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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 588-596, ago. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346511

ABSTRACT

Abstract Up to 15% of all strokes affect young patients and the incidence of ischemic stroke in this population is rising. Nevertheless, there is limited information of cerebrovascular events in this population both in our country and in Latin America. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of young adults with stroke in Argentina. This is a prospective, multicenter study of stroke in young adults (18 - 55 years) in Argentina. Patients presenting with a cerebrovascular event within 180 days were included. Stroke subtypes were classified according to TOAST criteria. A total number of 311 patients were enrolled (men 53.9%, mean age: 43.3 years). Ischemic strokes occurred in 91.8% (brain infarcts 82.6%, transient ischemic attack 9.2%) and hemorrhagic strokes in 8.2%. The most frequent vascular risk factors (including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes) were: hypertension 120 (41%), smoking 92 (31.4%), dyslipidemia 81 (27.6%) and, over weight/obesity: 74 (25.3%). Stroke subtypes were: large artery disease 12.3%, cardioembolism 7.5, small artery occlusion 11.5%, other defined etiology 27.1%, and undetermined etiology 41.6%. Our study demonstrates that vascular risk factors are very frequent in young adults with stroke. Our findings underline that urgent strategies are required for primary and secondary stroke prevention in this group of patients.


Resumen Aproximadamente un 15% de todos los ataques cerebrovasculares afectan a pacientes jóvenes y su incidencia estaría en aumento. Existe escasa información sobre el ataque cerebral en esta población tanto en nuestro país como en Latinoamérica. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue evaluar las características clínicas y los factores de riesgo de los adultos jóvenes con ictus en Argentina. Realizamos un estudio prospectivo y multicéntrico en adultos jóvenes (18-55 años) en Argentina, que presentaron un evento cerebrovascular dentro de los 180 días previos. Los subtipos de ictus se clasificaron según los criterios de TOAST. Se incluyeron un total de 311 pacientes (hombres 53.9%, edad media: 43,3 años). Los ataques cerebrovasculares isquémicos ocurrieron en el 91.8% (infartos cerebrales 82.6%, ataque isquémico transitorio 9.2%) y los eventos hemorrágicos correspondieron al 8.2%. Los factores de riesgo vascular más frecuentes (incluyendo los eventos isquémicos y hemorrágicos) fueron: hipertensión 120 (41%), tabaquismo 92 (31.4%), dislipidemia 81 (27.6%) y sobrepeso/obesidad: 74 (25.3%). Los subtipos de ictus isquémicos fueron: arteriopatía de gran vaso 12.3%, cardioembolismo 7.5%, oclusión de pequeña arteria 11.5%, otra etiología definida 27.1% y etiología indeterminada 41.6%. Los factores de riesgo vascular son muy frecuentes en los adultos jóvenes con ictus. Nuestros hallazgos subrayan que se requieren estrategias urgentes para la prevención primaria y secundaria del ictus en este grupo particular de pacientes en nuestro país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Stroke/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/etiology
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(6): 1144-1151, dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152951

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico (AVEi) e a doença arterial coronariana (DAC) coexistem frequentemente e compartilham fatores de risco para doença aterosclerótica. Segundo a American Heart Association , os subtipos de AVEi podem ser considerados equivalentes de risco para DAC, mas a evidência para o AVEi não-aterosclerótico não está bem definida. Além disso, o escore de cálcio coronário (CAC) é um marcador preciso para estimar o risco de DAC. Entretanto, a distribuição do CAC pelos subtipos de AVEi ainda não foi bem caracterizada. Objetivos Comparar o CAC entre os grupos de AVEi ateroscleróticos e não ateroscleróticos, e determinar quais covariáveis estão associadas a CAC alto no AVEi Métodos Em um estudo transversal, incluímos todos os pacientes com AVEi, com idades entre 45 a 70 anos no momento do acidente vascular, consecutivamente admitidos em um hospital de reabilitação entre agosto de 2014 e dezembro de 2016, sem DAC prevalente. Todos os pacientes passaram por tomografia computadorizada (TC), para medir o CAC. CAC≥100 foi considerado alto risco de DAC. O nível de significância foi p<0,05. Resultados Dos 244 pacientes estudados (média de idade de 58,4±6,8 anos; 49% do sexo feminino), 164 (67%) apresentavam etiologia não-aterosclerótica. As proporções de CAC≥100 foram semelhantes entre os grupos ateroscleróticos e não-ateroscleróticos (33% [n=26] x 29% [n=47]; p= 0,54). Entre todos os pacientes com AVEi, apenas os de idade ≥60 anos foram associados independentemente a CAC≥100 (RC 3,5; 95% IC 1,7-7,1), ajustado para hipertensão, dislipidemia, diabetes, sedentarismo, e histórico familiar de DAC. Conclusão O AVEi aterosclerótico não apresentou risco maior de DAC quando comparado ao AVEi não-aterosclerótico de acordo com o CAC. Apenas a faixa etária ≥60 anos - mas não a etiologia - foi associada independentemente a CAC≥100. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1144-1151)


Abstract Background Ischemic Stroke (IS) and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) frequently coexist and share atherosclerotic disease risk factors. According to the American Heart Association, IS subtypes may be considered CAD risk equivalents, but the evidence for non-atherosclerotic IS is uncertain. Additionally, the Coronary Calcium Score (CCS) is an accurate marker to address CAD risk; however, CCS distribution between IS subtypes is not well characterized. Objectives To compare the CCS between atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic IS groups; and to determine which covariates were associated with high CCS in IS. Methods This cross-sectional design included all patients with IS, 45 to 70 years of age at the time of the stroke, consecutively admitted to a rehabilitation hospital between August 2014 and December 2016, without prevalent CAD. All patients underwent CT scanning for CCS measurement. CCS≥100 was considered a high risk for CAD, with a significance level of p<0.05. Results From the 244 studied patients (mean age 58.4±6.8 years; 49% female), 164 (67%) had non-atherosclerotic etiology. The proportions of CCS≥100 were similar between the atherosclerotic and the non-atherosclerotic groups (33% [n=26] x 29% [n=47]; p= 0.54). Among all IS patients, only age ≥60 years was independently associated with CCS≥100 (OR 3.5; 95%CI 1.7-7.1), accounting for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, sedentarism, and family history of CAD. Conclusion Atherosclerotic IS did not present a greater risk of CAD when compared to non-atherosclerotic IS according to CCS. Only age ≥60 years, but not etiology, was independently associated with CCS≥100.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke , Calcium , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Middle Aged
3.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(11): 806-814, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055184

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a condition with a considerable incidence variation worldwide. In Brazil, the exact epidemiology of aneurysmal SAH is unknown. The most common presenting symptom is headache, usually described as the worst headache ever felt. Head computed tomography, when performed within six hours of the ictus, has a sensitivity of nearly 100%. It is important to classify the hemorrhage based on clinical and imaging features as a way to standardize communication. Classification also has prognostic value. In order to prevent rebleeding, there still is controversy regarding the ideal blood pressure levels and the use of antifibrinolytic therapy. The importance of definitely securing the aneurysm by endovascular coiling or surgical clipping cannot be overemphasized. Hydrocephalus, seizures, and intracranial pressure should also be managed. Delayed cerebral ischemia is a severe complication that should be prevented and treated aggressively. Systemic complications including cardiac and pulmonary issues, sodium abnormalities, fever, and thromboembolism frequently happen and may have na impact upon prognosis, requiring proper management.


RESUMO Hemorragia subaracnoidea aneurismática (aHSA) é uma condição com grande variação de incidência mundialmente. No Brasil, não dispomos de números epidemiológicos exatos. A apresentação clínica mais comum da HSA é a cefaleia, usualmente descrita como a pior da vida. A tomografia de crânio, quando feita nas primeiras 6 horas do ictus, tem uma sensibilidade próxima a 100%. É importante classificar a hemorragia utilizando escalas clínicas e radiológicas, como forma de padronizar a comunicação, e também predizer prognóstico. Para prevenção de ressangramento, ainda há controvérsias quanto aos níveis pressóricos ideais e uso de antifibrinolíticos. O tratamento definitivo do aneurisma, por sua vez, é fundamental, seja por meio endovascular ou cirúrgico. Hidrocefalia, crises epilépticas e a pressão intracraniana devem ser manejadas de forma apropriada. Isquemia cerebral tardia é uma complicação grave que deve ser prevenida e tratada agressivamente. Complicações sistêmicas, incluindo cardíacas, pulmonares, anormalidades de sódio, febre e tromboembolismo ocorrem frequentemente e podem ter impacto no prognóstico, necessitando de manejo adequado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Seizures/therapy , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/therapy , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Risk Factors , Hydrocephalus/etiology , Hydrocephalus/physiopathology , Hydrocephalus/therapy
4.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 550-559, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042035

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Many publications on coronary surgery and carotid stenosis (CS) can be found, but we do not have enough information about the relationship between ischemic stroke, CS and non-coronary cardiac surgery. Objectives: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors associated with the stroke and CS ≥50% in patients undergoing non-coronary surgeries. Objectives: We assessed 241 patients, aged 40 years or older, between 2009 and 2016, operated in Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Ponta Grossa-PR, Brazil. We perform carotid Doppler in patients 40 years of age or older before any cardiac surgery as a routine. The incidence and possible risk factors for CS ≥50% and perioperative stroke were analyzed by univariate statistical analysis. Results: 11 patients (4.56%) presented perioperative stroke. The risk factor for stroke was CS ≥50%: OR=5.3750 (1.2909-22.3805), P=0.0208. Eighteen patients (7.46%) had CS ≥50% and their risk factors were extracardiac arteriopathy: OR=18.6607 (6.3644-54.7143), P<0.0001; COPD: OR=3.9040 (1.4491-10.5179), P=0.0071; diabetes mellitus: OR=2.9844 (1.0453-8.5204), P=0.0411; recent myocardial infarction: OR=13.8125 (1.8239-104.6052), P=0.0110; EuroSCORE II higher P=0.0056. Conclusion: The incidences of stroke and CS ≥50% were 4.56% and 7.46%, respectively. The risk factor for stroke was CS ≥50% and for CS ≥50% were extracardiac arteriopathy, COPD, diabetes mellitus, recent myocardial infarction and higher EuroSCORE II.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Carotid Stenosis/etiology , Carotid Stenosis/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Reference Values , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Distribution , Risk Assessment , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Peripheral Arterial Disease/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 10-14, set. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040542

ABSTRACT

Los nacimientos prematuros son uno de los principales indicadores de salud de un país. Están asociados a una alta mortalidad e importante morbilidad en niños con parálisis cerebral y otros trastornos del neurodesarrollo, incluyendo problemas cognitivos y del aprendizaje. Los principales tipos de lesión encefálica en los recién nacidos prematuros son: a) las lesiones de la sustancia blanca, generalmente asociadas a alteraciones neuronales y axonales en la corteza cerebral y otras zonas de sustancia gris; b) hemorragias intracraneanas que incluyen las de la matriz germinal, intraventriculares e intraparenquimatosas y c) del cerebelo. Las lesiones de sustancia blanca incluyen la leucomalacia periventricular quística, no quística (con focos de necrosis microscópicos) y lesiones difusas de sustancia blanca, no necróticas. Estas lesiones tienen múltiples factores etiológicos. Las características anatómicas y fisiológicas de las estructuras vasculares periventriculares predisponen a la sustancia blanca a ser muy vulnerable a las situaciones de isquemia cerebral y, en interacción con factores infecciosos/inflamatorios, activan a las microglías generando estrés oxidativo (por liberación de radicales libres del oxígeno y del nitrógeno), liberación de citoquinas proinflamatorias, liberación de glutamato, fallo energético y alteración de la integridad vascular. Todo lo anteriormente mencionado genera una particular vulnerabilidad de los pre-oligodendrocitos que termina alterando la mielinización. La hipoxia-isquemia también puede producir necrosis neuronal selectiva en diferentes regiones encefálicas. La matriz germinal es un área altamente vascularizada en la región subependimaria periventricular con una estructura capilar muy frágil que la predispone a las hemorragias.


Preterm birth is one of the main country health indicators. It is associated with high mortality and significant morbidity in preterm newborns with cerebral palsy and potential long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities like cognitive and learning problems. The main lesions could be: a) white matter injuries, generally associated with cortical and other regions of grey matter neuronal-axonal disturbances; b) intracranial hemorrhage that includes germinal matrix, intraventricular and parenchymal, c) cerebellum injuries. The white matter lesions include cystic and non-cystic (with microscopic focal necrosis) periventricular leukomalacia and non-necrotic diffuse white matter injury. Multiple etiologic factors are associated with these injuries. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of periventricular vascular structures predispose white matter to cerebral ischemia and, interacting with infection/inflammation factors, activate microglia, generating oxidative stress (mediated by free oxygen and nitrogen radicals), pro-inflammatory cytokine and glutamate toxicity, energetic failure and vascular integrity disturbances. All these factors lead to a particular vulnerability of pre-oligodendrocytes that will affect myelination. Hypoxia-ischemia also may produce selective neuronal necrosis in different cerebral regions. Germinal matrix is a highly vascularized zone beneath ependymal or periventricular region that constitutes a capillary bed with a particular structural fragility that predispose it to hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Leukomalacia, Periventricular/etiology , Brain Injuries/etiology , Infant, Premature , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Cerebral Palsy/etiology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/etiology , Brain Injuries/mortality , Brain Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/mortality , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Palsy/mortality , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/mortality , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/pathology
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(11): 1356-1360, nov. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985711

ABSTRACT

Giant cell arteritis is the most common vasculitis in patients aged over 50 years. We report an 89-year-old woman with significant weight loss and persistent frontal-occipital headaches lasting two months. The neurological examination at admission identified a decrease in visual acuity of the left eye, paralysis of the third cranial nerve of the right eye and alterations of body motility without objective signs of damage of the motor or sensitive pathways. Magnetic resonance imaging showed changes of the temporal artery wall and in both vertebral arteries, as well as bilateral cerebellar and occipital ischemic lesions. The Doppler ultrasound of the temporal arteries was compatible with Giant cell arteritis. Treatment with steroids was started. While receiving oral prednisone, the patient suffered new infarcts of the posterior territory, documented with a CAT scan.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Giant Cell Arteritis/diagnostic imaging , Basilar Artery/diagnostic imaging , Vertebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Oculomotor Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Temporal Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Giant Cell Arteritis/etiology , Giant Cell Arteritis/pathology , Basilar Artery/pathology , Vertebral Artery/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/etiology , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/pathology , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Oculomotor Nerve/pathology
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(5): 462-468, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977451

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of patients developing ischemic stroke after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: From March 2012 to January 2017, 5380 consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary surgery were analyzed. Ninety-five patients who developed ischemic strokes after on-pump coronary surgery were included in the study, retrospectively. The cohort was divided into four subgroups [total anterior circulation infarction (TACI), partial anterior circulation infarction (PACI), posterior circulation infarction (POCI), and lacunar infarction (LACI)] according to the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP) classification. The primary endpoints were in-hospital mortality, total mortality, and survival analysis over an average of 30 months of follow-up. The secondary endpoints were the extent of disability and dependency according to modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results: The incidence of stroke was 1.76% (n=95). The median age was 62.03±10.06 years and 68 (71.6%) patients were male. The groups were as follows: TACI (n=17, 17.9%), PACI (n=47, 49.5%), POCI (n=20, 21.1%), and LACI (n=11, 11.6%). Twenty-eight (29.5%) patients died in hospital and 34 (35.8%) deaths occurred. The overall mortality rate of the TACI group was significantly higher than that of the LACI group (64.7% vs. 27.3%, P=0.041). The mean mRS score of the TACI group was significantly higher than that of the other groups (P=0.003). Conclusion: Patients in the TACI group had higher in-hospital and cumulative mortality rates and higher mRS scores. We believe that use of the OCSP classification and the mRS may render it possible to predict the outcomes of stroke after coronary surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Brain Ischemia/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/mortality , Kaplan-Meier Estimate
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(7): e7172, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889118

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects and mechanism of inactivated lactobacillus (ILA) on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (CIRI) in rats. In this experiment, 30 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, IRI groups, and ILA group. A middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model was prepared. The rats were killed after 24 hours of recovery of blood flow of cerebral ischemia resulting from 60-min occlusion. The cerebral infarction volume and neurological scores were assayed by staining and behavioral observation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were assayed by biochemical kits. Cell apoptosis was assayed by Tunnel and the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, IkB, and A20 were assayed by western blot. The neurobehavioral scores in IRI rats were significantly lower compared to the control group while ILA improved the neurobehavioral scores of the ILA groups. The cerebral infarction volume and neural cell apoptosis of rats in the ILA groups decreased significantly compared with those in the IRI group. In addition, MDA level in the ILA groups decreased whereas SOD activity increased compared to the IRI group. Moreover, ILA also inhibited the expression of TLR-4 and promoted the expression of IkB and A20. ILA inhibited the apoptosis of neural cells, decreased cerebral infarction volume, and reduced oxidative stress through inhibition of TLR-4/NF-kappa B signaling, improving neurobehavioral scores. Thus from the present study it was concluded that ILA has protective effect on CIRI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Apoptosis , Brain Ischemia/prevention & control , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/complications , Lactobacillus paracasei , Neuroprotective Agents/administration & dosage , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Disease Models, Animal , Down-Regulation , NF-kappa B/blood , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury/etiology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/blood
9.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(1): 30-35, Jan. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838854

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Alcohol consumption aggravates injuries caused by ischemia. Many molecular mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, including neurotransmitter expression, which is regulated by microRNAs. Objective: To evaluate the microRNA-219 and NMDA expression in brain tissue and blood of animals subjected to cerebral ischemia associated with alcoholism. Methods: Fifty Wistar rats were divided into groups: control, sham, ischemic, alcoholic, and ischemic plus alcoholic. The expression of microRNA-219 and NMDA were analyzed by real-time PCR. Results: When compared to the control group, the microRNA-219 in brain tissue was less expressed in the ischemic, alcoholic, and ischemic plus alcoholic groups. In the blood, this microRNA had lower expression in alcoholic and ischemic plus alcoholic groups. In the brain tissue the NMDA gene expression was greater in the ischemic, alcoholic, and ischemic plus alcoholic groups. Conclusion: A possible modulation of NMDA by microRNA-219 was observed with an inverse correlation between them.


RESUMO Algumas condições podem agravar os danos causados pelo processo isquêmico, tais como o consumo de álcool, e diversos mecanismos moleculares que estão envolvidos na fisiopatologia da isquemia cerebral, incluindo a expressão de neurotransmissores, e estes podem estar regulados por microRNAs. Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão de NMDA e do microRNA-219 no tecido cerebral e no sangue de animais submetidos à isquemia cerebral associada ao alcoolismo. Métodos: 50 ratos Wistar foram divididos em: controle, sham, isquêmico, alcoólico e isquêmico mais alcoólico. A expressão de microRNA-219 e de NMDA foram analisadas por PCR em tempo real. Resultados: Quando comparado com o grupo controle, o microRNA-219 no tecido cerebral foi menos expresso nos grupos isquêmico, alcoólico e associado. No sangue, este microRNA teve menor expressão no grupo alcoólico e no associado. Em relação à expressão do gene do NMDA, em tecido cerebral foi maior nos grupos isquêmico, alcoólico e no associado. Conclusão: Uma possível modulação de NMDA pelo microRNA-219 foi observada, com uma correlação inversa entre eles.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Alcoholism/complications , Immunohistochemistry , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
10.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 86(2): 157-162, abr.-jun. 2016. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-838365

ABSTRACT

Resumen La hipertensión arterial sistémica (HAS) es una de las condiciones más frecuentes que se ve en atención primaria de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y que tiene como consecuencias; dependiendo del "órgano blanco" que afecte, producir la cardiopatía isquémica, la vasculopatía cerebral o la nefropatía crónica. Dentro de la patogénesis de la HAS se encuentran implicados varios mecanismos fisiopatológicos; de los cuales actualmente, por señalar los más importantes y frecuentes, juegan un papel el incremento en los niveles de adrenalina, el sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona y en fecha reciente, mucho se menciona la participación de la resistencia a la insulina y la hiperinsulinemia. Dichos procesos conllevan un desequilibrio entre el tono simpático y el parasimpático, aunado a la hipersensibilidad por el sodio desencadenan uno de los mecanismos fisiopatogénicos de la HAS. Actualmente se define la HAS como el hallazgo de cifras de tensión arterial mayores a 140/90 mm Hg. Este es uno de los padecimientos que más afecta a la población mundial encontrando prevalencias en grupos etarios y de género de 45 al 55% en varones entre los 45 y 70 años y del 45 al 65% en mujeres de ese mismo grupo etario. En el 2013 se publicaron las guías clínicas más recientes para su tratamiento y las metas recomendadas, con lo que se ha logrado disminuir sus complicaciones y mortalidad; dentro de las que destacan enfermedades vasculares como la cardiopatía isquémica y la cerebral y renal. En el presente trabajo se comenta un caso clínico que ejemplifica las complicaciones secundarias en un diagnóstico tardío, el daño a "órgano blanco" por exposición a largo plazo y el inadecuado cumplimiento de las metas terapéuticas.


Abstract Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is one of the most common conditions seen in primary care of cardiovascular disease and whose consequences; depending on the "target organ" affecting produce ischemic heart disease, cerebral vascular disease or chronic kidney disease. In the pathogenesis of HAS are several physiopathological mechanisms involved; of which currently, to name the most important and frequent play a role in increasing adrenaline levels, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and recently, much the participation of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia mentioned. These processes lead to an imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic tone, coupled with hypersensitivity sodium trigger one of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of hypertension. SAH is currently defined as finding numbers of older blood pressure 140/90 mm Hg. This is one of the diseases that most affect the world population prevalences found in age and gender groups 45 to 55% in men between 45 and 70 years and 45 to 65% in women of the same age group. In 2013 most recent clinical guidelines for treatment and the recommended goals, which has managed to reduce its complications and mortality were published; among which include vascular diseases such as ischemic heart and brain and kidney. In this paper a case that exemplifies the secondary complications in late diagnosis, damage to "target organ" by long-term exposure and inadequate compliance with therapeutic goals discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Hypertension/therapy , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/prevention & control , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control , Goals , Hypertension/complications
11.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 57(1): 26-33, ene.-abr.2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-795860

ABSTRACT

La cirugía artroscópica de hombro en posición de silla de playa es una cirugía frecuente y se asocia a buenos resultados. Causa preocupación el reporte de casos de isquemia cerebral asociados a morbimortalidad. Este artículo hace una revisión de la literatura referente a estos casos, realizando un análisis de los factores involucrados y de los cambios que ocurren al sentar a un paciente bajo el efecto de la anestesia general y/o regional. Es muy importante que el equipo quirúrgico comprenda las limitaciones de la técnica y concilie una buena exposición quirúrgica junto con el menor impacto hemodinámico. Actualmente se sugiere sentar a los pacientes con ángulos no mayores a 45°, evitar errores en la lectura de la presión arterial, que traduzcan un adecuado flujo sanguíneo cerebral. Cuando se mide oxigenación cerebral mediante NIRS (ScO2) las mayores caídas de los valores se asocian a anestesia general en ventilación mecánica con hiperventilación y en ángulos de posición de 80-90°. La anestesia regional se asocia a menores caídas de ScO2, pero requiere de un equipo con experiencia...


Shoulder arthroscopic surgery performed in the beach chair position is common and is associated with good results. The report of cases of cerebral ischaemia associated with morbidity and mortality is a cause for concern. This article presents a review of the literature concerning these cases, as well as an analysis of the factors involved and the changes that occur in patients when the beach chair position is used under general or regional anaesthesia. It is very important that the surgical team understands the limitations of the technique, and combines a good surgical exposure along with the least haemodynamic impact. Beach chair positions with angles not greater than 45°, are now suggested in order avoid errors in the blood pressure reading, which may lead to an adequate cerebral blood flow. When measuring cerebral oxygenation using NIRS (ScO2), the biggest drops in the values are associated with general anaesthesia and mechanical ventilation with hyperventilation and position angles of 80-90 degrees. Regional anaesthesia is associated with lower falls of ScO2, but requires an experienced team...


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthroscopy/adverse effects , Arthroscopy/methods , Shoulder/surgery , Brain Ischemia/prevention & control , Arterial Pressure , Anesthetics/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Hemodynamics , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Oxygen Consumption , Patient Positioning , Posture , Risk Factors
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(9): e5287, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788941

ABSTRACT

Inflammation plays a pivotal role in ischemic stroke, when activated microglia release excessive pro-inflammatory mediators. The inhibition of integrin αvβ3 improves outcomes in rat focal cerebral ischemia models. However, the mechanisms by which microglia are neuroprotective remain unclear. This study evaluated whether post-ischemic treatment with another integrin αvβ3 inhibitor, the cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide-cGRGDdvc (LXW7), alleviates cerebral ischemic injury. The anti-inflammatory effect of LXW7 in activated microglia within rat focal cerebral ischemia models was examined. A total of 108 Sprague-Dawley rats (250–280 g) were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). After 2 h, the rats were given an intravenous injection of LXW7 (100 μg/kg) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Neurological scores, infarct volumes, brain water content (BWC) and histology alterations were determined. The expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)], and Iba1-positive activated microglia, within peri-ischemic brain tissue, were assessed with ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Infarct volumes and BWC were significantly lower in LXW7-treated rats compared to those in the MCAO + PBS (control) group. The LXW7 treatment lowered the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. There was a reduction of Iba1-positive activated microglia, and the TNF-α and IL-1β expressions were attenuated. However, there was no difference in the Zea Longa scores between the ischemia and LXW7 groups. The results suggest that LXW7 protected against focal cerebral ischemia and attenuated inflammation in activated microglia. LXW7 may be neuroprotective during acute MCAO-induced brain damage and microglia-related neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Peptides, Cyclic/therapeutic use , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Microglia/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 30(3): 365-372, July-Sept. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-756518

ABSTRACT

AbstractObjective:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for ischemic stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.Methods:From January 2010 to December 2012, 519 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery were analyzed prospectively. The sample was divided into two groups: patients with stroke per and postoperative were allocated in Group GS (n=22) and the other patients in the group CCONTROL (n=497). The following variables were compared between the groups: gender, age, carotid stenosis > 70%, diabetes on insulin, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral arteriopathy, unstable angina, kidney function, left ventricular function, acute myocardial infarction, pulmonary arterial hypertension, use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Ischemic stroke was defined as symptoms lasting over 24 hours associated with changes in brain computed tomography scan. The variables were compared using Fisher’s exact test, Chi square, Student’s t-test and logistic regression.Results:Stroke occurred in 4.2% of patients and the risk factors statistically significant were: carotid stenosis of 70% or more (P=0.03; OR 5.07; IC 95%: 1.35 to 19.02), diabetes on insulin (P=0.04; OR 2.61; IC 95%: 1.10 to 6.21) and peripheral arteriopathy (P=0.03; OR 2.61; 95% CI: 1.08 to 6.28).Conclusion:Risk factors for ischemic stroke were carotid stenosis of 70% or more, diabetes on insulin and peripheral arteriopathy.


ResumoObjetivo:O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os fatores de risco para acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca.Métodos:Entre janeiro de 2010 e dezembro de 2012, foram analisados prospectivamente 519 pacientes consecutivos submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. A amostra foi dividida em dois grupos: os pacientes com acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico (AVEi) trans e pós-operatório foram alocados no grupo GAVEi (n=22) e os demais pacientes no grupo CControle (n=497). As seguintes variáveis foram comparadas entre os grupos: sexo, idade, estenose carotídea >70%, diabetes em uso de insulina, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, arteriopatia periférica, função renal, angina instável, função do ventrículo esquerdo, infarto agudo do miocárdio recente, hipertensão arterial pulmonar, uso de circulação extracorpórea. Acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico foi definido como presença de sintomas de duração maior que 24 horas associados à alteração em tomografia de crânio. As variáveis foram comparadas, por meio do teste exato de Fisher, Qui quadrado, teste t de Student e regressão logística.Resultados:Verificou-se a ocorrência de acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico em 4,2% dos pacientes e os fatores de risco estatisticamente significativos foram: estenose carotídea de 70% ou mais (P=0,03; OR 5,07; IC 95%: 1,35 a 19,02), diabetes em uso de insulina (P=0,04; OR 2,61; IC 95%: 1,10 a 6,21) e arteriopatia periférica (P=0,03; OR 2,61; IC 95%: 1,08 a 6,28).Conclusão:Foram fatores de risco para acidente vascular encefálico isquêmico: estenose carotídea de 70% ou mais, presença de diabetes em uso de insulina e presença de arteriopatia periférica.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Perioperative Period , Stroke/etiology , Brain Ischemia/mortality , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Intraoperative Complications/etiology , Logistic Models , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/mortality , Treatment Outcome
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(5): 408-414, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746490

ABSTRACT

Objective The potential of computed tomography angiography (CTA) was assessed for early determination of stroke subtypes in a Brazilian cohort of patients with stroke. Method From July 2011 to July 2013, we selected patients with suspected hyperacute stroke (< 6 hours). Intracranial and cervical arteries were scrutinized on CTA and their imaging features were correlated with concurrent subtype of stroke. Results Stroke was documented in 50/106 selected patients (47.2%) based on both clinical grounds and imaging follow-up (stroke group), with statistically significant arterial stenosis and vulnerable plaques on CTA. Intracranial large artery disease was demonstrated in 34% of patients in the stroke group. Partial territorial infarct prevailed (86%) while artery-to-artery embolization was the most common stroke mechanism (52%). Conclusion Multidetector CTA was useful for the etiologic work-up of hyperacute ischemic stroke and facilitated the knowledge about the topographic pattern of brain infarct in accordance with its causative mechanism. .


Objetivo Avaliar o potencial da angiotomografia computadorizada multidetectores (ATCM) na determinação etiológica precoce do acidente vascular encefálico (AVE) e correlacionar o mecanismo causal com o padrão de infarto. Método De Julho de 2011 a Julho de 2013, foram selecionados os pacientes com suspeita clínica de AVE hiperagudo. Os achados da ATCM dos vasos intracranianos e cervicais foram correlacionados com a etiologia final do evento. Resultados AVE foi confirmado em 50/106 pacientes (47,2%). Estes apresentaram alterações angiográficas estatisticamente mais relevantes. Aterosclerose dos grandes vasos intracranianos esteve presente em 34% destes pacientes. O padrão radiológico topográfico de infarto mais comum foi o infarto territorial parcial (86%). A embolização arterio-arterial foi o mecanismo mais prevalente (52%). Conclusão A utilização da ATCM traz benefícios na detecção etiológica precoce dos pacientes com suspeita de AVE hiperagudo, além de possibilitar o entendimento do padrão radiológico topográfico de acordo com o mecanismo causal do evento isquêmico. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain Infarction/etiology , Brain Infarction , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia , Cerebral Angiography/methods , Multidetector Computed Tomography/methods , Acute Disease , Brazil , Brain Infarction/pathology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Early Diagnosis , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis/complications , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
15.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(1): 65-71, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745864

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors, imaging diagnosis, and clinical outcome of perinatal stroke. Methods Data was retrospectively collected from full-term newborns admitted to the neonatal unit of a level III maternity in Lisbon with cerebral stroke, from January 2007 to December 2011. Results There were 11 cases of stroke: nine were arterial ischemic stroke and two were cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. We estimated an incidence of arterial ischemic stroke of 1.6/5,000 births and of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis of 7.2/100,000 births. There were two cases of recurrent stroke. Eight patients presented with symptoms while the remaining three were asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed. The most frequently registered symptoms (8/11) were seizures; in that, generalized clonic (3/8) and focal clonic (5/8). Strokes were more commonly left-sided (9/11), and the most affected artery was the left middle cerebral artery (8/11). Transfontanelle ultrasound was positive in most of the patients (10/11), and stroke was confirmed by cerebral magnetic resonance in all patients. Electroencephalographic recordings were carried out in five patients and were abnormal in three (focal abnormalities n=2, burst-suppression pattern n=1). Eight patients had previously identified risk factors for neonatal stroke which included obstetric and neonatal causes. Ten patients were followed up at outpatients setting; four patients developed motor deficits and one presented with epilepsy. Conclusions Although a modest and heterogeneous sample, this study emphasizes the need for a high level of suspicion when it comes to neonatal stroke, primarily in the presence of risk factors. The prevalence of neurological sequelae in our series supports the need of long-term follow-up and early intervention strategies. .


Objetivo Estudar incidência, apresentação clínica, fatores de risco, resultado de exames de imagem e desfecho clínico do acidente vascular cerebral perinatal. Métodos Análise retrospectiva dos prontuários de recém-nascidos a termo internados com o diagnóstico de acidente vascular cerebral perinatal no Serviço de Neonatologia, de uma maternidade nível III, em Lisboa, de janeiro de 2007 a dezembro de 2011. Resultados Houve 11 casos de acidente vascular cerebral: nove isquêmicos arteriais e duas tromboses dos seios venosos. As incidências foram estimadas: para acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico arterial de 1,6/5.000 nascimentos; para trombose dos seios venosos de 7,2/100.000 nascimentos. Houve dois casos de recorrência. Oito doentes foram sintomáticos e três assintomáticos, com diagnóstico incidental. As convulsões foram o sintoma mais frequente (8/11): clônicas generalizadas (3/8) e clônicas focais (5/8). O território vascular esquerdo foi o mais afetado (9/11), particularmente a artéria cerebral média esquerda (8/11). A ecografia transfontanelar foi positiva na maioria dos doentes (10/11), sendo o diagnóstico confirmado por ressonância magnética cerebral em todos. Dos cinco doentes que realizam eletroencefalograma, três apresentaram alterações (alterações focais n=2 e padrão de surto-supressão n=1). Oito doentes apresentaram fatores de risco para acidente vascular cerebral neonatal, incluindo causas obstétricas e neonatais. Dez doentes foram acompanhados em ambulatório, dos quais quatro apresentaram défice motores e um apresentou epilepsia. Conclusão Apesar de uma amostra limitada e heterogênea, este estudo reforça a necessidade de um elevado nível de suspeita para acidente vascular cerebral perinatal, particularmente na presença de fatores de risco. A prevalência de sequelas neurológicas em nossa série reforça a necessidade de seguimento a longo prazo e de estratégias de intervenção precoces. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Age Factors , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Echoencephalography , Electroencephalography , Follow-Up Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/etiology , Time Factors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-206910

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to identify time-related changes in clinical, MRI, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings associated with ischemic stroke in dogs. Additionally, the association of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and tissue levels of interleukin (IL)-6 with clinical prognosis was assessed. Ischemic stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in nine healthy experimental dogs. The dogs were divided into three groups according to survival time and duration of the experimental period: group A (survived only 1 day), group B (1-week experimental period), and group C (2-week experimental period). Neurologic status was evaluated daily. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed according to a predetermined schedule. Concentration of IL-6 in CSF was measured serially after ischemic stroke. Postmortem examination was performed for all experimental dogs. During histopathological examination, variable degrees of cavitation and necrosis due to neuronal cytopathic effects, such as pyknotic nuclei and cytoplasmic shrinkage, were observed on the affected side of the cerebral cortex in all dogs. Immunohistochemistry specific for IL-6 showed increased expression in the ischemic lesions. CSF IL-6 concentrations and ischemic lesion volumes 1 day after ischemic stroke were significantly higher in group A compared to groups B and C.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Dogs , Female , Immunohistochemistry , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Stroke/pathology
17.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(3): 366-378, July-Sept. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-726786

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El accidente cerebrovascular es la segunda causa de muerte y la primera de discapacidad en el mundo, y más de 85 % es de origen isquémico. Objetivo. Evaluar en un modelo de infarto cerebral por embolia arterial el efecto de la atorvastatina y el meloxicam, administrados por separado y de forma conjunta, sobre la respuesta neuronal, los astrocitos y la microglia. Materiales y métodos. Se sometieron ratas Wistar a embolia de la arteria carótida y a tratamiento con meloxicam y atorvastatina, administrados por separado y conjuntamente, a las 6, 24, 48 y 72 horas. Se evaluó la reacción de las proteínas COX-2, GFAP y OX-42 en las neuronas, los astrocitos y la microglia mediante inmunohistoquímica y estudios morfológicos y de densitometría. Los datos obtenidos se evaluaron por medio de un análisis de varianza y de pruebas no paramétricas de comparación múltiple. Resultados. La isquemia cerebral por embolia arterial incrementó significativamente (p<0,001) la reacción de los astrocitos y la microglia, en tanto que la atorvastatina y el meloxicam, administrados por separado y de forma conjunta, la redujeron. La isquemia produjo acortamiento de las proyecciones de los astrocitos, engrosamiento celular, ruptura de las expansiones protoplásmicas (clasmatodendrosis) y cambios morfológicos en la microglia propios de diversas etapas de actividad. En las zonas circundantes del foco se incrementó la reacción inmunológica de la COX-2 y se redujo en el foco isquémico, en tanto que el meloxicam y la atorvastatina redujeron significativamente (p<0,001) la reacción inmunológica en la zona circundante del foco, restableciendo la marcación de la ciclooxigenasa en el foco isquémico. Conclusión. La combinación de meloxicam y atorvastatina atenúa la respuesta de los astrocitos y la microglia en el proceso inflamatorio posterior a la isquemia cerebral por embolia arterial, reduciendo la degeneración neuronal y restableciendo el equilibrio morfológico y funcional del tejido nervioso.


Introduction: Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the first cause of disability in the world, with more than 85% of the cases having ischemic origin. Objective: To evaluate in an embolism model of stroke the effect of atorvastatin and meloxicam on neurons, astrocytes and microglia. This evaluation was done administering each medication individually and in association. Materials and methods: Wistar rats were subjected to carotid arterial embolism and treatment with meloxicam and atorvastatin at 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Using immunohistochemistry, we evaluated the immunoreactivity of COX-2 protein, GFAP and OX-42 in neurons, astrocytes and microglia by densitometric and morphological studies. Data were evaluated by variance analysis and non-parametric multiple comparison. Results: Cerebral ischemia by arterial embolism increased significantly the reactivity of microglia and astrocytes (p<0.001), whereas it was reduced by atorvastatin, meloxicam and their association. Ischemia produced astrocytic shortening, cellular thickening, protoplasmic rupture expansions (clasmatodendrosis) and microglial morphological changes characteristic of various activity stages. In perifocal areas, immunoreactivity of COX-2 was increased and in the ischemic focus it was reduced, while meloxicam and atorvastatin significantly reduced (p<0.001) perifocal immunoreactivity, restoring the marking of cyclooxygenase in the ischemic focus. Conclusion: These results suggest that the meloxicam-atorvastatin association attenuates astrocytic and microglial response in the inflammatory process after cerebral ischemia by arterial embolism, reducing neurodegeneration and restoring the morphological and functional balance of nervous tissue .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Heptanoic Acids/therapeutic use , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Intracranial Embolism/complications , Nerve Degeneration/prevention & control , Pyrroles/therapeutic use , Thiazines/therapeutic use , Thiazoles/therapeutic use , Atorvastatin , /analysis , Astrocytes/drug effects , Astrocytes/pathology , Biomarkers , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Carotid Stenosis/pathology , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/analysis , Heptanoic Acids/administration & dosage , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Inflammation , Intracranial Embolism/pathology , Microglia/drug effects , Microglia/pathology , Nerve Tissue Proteins/analysis , Pyrroles/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Thiazines/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/administration & dosage
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(3): 388-391, mar. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-677349

ABSTRACT

We report a 40year-old male presenting in the emergeney room with headache, vértigo and left hemiparesis. A magnetic resonante imaging reporten a left cerebellar infarction with occlusion of the basilar artery ana dissection ofthe right vertebral artery. Thepatient experienced a clinical deterioration with the appearance ofa right hemiparesis. Therefore a brain angiography wasperformed alongwith a mechanical thrombolysis using a Solitaire FR® revascularization device. A thrombus located in the distal third ofthe artery was eliminated obtaining a complete perfusión ofthe artery. Thepatient had a satisfactory evolution.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Basilar Artery , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Mechanical Thrombolysis/instrumentation , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/complications , Treatment Outcome
19.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 140(4): 507-511, abr. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-643222

ABSTRACT

Background: Cocaine abuse is associated with an increased risk of cardiac and cerebrovascular events, such as myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, and ischemic stroke. The underlying mechanisms leading to these complications are not fully understood although intravascular thrombus formation and accelerated atherosclerosis are prominent findings. We report a 39-year-old male addicted to cocaine, who presented with three consecutive ischemic events characterized by an acute myocardial infarction and two ischemic strokes complicated by cardiac failure and severe neurological sequelae. The pathophysiology of cocaine-induce vascular damage and the management of the ischemic complications are discussed.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Cocaine-Related Disorders/complications , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 26(4): 670-672, out.-dez. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614764

ABSTRACT

Papillary fibroelastomas of the heart valves are benign, slow-growing, rare tumors of the heart. This tumor represents a potential cause of systemic embolism, stroke, myocardial infarction and sudden death. Early diagnosis is very important, as surgical excision of these tumors can prevent cerebrovascular and cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is usually made by transesophageal echocardiogram. We describe two cases of patients with papillary fibroelastomas causing cardioembolic cerebral events, which underwent successful surgical treatment. The authors present a brief review of the literature.


Fibroelastoma papilífero é um tumor benigno, raro e de crescimento lento, que geralmente tem origem no endocárdio das valvas cardíacas. Este tumor representa uma causa potencial de embolia sistêmica, infarto agudo do miocárdio, acidente vascular cerebral e morte súbita. O diagnóstico precoce é fundamental, já que a excisão cirúrgica pode evitar complicações cerebrovasculares e cardiovasculares. O diagnóstico geralmente é feito pelo ecocardiograma transesofágico. Neste trabalho, são descritos dois casos de pacientes com fibroelastoma papilífero de valva aórtica, causando eventos cerebrais cardioembólicos, que foram submetidos com sucesso a tratamento cirúrgico. Apresenta-se, ainda, uma sucinta revisão da literatura.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Fibroma/complications , Heart Neoplasms/complications , Papillary Muscles , Aortic Valve , Diagnosis, Differential , Fibroma , Heart Neoplasms , Papillary Muscles
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