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2.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(7): 390-396, July 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131731

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a common complication after ischemic stroke. It may be associated to poor outcomes. Some predictors of HT have been previously identified, but there remain controversies. Objective: To describe the risk factors for HT more frequently reported by a panel of experts surveyed for this project. Methods: We sent a standard questionnaire by e-mail to specialists in Vascular Neurology from 2014 to 2018. Forty-five specialists were contacted and 20 of them responded to the invitation. Predictors cited by three or more specialists were included in a table and ranked by the frequency in which they appeared. A review of the literature looking for published predictive scores of HT was performed, comparing to the answers received. Results: The 20 responding specialists cited 23 different risk factors for HT. The most frequent factors in the order of citation were the volume of ischemia, previous use of antithrombotic medication, neurological severity, age, hyperglycemia at presentation, hypertension on admission, and cardioembolism. Most variables were also found in previously published predictive scores, but they were reported by the authors with divergences of frequency. Conclusion: Although many studies have evaluated HT in patients with acute ischemic stroke, the published risk factors were neither uniform nor in agreement with those cited by the stroke specialists. These findings may be helpful to build a score that can be tested with the goal of improving the prediction of HT.


RESUMO Introdução: A transformação hemorrágica (TH) é uma complicação comum após a isquemia cerebral e pode estar associada a desfechos desfavoráveis. Alguns fatores de risco para TH têm sido identificados, mas ainda há controvérsias. Objetivo: Descrever os fatores de risco para TH mais frequentemente reportados por um painel de especialistas consultados para esse projeto. Métodos: Enviamos um questionário padronizado por e-mail para 45 especialistas em Neurologia Vascular no período de 2014 a 2018. Vinte dos 45 especialistas responderam ao convite. Preditores citados por três ou mais especialistas foram incluídos em uma tabela e classificados pela frequência em que foram reportados. Uma revisão de literatura foi realizada em busca de escores preditivos de TH publicados anteriormente, comparando-os com as respostas recebidas. Resultados: Os 20 especialistas citaram 23 diferentes fatores de risco para TH. Os fatores mais frequentemente citados foram, pela ordem, volume da isquemia, uso prévio de medicação antitrombótica, gravidade neurológica, idade, hiperglicemia na apresentação, hipertensão na admissão e cardioembolismo. A maioria das variáveis também foi incluída em escores preditivos de TH já publicados, mas sem a mesma frequência e com divergências entre os especialistas consultados. Conclusão: Embora muitos estudos tenham avaliado a TH em pacientes com isquemia cerebral, os fatores de risco já publicados não foram uniformes na concordância com aqueles reportados pelos neurologistas vasculares consultados. Esses achados podem ser úteis para elaborar um escore que possa ser testado para aperfeiçoar a predição de transformação hemorrágica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Stroke/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/pathology , Risk Factors , Stroke/etiology
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(12): e9174, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132510

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate the association of long non-coding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (lnc-MALAT1) with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), and its association with disease severity, inflammation, and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in AIS patients. One hundred and twenty AIS patients and 120 controls were recruited. Venous blood samples from AIS patients (within 24 h after symptoms onset) and controls (at entry to study) were collected to detect plasma lnc-MALAT1 expression by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. AIS severity was assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Plasma concentrations of inflammation factors (including C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-22) were measured and RFS was calculated. lnc-MALAT1 expression was decreased in AIS patients compared to controls, and it had a close correlation with AIS (AUC=0.791, 95% CI: 0.735-0.846). For disease condition, lnc-MALAT1 expression negatively correlated with NIHSS score and pro-inflammatory factor expression (including CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-22), while it positively correlated with anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 expression. Furthermore, lnc-MALAT1 expression was elevated in AIS patients with diabetes. For prognosis, no statistical correlation of lnc-MALAT1 expression with RFS was found, while a trend for longer RFS was observed in patients with lnc-MALAT1 high expression compared to those with lnc-MALAT1 low expression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Stroke/diagnosis , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Ischemic Stroke , Inflammation
4.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 87(2): 63-70, abr.-dic. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1097496

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La asixia perinatal, producida al feto/neonato por hipoxia y/o hipoperfusión tisular, puede llevar a ence-falopatía hipóxico-isquémica (EHI). La hipotermia terapéutica (HT) es eicaz para tratar EHI moderada/severa. Objetivo: Determinar conocimientos y actitudes sobre EHI e HT del personal sanitario y estudiantes antes y después de una intervención educativa, Departamento de Pediatría, Hospital Escuela (HE), Tegucigalpa, 2019. Métodos: Estudio cuasi experimental. Médicos, enfermeras, estudiantes de grado y posgrado fueron invitados a participar mediante consentimiento informado. El ensayo consistió en evaluación pre-intervención (Fase 1), seguida de intervención educativa, video y documento enviados por aplicación WhatsApp, y evaluación post-intervención (Fase 2). Se registraron características sociodemográicas. Se evaluó conocimientos (Excelente, Muy bueno, Bue-no, Deiciente) y actitudes (Buena, Regular, Mala, Muy mala). Se midió el cambio (Delta Porcentaje) entre proporción de participantes de acuerdo a conocimientos y actitudes pre y post-intervención. Resultados: De 181 potenciales participantes, en Fase 1 participaron 147 (81.2%) y en Fase 2, 127 (70.2%). Inicialmente, 93.2% (137) demostró un conocimiento deiciente y actitud buena 38.0% (56), regular 28.0% (41), mala 32.0% (47). El conocimiento bueno aumentó en 561.2% (3.1% versus 20.5%), conocimiento muy bueno aumentó en 185.1% (4.7% versus 13.4%), conocimiento deiciente disminuyó en 35.9% (92.2% versus 59.1%). La actitud regular au-mentó en 37.0% (27.0% versus 37.0%), actitud mala disminuyó 30.4% (32.8% versus 22.8%). Discusión: La intervención educativa mejoró conocimiento y actitud en relación a HT y EHI. La HT disponible en HE puede mejorar el desenlace de EHI. Se recomienda fortalecer las medidas educativas institucionales sobre el protocolo de HT...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Hypothermia, Induced/methods , Asphyxia Neonatorum/complications , Education, Professional
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.2): 1-46, mayo 2019. ilus, graf, map
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012666

ABSTRACT

El accidente cerebrovascular es la tercera causa de muerte y la primera de discapacidad en la Argentina. Los eventos isquémicos constituyen el 80% de los casos. Los accidentes vasculares cerebrales requieren la implementación de protocolos sistematizados que permitan reducir los tiempos en la atención, la morbilidad y mortalidad. En el consenso participaron especialistas de nueve sociedades médicas relacionadas con la atención de pacientes con enfermedad cerebrovascular. Se consensuó un temario separado en capítulos y para la redacción de los mismos se conformaron grupos de trabajo con miembros de diferentes especialidades médicas. Se discutió y acordó para cada tema el nivel de recomendación en base a la mejor evidencia clínica disponible para cada tópico. Se realizó una adaptación al ámbito local de las recomendaciones cuando se consideró necesario. El sistema de la American Heart Association se utilizó para redactar las recomendaciones y su grado de evidencia. La corrección y edición fue realizada por cinco revisores externos, que no participaron en la redacción y con amplia experiencia en enfermedad vascular. Finalizado el documento preliminar, se organizó una reunión general con todos los integrantes de los grupos de trabajo y los revisores para redactar las recomendaciones definitivas. El consenso abarca la atención del paciente con accidente cerebrovascular isquémico en la fase pre-hospitalaria, evaluación inicial en la central de emergencias, terapias de recanalización (trombolisis y/o trombectomía mecánica), craniectomía descompresiva, neuroimágenes y cuidados clínicos en la internación.


Stroke is the third cause of death and the first cause of disability in Argentina. Ischemic events constitute 80% of cases. It requires the implementation of systematized protocols that allow reducing the time of care, morbidity and mortality. Specialists from nine medical societies related to the care of patients with cerebrovascular disease participated in the consensus. A separate agenda was agreed upon in chapters and for the writing of them, work groups were formed with members of different medical specialties. The level of recommendation was discussed and agreed upon for each topic based on the best clinical evidence available for each of them. An adaptation to the local scope of the recommendations was made when it was considered necessary.The American Heart Association system was used to draft the recommendations and their level of evidence. The correction and editing were done by five external reviewers, who did not participate in the writing and with extensive experience in vascular pathology. Once the preliminary document was finalized, a general meeting was held with all the members of the working groups and the reviewers to reach final recommendations. The consensus covers the management of ischemic stroke in the pre-hospital phase, initial evaluation in the emergency center, recanalization therapies (thrombolysis and/ or mechanical thrombectomy), decompressive craniectomy, neuroimaging and clinical care in the hospital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Argentina
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(2): 90-94, abr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002613

ABSTRACT

Misdiagnosis is a challenging risk in young patients with ischemic stroke that leads to delayed recognition, prevents thrombolytic therapy and increases morbidity and mortality. To assess the frequency and reasons for misdiagnosis of ischemic stroke in young adults in the emergency department, we retrospectively evaluated 101 consecutive patients. The diagnosis required both the presence of an ischemic lesion in diffusion-weighted MRI as well as neurological symptoms. Twenty-three individuals were misdiagnosed (15 females, mean age 43 years [range 26-55 years]). The most common diagnostic errors included headache/ neck pain n = 11 (48%) and peripheral vertigo n = 4 (17.3%), and the most common missed etiology was arterial dissection (AD) n = 15 (65.2%). The initial diagnosis was made by emergency physicians in 22 persons. The group with misdiagnosis had a significantly higher frequency of AD at 15 vs. 8 (p < 0.01), posterior territory involvement at 12 vs. 6 (p < 0.01), and female predominance. Misdiagnosis occurred in a third of young patients with an ischemic stroke and was more frequent in those with arterial dissection involving the posterior circulation and presenting with non-specific symptoms.


El error diagnóstico es una situación riesgosa en pacientes jóvenes con infarto cerebral, ya que conduce a demora en el reconocimiento, previene la administración de terapia trombolítica e incrementa la morbimortalidad. Para valorar la frecuencia y las razones de errores en esta población, evaluamos retrospectivamente 101 pacientes consecutivos. El diagnóstico de infarto cerebral requirió tanto la presencia de lesión isquémica aguda en resonancia magnética como también la presencia de síntomas neurológicos. Veintitrés pacientes fueron mal diagnosticados (15 mujeres, edad media 43 años, [rango 26-55 años]). El error más frecuente incluyó cefalea/cervicalgia n = 11 (48%) y vértigo periférico n = 4 (17.3%). La etiología menos sospechada fue disección arterial n = 15 (62.2%). La evaluación inicial en 22 pacientes fue realizada por emergentólogos. El grupo con errores tuvo significativamente mayor frecuencia de disección arterial 15 vs. 8 (p < 0.01), afectación del territorio posterior 12 vs. 6 (p < 0.01) y sexo femenino. En conclusión, los errores diagnósticos ocurrieron en un tercio de los pacientes jóvenes con infarto cerebral, y fueron más frecuentes en aquellos con disección arterial, compromiso del territorio posterior y síntomas de presentación inespecífica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Stroke/diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors/statistics & numerical data , Argentina/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Stroke/epidemiology
7.
Autops. Case Rep ; 7(2): 61-68, Apr.-June 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-905252

ABSTRACT

Migraine is a neurological entity and a well-known independent risk factor for cerebral infarction, which mostly afflicts the young female population. Researching focal neurological signs in this subset of the population with the diagnosis of a neurological ischemic event should always take into account the migraine as the etiology or as an associated factor. The etiology of central nervous system (CNS) ischemia is considerable. Migraine, although rare, also may be included in this vast etiological range, which is called migrainous infarction. In this setting, the diagnostic criteria required for this diagnosis is extensive. Herein, we present the case of a female adolescent who submitted to the emergency facility complaining of diplopia, dysarthria, and imbalance, which started concomitantly with a migrainous crisis with aura­a challenging clinical case that required extensive research to address all possible differential diagnoses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Cerebral Infarction/etiology , Migraine Disorders/diagnosis , Ocular Motility Disorders/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Risk Factors
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(2): 133-137, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776445

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Ischemic stroke (IS) prognostic scales may help clinicians in their clinical decisions. This study aimed to assess the performance of four IS prognostic scales in a Brazilian population. Method We evaluated data of IS patients admitted at Hospital Paulistano, a Joint Commission International certified primary stroke center. In-hospital mortality and modified Rankin score at discharge were defined as the outcome measures. The performance of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Stroke Prognostication Using Age and NIHSS (SPAN-100), Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL), and Totaled Health Risks in Vascular Events (THRIVE) were compared. Results Two hundred six patients with a mean ± SD age of 67.58 ± 15.5 years, being 55.3% male, were included. The four scales were significantly and independently associated functional outcome. Only THRIVE was associated with in-hospital mortality. With area under the curve THRIVE and NIHSS were the scales with better performance for functional outcome and THRIVE had the best performance for mortality. Conclusion THRIVE showed the best performance among the four scales, being the only associated with in-hospital mortality.


RESUMO Objetivo Escalas de avaliação prognóstica do acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCI) podem ajudar decisões clinicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho de quatro escalas prognósticas em uma população brasileira. Método Foram avaliados os dados de pacientes admitidos com AVCI no Hospital Paulistano, um hospital acreditado pela “Joint Commission International”. A mortalidade intra-hospitalar e a escala de Rankin foram definidos como desfechos de evolução clínica. O desempenho de quatro escalas: National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Stroke Prognostication Using Age and NIHSS (SPAN-100), Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL) e Totaled Health Risks in Vascular Events (THRIVE) foi comparado. Resultados Foram incluídos duzentos e seis pacientes, com uma idade média de 67,58 ± 15,5 anos, sendo 55,3% dos sexo masculino. Todas as quatro escalas associaram-se de forma independente com prognóstico funcional. Apenas o THRIVE correlacionou-se com a mortalidade hospitalar. O THRIVE e o NIHSS tiveram melhor desempenho para prognóstico funcional e o THRIVE teve o melhor desempenho para mortalidade pela área sob a curva. Conclusão O THRIVE mostrou-se a escala com melhor performance, sendo a única correlacionada com a mortalidade hospitalar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Predictive Value of Tests , Hospital Mortality , Stroke/mortality , Prognosis , Brazil , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/mortality , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Stroke/diagnosis
10.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(1): 65-71, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745864

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors, imaging diagnosis, and clinical outcome of perinatal stroke. Methods Data was retrospectively collected from full-term newborns admitted to the neonatal unit of a level III maternity in Lisbon with cerebral stroke, from January 2007 to December 2011. Results There were 11 cases of stroke: nine were arterial ischemic stroke and two were cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. We estimated an incidence of arterial ischemic stroke of 1.6/5,000 births and of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis of 7.2/100,000 births. There were two cases of recurrent stroke. Eight patients presented with symptoms while the remaining three were asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed. The most frequently registered symptoms (8/11) were seizures; in that, generalized clonic (3/8) and focal clonic (5/8). Strokes were more commonly left-sided (9/11), and the most affected artery was the left middle cerebral artery (8/11). Transfontanelle ultrasound was positive in most of the patients (10/11), and stroke was confirmed by cerebral magnetic resonance in all patients. Electroencephalographic recordings were carried out in five patients and were abnormal in three (focal abnormalities n=2, burst-suppression pattern n=1). Eight patients had previously identified risk factors for neonatal stroke which included obstetric and neonatal causes. Ten patients were followed up at outpatients setting; four patients developed motor deficits and one presented with epilepsy. Conclusions Although a modest and heterogeneous sample, this study emphasizes the need for a high level of suspicion when it comes to neonatal stroke, primarily in the presence of risk factors. The prevalence of neurological sequelae in our series supports the need of long-term follow-up and early intervention strategies. .


Objetivo Estudar incidência, apresentação clínica, fatores de risco, resultado de exames de imagem e desfecho clínico do acidente vascular cerebral perinatal. Métodos Análise retrospectiva dos prontuários de recém-nascidos a termo internados com o diagnóstico de acidente vascular cerebral perinatal no Serviço de Neonatologia, de uma maternidade nível III, em Lisboa, de janeiro de 2007 a dezembro de 2011. Resultados Houve 11 casos de acidente vascular cerebral: nove isquêmicos arteriais e duas tromboses dos seios venosos. As incidências foram estimadas: para acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico arterial de 1,6/5.000 nascimentos; para trombose dos seios venosos de 7,2/100.000 nascimentos. Houve dois casos de recorrência. Oito doentes foram sintomáticos e três assintomáticos, com diagnóstico incidental. As convulsões foram o sintoma mais frequente (8/11): clônicas generalizadas (3/8) e clônicas focais (5/8). O território vascular esquerdo foi o mais afetado (9/11), particularmente a artéria cerebral média esquerda (8/11). A ecografia transfontanelar foi positiva na maioria dos doentes (10/11), sendo o diagnóstico confirmado por ressonância magnética cerebral em todos. Dos cinco doentes que realizam eletroencefalograma, três apresentaram alterações (alterações focais n=2 e padrão de surto-supressão n=1). Oito doentes apresentaram fatores de risco para acidente vascular cerebral neonatal, incluindo causas obstétricas e neonatais. Dez doentes foram acompanhados em ambulatório, dos quais quatro apresentaram défice motores e um apresentou epilepsia. Conclusão Apesar de uma amostra limitada e heterogênea, este estudo reforça a necessidade de um elevado nível de suspeita para acidente vascular cerebral perinatal, particularmente na presença de fatores de risco. A prevalência de sequelas neurológicas em nossa série reforça a necessidade de seguimento a longo prazo e de estratégias de intervenção precoces. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Age Factors , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Echoencephalography , Electroencephalography , Follow-Up Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/etiology , Time Factors
13.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 84(4): 396-402, jul. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-690542

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La alteración focal aguda de la función cerebral en el adulto permite diagnosticar un accidente vascular encefálico (AVE) e iniciar precozmente el rescate de tejido cerebral. En los niños, las diferencias clínicas de esta patología en relación al adulto generan atraso, subdiagnóstico e impiden el tratamiento en la etapa aguda. Objetivo: Describir la presentación clínica y factores de riesgo del AVE isquémico en 156 niños, comparar la presentación clínica según edad y tipo de AVE. Pacientes y Método: Se analiza un registro de AVE isquémico, confirmado con imágenes cerebrales, en población menor de 18 años, iniciado en Enero 2003. Resultados: La mediana de edad: 4,9 meses (33 por ciento recién nacidos, 46 por ciento menores 6 años y 21 por ciento mayor de 6 años), 64 por ciento fueron hombres. Los infartos arteriales correspondieron al 85 por ciento y el resto fueron trombosis de senos venosos. Predominaron los signos difusos (67 por ciento) en menores de 6 años (p = 0,001). Las convulsiones fueron observadas en el 61 por ciento de los niños menores de 6 años (p = 0,03), el 33 por ciento presentó signos focales. Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron patologías sistémicas agudas y cardiopatías. En 14,7 por ciento no se encontraron factores de riesgo. Conclusiones: La búsqueda de signos focales agudos de AVE no tiene utilidad diagnóstica en el niño, a diferencia de los adultos, pues su ausencia no excluye patología vascular isquémica focal. La patología sistémica aguda fue el factor de riesgo más frecuente para AVE.


Introduction: Acute focal brain dysfunction in adults serves to diagnose and to provide early rescue of the brain tissue. In children, the clinical differences of this condition compared to adults results in delayed diagnosis and treatment. Objective: To describe the clinical presentation and risk factors of CVA in 156 children and related to age and type of CVA. Patients and Method: A CVA registry of newborn to 18 years old was started in January 2003 were analized. Diagnosis was confirmed by brain imaging. Results: The median of age was 4.9 month (33 percent was newborn, 46 percent < 6 years old, 21 percent > 6 years old); 64 percent were males. Arterial ischemic stroke represented 85 percent, the rest were cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. In the clinical manifestations the diffuse signs were more frequently seen (67 percent) in children < 6 years of age (p 0.001). Seizures were observed in 61 percent in children < 6 years old (p = 0.03), 33 percent presented focal signs. The most common risk factors were acute systemic diseases and heart disease. 14.7 percent of the patients did not present risk factors. Conclusions: Acute focus signals of CVA in children have no diagnostic value, unlike adults; however absence doesn't exclude focal ischemic vascular disease. The acute systemic disease was the most common risk factor for stroke.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Age Distribution , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology
14.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 33(2): 283-291, abr.-jun. 2013. mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-689567

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los indicadores espacio-temporales de lesión son esenciales en el estudio neuropatológico y terapéutico de la isquemia cerebral. Objetivo. Optimizar la técnica de dos modelos de isquemia cerebral (focal y global) y hacer un análisis comparativo de la progresión del daño cerebral, mediante marcadores de neurodegeneración. Materiales y métodos. Se sometieron ratas Wistar a oclusión temporal de la arteria cerebral media o a oclusión de cuatro vasos, y se evaluaron comparativamente el tiempo quirúrgico, la tasa de supervivencia y la recuperación neurológica. Se utilizó trifenilo de tetrazolio para establecer la distribución del infarto y tinción con Fluoro - Jade B ® como marcador de neurodegeneración. La inmunorreacción de la astroglía se evaluó con el anticuerpo contra la proteína acídica fibrilar de la glía ( Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, GFAP) y el anticuerpo AT-8 contra la proteína tau hiperfosforilada, 24, 48 y 72 horas después de la isquemia. Resultados. Los modelos de isquemia utilizados requirieron menor tiempo quirúrgico y hubo menor riesgo de muerte, respecto a estudios previos. En el modelo focal, las células positivas con Fluoro - Jade B ® y los astrocitos reactivos, se evidenciaron en corteza e hipocampo a las 24 horas después de la isquemia. En el modelo global, se observó tinción Fluoro - Jade B ® positiva a las 24 horas, aumentando significativamente la reacción de la GFAP a las 72 horas en corteza y a las 48 horas en el hipocampo. La reacción contra la proteína tau hiperfosforilada aumentó progresivamente y fue máxima a las 72 horas en ambos modelos. Conclusiones. Los dos modelos de isquemia cerebral, oclusión temporal de la arteria cerebral media y oclusión de cuatro vasos, fueron optimizados. En estos modelos, los marcadores la tinción Fluoro - Jade B ® y la GFAP permitieron detectar procesos de neurodegeneración 24 horas después de la isquemia, en tanto el marcador de proteína tau hiperfosforilada (AT-8) incrementó progresivamente su reacción hasta las 72 horas, lo cual sugiere la propagación de la excitotoxicidad y la alteración de enzimas implicadas en la fosforilación de proteínas del citoesqueleto.


Introduction: Spatio-temporal indicators of injury are essential for the study of neuropathological processes and for developing therapeutic approaches for stroke. Objective: This study sought to optimize the techniques of two cerebral ischemia models (focal and global) and to comparatively evaluate the progression of brain damage by analyzing markers of neurodegeneration. Materials and methods: Wistar rats were subjected to temporary occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (t-MCAO) or four-vessel occlusion (4-VO), and surgical time, survival rate and neurological recovery were comparatively evaluated. Triphenyl tetrazolium was used to determine the distribution of the infarction, and Fluoro-Jade B was used as a marker of neurodegeneration. Astroglial immunoreactivity was assessed with an anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) antibody, and an anti-AT-8 antibody was used to detect hyperphosphorylated tau protein at 24, 48 and 72 hours post-ischemia. Results: The cerebral ischemia models employed (t-MCAO and 4-VO) required less surgical time and presented less of a death risk compared to those in previous studies. In the focal model, Fluoro-Jadepositive cells and reactive astrocytes were observed in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus at 24 hours post-ischemia. In the global model, we observed Fluoro-Jade-positive cells at 24 hours, and a significant increase in the reactivity of GFAP was observed at 72 hours in the cortex and at 48 hours in the hippocampus. The immunoreactivity of hyperphosphorylated tau protein increased progressively, reaching a maximum at 72 hours post-ischemia in both models. Conclusions: These results suggest that in the t-MCAO and 4-VO ischemia models, the expression of Fluoro-Jade and GFAP indicates early neurodegeneration at 24 hours post-insult. In contrast, the immunoreactivity of the hyperphosphorylated tau protein marker (AT-8) progressively increases until 72 hours post-insult, which suggests that the progression of excitotoxicity and alteration of enzymes involves the phosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Brain Ischemia , Biomarkers , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Progression , Fluoresceins , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Phosphorylation , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , tau Proteins/metabolism
16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 288-294, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-120581

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cerebral ischemic lesions are frequently observed after carotid artery stenting (CAS), and anti-platelet agents are used to prevent stent thrombosis and peri-procedural complications. However, despite the premedication, cerebral ischemic lesions are observed, suggesting that they may rather be related to anti-platelet resistance. We, therefore, investigated the effects of anti-platelet resistance on the development of cerebral ischemic lesions after CAS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients who received CAS and selected patients for whom brain MRI was performed within 24 hours after CAS and for whom anti-platelet resistance was checked. Anti-platelet resistance was examined by the VerifyNow system. We analyzed the correlation between anti-platelet resistance and cerebral ischemic lesions detected on follow-up MRI. RESULTS: Among 76 patients, 45 (59.2%) developed new ischemic lesions after CAS. Twelve (15.8%) patients showed aspirin resistance and 50 (65.8%) patients showed clopidogrel resistance. Patients with a new ischemic lesion demonstrated a significantly greater frequency of clopidogrel resistance than those who had no new ischemic lesion (82.2% versus 41.9%, p=0.001). The frequency of aspirin resistance was not significantly different between the groups of patients with and without new ischemic lesions (20.0% versus 9.7%, p=0.340). In multivariate analysis, clopidogrel resistance was a significant risk factor for post-procedural cerebral ischemia. CONCLUSION: Anti-platelet resistance can be used to predict new ischemic lesions after CAS. Anti-platelet resistance should be evaluated in all patients prior to CAS to prevent ischemic complications related to CAS.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Carotid Arteries/surgery , Drug Resistance , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Stents/adverse effects
17.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2013; 29 (4): 1003-1007
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-130364

ABSTRACT

To investigate diagnostic value of ischemia-modified albumin [IMA] levels in patients applying to emergency with symptoms of acute coronary syndrome [ACS] and acute ischemic stroke [AIS]. Two patient groups [ACS and AIS] and a control group were constituted. The study was discontinued upon reaching 30 patients in each group. Following patient approval at the initial visit, a total of 10 ml venous blood sample was obtained from all patients with a high clinical suspicion of ACS and AIS. The Troponin I and the IMA levels were determined in the blood samples. Statistically significant higher IMA values were determined in the patient groups compared to the control group [p < 0.001 for both groups]. No statistically significant correlation was found between the IMA and the Troponin I values in the ACS and the AIS groups [p>0.05 for both groups]. The sensitivity of IMA was 83% and 87% for ACS and AIS, respectively. The specificity of IMA was 90% and 87% for ACS and AIS, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity values, determined according to the optimal cut-off values in the groups demonstrated that IMA could be a useful diagnostic marker in ACS and AIS patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Stroke/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Ischemia , Emergency Medicine
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 140(4): 507-511, abr. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-643222

ABSTRACT

Background: Cocaine abuse is associated with an increased risk of cardiac and cerebrovascular events, such as myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, and ischemic stroke. The underlying mechanisms leading to these complications are not fully understood although intravascular thrombus formation and accelerated atherosclerosis are prominent findings. We report a 39-year-old male addicted to cocaine, who presented with three consecutive ischemic events characterized by an acute myocardial infarction and two ischemic strokes complicated by cardiac failure and severe neurological sequelae. The pathophysiology of cocaine-induce vascular damage and the management of the ischemic complications are discussed.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Cocaine-Related Disorders/complications , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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