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Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(2): 14-17, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280778


The white matter hyperintensities (WMH, leucoaraiosis) represent the most common kind of ischemic vascular lesion of the white matter due to small vessel diseases, and occurs frequently in the elderly. Consequent to the neuroimaging identification arouse the need for their assessment. The group of Fazekas proposed a systematized semi-quantitative visual scale to score such lesions where two parameters were considered, extent and localization. The original scale was further modified, to a simplified version. Although other more complex scales have appeared, researchers remarked that the relatively simple Fazekas scale, in comparison to the complex ones and to volumetric measures, appeared to be sufficient when analyzing relationships between clinical parameters and WMH load in a clinical setting.

As hiperintensidades da substância branca (HSB, leucoaraiose) representam o tipo de lesão isquêmica mais comum da substância branca decorrente de doenças de pequenos vasos e ocorre frequentemente em idosos. Consequente à identificação por neuroimagem surgiu a necessidade de sua avaliação. O grupo de Fazekas propos uma escala visual semiquantitativa sistematizada para pontuar tais lesões, onde foram considerados dois parâmetros, extensão e localização. A escala original foi modificada para constituir uma versão mais simplificada. Embora outras escalas mais complexas tenham aparecido, pesquisadores comentaram que a relativamente simples escala de Fazekas, em comparação às mais complexas e a método volumétrico, mostrou-se suficiente quando é analisada a relação entre parâmetros clínicos e a carga de HSB em um cenário clínico.

Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Leukoaraiosis/pathology , Leukoaraiosis/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , Aging , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging/methods
Medisan ; 25(3)2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1287298


Introducción: El método clínico por sí solo no es definitivo para diagnosticar una enfermedad cerebrovascular, por lo que es importante el uso de medios de diagnóstico imagenológicos como la tomografía axial computarizada, que permite investigar los aspectos morfológicos y funcionales del cerebro. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas y tomográficas de pacientes con infarto cerebral. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 269 pacientes con infarto cerebral, atendidos en el Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico Saturnino Lora Torres de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre de 2019. Resultados: Predominaron el sexo masculino (54,6 %), el grupo etario de 70-79 años, las afectaciones motoras (76,5 %), la alteración de la conciencia (51,3 %) y el trastorno del lenguaje (50,5 %). En 38 pacientes los resultados de la tomografía fueron negativos antes de las 24 horas de evolución y 64,0 % se consideraron mejorados con secuelas. Conclusiones: La tomografía antes de las 24 horas demuestra una baja positividad y los hallazgos evolucionan con el tiempo, aunque es posible reconocer varios signos precoces de ictus agudo en menos de 4-6 horas.

Introduction: The clinical method by itself is not definitive to diagnose a cerebrovascular disease, reason why the use of imaging diagnostic means, as the computerized axial tomography is important, as it allows to investigate the morphological and functional aspects of the brain. Objective: To describe the clinical and tomographic characteristics of patients with complete stroke. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 269 patients with complete stroke, assisted in Saturnino Lora Torres Teaching Clinical Surgical Provincial Hospital was carried out in Santiago de Cuba, from January to December, 2019. Results: There was a prevalence of the male sex (54.6 %), 70-79 age group, motor disorders (76.5 %), alteration of the conscience (51.3 %) and language disorder (50.5 %). In 38 patients the results of the tomography were negative before the 24 hours of clinical course and 64.0 % were better with aftereffects of the disease. Conclusions: Tomography before the 24 hours demonstrates a low positivity and findings have a favorable clinical course as time goes by, although it is possible to recognize several early signs of acute ictus in less than 4-6 hours.

Brain Diseases , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Spiral Computed
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(1): 71-76, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287788


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Myocardial speckle-tracking echocardiography can detect subtle abnormalities in the left atrial function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between left atrial myocardium and tissue function n assessed by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHOD: The study was composed of 80 patients (45 men, 35 women, mean age: 67±15 years) with acute ischemic stroke. The patients were divided into two groups based on the calculated National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (group 1, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score < 16; group 2, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≥ 16). Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data for all patients were collected. Cardiac functions were evaluated using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography within 48 hours from admission to the neurology care unit. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the patients' clinical parameters. Left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (59.2±5.6 to 51.4±6.3, p=0.024). Left atrial longitudinal strain was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (34.48±9.73 to 26.27±7.41, p=0.019). There were no significant differences between other echocardiographic parameters. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that left atrial longitudinal strain is associated with stroke severity during admission in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Left atrial longitudinal strain is an indicator of left atrial myocardial function.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke Volume , Atrial Function, Left , Ventricular Function, Left , Middle Aged
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888240


Clinically, non-contrastive computed tomography (NCCT) is used to quickly diagnose the type and area of ​​stroke, and the Alberta stroke program early computer tomography score (ASPECTS) is used to guide the next treatment. However, in the early stage of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), it's difficult to distinguish the mild cerebral infarction on NCCT with the naked eye, and there is no obvious boundary between brain regions, which makes clinical ASPECTS difficult to conduct. The method based on machine learning and deep learning can help physicians quickly and accurately identify cerebral infarction areas, segment brain areas, and operate ASPECTS quantitative scoring, which is of great significance for improving the inconsistency in clinical ASPECTS. This article describes current challenges in the field of AIS ASPECTS, and then summarizes the application of computer-aided technology in ASPECTS from two aspects including machine learning and deep learning. Finally, this article summarizes and prospects the research direction of AIS-assisted assessment, and proposes that the computer-aided system based on multi-modal images is of great value to improve the comprehensiveness and accuracy of AIS assessment, which has the potential to open up a new research field for AIS-assisted assessment.

Alberta , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(12): 757-761, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142376


ABSTRACT Background: The rapid evaluation of non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (NCCT) brain scans in patients with anterior stroke symptoms saves time and favors optimal and prompt treatment. e-ASPECTS is a tool that automatically calculates the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) values, leading to a more accurate and timely image evaluation. Objective: To determine the ability of e-ASPECTS in differentiating images with and without injury. Methods: One-hundred sixteen patients admitted to a stroke unit in a Brazilian tertiary hospital underwent a CT scan at admission and at least one control brain imaging (NCCT or magnetic resonance imaging - MRI) 24 hours after admission. ASPECTS evaluation was performed by three neuroradiologists, three neurologists, and three neurology residents, all blinded to the symptoms and the injury side. The scores were compared to the ground truth, and an ASPECTS score was provided by two independent non blinded evaluators. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed, and receiver operating characteristic curves, Bland-Altman plots with mean error score, and Matthews correlation coefficients (MCCs) were obtained for ASPECTS scores, assuming values equal to 10 for images without injury and values other than 10 for images with ischemic injury. Results: e-ASPECTS demonstrated similar performance to that of neuroradiologists and neurologists, with an area under the curve of 0.78 and an MCC value of 0.48 in the dichotomous analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of e-ASPECTS were 75% and 73%, respectively. Conclusion: e-ASPECTS is a validated and reliable tool for determining early signs of ischemia in NCCT.

RESUMO Introdução: A avaliação rápida da tomografia de crânio sem contraste (TCSC) em pacientes com AVC de circulação anterior economiza tempo e permite um tratamento rápido e otimizado. O e-ASPECTS é um software que calcula automaticamente os valores do ASPECTS e permite uma avaliação da imagem mais precisa e ágil. Objetivo: Determinar a habilidade do e-ASPECTS em diferenciar imagens com e sem lesão. Métodos: Cento e dezesseis pacientes admitidos em uma unidade de AVC de um hospital terciário brasileiro foram submetidos a uma TCSC na admissão e pelo menos uma imagem de controle (TC ou Ressonância de Crânio) 24 horas após a admissão. A avaliação do ASPECTS foi realizada por três neurorradiologistas, três neurologistas e três residentes em neurologia, todos cegados para os sintomas e para o lado da lesão. Os valores foram comparados ao ground truth (GT) e uma pontuação ASPECTS foi obtida por dois avaliadores independentes não cegos. Análise da sensibilidade e especificidade, características das curvas ROC, gráficos de Bland-Altman com média de escore de erro e coeficientes de correlação de Matthews (CCM) foram realizados para os valores de ASPECTS, assumindo valores iguais a 10 como imagens sem lesões e valores diferentes de 10 como imagens com alguma lesão isquêmica. Resultados: o e-ASPECTS demonstrou uma performance similar aos neurorradiologistas e neurologistas, com uma área sob a curva de 0,78 e um valor de CCM de 0,48 na análise dicotômica. Sensibilidade e especificidade do e-ASPECTS foram, respectivamente, 75 e 73%. Conclusão: O e-ASPECTS é uma ferramenta confiável e validada para determinar sinais precoces de isquemia nas TCSC.

Humans , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Specialization , Brazil , Alberta
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(10): 1437-1443, Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136138


SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to determine independent predictors of left atrial thrombus (LAT) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients without atrial fibrillation (AF) using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective study, we enrolled 149 consecutive AIS patients. All of the patients underwent a TEE examination to detect LAT within 10 days following admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess independent predictors of LAT. RESULTS: Among all cases, 14 patients (9.3%) had a diagnosis of LAT based on the TEE examination. In a multivariate analysis, elevated mean platelet volume (MPV), low left-ventricle ejection fraction (EF), creatinine, and reduced left-atrium appendix (LAA) peak emptying velocity were independent predictors of LAT. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for MPV was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.57-0.83; p = 0.011). With the optimal cut-off value of 9.45, MPV had a sensitivity of 71.4% and a specificity of 63% to predict LAT. CONCLUSION: AIS patients with low ventricle EF and elevated MPV should undergo further TEE examination to verify the possibility of a cardio-embolic source. In addition, this research may provide novel information with respect to the applicability of MPV to predict LAT in such patients without AF.

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar indicadores independentes do trombo auricular esquerdo (LAT) em doentes com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo (AIS) sem fibrilação auricular (AF) utilizando ecocardiografia transesofágica (TEE). MÉTODOS: Neste único centro, estudo retrospectivo, inscrevemos 149 pacientes consecutivos com AIS. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a exame de TEE para detectar LAT no prazo de dez dias após a admissão. A análise de regressão logística multivariada foi realizada para avaliar preditores independentes do final. RESULTADO: Entre todos os casos, 14 pacientes (9,3%) tiveram um diagnóstico de exame tardio no TEE. Numa análise multivariada, volume médio de plaquetas (VMP) elevado, fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo baixo (EF), creatinina e uma velocidade de pico de esvaziamento do átrio esquerdo reduzida (LAA) foram indicadores independentes da LAT. A área sob a análise da curva característica de operação do receptor para VMP foi de 0,70 (95% IC: 0, 57-0, 83; p=0,011). Com o valor-limite ideal de 9,45, o VMP teve uma sensibilidade de 71,4% e uma especificidade de 63% para prever mais tarde. CONCLUSÃO: Os doentes AIS com EF ventricular baixa e VMP elevado devem ser submetidos a um exame de TEE adicional para determinar a possibilidade de origem cardioembólica. Além disso, esta investigação pode fornecer novas informações sobre a aplicabilidade do VMP para prever tardiamente os doentes sem AF.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Appendage , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200692, 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143866


Abstract A 56-year-old male with human immunodeficiency virus required hospitalization due to the onset of both dyspnea and asthenia. A computed tomography of the chest exam showed the radiological pattern of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary involvement. Based on immunochromatographic analysis, the patient evolved as a reagent for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The individual developed complete hemiparesis with a predominance in the right arm and conduction aphasia. T1-weighted magnetic resonance sequence of the brain showed an area of hypointensity with a high intrinsic cortical signal and hyperintensity in the T2-sequence. A Doppler velocimetric examination showed total/critical sub occlusion, suggesting an ischemic stroke.

Humans , Male , HIV Infections/complications , Brain Ischemia/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Coinfection/virology , Betacoronavirus , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Viral
Clinics ; 75: e1339, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089602


OBJECTIVES: Cerebral ischemia seriously threatens human health and is characterized by high rates of incidence, disability and death. Developing an ideal animal model of cerebral ischemia that reflects the human clinical features is critical for pathological studies and clinical research. The goal of this study is to establish a local cerebral ischemia model in rhesus macaque, thereby providing an optimal animal model to study cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Eight healthy rhesus monkeys were selected for this study. CT scans were performed before the operation to exclude cerebral vascular and intracranial lesions. Under guidance and monitoring with digital subtraction angiography (DSA), a microcatheter was inserted into the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) via the femoral artery. Then, autologous white thrombi were introduced to block blood flow. Immediately following embolization, multisequence MRI was used to monitor cerebrovascular and brain parenchymal conditions. Twenty-four hours after embolization, 2 monkeys were sacrificed and subjected to perfusion, fixation and pathological examination. RESULTS: The cerebral ischemia model was established in 7 rhesus monkeys; one animal died during intubation. DSA and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) indicated the presence of an arterial occlusion. MRI showed acute local cerebral ischemia. HE staining revealed infarct lesions formed in the brain tissues, and thrombi were present in the cerebral artery. CONCLUSION: We established a rhesus macaque model of local cerebral ischemia by autologous thrombus placement. This model has important implications for basic and clinical research on cerebral ischemia. MRI and DSA can evaluate the models to ensure accuracy and effectiveness.

Humans , Animals , Male , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , China , Macaca mulatta , Models, Biological , Models, Cardiovascular
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 10-14, set. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040542


Los nacimientos prematuros son uno de los principales indicadores de salud de un país. Están asociados a una alta mortalidad e importante morbilidad en niños con parálisis cerebral y otros trastornos del neurodesarrollo, incluyendo problemas cognitivos y del aprendizaje. Los principales tipos de lesión encefálica en los recién nacidos prematuros son: a) las lesiones de la sustancia blanca, generalmente asociadas a alteraciones neuronales y axonales en la corteza cerebral y otras zonas de sustancia gris; b) hemorragias intracraneanas que incluyen las de la matriz germinal, intraventriculares e intraparenquimatosas y c) del cerebelo. Las lesiones de sustancia blanca incluyen la leucomalacia periventricular quística, no quística (con focos de necrosis microscópicos) y lesiones difusas de sustancia blanca, no necróticas. Estas lesiones tienen múltiples factores etiológicos. Las características anatómicas y fisiológicas de las estructuras vasculares periventriculares predisponen a la sustancia blanca a ser muy vulnerable a las situaciones de isquemia cerebral y, en interacción con factores infecciosos/inflamatorios, activan a las microglías generando estrés oxidativo (por liberación de radicales libres del oxígeno y del nitrógeno), liberación de citoquinas proinflamatorias, liberación de glutamato, fallo energético y alteración de la integridad vascular. Todo lo anteriormente mencionado genera una particular vulnerabilidad de los pre-oligodendrocitos que termina alterando la mielinización. La hipoxia-isquemia también puede producir necrosis neuronal selectiva en diferentes regiones encefálicas. La matriz germinal es un área altamente vascularizada en la región subependimaria periventricular con una estructura capilar muy frágil que la predispone a las hemorragias.

Preterm birth is one of the main country health indicators. It is associated with high mortality and significant morbidity in preterm newborns with cerebral palsy and potential long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities like cognitive and learning problems. The main lesions could be: a) white matter injuries, generally associated with cortical and other regions of grey matter neuronal-axonal disturbances; b) intracranial hemorrhage that includes germinal matrix, intraventricular and parenchymal, c) cerebellum injuries. The white matter lesions include cystic and non-cystic (with microscopic focal necrosis) periventricular leukomalacia and non-necrotic diffuse white matter injury. Multiple etiologic factors are associated with these injuries. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of periventricular vascular structures predispose white matter to cerebral ischemia and, interacting with infection/inflammation factors, activate microglia, generating oxidative stress (mediated by free oxygen and nitrogen radicals), pro-inflammatory cytokine and glutamate toxicity, energetic failure and vascular integrity disturbances. All these factors lead to a particular vulnerability of pre-oligodendrocytes that will affect myelination. Hypoxia-ischemia also may produce selective neuronal necrosis in different cerebral regions. Germinal matrix is a highly vascularized zone beneath ependymal or periventricular region that constitutes a capillary bed with a particular structural fragility that predispose it to hemorrhage.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Leukomalacia, Periventricular/etiology , Brain Injuries/etiology , Infant, Premature , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Cerebral Palsy/etiology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/etiology , Brain Injuries/mortality , Brain Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/mortality , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Palsy/mortality , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/mortality , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/pathology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(3): 342-347, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041041


SUMMARY Background: To compare the treatment efficacy of different types of endovascular mechanical embolectomy in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Material and Methods: A total of 89 patients with AIS were selected in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2016 and divided into tPA group (n=27), tPA+Trevo group (n=30) and tPA+Solitaire FR group (n=32) for different treatments. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated using NIHSS and mRS system. The NIHSS score, vascular recanalization rate and postoperative complications were compared among groups. Results: The NIHSS score of the tPA group was significantly lower than that of other two groups at 1 d after the operation (p < 0.05), but it was significantly higher than that of other two groups at 3 d and 3 w after the operation (p < 0.05). After the treatment, no significant difference in NIHSS score was found between the tPA+Trevo and tPA Solitaire FR groups. The revascularization rate was significantly higher, but the mortality rate in 90 d was significantly lower in the tPA+Trevo and tPA+Solitaire FR groups than that in the tPA group (p < 0.05), and no significant difference was found between the tPA+Trevo and tPA+Solitaire FR groups. The incidence rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was significantly lower in the tPA+Solitaire FR group than that in tPA+Trevo group (p < 0.05) or tPA group (p < 0.01). Significantly more patients with mRS no higher than 2 points were found in the tPA+Trevo and tPA+Solitaire FR groups than those in tPA group (p < 0.05), and no significant difference was found between the tPA+Trevo and tPA+Solitaire FR groups. Conclusion: TPA+Solitaire FR is a type of thrombectomy that is superior to tPA and tPA+Trevo in the treatment of patients with AIS.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Comparar a eficácia do tratamento de diferentes tipos de embolectomia mecânica endovascular em acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo (AIS). MATERIAL E MÉTODOS Um total de 89 pacientes com AIS foi selecionado em nosso hospital de janeiro de 2014 a janeiro de 2016, e os pacientes foram divididos em: grupo tPA (n = 27), tPA + grupo Trevo (n = 30) e grupo tPA + Solitaire FR (n = 32) para diferentes tratamentos. A eficácia do tratamento foi avaliada usando NIHSS e sistema mRS. Escore NIHSS, taxa de recanalização vascular e complicações pós-operatórias foram comparados entre os grupos. RESULTADOS A pontuação NIHSS do grupo tPA foi significativamente menor do que a dos outros dois grupos em um dia após a operação (p < 0,05), mas foi significativamente maior do que nos outros dois grupos em três dias e três semanas após a operação (p < 0,05). Após o tratamento, não houve diferença significativa no escore NIHSS entre o grupo tPA + Trevo e o grupo tPA Solitaire FR. A taxa de revascularização foi significativamente maior, mas a taxa de mortalidade em 90 dias foi significativamente menor nos grupos tPA + Trevo e tPA + Solitaire FR do que no grupo tPA (p < 0,05) e não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos tPA + Trevo e tPA + Solitaire FR. A taxa de incidência de hemorragia intracraniana sintomática foi significativamente menor no grupo tPA + Solitaire FR do que no grupo tPA + Trevo (p < 0,05) ou no grupo tPA (p < 0,01). Significativamente mais pacientes com mRS não maiores que 2 pontos foram encontrados no grupo tPA + Trevo e tPA + Solitaire FR do que no grupo tPA (p < 0,05), e nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada entre os grupos tPA + Trevo e tPA + Solitaire FR. Conclusão O tPA + Solitaire FR é um tipo de trombectomia superior ao tPA e tPA + Trevo no tratamento de pacientes com EIA.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Brain Ischemia/surgery , Embolectomy/methods , Stroke/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Postoperative Complications , Cerebral Angiography/mortality , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Embolectomy/instrumentation , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Endovascular Procedures/instrumentation , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(1): 61-63, feb. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002588


La endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana, antiguamente conocida como endocarditis marántica, es una entidad infrecuente en la que se desarrollan vegetaciones estériles, compuestas por fibrina en las válvulas del corazón. Suele diagnosticarse en el momento de la autopsia o en enfermedades oncológicas avanzadas. Las neoplasias malignas más frecuentemente asociadas con esta entidad son las de pulmón, páncreas, estómago y adenocarcinomas de origen primario desconocido. Es necesario descartar la endocarditis infecciosa y establecer la presencia de vegetaciones valvulares mediante ecocardiografía. Presentamos el caso de una paciente con diagnóstico reciente de adenocarcinoma de estómago en estadio avanzado que presentó ceguera cortical e imágenes compatibles con isquemia cerebral. El ecocardiograma transesofágico mostró dos vegetaciones en válvula mitral. Los hemocultivos fueron negativos. Se enfatiza la importancia de sospechar endocarditis trombótica no bacteriana en enfermos con cáncer y embolismo sistémico.

Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, formerly known as marantic endocarditis, it is an infrequent entity in which sterile, fibrin vegetations develop on heart valve leaflets. It is often diagnosed at the time of autopsy or in late-stage malignancies. The most common malignancies associated with nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis are lung, pancreatic, gastric cancer and adenocarcinomas of an unknown primary site. Diagnosis requires ruling out infective endocarditis and establishing the presence of valvular vegetations using echocardiography. We report the case of a patient with a recent diagnosis of advanced gastric adenocarcinoma who presented with cortical blindness. The computed tomography was compatible with cerebral ischemia. The transoesophageal echocardiogram showed two vegetations in mitral valve. Blood cultures were negative. We emphasize the importance of suspecting nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis in patients with cancer and systemic embolism.

Humans , Female , Aged , Blindness, Cortical/etiology , Endocarditis, Non-Infective/complications , Stomach Neoplasms/complications , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Blindness, Cortical/pathology , Blindness, Cortical/diagnostic imaging , Endocarditis, Non-Infective/pathology
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(11): 1356-1360, nov. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985711


Giant cell arteritis is the most common vasculitis in patients aged over 50 years. We report an 89-year-old woman with significant weight loss and persistent frontal-occipital headaches lasting two months. The neurological examination at admission identified a decrease in visual acuity of the left eye, paralysis of the third cranial nerve of the right eye and alterations of body motility without objective signs of damage of the motor or sensitive pathways. Magnetic resonance imaging showed changes of the temporal artery wall and in both vertebral arteries, as well as bilateral cerebellar and occipital ischemic lesions. The Doppler ultrasound of the temporal arteries was compatible with Giant cell arteritis. Treatment with steroids was started. While receiving oral prednisone, the patient suffered new infarcts of the posterior territory, documented with a CAT scan.

Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Giant Cell Arteritis/diagnostic imaging , Basilar Artery/diagnostic imaging , Vertebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Oculomotor Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Temporal Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Giant Cell Arteritis/etiology , Giant Cell Arteritis/pathology , Basilar Artery/pathology , Vertebral Artery/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/etiology , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/pathology , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Oculomotor Nerve/pathology
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(6): 708-716, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961451


Background: Recently, five randomized controlled trials confirmed the efficacy and safety of endovascular treatment with or without intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke with large-vessel occlusion. Aim: To report patients with ischemic stroke treated with endovascular methods. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 104 patients aged 61 ± 15 years (54% males) with ischemic stroke who received endovascular treatment at a single medical center between 2009 and 2017. Results: Sixty one percent were treated with intravenous thrombolysis plus endovascular procedures and 39% with endovascular procedures alone. The median door-to needle time was 61 minutes and door-to femoral puncture was 135 minutes. The median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores on admission, 24 hours later and at discharge were 12,4 and 1 points, respectively. Middle cerebral artery was occluded in 60% of cases. Other frequent localizations where distal carotid artery in 17% and vertebro-basilar artery in 14%. Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) scale flow score after the procedure was 3 or 2b in 58% of cases and significantly correlated with NIHSS scores at 24 hours and discharge. Fifty percent of patients had a mRankin score < = 1 and ten patients died (9.6%). Eight percent had a symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Conclusions: The clinical improvement of these patients 24 hours after the procedure and at discharge demonstrate the effectiveness of endovascular treatment in ischemic stroke. The presence neurologists able to interpret multimodal images at the emergency room, the use of local guidelines, the availability of an experienced neuro-interventional team engaged with the workflow and the use of stent retrievers are strongly associated with good outcomes.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Stroke/therapy , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Time-to-Treatment
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(10): 692-696, Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888256


ABSTRACT Objective: To explore the influence of infarct location on long-term functional outcome following a first-ever arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in non-neonate children. Method: The MRIs of 39 children with AIS (median age 5.38 years; 36% girls; mean follow-up time 5.87 years) were prospectively evaluated. Infarct location was classified as the absence or presence of subcortical involvement. Functional outcome was measured using the modified Rankin scale (mRS) for children after the follow-up assessment. We utilized multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for the outcome while adjusting for age, sex, infarct size and middle cerebral artery territory involvement (significance < 0.05). Results: Both infarcts ≥ 4% of total brain volume (OR 9.92; CI 1.76 - 55.9; p 0.009) and the presence of subcortical involvement (OR 8.36; CI 1.76 - 53.6; p 0.025) independently increased the risk of marked functional impairment (mRS 3 to 5). Conclusion: Infarct extension and location can help predict the extent of disability after childhood AIS.

RESUMEN Objetivo: Para explorar la influencia de la localización del infarto sobre los resultados funcionales a largo plazo después de un primer ictus isquémico arterial (IIA) en ninos posterior a la edad neonatal. Métodos: Se evaluaron de forma prospectiva imágenes por RM de 39 ninos con IIA (mediana de edad: 5,38 años; 36% ninas; seguimiento promedio: 5,87 anos). La localización del infarto fue clasificada como ausencia o presencia de compromiso subcortical. El resultado funcional fue medido utilizando la escala modificada de Rankin (mRS) para ninos en una evaluación al final del seguimiento. Utilizamos modelos de regresión logística multivariada para estimar los odds ratios (ORs) para el resultado ajustado para la edad, sexo, tamaño del infarto y compromiso del territorio vascular de la arteria cerebral media (significancia < 0,05). Resultados: Tanto el tamaño del infarto > 4% del volumen encefálico total (OR 9,92; IC 1,76-55,9; p 0,009) como la presencia de compromiso subcortical (OR 8,36; IC 1,76-53,6; p 0,025) incrementaron independientemente el riesgo de presentar marcado compromiso funcional (mRS 3 a 5). Conclusión: La extensión y localización del infarto pueden ayudar a predecir la magnitud de la discapacidad posterior a un IIA durante la niñez.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Stroke/pathology , Prognosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Disability Evaluation
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(8): 662-670, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792511


ABSTRACT Collateral circulation is a physiologic pathway that protects the brain against ischemic injury and can potentially bypass the effect of a blocked artery, thereby influencing ischemic lesion size and growth. Several recent stroke trials have provided information about the role of collaterals in stroke pathophysiology, and collateral perfusion has been recognized to influence arterial recanalization, reperfusion, hemorrhagic transformation, and neurological outcomes after stroke. Our current aim is to summarize the anatomy and physiology of the collateral circulation and to present and discuss a comprehensible review of the related knowledge, particularly the effects of collateral circulation on the time course of ischemic injury and stroke severity, as well as imaging findings and therapeutic implications.

RESUMO A circulação colateral é um circuito fisiológico de proteção contra alterações isquêmicas que, potencialmente, evita os efeitos de uma oclusão arterial e com isso pode influenciar nas dimensões e no crescimento de uma lesão isquêmica. Vários estudos recentes forneceram informações a respeito do papel das colaterais na fisiopatologia do acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico e demonstraram a capacidade da circulação colateral de influenciar as taxas de reperfusão, recanalização, transformação hemorrágica e com isso desfecho clínico dos pacientes. O objetivo desta revisão é sintetizar a anatomia e a fisiologia da circulação colateral encefálica, apresentando e discutindo, o que se conhece atualmente acerca do seu efeito na cronologia e gravidade da lesão isquêmica, além dos achados de imagens e implicações terapêuticas.

Humans , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Collateral Circulation/physiology , Stroke/physiopathology , Blood Flow Velocity , Cerebral Angiography , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/diagnostic imaging
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(3): 324-328, May.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782894


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fat embolism syndrome may occur in patients suffering from multiple trauma (long bone fractures) or plastic surgery (liposuction), compromising the circulatory, respiratory and/or central nervous systems. This report shows the evolution of severe fat embolism syndrome after liposuction and fat grafting. CASE REPORT: SSS, 42 years old, ASA 1, no risk factors for thrombosis, candidate for abdominal liposuction and breast implant prosthesis. Subjected to balanced general anesthesia with basic monitoring and controlled ventilation. After 45 min of procedure, there was a sudden and gradual decrease of capnometry, severe hypoxemia and hypotension. The patient was immediately monitored for MAP and central catheter, treated with vasopressors, inotropes, and crystalloid infusion, stabilizing her condition. Arterial blood sample showed pH = 7.21; PCO2 = 51 mmHg; PO2 = 52 mmHg; BE = -8; HCO3 = 18 mEq L-1, and lactate = 6.0 mmol L-1. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed PASP = 55 mmHg, hypocontractile VD and LVEF = 60%. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. After 24 h of intensive treatment, the patient developed anisocoria and coma (Glasgow coma scale = 3). A brain CT was performed which showed severe cerebral hemispheric ischemia with signs of fat emboli in right middle cerebral artery; transesophageal echocardiography showed a patent foramen ovale. Finally, after 72 h of evolution, the patient progressed to brain death. CONCLUSION: Fat embolism syndrome usually occurs in young people. Treatment is based mainly on the infusion of fluids and vasoactive drugs, mechanical ventilation, and triggering factor correction (early fixation of fractures or suspension of liposuction). The multiorgânico involvement indicates a worse prognosis.

RESUMO JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A Síndrome da Embolia Gordurosa (SEG) pode acontecer em pacientes vítimas de politrauma (fratura de ossos longos) ou operações plásticas (lipoaspiração), comprometendo circulação, respiração e/ou sistema nervoso central. O presente relato mostra evolução de SEG grave após lipoaspiração e lipoenxertia. RELATO DO CASO: SSS, 42 anos, ASA 1, sem fatores de risco para trombose, candidata a lipoaspiração abdominal e implante de prótese mamária. Submetida à anestesia geral balanceada com monitorização básica e ventilação controlada. Após 45 minutos de procedimento, houve queda súbita e progressiva da capnometria, hipoxemia e hipotensão grave. Imediatamente foi monitorizada com PAM e cateter central, tratada com vasopressores, inotrópicos e infusão de cristaloides, obtendo estabilização do quadro. Amostra sanguínea arterial mostrou pH = 7,21; PCO2 = 51 mmHg; PO2 = 52 mmHg; BE = -8; HCO3 = 18 mEQ/l e lactato = 6,0 mmol/l. Ecocardiograma transtorácico mostrou PSAP = 55 mmHg, VD hipocontrátil e FEVE = 60%. Diagnóstico de embolia pulmonar. Após24 h de tratamento intensivo, a paciente evoluiu com anisocoria e coma com escala de glasgow 3. Realizada TC de encéfalo que evidenciou isquemia cerebral grave, hemisférica, com sinais de êmbolos de gordura em A. cerebral média D; o ecocardiograma transesofágico mostrou forame oval patente. Finalmente, após 72 h de evolução, a paciente evoluiu para morte encefálica. CONCLUSÃO: A SEG ocorre geralmente em jovens. O tratamento baseia-se principalmente na infusão de líquidos e drogas vasoativas, ventilação mecânica e correção do fator desencadeante (fixação precoce de fraturas ou suspensão da lipoaspiração). O comprometimento multiorgânico indica pior prognóstico.

Humans , Female , Adult , Lipectomy/adverse effects , Brain Ischemia/complications , Adipose Tissue/surgery , Embolism, Fat/complications , Abdomen/surgery , Respiration, Artificial , Syndrome , Severity of Illness Index , Brain Death/physiopathology , Brain Death/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Fatal Outcome , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Middle Cerebral Artery/physiopathology , Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Embolism, Fat/diagnostic imaging , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/physiopathology , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging , Perioperative Period , Intraoperative Complications/physiopathology , Intraoperative Complications/diagnostic imaging , Anesthesia, General
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1170951


INTRODUCTION: The histopathological features of the placenta are central for screening a lot of pregnancy related disorders associated to hemorrhagic-ischemic cerebral injury in preterm infants that can jeopardize his long term neurodevelopment. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between placental lesions and early hemorrhagic-ischemic cerebral injury in very low birth weight infants (VLBW). METHODS: This is a case-control study of VLBW born at Sardá Maternity Hospital, Buenos Aires, between 2006 and 2012. Inclusion criteria’s were gestational age ÔëÑ 24 and Ôëñ 32 weeks and birth weight between 500 g and 1500 g, Exclusion criteria’s were multiple pregnancy, congenital anomalies, intrauterine infections and mortality before 24 hours of life. RESULTS: 198 VLBW were included, 49 cases and 149 controls. There was no significant difference in the incidence of histopathological lesions between the groups, although inflammatory placental lesions predominated in cases (67,3

) compared with controls (48

, p= 0.018). Intraventricular hemorrhage was the most common injury. On bivariate analysis inflammation was the only placenta lesion associated with early hemorrhagic-ischemic cerebral injury (OR 7.0, 95

CI 1.54 - 31.71) whereas the risk of severe hemorrhagic-ischemic cerebral injury was twofold greater in the presence of inflammation (p= 0.20). After adjusting for perinatal variables, placental lesions were not independently associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic-ischemic cerebral injury. There was a trend towards lesser risk of hemorrhagic-ischemic cerebral injury with increasing gestational age. CONCLUSION: Placental injuries were not independently associated with hemorrhagic-ischemic cerebral injury within 72 hours of life, although inflammation showed a clear predominance un cases.

Placenta Diseases/pathology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Argentina , Chorioamnionitis/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Case-Control Studies , Time Factors , Female , Pregnancy , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Humans , Brain Ischemia/complications , Male , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature