Ebsco host, Sciencedirect, and Embase, with the thesauri "Teleradiology" and "Craniocerebral Trauma". Results: The decision to intervene in a patient with brain trauma and the period of time until surgery are essential for the clinical outcome. Those centers that use teleradiology require transfers to specialized hospitals, for which portable technological devices contribute to the response time of neurosurgery care. Conclusion: Teleradiology has a positive impact on patients with traumatic brain injury in geographical areas of difficult access, facilitating communication with specialists; providing timely care and optimizing transfers to high complexity centers.

RESUMEN: Introducción: Según la organización mundial de la saludlos traumatismos representan más del 20% de los pro-blemas en salud en el mundo. El trauma craneoencefálico y la ausencia de servicios de neurocirugía y radiología en zonas menos pobladas dificultan la valoración y manejo de pacientes con lesión cerebral. Objetivo: Describir los hallazgos clínicos y beneficios derivados de la implementación de la telerradiología en neurotrauma en áreas de difícil acceso geográfico. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en Pubmed, Scopus, Ebsco host, Sciencedirect, y Embase, con los tesauros "Teleradiology" y "Craniocerebral Trauma". Resultados: La decisi-ón de intervenir a un paciente con traumatismo cerebral y el periodo de tiempo hasta la cirugía son fundamentales para el desenlace clínico. Aquellos centros que usan la telerradiología, precisan los traslados a los hospitales espe-cializados, por lo cual los dispositivos tecnológicos portátiles contribuyen en el tiempo de respuesta de la atención en neurocirugía. Conclusión: La telerradiología impacta positivamente en pacientes con trauma craneoencefálico en zonas geográficas de difícil acceso, facilitando la comunicación con especialistas; brindando atención oportuna y optimizando los traslados a centros de alta complejidad. (AU)

Radiology , Brain Injuries , Teleradiology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Craniocerebral Trauma
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 7(2): 88-106, maio 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1282971


Introdução:Estudos retrospectivos sobre trauma facial são importantes para quantificar sua demanda para os serviços de saúde, além de contribuir parao planejamento de ações de educação e prevenção. Objetivo:Este estudo teve por objetivo traçar o perfil epidemiológico do trauma facial em um hospital regional do interior da Bahia. Metodologia:Realizou-se um estudo descritivo, transversal, por meio de análise retrospectiva dos prontuários de pacientes vítimas de trauma facial, atendidos no Hospital Geral Prado Valadares, em Jequié-Bahia,Brasil,durante o período de janeiro de 2012 a dezembro de 2014.A análise estatística foi descritiva, sendo calculada em proporções e frequências absolutas e relativas.Para a comparação entre as variáveis foi realizado o teste do Qui-quadrado ou teste exato de Fisher.Resultados:Foram analisados 499 prontuários e observou-se que o sexo masculino (81,6%) e a etnia parda (50,3%) foram os mais acometidos pelo trauma facial. A faixa etária de maior prevalência foi de 25 a 34 anos (25,5%).O principal fator etiológico foi o acidente por motocicleta (30,1%) e houve elevada prevalência de traumatismo cranioencefálico (33,5%).Conclusões:No período estudado, verificou-se que indivíduos do sexo masculinoeadultos jovens foram os mais acometidos pelo trauma facial. Os traumas relacionados aos acidentes de motocicletae quedaforam os mais prevalentes (AU).

Introduction:Retrospective studies on facial trauma are important to quantify their demand for health services, in addition to contributing to the planning of education and prevention actions. Objective:This study aimed to trace the epidemiological profile of the facial trauma at a regional hospital in the interior of Bahia. Methodology:A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out through the retrospective analysis of medical records of patients who were victims of facial trauma, attended at the Prado Valadares General Hospital, Jequié-Bahia, Brazil, during the period from January 2012 to December 2014. The statistical analysis was descriptive, being calculated in absolute and relative proportionsand frequencies. The Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used to compare the variables.Results:499 medical records were analyzed and it was observed that males (81.6%) and mixed race (50.3%) were the most affected by facial trauma. The most prevalent age group was 25 to 34 years old (25.5%). The main etiological factor was the motorcycle accident (30.1%) and there was a high prevalence of traumatic brain injury (33.5%). Conclusions:During the study period, it was found that male individuals and young adults were the most affected by facial trauma. Traumas related to motorcycle accidents and falls were the most prevalent (AU).

Introducción: Los estudios retrospectivos sobre trauma facial son importantes para cuantificar su demanda de servicios de salud, además de contribuir a la planificación de acciones de educación y prevención. Objetivo: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo rastrear el perfil epidemiológico del trauma facial en un hospital regional del interior de Bahía. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal, mediante un análisis retrospectivo de las historias clínicas de pacientes con trauma facial atendidos en el HospitalGeral Prado Valadares, en Jequié-Bahia, Brasil, desde enero de 2012 a diciembre de 2014. El análisis estadístico fue descriptivo, siendo calculado en proporciones y frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Para comparar las variables se utilizó la prueba de Chi-cuadrado o la prueba exacta de Fisher. Resultados:se analizaron 499 historias clínicas y se observó que los hombres (81,6%) y mestizos (50,3%) fueron los más afectados por el traumatismo facial. Elgrupo de edad más prevalente fue el de 25 a 34 años (25,5%). El principal factor etiológico fue el accidente de motocicleta (30,1%) y hubo una alta prevalencia de traumatismo craneoencefálico (33,5%). Conclusiones: Durante el período de estudio, se encontró que los hombres y los adultos jóvenes fueron los más afectados por el trauma facial. Los traumatismos relacionados con accidentes de motocicleta y caídas fueron los más prevalentes (AU).

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Violence/prevention & control , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Facial Injuries/diagnosis , Chi-Square Distribution , Medical Records/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Health Services
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(2): 282-289, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289075


ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize the demographic, social, and economic burden of traumatic brain injury on the public health system in Brazil during the past decade. Methods: Data from the database of the Information Technology Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS) from January 2008 to December 2019 were analyzed. Results: There was a mean of 131,014.83 hospital admissions per year due to traumatic brain injury in Brazil from 2008 - 2019. The incidence was 65.54 per 100.000 inhabitants during the same period. The high incidence of traumatic brain injury in older adults (>70 years old) accompanied by high mortality rates should be noted. In addition, there was a high incidence of traumatic brain injury in younger adults (20 to 29 years and 30 to 39 years). The data presented here demonstrates a 3.6 male-to-female ratio of traumatic brain injury incidence. Conclusion: Although we believe that the present data underestimate the incidence and mortality related to traumatic brain injury in Brazil, this study could assist in implementation of future health promotion strategies in the Brazilian population and worldwide aiming to reduce the incidence, mortality and costs of traumatic brain injury.

Abstract Objetivo: Caracterizar os aspectos demográficos e sociais e o ônus econômico do traumatismo craniencefálico no sistema público de saúde brasileiro na última década. Métodos: Analisaram-se os dados provenientes da base de dados do Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde referentes ao período entre janeiro de 2008 e dezembro de 2019. Resultados: Entre 2008 e 2019 ocorreram, em média, no Brasil, 131.014,83 internações por traumatismo craniencefálico ao ano, com incidência de 65,54 por 100 mil habitantes. Deve-se salientar a elevada incidência de traumatismo craniencefálico em adultos idosos (acima de 70 anos), acompanhada de altas taxas de mortalidade. Além disso, há também elevada incidência de traumatismo craniencefálico em adultos jovens (20 a 29 anos e 30 a 39 anos). Os dados aqui apresentados demonstram uma proporção de traumatismos craniencefálicos de 3,6 homens/mulheres. Conclusão: Embora se acredite que os dados apresentados subestimem a incidência e mortalidade associadas com o traumatismo craniencefálico no Brasil, este estudo pode ajudar na implantação de futuras estratégias de promoção da saúde para a população brasileira e mundial, com o objetivo de diminuir a incidência, a mortalidade e os custos do traumatismo craniencefálico.

Humans , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , Hospitals , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 50(1): 47-51, Jan.-Mar. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251633


ABSTRACT Introduction: Major neurocognitive disorder (MNCD) affects millions of people worldwide. However, the pharmacological options for its management are limited, ineffective and frequently associated with severe adverse reactions. Case report: An 85-year-old man with history of multiple chronic brain injuries (alcohol-use disorder, haemorrhagic stroke, brain trauma, chronic use of benzodiazepines) developed an MNCD, reaching 7 points on the Reisberg Global Deterioration Scale. He had minimal response to antidepressants, antipsychotics and anticholinergic medications. After the use of mother tincture of Indian hemp (cannabis), a significant improvement was found in his cognitive function, ability to carry out activities of daily living and independence. Discussion: The endocannabinoid system seems to be implicated in age-related cognitive decline. In addition, the evidence derived from in-vitro and animal models suggest that this system could play an important role in the management of MNCD of different causes. Conclusions: Cannabinoid treatment for MNCD emerges as a promising therapeutic approach that may benefit a growing number of patients who do not have other treatment options. It is therefore necessary to encourage more research efforts that will help to remove political and scientific barriers to its clinical use.

RESUMEN Introducción: El trastorno neurocognitivo mayor (TNM) afecta a millones de personas a nivel mundial. Sin embargo, las opciones farmacológicas para su manejo son limitadas, poco efectivas y se asocian a importantes reacciones adversas. Caso clínico: Se presenta el caso clínico de un hombre de 85 años, con antecedente de múltiples lesiones cerebrales crónicas (abuso de alcohol, enfermedad cerebrovascular, traumatismo cerebral, uso crónico de benzodiacepinas), quien desarrolló un TNM clasificado con 7 puntos en la Reisberg Global Deterioration Scale. Tuvo poca respuesta al manejo con antidepresivos, antipsicóticos y anticolinérgicos. Tras el uso de tintura madre de cáüamo índico (cannabis), se evidenció una mejoría en la función cognitiva, la capacidad de cuidado para las actividades de la vida diaria y la independencia. Discusión: El sistema endocanabinoide parece estar relacionado con los procesos de deterioro cognitivo asociados con la edad. Además, la evidencia derivada de modelos in vitro y animales sugiere que podría tener un papel importante en el manejo del TNM de diferentes etiologías. Conclusiones: El uso de cannabinoides en el TNM se presenta como una pista terapéutica prometedora. Por lo tanto, es necesario promover procesos de investigación que contribuyan a eliminar las barreras políticas y científicas para su uso clínico, beneficiando a un número creciente de pacientes que no poseen opciones terapéuticas eficaces.

Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Cannabinoids , Cognition , Neurocognitive Disorders , Antipsychotic Agents , Benzodiazepines , Cannabis , Brain Injury, Chronic , Stroke , Endocannabinoids , Alcoholism , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Antidepressive Agents
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(2)2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291096


Adulto jovem de 18 anos que evoluiu após traumatismo craniencefálico leve com fístula carotídea direta. Apresentou zumbido e exoftalmia, ambos de característica pulsátil e à esquerda. Foi submetido a estudo com Doppler das carótidas, que mostrou elevadas velocidades do fluxo sanguíneo e índices de resistência reduzidos nas artérias carótidas comum e interna esquerdas, compatíveis com fístula carotídea direta. A angiotomografia computadorizada cerebral confirmou a fístula carotídea. Foi encaminhado para tratamento endovascular por embolização, com sucesso. O Doppler de carótidas pode ter papel importante no diagnóstico das fístulas carotídeas diretas e acompanhamento de pacientes submetidos à terapêutica endovascular.(AU)

Humans , Adolescent , Carotid Artery Diseases/physiopathology , Carotid Artery, Internal/pathology , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/therapy , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Doppler, Color/methods , Embolization, Therapeutic/methods , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10656, 2021. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142583


Research on the prevention of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) has seen remarkable advances regarding its physiopathology in recent years. From the search for biomarkers that might be used to indicate individual susceptibility to the development of new animal models and the investigation of new drugs, a great deal of knowledge has been amassed. Various groups have concentrated efforts in generating new animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in an attempt to provide the means to further produce knowledge on the subject. Here we forward the hypothesis that restricting the search of biomarkers and of new drugs to prevent PTE by using only a limited set of TBI models might hamper the understanding of this relevant and yet not preventable medical condition.

Animals , Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/prevention & control , Biomarkers
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877560


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the therapeutic effect of scalp acupuncture on cognitive dysfunction of traumatic brain injury.@*METHODS@#Seventy patients with cognitive dysfunction of traumatic brain injury were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 35 cases in each group. After treatment, 5 cases dropped off in each group. The patients in the control group were treated with cognitive training; the patients in the observation group were treated with cognitive training and scalp acupuncture at Baihui (GV 20), Sishencong (EX-HN 1), Zhisanzhen and Niesanzhen, and the needles were retained for 6 h. The two groups were treated once a day, 6 times a week; one-month treatment was taken as one course, and 3 continuous courses were given. The scores of mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA), activity of daily living (ADL) and functional independence measure (FIM) were compared between the two groups before and after treatment.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the MMSE and MoCA scores in the observation group, and ADL and FIM scores in the two groups were significantly increased after treatment (@*CONCLUSION@#Scalp acupuncture could improve cognitive function and self-care ability of daily life in patients with traumatic brain injury.

Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , Cognition , Humans , Scalp , Self Care
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880836


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of restrictive fluid management in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI).@*METHODS@#Between January, 2019 and June, 2020, we randomly assigned 51 postoperative patients (stay in the ICU of no less than 7 days) with sTBI into treatment group (@*RESULTS@#The cumulative fluid balance of the two groups were positive on day 1 and negative on days 3 and 7 after ICU admission; at the same time points, the patients in the treatment group had significantly greater negative fluid balance than those in the control group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Restrictive fluid management can reduce cerebral edema and improve the prognosis but does not affect the 28-day mortality of patients with sTBI.

Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , Fluid Therapy , Humans , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880641


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a main cause of death and disability worldwide, posing a serious threat to public health. But currently, the diagnosis and treatments for TBI are still very limited. Exosomes are a group of extracellular vesicles and participate in multiple physiological processes including intercellular communication and substance transport. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) are of great abundancy as cargo of exosomes. Previous studies have shown that ncRNAs are involved in several pathophysiological processes of TBI. However, the concrete mechanisms involved in the effects induced by exosome-derived ncRNA remain largely unknown. As an important component of exosomes, ncRNA is of great significance for diagnosis, precise treatment, response evaluation, prognosis prediction, and complication management after TBI.

Brain Injuries, Traumatic/genetics , Cell Communication , Exosomes/genetics , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , RNA, Untranslated/genetics
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 333-343, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922708


PURPOSE@#Patients' gender, which can be one of the most important determinants of traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcomes, is also likely to interact with many other outcome variables of TBI. This multicenter descriptive study investigated gender differences in epidemiological, clinical, treatment, mortality, and variable characteristics in adult TBI patients.@*METHODS@#The selection criteria were defined as patients who had been diagnosed with TBI and were admitted to the hospital between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2018. A total of 4468 adult TBI patients were enrolled at eight University Hospitals. Based on the list of enrolled patients, the medical records of the patients were reviewed and they were registered online at each hospital. The registered patients were classified into three groups according to the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score: mild (13-15), moderate (9-12), and severe (3-8), and the differences between men and women in each group were investigated. The risk factors of moderated and severe TBI compared to mild TBI were also investigated.@*RESULTS@#The study included 3075 men and 1393 women and the proportion of total males was 68.8%. Among all the TBI patients, there were significant differences between men and women in age, past history, and GCS score. While the mild and severe TBI groups showed significant differences in age, past history, and clinical symptoms, the moderate TBI group showed significant differences in age, past history, cause of justice, and diagnosis.@*CONCLUSION@#To the best of our knowledge, this multicenter study is the first to focus on gender differences of adult patients with TBI in Korea. This study shows significant differences between men and women in many aspects of adult TBI. Therefore, gender differences should be strongly considered in TBI studies.

Adult , Brain Injuries , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , Female , Glasgow Coma Scale , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Sex Factors
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 344-349, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922348


PURPOSE@#Hypertonic fluids such as mannitol and half-molar sodium lactate are given to treat intracranial hypertension in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, sodium lactate was compared to mannitol in patients with TBI to investigate the efficacy in reducing intracranial pressure (ICP).@*METHODS@#This study was a systematic review with literature research on articles published in any year in the databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Asian Journal of Neurosurgery, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The keywords were "half-molar sodium lactate", "mannitol", "cerebral edema or brain swelling", and "severe traumatic brain injury". The inclusion criteria were (1) studies published in English, (2) randomized control trials or retrospective/prospective studies on TBI patients, and (3) therapies including half-molar sodium lactate and mannitol and (4) sufficient data such as mean difference (MD) and risk ratio (RR). Data analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.3.@*RESULTS@#From 1499 studies, a total of 8 studies were eligible. Mannitol group reduced ICP of 0.65 times (MD 0.65; p = 0.64) and improved cerebral perfusion pressure of 0.61 times (MD 0.61; p = 0.88), better than the half-molar group of sodium lactate. But the half-molar group of sodium lactate maintained the mean arterial pressure level of 0.86 times, better than the mannitol group (MD 0.86; p = 0.09).@*CONCLUSION@#Half-molar sodium lactate is as effective as mannitol in reducing ICP in the early phase of brain injury, superior over mannitol in an extended period. It is able to prevent intracranial hypertension and give better brain tissue perfusion as well as more stable hemodynamics. Blood osmolarity is a concern as it increases serum sodium.

Brain Edema , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/drug therapy , Diuretics, Osmotic/therapeutic use , Humans , Intracranial Hypertension/etiology , Intracranial Pressure , Mannitol/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Saline Solution, Hypertonic , Sodium Lactate
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 350-355, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922347


PURPOSE@#Traumatic brain injury (TBI) generally causes mortality and disability, particularly in children. Machine learning (ML) is a computer algorithm, applied as a clinical prediction tool. The present study aims to assess the predictability of ML for the functional outcomes of pediatric TBI.@*METHODS@#A retrospective cohort study was performed targeting children with TBI who were admitted to the trauma center of southern Thailand between January 2009 and July 2020. The patient was excluded if he/she (1) did not undergo a CT scan of the brain, (2) died within the first 24 h, (3) had unavailable complete medical records during admission, or (4) was unable to provide updated outcomes. Clinical and radiologic characteristics were collected such as vital signs, Glasgow coma scale score, and characteristics of intracranial injuries. The functional outcome was assessed using the King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury, which was thus dichotomized into favourable outcomes and unfavourable outcomes: good recovery and moderate disability were categorized as the former, whereas death, vegetative state, and severe disability were categorized as the latter. The prognostic factors were estimated using traditional binary logistic regression. By data splitting, 70% of data were used for training the ML models and the remaining 30% were used for testing the ML models. The supervised algorithms including support vector machines, neural networks, random forest, logistic regression, naive Bayes and k-nearest neighbor were performed for training of the ML models. Therefore, the ML models were tested for the predictive performances by the testing datasets.@*RESULTS@#There were 828 patients in the cohort. The median age was 72 months (interquartile range 104.7 months, range 2-179 months). Road traffic accident was the most common mechanism of injury, accounting for 68.7%. At hospital discharge, favourable outcomes were achieved in 97.0% of patients, while the mortality rate was 2.2%. Glasgow coma scale score, hypotension, pupillary light reflex, and subarachnoid haemorrhage were associated with TBI outcomes following traditional binary logistic regression; hence, the 4 prognostic factors were used for building ML models and testing performance. The support vector machine model had the best performance for predicting pediatric TBI outcomes: sensitivity 0.95, specificity 0.60, positive predicted value 0.99, negative predictive value 1.0; accuracy 0.94, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.78.@*CONCLUSION@#The ML algorithms of the present study have a high sensitivity; therefore they have the potential to be screening tools for predicting functional outcomes and counselling prognosis in general practice of pediatric TBIs.

Bayes Theorem , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , Child , Female , Glasgow Coma Scale , Humans , Machine Learning , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies