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Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 253-258, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971069


OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of early use of sodium valproate on neuroinflammation after traumatic brain injury (TBI).@*METHODS@#A total of 45 children who visited in Xuzhou Children's Hospital Affiliated to Xuzhou Medical University from August 2021 to August 2022 were enrolled in this prospective study, among whom 15 healthy children served as the healthy control group, and 30 children with TBI were divided into a sodium valproate treatment group and a conventional treatment group using a random number table (n=15 each). The children in the sodium valproate treatment group were given sodium valproate in addition to conventional treatment, and those in the conventional group were given an equal volume of 5% glucose solution in addition to conventional treatment. The serum concentrations of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were measured in the healthy control group on the day of physical examination and in the children with TBI on days 1, 3, and 5 after admission. Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E) score was evaluated for the children with TBI 2 months after discharge.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the healthy control group, the children with TBI had significantly higher serum concentrations of NLRP3, HMGB1, TNF-α, and IL-1β on day 1 after admission (P<0.017). The concentration of NLRP3 on day 5 after admission was significantly higher than that on days 1 and 3 after admission in the children with TBI (P<0.017). On days 3 and 5 after admission, the sodium valproate treatment group had a significantly lower concentration of NLRP3 than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). For the conventional treatment group, there was no significant difference in the concentration of HMGB1 on days 1, 3, and 5 after admission (P>0.017), while for the sodium valproate treatment group, the concentration of HMGB1 on day 5 after admission was significantly lower than that on days 1 and 3 after admission (P<0.017). On day 5 after admission, the sodium valproate treatment group had a significantly lower concentration of HMGB1 than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). For the children with TBI, the concentration of TNF-α on day 1 after admission was significantly lower than that on days 3 and 5 after admission (P<0.017). On days 3 and 5 after admission, the sodium valproate treatment group had a significantly lower concentration of TNF-α than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). The concentration of IL-1β on day 3 after admission was significantly lower than that on days 1 and 5 after admission (P<0.017) in the children with TBI. On days 3 and 5 after admission, the sodium valproate treatment group had a significantly lower concentration of IL-1β than the conventional treatment group (P<0.05). The GOS-E score was significantly higher in the sodium valproate treatment group than that in the conventional treatment group 2 months after discharge (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Early use of sodium valproate can reduce the release of neuroinflammatory factors and improve the prognosis of children with TBI.

Child , Humans , Valproic Acid/therapeutic use , HMGB1 Protein , Pilot Projects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Prospective Studies , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/pathology
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 277-281, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969984


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the awakening effect and safety of Xingnao Kaiqiao (regaining consciousness and opening orifices) acupuncture on consciousness disorder in children with early severe traumatic brain injury (STBI) based on western medicine treatment.@*METHODS@#A total of 62 children with STBI were randomly divided into an observation group (31 cases,1 case dropped off) and a control group (31 cases, 1 case dropped off). The control group was treated with routine rehabilitation therapy (6 times a week for 30 days), and intravenous drip of cattle encephalon glycoside and ignotin injection (once a day for 28 days). On the basis of the treatment in the control group, the observation group was treated with Xingnao Kaiqiao acupuncture at Neiguan (PC 6), Shuigou (GV 26), Yintang (GV 24+), Baihui (GV 20), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Zusanli (ST 36), etc., and supplementary acupoints according to clinical symptoms, once a day, 6 times a week for 30 days. The scores of Glasgow coma scale (GCS), coma recovery scale-revised (CRS-R) and modified Barthel index (MBI) were observed before treatment and 10, 20 and 30 d into treatment. Electroencephalogram (EEG) grading before and after treatment was observed in the two groups, and safety was evaluated.@*RESULTS@#After 10, 20 and 30 days of treatment, the scores of GCS, CRS-R and MBI in the two groups were increased compared before treatment (P<0.05), and those in the observation group were higher than the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, EEG grading of both groups was improved compared with that before treatment (P<0.05), and the observation group was better than the control group (P<0.05). There were no adverse events or adverse reactions in the two groups during treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#On the basis of western medicine treatment, Xingnao Kaiqiao acupuncture plays a remarkable role in wakening the early STBI children, can improve the level of consciousness disorder and daily living ability, and it is safe and effective.

Humans , Child , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Brain , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , Consciousness Disorders/therapy
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 513-517, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982624


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of hydrogen gas on NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes in the cerebral cortex of rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI).@*METHODS@#120 adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rates were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 24): sham operation group (S group), TBI model group (T group), TBI+NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950 group (T+M group), TBI+hydrogen gas group (T+H group), TBI+hydrogen gas+MCC950 group (T+H+M group). TBI model was established by controlled cortical impact. NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950 (10 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected for 14 consecutive days before TBI operation in T+M and T+H+M groups. 2% hydrogen inhalation was given for 1 hour at 1 hour and 3 hours after TBI operation in T+H and T+H+M groups. At 6 hours after TBI operation, the pericontusional cortex tissues were obtained, the content of Evans blue (EB) was detected to evaluate the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Water content in brain tissue was detected. The cell apoptosis was detected by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and the neuronal apoptosis index was calculated. The expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) and caspase-1 p20 were detected by Western blotting. The levels of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-18) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).@*RESULTS@#Compared with the S group, the content of EB in cerebral cortex, water content in brain tissue, apoptosis index and the expressions of Bax, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1 p20 in T group were significantly increased, the expression of Bcl-2 was down-regulated, the levels of IL-1β and IL-18 were increased [the content of EB (μg/g): 87.57±6.89 vs. 10.54±1.15, water content in brain tissues: (83.79±2.74)% vs. (74.50±1.19)%, apoptotic index: (62.66±5.33)% vs. (4.61±0.96)%, Bax/β-actin: 4.20±0.44 vs. 1, NLRP3/β-actin: 3.55±0.31 vs. 1, ASC/β-actin: 3.10±0.26 vs. 1, caspase-1 p20/β-actin: 3.28±0.24 vs. 1, Bcl-2/β-actin: 0.23±0.03 vs. 1, IL-1β (ng/g): 221.58±19.15 vs. 27.15±3.27, IL-18 (ng/g): 87.26±7.17 vs. 12.10±1.85, all P < 0.05]. Compared with the T group, the T+M, T+H and T+H+M groups had significant reductions in the content of EB and water content in brain tissue, apoptotic index of the cerebral cortex, the expressions of Bax, NLRP3, and caspase-1 p20 in the brain tissue and the levels of IL-1β and IL-18, significant increases in the expression of Bcl-2. However, there was no significant difference in ASC expression. Compared with the T+H group, the content of EB in the cerebral cortex, water content in brain tissue, and apoptotic index, and the expressions of Bax, NLRP3 and caspase-1 p20 were further down-regulated in T+H+M group, the expression of Bcl-2 was further up-regulated, the levels of IL-1β and IL-18 were further decreased [the content of EB (μg/g): 40.49±3.15 vs. 51.96±4.69, water content in brain tissue: (76.58±1.04)% vs. (78.76±1.16)%, apoptotic index: (32.22±3.44)% vs. (38.54±3.89)%, Bax/β-actin: 1.92±0.16 vs. 2.56±0.21, NLRP3/β-actin: 1.94±0.14 vs. 2.37±0.24, caspase-1 p20/β-actin: 1.97±0.17 vs. 2.31±0.19, Bcl-2/β-actin: 0.82±0.07 vs. 0.52±0.04, IL-1β (ng/g): 86.23±7.09 vs. 110.44±10.48, IL-18 (ng/g): 40.18±3.22 vs. 46.23±4.02, all P < 0.05], but there were no statistical significance in all the indicators between T+M group and T+H group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The mechanism by which hydrogen gas alleviates TBI may be related to inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasomes in the cerebral cortex of rats.

Male , Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Actins , Interleukin-18 , Inflammasomes , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Cerebral Cortex , Caspases
Actual. psicol. (Impr.) ; 36(133)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | SaludCR, LILACS | ID: biblio-1419980


Objetivo La participación social es el acto de involucrarse en actividades que proporcionan interacciones con otras personas, y puede verse afectada en personas que han sufrido un traumatismo craneoencefálico (TCE). Este trabajo propone identificar qué factores influyen en dicha afectación. Método. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de artículos disponibles en PubMed, EBSCO y SCOPUS, publicados desde 2010 hasta 2020. Resultados. Los artículos revisados concuerdan que la participación social de los pacientes adultos con TCE se ve afectada por las siguientes variables: síntomas depresivos, edad, nivel educativo, alteraciones cognitivas y calidad de vida. Finalmente, se observó que la evaluación de la participación social está focalizada en la frecuencia con que los pacientes realizan actividades sociales y no indagan en la satisfacción personal con el nivel de participación.

Objective. Social participation is the act of getting involved in activities that provide interactions with other people and can be impaired in individuals who suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aims to identify which factors influence social participation after TBI. Method. A systematic review of articles available in PubMed, EBSCO, and SCOPUS, published from 2010 to 2020 was conducted. Results. Revised articles conclude that social participation in adult patients with TBI is affected by the following variables: depressive symptoms, age, educational level, cognitive impairment, and quality of life. Finally, the focus of the assessment of social participation was the frequency with patients carrying out social activities and not the personal satisfaction with their level of participation.

Humans , Social Participation , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/psychology
Rev. méd. Paraná ; 80(1): 1-2, jan. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381074


A tomografia computadorizada (TC) é exame de escolha para rastreamento de lesões no traumatismo cranioencefálico (TCE). Apesar disso, seu uso rotineiro no TCE leve é controverso O objetivo desta revisão foi avaliar o impacto da aplicação de diretrizes de manejo e conduta de TCE leve quanto à solicitação de TC de crânio. É busca realizada nas bases de dados LILACS, Medline, PubMed, SciELO, utilizando descritores do MeSH e DeCS. A busca inicial identificou 30.191 artigos. Após remoção de publicações duplicadas, seleção pelo título, seleção pelo resumo, restaram 25 publicações, que foram lidas na íntegra e cinco incluídas na presente revisão sistemática. Em conclusão, os artigos analisados apresentaram, em média, redução de 25,8% na solicitação de TC de crânio quando aplicadas as diretrizes, e orientam que protocolos para TCE leve são ferramentas eficientes para auxiliar a prática médica, impactando positivamente quando aplicados na população, devendo sempre ser levado em conta a avaliação clínica.

Computed tomography (CT) is the exam of choice for tracking injuries in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Despite this, its routine use in mild TBI is controversial. The objective of this review was to evaluate the impact of applying guidelines for the management and conduct of mild TBI on the request for CT of the head. A search was carried out in the LILACS, Medline, PubMed, SciELO databases, using MeSH and DeCS descriptors. The initial search identified 30,191 articles. After removal of duplicate publications, selection by title, selection by abstract, 25 publications remained, which were read in full and five were included in this systematic review. In conclusion, the articles analyzed showed, on average, a 25.8% reduction in the request for cranial CT when the guidelines were applied, and guide that protocols for mild TBI are efficient tools to assist medical practice, positively impacting when applied to the population. , and clinical evaluation should always be taken into account.

Humans , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological , Craniocerebral Trauma , Skull , Brain Injuries, Traumatic
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022207, 06 abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372363


INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown that early mobilization is safe and beneficial for patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs), especially for those with mechanical ventilation (MV). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the benefits of early mobilization physiotherapeutic techniques applied to patients who suffered craniocerebral trauma (CCT). METHODS: This is an experimental study that evaluated clinical data from 27 patients. In sedated patients, mobilization and passive stretching were performed on the upper and lower limbs; in those without sedation, active-assisted, free and resisted exercises were included. RESULTS: The experimental group was composed of 51.8% of the participants and the control group by 48.2%, the majority being male (81.5%) with a median age of 43 years. The patients in the experimental group had an average of 9.5 days (2.2-14.7) of mechanical ventilation (MV), and those belonging to the control group, of 17 days (7-21.7) with MV (p=0.154). The patients in the experimental group had an average of 13.5 days in the ICU, against an average of 17 days in the control group (p=0.331), and an average of 20.5 days in hospital against 24 days in the control group (p=0.356). CONCLUSION: Early mobilization should be applied to critically ill patients as it can decrease the length of stay in the ICU and the hospital.

INTRODUÇÃO: Diversos estudos têm mostrado que a mobilização precoce é segura e benéfica para pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva (UTIs), especialmente para aqueles com ventilação mecânica (VM). OBJETIVO: Investigar os benefícios das técnicas fisioterapêuticas de mobilização precoce aplicada aos pacientes que sofreram traumatismo cranioencefálico (TCE). MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo quasi-randomizado, que incluiu 27 com TCE divididos em dois grupos: controle (n=13) e experimental (n=14) pacientes. No grupo experimental, os pacientes sedados foram submetidos à mobilização e alongamentos passivos nos membros superiores e inferiores; naqueles sem sedação, foram incluídos exercícios ativo-assistidos, livres e resistidos. RESULTADOS: O grupo experimental foi composto por 51,8% dos participantes da pesquisa e o grupo controle por 48,2%, sendo a maioria do sexo masculino (81,5%) com mediana de idade de 43 anos. Os pacientes do grupo experimental apresentaram média de 9,5 dias (2,2-14,7) de ventilação mecânica, e os pertencentes ao grupo controle, de 17 dias (7-21,7) com de VM (p=0,154). Os pacientes do grupo experimental apresentaram média de 13,5 dias de internação em UTI, contra média de 17 dias do grupo controle (p=0,331), e média de 20,5 dias de internação hospitalar contra 24 dias do grupo controle (p=0,356). CONCLUSÃO: A mobilização precoce é uma técnica que deve ser aplicada em pacientes críticos dentro das UTIs, pois pode diminuir o tempo de internação na UTI e hospitalar.

Humans , Male , Female , Physical Therapy Department, Hospital , Early Ambulation , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Hospitals, State
Acta neurol. colomb ; 38(1): 23-38, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374128


RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: El trauma craneoencefálico (TCE) es una de las principales causas de daño cerebral y discapacidad en personas menores de 40 años. Según su severidad, se puede clasificar en leve, moderado o grave, en función de la escala de coma de Glasgow. Muchos pacientes quedan con secuelas neuropsicológicas y comportamentales que pueden afectar en mayor o menor grado su funcionalidad. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar las diferencias en el perfil neuropsicológico, las características clínicas y el compromiso funcional en pacientes con TCE según la clasificación de la severidad. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico, de corte transversal. Se revisaron las historias clínicas y los reportes neuropsicológicos de adultos con TCE evaluados por neuropsicología entre los años 2014 y 2019. Se compararon los resultados de pruebas neuropsicológicas, síndromes neuropsicológicos y funcionalidad según la severidad del TCE. RESULTADOS: Se estudiaron 48 pacientes, 38 de ellos hombres (73 %), con una mediana de edad de 35 años (RI: 25-51). En 14 casos el TCE fue leve, en 18 moderado y en 16 severo. El síndrome neuropsicológico más frente fue el amnésico (100 %), seguido del disejecutivo (79 %) y el compromiso en la atención (77 %). No se encontraron diferencias según severidad del TCE. Cuarenta y un pacientes (85 %) presentaron cambios comportamentales, 14 (29 %) experimentaron alteración en las actividades básicas de la vida diaria y 32 (68 %) en las actividades instrumentales. CONCLUSIONES: Las alteraciones neuropsicológicas, comportamentales y funcionales posteriores a un TCE son frecuentes, sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias significativas según severidad del trauma.

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is one of the main causes of brain damage and disability in people under 40 years of age. The severity of TBI can be classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the Glasgow coma scale. Many patients are left with neuropsychological and behavioral sequelae that can affect functionality to a greater or lesser degree. The objective of the study was to determine the differences in the neuropsychological profile, clinical characteristics and functional impairment in patients with TBI according to severity. METHODOLOGY: An observational, analytical, cross-sectional study was carried out. The clinical records and neuropsychological reports of adults with TBI evaluated between 2014 and 2019 were reviewed. The results of neuropsychological tests, neuropsychological syndromes, and functionality according to severity of TBI were compared. RESULTS: 48 patients were studied, 35 were males (73 %), the median age was 35 years (IR: 25-51). In 14 TBI was mild, in 18 moderate and 16 severe. The most common neuropsychological syndrome was amnesic (100 %) followed by dysexecutive (79 %) and attentional commitment (77 %). No differences were found according to severity of TBI. 41 patients (85 %) presented behavioral changes, 14 (29 %) presented alteration in basic activities of daily life and 32 (68 %) in instrumental activities. CONCLUSIONS: Neuropsychological, behavioral and functional alterations are frequent after TBI; however, no significant differences were found according to the severity of the trauma.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cognition , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/psychology , Trauma Severity Indices , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/physiopathology , Mental Status and Dementia Tests
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 41(1): 70-75, 07/03/2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362089


The present literature review aims to present the physiology of paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) as well as its clinical course, conceptualizing them, and establishing its diagnosis and treatment. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity is a rare syndrome, which often presents after an acute traumatic brain injury. Characterized by a hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, when diagnosed in its pure form, its symptomatologic presentation is through tachycardia, tachypnea, hyperthermia, hypertension, dystonia, and sialorrhea. The treatment of PSH is basically pharmacological, using central nervous system suppressors; however, the nonmedication approach is closely associated with a reduction in external stimuli, such as visual and auditory stimuli. Mismanagement can lead to the development of serious cardiovascular and diencephalic complications, and the need for neurosurgeons and neurointensivists to know about PSH is evident in order to provide a fast and accurate treatment of this syndrome.

Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiopathology , Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/complications , Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications
Medisan ; 26(1)feb. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1405765


Se describe el caso clínico de un lactante de 47 días de nacido, quien fue atendido en el Cuerpo de Guardia de Pediatría del Hospital Provincial General Docente Antonio Luaces Iraola de Ciego de Ávila, por presentar aumento de la circunferencia cefálica, irritabilidad y agitación. Los exámenes realizados mostraron signos de hipertensión endocraneana descompensada, secundaria a colección del espacio subdural izquierdo. Se eliminó el higroma subdural y la recuperación fue favorable en las primeras 36 horas; luego comenzó a convulsionar y apareció nuevamente el deterioro neurológico, por lo cual se decidió reintervenir. Se realizó inducción anestésica con tiopental sódico fentanilo y rocuronio. El paciente evolucionó sin complicaciones.

The case report of a 47 days infant is described. He was assisted in the children emergency room of Antonio Luaces Iraola Teaching General Provincial Hospital in Ciego de Ávila, due to an increase of the cephalic circumference, irritability and agitation. The exams showed signs of upset endocranial hypertension, secondary to collection of the left subdural space. The subdural hygroma was eliminated and the recovery was favorable in the first 36 hours; then a covulsion began and the neurological deterioration appeared again, reason why it was decided to operate once more. Anesthetic induction was carried out with fentanyl sodium thiopental and rocuronium. The patient had a favorable clinical course without complications.

Subdural Effusion , Subdural Effusion/surgery , Infant , Hematoma, Subdural, Intracranial , Brain Injuries, Traumatic
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(1): 37-43, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360694


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop and validate a practical nomogram to predict the occurrence of post-traumatic hydrocephalus in patients who have undergone decompressive craniectomy for traumatic brain injury. METHODS: A total of 516 cases were enrolled and divided into the training (n=364) and validation (n=152) cohorts. Optimal predictors were selected through least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression analysis of the training cohort then used to develop a nomogram. Receiver operating characteristic, calibration plot, and decision curve analysis, respectively, were used to evaluate the discrimination, fitting performance, and clinical utility of the resulting nomogram in the validation cohort. RESULTS: Preoperative subarachnoid hemorrhage Fisher grade, type of decompressive craniectomy, transcalvarial herniation volume, subdural hygroma, and functional outcome were all identified as predictors and included in the predicting model. The nomogram exhibited good discrimination in the validation cohort and had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.80 (95%CI 0.72-0.88). The calibration plot demonstrated goodness-of-fit between the nomogram's prediction and actual observation in the validation cohort. Finally, decision curve analysis indicated significant clinical adaptability. CONCLUSION: The present study developed and validated a model to predict post-traumatic hydrocephalus. The nomogram that had good discrimination, calibration, and clinical practicality can be useful for screening patients at a high risk of post-traumatic hydrocephalus. The nomogram can also be used in clinical practice to develop better therapeutic strategies.

Humans , Decompressive Craniectomy/adverse effects , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/surgery , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Hydrocephalus/etiology , Hydrocephalus/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Nomograms
South. Afr. j. crit. care (Online) ; 38(1): 44-49, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1371432


Background. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admissions in South Africa. Optimal care of these patients includes the prevention and control of post-traumatic seizures (PTS) in order to minimise secondary brain injury. Objectives. To describe the demographics of children admitted to a South African PICU, to describe the characteristics of PTS, and to describe the prophylactic and therapeutic management of PTS within the unit. Method. A 3-year retrospective chart review was conducted at the PICU of the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital (CHBAH) in Soweto, Johannesburg, from 1 July 2015 to 30 June 2018. Results. Seventy-eight patients were admitted to the PICU, all with severe TBI. A total of 66 patient files were available for analysis. The median age of admission was 6 years (interquartile range (IQR) 4 - 9) with the majority of trauma secondary to mechanical injury (89%). Prophylactic anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) were initiated in 44 (79%) patients. Early PTS occurred in 11 (25%) patients who received prophylaxis and 4 (33%) who did not. Three (5%) patients developed late PTS, resulting in an overall incidence of PTS of 43%. The most common seizure type was generalised tonic clonic (82%). Children diagnosed with PTS were a median of 2 years younger than those without PTS, with increased prevalence of seizures (83% v. 38%) in children below 2 years of age. Maintenance therapy was initiated in all patients consistent with recommended dosages. Of the total 167 anti-epileptic levels taken during maintenance, only 56% were within target range. Of the initial 78 patients, 8 died (10%). The median length of stay was 7 (IQR 5 - 12) and 8 (IQR 8 - 24) days longer in ICU and hospital respectively, in children with PTS. Conclusion. PTS is a frequent complication of severe TBI in children. There was considerable variation in the approach to both prophylaxis and maintenance therapy of PTS in terms of choice of agent, dosage, frequency of drug monitoring and approach to subtherapeutic levels. It is clear that more high-level studies are required in order to better inform these practices

Pediatrics , Seizures , Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Intensive Care Units
African Health Sciences ; 22(1): 404-409, March 2022. Figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400655


Background: Injuries are a neglected epidemic globally accounting for 9% global deaths; 1.7 times that of HIV, TB and malaria combined. Trauma remains overlooked with key research and data focusing on infectious diseases, yet Uganda has one of the highest rates of traumatic injury. We described demographics of patients admitted to Mulago Hospital's Shock Trauma Unit within the Emergency Department. Methods: This was a retrospective record review Trauma Unit admission from July 2012 to December 2015. Information collected included: age, sex, time of admission, indication for admission and mechanism of trauma. Results: 834 patient records were reviewed. The predominant age group was 18-35 with majority of patients being male. 54% of patients presented during daytime with 46% admitted in the evening hours or overnight. Mechanism of injury was documented in 484 cases. The most common mechanism was Road Traffic Accident (67.4%), followed by assault (12.8%) and mob violence (5.6%). The most common indication for admission was traumatic brain injury (84.5%), followed by hemodynamic instability (20.0%) and blunt chest injury (6.1%). Conclusion: There's a significant burden of high-acuity injury particularly among males with RTAs as the leading cause of admission associated with Traumatic Brain Injury as main admission indication

Wounds and Injuries , Accidents , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Patients , Emergency Medical Services
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 520-525, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984146


Visual event-related potential (ERP) is an electrophysiological technique that objectively reflects the cognitive processing of stimulus from the perspective of detecting and recording neural electrophysiology responses using different paradigms of visual stimuli. Its endogenous components are closely related to advanced psychological activities. This article introduces the characteristics of main endogenous components including visual mismatch negativity (vMMN), N200 and P300, reviews the research progress of visual ERP in the sequelae of brain injury and objective evaluation of visual function, and prospects the application prospect of visual ERP in the field of forensic medicine.

Humans , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications , Evoked Potentials , Brain Injuries , Forensic Medicine
Acta cir. bras ; 37(6): e370605, 2022. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1402959


Purpose: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability. Cerebrolysin (CBL) has been reported to be anti-inflammatory by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, the neuroprotection of CBL in TBI and the potential mechanism are unclear. We aimed to investigate the neuroprotection and mechanisms of CBL in TBI. Methods: The TBI model was established in strict accordance with the Feeney weight-drop model of focal injury. The neurological score, brain water content, neuroinflammatory cytokine levels, and neuronal damage were evaluated. The involvement of the early brain injury modulatory pathway was also investigated. Results: Following TBI, the results showed that CBL administration increased neurological scores and decreased brain edema by alleviating blood­brain barrier (BBB) permeability, upregulating tight junction protein (ZO­1) levels, and decreasing the levels of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor­α (TNF­α), interleukin­1ß (IL­1ß), IL­6, and NF­κB. The TUNEL assay showed that CBL decreased hippocampal neuronal apoptosis after TBI and decreased the protein expression levels of caspase­3 and Bax, increasing the levels of Bcl­2. The levels of Toll­like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 were significantly decreased after CBL treatment. In TBI patients, CBL can also decrease TNF­α, IL­1ß, IL­6, and NF­κB levels. This result indicates that CBL­mediated inhibition of neuroinflammation and apoptosis ameliorated neuronal death after TBI. The neuroprotective capacity of CBL is partly dependent on the TLR signaling pathway. Conclusions: Taken together, the results of this study indicate that CBL can improve neurological outcomes and reduce neuronal death against neuroinflammation and apoptosis via the TLR signaling pathway in mice.

Animals , Mice , Peptides/administration & dosage , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Apoptosis , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , Neuroinflammatory Diseases/veterinary
Acta cir. bras ; 37(6): e370603, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1402964


Purpose: To explore the neuroprotective effects of Lutongkeli (LTKL) in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and detect the related mechanism. Methods: TBI model was established with LTKL administration (2 and 4 g/kg/d, p.o.). Motor function of rats was examined by Rotarod test. Nissl staining was used to show neuron morphology. Furthermore, the disease-medicine common targets were obtained with the network pharmacology and analyzed with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Lastly, the predicted targets were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: After LTKL administration, neural behavior was significantly improved, and the number of spared neurons in brain was largely increased. Moreover, 68 bioactive compounds were identified, corresponding to 148 LTKL targets; 2,855 genes were closely associated with TBI, of which 87 overlapped with the LTKL targets and were considered to be therapeutically relevant. Functional enrichment analysis suggested LTKL exerted its pharmacological effects in TBI by modulating multiple pathways including apoptosis, inflammation, etc. Lastly, we found LTKL administration could increase the mRNA level of Bcl-2 and decrease the expression of Bax and caspase-3. Conclusions: This study reported the neuroprotective effect of LTKL against TBI is accompanied with anti-apoptosis mechanism, which provides a scientific explanation for the clinical application of LTKL in the treatment of TBI.

Animals , Male , Rats , Apoptosis/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/administration & dosage , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 333-352, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939569


The mechanisms underlying exercise-induced neuroprotective effects after traumatic brain injury (TBI) remained elusive, and there is a lack of effective treatments for TBI. In this study, we investigated the effects of an integrative approach of exercise and Yisaipu (TNFR-IgG fusion protein, TNF inhibitor) in a mouse TBI model. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to a sedentary group or a group that followed a voluntary exercise regimen. The effects of 6-week prophylactic preconditioning exercise (PE) alone or in combination with post-TBI Yisaipu treatment on moderate TBI associated deficits were examined. The results showed that combined treatments of PE and post-TBI Yisaipu were superior to single treatments on reducing sensorimotor and gait dysfunctions in mice. These functional improvements were accompanied by reduced systemic inflammation largely via decreased serum TNF-α, boosted autophagic flux, and mitigated lesion volume after TBI. Given these neuroprotective effects, composite approaches such as a combination of exercise and TNF inhibitor may be a promising strategy for facilitating functional recovery from TBI and are worth further investigation.

Animals , Male , Mice , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Recovery of Function , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 93-100, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936289


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effect against intestinal mucosal injury in rats following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#SD rat models of TBI were established by fluid percussion injury (FPI), and the specimens were collected at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after TBI. Another 15 rats were randomly divided into shamoperated group (n=5), TBI with saline treatment (TBI+NS) group (n=5), and TBI with PD treatment (TBI+PD) group (treated with 30 mg/kg PD after TBI; n=5). Body weight gain and fecal water content of the rats were recorded, and after the treatments, the histopathology of the jejunum was observed, and the levels of D-lactic acid (D-LAC), diamine oxidase (DAO), ZO-1, claudin-5, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected. Lipid peroxide (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) 2 content, jejunal pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF- α), Sirt1 activity, SOD2 and HMGB1 acetylation level were also determined after the treatments.@*RESULTS@#The rats showed significantly decreased body weight and fecal water content and progressively increased serum levels of D-LAC and DAO after TBI (P < 0.05) with obvious jejunal injury, significantly decreased expression levels of ZO-1 and claudin-5, lowered SOD2 and Sirt1 activity (P < 0.05), increased expression levels of LPO, ROS, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and enhanced SOD2 and HMGB1 acetylation levels (P < 0.05). Compared with TBI+NS group, the rats in TBI+PD group showed obvious body weight regain, increased fecal water content, reduced jejunal pathologies, decreased D-LAC and DAO levels (P < 0.05), increased ZO-1, claudin-5, SOD2 expression levels and Sirt1 activity, and significantly decreased ROS, LPO, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and acetylation levels of SOD2 and HMGB1 (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#PD alleviates oxidative stress and inflammatory response by activating Sirt1-mediated deacetylation of SOD2 and HMGB1 to improve intestinal mucosal injury in TBI rats.

Animals , Rats , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Glucosides/pharmacology , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1381969


El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar la actitud hacia la sexualidad en pacientes con antecedentes de trauma craneoencefálico (TCE), de acuerdo al nivel de severidad presentado. Método: se llevó a cabo un estudio de tipo descriptivo en una muestra de 126 personas, con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y 49 años, con antecedente de trauma craneoencefálico leve, moderado y severo, a quienes se les aplicó la Escala de Actitudes hacia la Sexualidad Ampliada (ATSS) y una encuesta de actitudes hacia la sexualidad. Resultados: se encontró que la mayoría de los participantes manifestaron haber sufrido cambios en su sexualidad tras el TCE, caracterizados por la disminución de la frecuencia de las relaciones y el deseo sexual, sin embargo, evidencian una actitud positiva frente a la sexualidad. Conclusiones: si bien la sexualidad es considerada importante por los participantes del estudio, no se evidenció una conducta tendiente a la erotofilia. No se encontraron diferencias significativas respecto al nivel de severidad del trauma craneoencefálico

The objective of this research was to analyze the attitude towards sexuality in patients with a history of cranioencephalic trauma (TCE), according to the level of severity presented. Method: a descriptive study was carried out in a sample of 126 people, aged between 18 and 49 years, with a history of mild, moderate, and severe head trauma, to whom the Scale of Attitudes towards Extended Sexuality -ATSS and a Survey of Attitudes towards Sexuality were applied. Results: it was found that most of the participants reported having suffered changes in their sexuality after TCE, characterized by a decrease in the frequency of relationships and sexual desire, however, they show a positive attitude towards sexuality. Conclusions: although sexuality is considered important by the study participants, there was no evidence of behavior tending to erotophilia. No significant differences were found regarding the level of severity of cranioencephalic trauma

Humans , Adult , Craniocerebral Trauma/psychology , Brain Diseases/psychology , Sexuality/psychology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/rehabilitation
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 35: e35101, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364858


Abstract Introduction: The negative impact of prolonged immobilization results a physical decline during hospitalization in patients with acute brain injury. Objective: To investigate the benefits of early exercises on the mobility of patients with acute brain injury assisted at an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Methods: This is a prospective, single-blind, controlled clinical trial. A total of 303 patients were assessed. Due to eligibility criteria, exercise protocol was applied in 58 participants, 32 with brain injury caused by traumatic event and 26 with brain injury caused by cerebrovascular event. Exercise began 24 hours after patients' admission at the ICU. Participants were submitted to passive and active mobilization protocols, performed according to level of sedation, consciousness and collaboration. Statistical analysis was conducted with repeated measures analysis of variance. Significance was set at 5%. Results: The group of patients with traumatic brain injuries was younger (p = 0.001) and with more men (p = 0.025) than the group of patients with clinical events. Most exercise sessions were performed in sedated patients. By the end of the protocol, participants with traumatic and clinical brain injury were able to do sitting and standing exercises. Both groups were similar on ICU discharge (p = 0.290). The clinical group presented better improvement on level of consciousness than the traumatic group (p = 0.005). Conclusion: Participants with an acute brain injury presented at the time of discharge from the ICU good mobility and improvement in the level of consciousness.

Resumo Introdução: O impacto negativo da imobilização prolongada resulta em declínio funcional durante a hospitalização em pacientes com lesão cerebral aguda. Objetivo: Investigar os benefícios dos exercícios precoces na mobilidade dos pacientes com lesão cerebral aguda atendidos em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo clínico prospectivo, controlado e cego. Foram avaliados 303 pacientes. Devido aos critérios de elegibilidade, o protocolo de exercício foi aplicado em 58 participantes, 32 com lesão cerebral causada por evento traumático e 26 com lesão cerebral causada por evento cerebrovascular. O exercício começou 24 horas após a admissão dos pacientes na UTI. Os participantes foram submetidos a protocolos de mobilização passiva e ativa, realizados de acordo com o nível de sedação, consciência e colaboração. A análise estatística foi realizada com análise de medidas repetidas de variância. A significância foi estabelecida em 5%. Resultados: O grupo de pacientes com lesão cerebral traumática foi mais jovem (p = 0,001) e com mais homens (p = 0,025) do que o grupo de pacientes com eventos clínicos. A maioria das sessões de exercícios foi realizada em pacientes sedados. Ao final do protocolo, os participantes com lesão cerebral traumática e clínica foram capazes de fazer exercícios de sentar e ficar em pé. Ambos os grupos foram semelhantes na alta da UTI (p = 0,290). O grupo clínico apresentou melhor ganho no nível de consciência do que o grupo traumático (p = 0,005). Conclusão: Os participantes com lesão cerebral aguda apresentaram no momento da alta da UTI boa mobilidade e melhora do nível de consciência.

Humans , Neurological Rehabilitation , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Exercise , Immobilization , Intensive Care Units
In. Pedemonti, Adriana; González Brandi, Nancy. Manejo de las urgencias y emergencias pediátricas: incluye casos clínicos. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2022. p.45-54, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1525416