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Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 393-408, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971565


Glioma is the most common and lethal intrinsic primary tumor of the brain. Its controversial origins may contribute to its heterogeneity, creating challenges and difficulties in the development of therapies. Among the components constituting tumors, glioma stem cells are highly plastic subpopulations that are thought to be the site of tumor initiation. Neural stem cells/progenitor cells and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells are possible lineage groups populating the bulk of the tumor, in which gene mutations related to cell-cycle or metabolic enzymes dramatically affect this transformation. Novel approaches have revealed the tumor-promoting properties of distinct tumor cell states, glial, neural, and immune cell populations in the tumor microenvironment. Communication between tumor cells and other normal cells manipulate tumor progression and influence sensitivity to therapy. Here, we discuss the heterogeneity and relevant functions of tumor cell state, microglia, monocyte-derived macrophages, and neurons in glioma, highlighting their bilateral effects on tumors. Finally, we describe potential therapeutic approaches and targets beyond standard treatments.

Humans , Glioma/metabolism , Neuroglia/metabolism , Carcinogenesis/pathology , Neural Stem Cells/metabolism , Microglia/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 419-436, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927681


Objective@#To investigate the function of primary cilia in regulating the cellular response to temozolomide (TMZ) and ionizing radiation (IR) in glioblastoma (GBM).@*Methods@#GBM cells were treated with TMZ or X-ray/carbon ion. The primary cilia were examined by immunostaining with Arl13b and γ-tubulin, and the cellular resistance ability was measured by cell viability assay or survival fraction assay. Combining with cilia ablation by IFT88 depletion or chloral hydrate and induction by lithium chloride, the autophagy was measured by acridine orange staining assay. The DNA damage repair ability was estimated by the kinetic curve of γH2AX foci, and the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activation was detected by immunostaining assay.@*Results@#Primary cilia were frequently preserved in GBM, and the induction of ciliogenesis decreased cell proliferation. TMZ and IR promoted ciliogenesis in dose- and time-dependent manners, and the suppression of ciliogenesis significantly enhanced the cellular sensitivity to TMZ and IR. The inhibition of ciliogenesis elevated the lethal effects of TMZ and IR via the impairment of autophagy and DNA damage repair. The interference of ciliogenesis reduced DNA-PK activation, and the knockdown of DNA-PK led to cilium formation and elongation.@*Conclusion@#Primary cilia play a vital role in regulating the cellular sensitivity to TMZ and IR in GBM cells through mediating autophagy and DNA damage repair.

Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/therapeutic use , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , DNA/therapeutic use , Glioblastoma/metabolism , Radiation, Ionizing , Temozolomide/therapeutic use
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 800-804, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012356


El glioblastoma multiforme es el subtipo de gliomas más frecuente en adultos, con una pobre sobrevida promedio posterior al diagnóstico incluso si se aplica el tratamiento óptimo. Se ha estudiado marcadores tumorales de buen pronóstico, siendo controversial la expresión del homólogo de fosfatasa y tensina. Se estudió muestras parafinadas obtenidas de pacientes con glioblastoma multiforme en el Hospital Carlos Van Buren de Valparaíso, Chile, entre 2010 y 2014. Se realizó análisis inmunohistoquímico para expresión de homólogo de fosfatasa y tensina, estudiándose la intensidad y el patrón de expresión en astrocitos y células epiteliales, además de revisión de datos clínicos. Análisis estadístico utilizando SPSS v20. Se estudió la expresión de PTEN en 21 pacientes. Un 52,4 % presentó una baja expresión en núcleos de astrocitos, con un promedio de sobrevida de 14,2 meses comparado con 10,2 meses del grupo con alta expresión (p=0,33). Se encontró una intensa expresión endotelial en tejido tumoral, comparado con tejido cerebral sin tumor. Se encontró una relación entre la expresión nuclear en astrocitos con diferencias en el tiempo de sobrevida, aunque no estadísticamente significativa, requiriéndose nuevos estudios para corroborarlo. La intensa expresión endotelial observada en tejido tumoral debe ser analizada de forma dirigida.

Glioblastoma multiforme is the most frequent glioma subtype in adults, with poor survival rate after diagnosis even applying the optimal treatment. Tumoural markers have been studied looking for good prognosis, being the phosphatase and tensin homologue controversial. Paraffined samples were used from Carlos Van Buren Hospital in Valparaíso, Chile, between 2010 and 2014. An immunohistochemical analysis was performed looking for phosphatase and tensing homologue expression, studying the intensity and expression pattern in astrocytes and epithelial cells, in addition to clinical data. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v20. It was studied the phosphatase and tensin homologue expression in 21 patients. In the study, 52,4 % presented low expression in astrocytic glial cell nuclei, with a survival mean of 14.2 months in comparison to 10.2 months in the high expression group (p=0.33). A very intense endothelial expression was found in tumoural tissue, in comparison to the tissue without tumor. A relation between nuclear expression in astrocytes and survival rate was found, although no statistically significant. The intense endothelial expression seen in tumoural tissue must be studied directly.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Glioblastoma/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Survival Analysis , Astrocytes/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/metabolism
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 64(12): 1129-1133, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976809


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare estrogen receptor expression between low and high-grade astrocytomas. METHOD: A study using paraffin blocks of glial tumors from the Anatomy Pathology archives of São Marcos Hospital was carried out and began after approval by the Review Board of the Federal University of Piaui. Specimens were histochemically marked with an anti-ER alpha antibody. Brown-stained nuclei were considered positive, regardless of reaction intensity. Data were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's correlation. Statistical significance was established at p<0.05. RESULTS: The mean percentage of nuclei stained with anti-ER alpha in low-and high-grade astrocytomas was 0.04 and zero, respectively, while Spearman's correlation showed a strong negative association between low and high-grade tumors (p<0.001) and (r= −0.67), respectively. CONCLUSION: In the current study, estrogen receptor expression was positive only in low-grade astrocytomas and nil in high-grade astrocytomas, showing that ER expression declines with the grade of tumor malignancy.

RESUMO OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é comparar a expressão do receptor de estrogênio entre astrocitomas de baixo e alto grau. MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo usando blocos de parafina de tumores gliais dos arquivos de Anatomia Patológica do Hospital São Marcos e iniciado após aprovação pelo Comitê de Ética da Universidade Federal do Piauí. Os espécimes foram marcados histoquimicamente com anticorpo anti-ER alpha. Os núcleos corados em marrom foram considerados positivos, independentemente da intensidade da reação. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente utilizando o teste de Mann-Whitney e a correlação de Spearman. A significância estatística foi estabelecida em p<0,05. RESULTADOS: A porcentagem média de núcleos corados com anti-ER alfa em astrocitomas de baixo e alto grau foi de 0,04 e zero, respectivamente, enquanto a correlação de Spearman mostrou uma forte correlação negativa entre tumores de baixa e alta qualidade (p<0,001) e (r=-0,67), respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: No presente estudo, a expressão do receptor de estrogênio foi positiva apenas em astrocitomas de baixo grau e nula em astrocitomas de alto grau, mostrando que a expressão de ER diminui com o grau de malignidade tumoral.

Humans , Astrocytoma/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Astrocytoma/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Neoplasm Grading
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(12): 875-880, Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888280


ABSTRACT Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant glioma and represents 29% of all brain tumors. Tumorigenesis is intimately connected with characteristics acquired in the physiologic pathway of cellular death. Objective: In the present study, the expression of anti-apoptotic (XIAP and Bcl-2) and apoptotic (cytochrome C, caspase 9, APAF-1), caspase 3 and the Smac/DIABLO genes related to the apoptosis pathway were evaluated in 30 samples of glioblastoma. Methods: The gene expression was evaluated in 30 glioblastomas (WHO grade IV) and compared to 10 white matter control samples with real-time PCR. Results and Conclusion: There were higher expressions of XIAP (p = 0.0032) and Bcl-2 (p = 0.0351) in the glioblastoma samples compared to the control samples of normal brain. These results raise the question of whether Bcl-2 and XIAP genes can be responsible for the inhibition of programmed cell death in glioblastomas. Moreover, they provide additional information capable of allowing the development of new target therapy strategies.

RESUMO O glioblastoma (GBM) é o glioma mais maligno e representa 29% de todos os tumores cerebrais. A tumorigênese está intimamente ligada à características adquiridas na via fisiológica de morte celular. Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão de genes anti-apoptóticos (XIAP e Bcl-2) e apoptóticos (citocromo C, a caspase 9, APAF-1), caspase 3 e SMAC/DIABLO, relacionados à apoptose, em 30 amostras de tecido de pacientes com glioblastoma. Métodos: A expressão gênica foi avaliada em trinta glioblastomas e comparada a dez amostras controles de substância branca por PCR em tempo real. Resultados e Conclusão: Houve maior nível de expressão de XIAP (p = 0,0032) e Bcl-2 (p = 0,0351) em comparação com as amostras controle, de cérebro normal. Estes resultados levantam a questão de que os genes Bcl-2 e XIAP podem ser responsáveis pela inibição da morte celular programada em glioblastomas, além disso, proporcionam informação adicional capaz de permitir o desenvolvimento de novas estratégias de terapia alvo.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Apoptosis , Glioblastoma/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Glioblastoma/genetics , Glioblastoma/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Biol. Res ; 50: 31, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950882


BACKGROUND: MiR-320 is downregulated in multiple cancers, including glioma and acts as tumor suppressor through inhibiting tumor cells proliferation and inducing apoptosis. PBX3 (Pre-B cell leukemia homeobox 3), a putative target gene of miR-320, has been reported to be upregulated in various tumors and promote tumor cell growth through regulating MAKP/ERK pathway. This study aimed to verify whether miR-320 influences glioma cells growth through regulating PBX3. METHODS: Twenty-four human glioma and paired adjacent nontumorous tissues were collected for determination of miR-320 and PBX3 expression using RT-qPCR and western blot assays. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to verify the interaction between miR-320 and its targeting sequence in the 3' UTR of PBX3 in glioma cells U87 and U251. Increased miR-320 level in U87 and U251 cells was achieved through miR-320 mimic transfection and the effect of which on glioma cells growth, proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and activation of Raf-1/MAPK pathway was determined using MTT, colony formation, flow cytometry and western blot assays. PBX3 knockdown was performed using shPBX3 and the influence on MAPK pathway activation was evaluated. RESULTS: MiR-320 downregulation and PBX3 upregulation was found in glioma tissues. Luciferase reporter assays identified miR-320 directly blinds to the 3' UTR of PBX3 in glioma cells. MiR-320 mimic transfection suppressed glioma cells proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Both miR-320 overexpression and PBX3 knockdown inhibited Raf-1/MAPK activation. CONCLUSION: MiR-320 may suppress glioma cells growth and induced apoptosis through the PBX3/Raf-1/MAPK axis, and miR-320 oligonucleotides may be a potential cancer therapeutic for glioma.

Humans , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Glioma/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Up-Regulation , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Glioma/pathology
Clinics ; 71(8): 481-486, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794633


Gliomas are the most common type of primary central nervous system neoplasm. Astrocytomas are the most prevalent type of glioma and these tumors may be influenced by sex steroid hormones. A literature review for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas was conducted in the PubMed database using the following MeSH terms: “estrogen receptor beta” OR “estrogen receptor alpha” OR “estrogen receptor antagonists” OR “progesterone receptors” OR “astrocytoma” OR “glioma” OR “glioblastoma”. Among the 111 articles identified, 13 studies met our inclusion criteria. The majority of reports showed the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas. Overall, higher tumor grades were associated with decreased estrogen receptor expression and increased progesterone receptor expression.

Humans , Male , Female , Astrocytoma/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism , Receptors, Progesterone/metabolism , Astrocytoma/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Grading
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-8, 2015. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950801


BACKGROUND: Gliomas are the most common primary tumors in the central nervous system. Due to complicated signaling pathways involved in glioma progression, effective targets for treatment and biomarkers for prognosis prediction are still scant. RESULTS: In this study we revealed that a new microRNA (miR), the miR-221, was highly expressed in the glioma cells, and suppression of miR-221 resulted in decreased cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion in glioma cells. Mechanistic experiments validated that miR-221 participates in regulating glioma cells proliferation and invasion via suppression of a direct target gene, the Semaphorin 3B (SEMA3B). The rescue experiment with miR-221 and SEMA3B both knockdown results in significant reversion of miR-221 induced phenotypes. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our findings highlight an unappreciated role for miR-221 and SEMA3B in glioma.

Humans , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Membrane Glycoproteins/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Semaphorins/pharmacology , MicroRNAs/antagonists & inhibitors , Cell Proliferation , Glioma/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Signal Transduction , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Movement , Blotting, Western , Semaphorins/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Glioma/metabolism , Luciferases/metabolism , Neoplasm Invasiveness
Indian J Cancer ; 2014 Apr-Jun; 51(2): 159-162
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154323


INTRODUCTION: Proteomics is increasingly employed in both neurological and oncological research, and applied widely in every area of neuroscience research including brain cancer. Astrocytomas are the most common glioma and can occur in most parts of the brain and occasionally in the spinal cord. Patients with high‑grade astrocytomas have a life expectancy of <1 year even after surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We extracted proteins from tumors and normal brain tissues and then evaluated the protein purity by Bradford test and spectrophotometry method. In this study, we separated proteins by the two‑dimensional (2DG) gel electrophoresis method, and the spots were analyzed and compared using statistical data. RESULTS: On each analytical 2D gel, an average of 800 spots was observed. In this study, 164 spots exhibited up‑regulation of expression level, whereas the remaining 179 spots decreased in astrocytoma tumor relative to normal tissue. Results demonstrate that functional clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) has considerable merits in aiding the interpretation of proteomic data. Proteomics is a powerful tool in identifying multiple proteins that are altered following a neuropharmacological intervention in a disease of the central nervous system (CNS). CONCLUSION: 2‑D gel and cluster analysis have important roles in the diagnostic management of astrocytoma patients, providing insight into tumor biology. The application of proteomics to CNS research has invariably been very successful in yielding large amounts of data.

Astrocytoma/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Cluster Analysis , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Humans , Neuroglia/metabolism , Principal Component Analysis , Proteomics/methods
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 487-492, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208258


OBJECTIVE: Permeability parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can be quantitative physiologic metrics for gliomas. The transfer constant (Ktrans) has shown efficacy in grading gliomas. Volume fraction of extravascular extracellular space (ve) has been underutilized to grade gliomas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ve in its ability to grade gliomas and to assess the correlation with other permeability parameters and ADC values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 33 patients diagnosed with pathologically-confirmed gliomas were examined by 3 T MRI including DCE-MRI and ADC map. A region of interest analyses for permeability parameters from DCE-MRI and ADC were performed on the enhancing solid portion of the tumors. Permeability parameters form DCE-MRI and ADC between low- and high-grade gliomas; the diagnostic performances of presumptive metrics and correlation among those metrics were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: High-grade gliomas showed higher Ktrans (0.050 vs. 0.010 in median value, p = 0.002) and higher ve (0.170 vs. 0.015 in median value, p = 0.001) than low-grade gliomas. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed significance in both Ktrans and ve for glioma grading. However, there was no significant difference in diagnostic performance between Ktrans and ve. ADC value did not correlate with any of the permeability parameters from DCE-MRI. CONCLUSION: Extravascular extracellular space (ve) appears to be comparable with transfer constant (Ktrans) in differentiating high-grade gliomas from low-grade gliomas. ADC value does not show correlation with any permeability parameters from DCE-MRI.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Contrast Media , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Extracellular Space/metabolism , Glioma/metabolism , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Neoplasm Grading , Permeability , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 101-107, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66235


PURPOSE: There are conflicting results surrounding the prognostic significance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status in glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Accordingly, we attempted to assess the influence of EGFR expression on the survival of GBM patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty three GBM patients who had received surgery and postoperative radiotherapy at our institute, between March 1997 and February 2006, were included. The evaluation of EGFR expression with immunohistochemistry was available for 30 patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: EGFR was expressed in 23 patients (76.7%), and not expressed in seven (23.3%). Survival in EGFR expressing GBM patients was significantly less than that in non-expressing patients (median survival: 12.5 versus 17.5 months, p=0.013). Patients who received more than 60 Gy showed improved survival over those who received up to 60 Gy (median survival: 17.0 versus 9.0 months, p=0.000). Negative EGFR expression and a higher radiation dose were significantly correlated with improved survival on multivariate analysis. Survival rates showed no differences according to age, sex, and surgical extent. CONCLUSION: The expression of EGFR demonstrated a significantly deleterious effect on the survival of GBM patients. Therefore, approaches targeting EGFR should be considered in potential treatment methods for GBM patients, in addition to current management strategies.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Glioblastoma/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiotherapy , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Treatment Outcome
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 593-601, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194142


Alpha-internexin (INA) is a proneuronal gene-encoding neurofilament interacting protein. INA is overexpressed mostly in oligodendroglial phenotype gliomas, is related to 1p/19q codeletion, and is a favorable prognostic marker. We studied INA expression in oligodendrogliomas (ODGs) and glioblastomas (GBMs) to verify its association with several molecular phenotypes, 1p/19q codeletion, and epidermal growth-factor-receptor (EGFR) amplification. A total of 230 low- and high-grade ODG and GBM cases was analyzed for INA expression by immunohistochemical staining; and 1p/19q and EGFR gene status was examined by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. INA was positive in 80.3% of ODGs and in 34.3% of GBMs. 1p/19q codeletion was detected in 77.0% of ODGs and 5.5% of GBMs. INA and 1p/19q codeletion were strongly correlated (P < 0.001). The specificity of INA expression for 1p/19q codeletion was 70.8%, while sensitivity was 100%; positive predictive value was 72.5%, and negative predictive value was 29.2% in all 228 tumors. INA expression was correlated with better progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0.001). In conclusion, INA expression has high specificity and sensitivity to predict 1p/19q codeletion, and it is well correlated with PFS of both ODGs and GBMs. Therefore, INA expression could be a simple, reliable, and favorable prognostic and surrogate marker for 1p/19q codeletion and long term survival.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 , Gene Deletion , Glioblastoma/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Intermediate Filament Proteins/genetics , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Oligodendroglioma/metabolism , Phenotype , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors/genetics
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(4): 345-353, Apr. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-581486


In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) is a technique capable of assessing biochemical content and pathways in normal and pathological tissue. In the brain, ¹H-MRS complements the information given by magnetic resonance images. The main goal of the present study was to assess the accuracy of ¹H-MRS for the classification of brain tumors in a pilot study comparing results obtained by manual and semi-automatic quantification of metabolites. In vivo single-voxel ¹H-MRS was performed in 24 control subjects and 26 patients with brain neoplasms that included meningiomas, high-grade neuroglial tumors and pilocytic astrocytomas. Seven metabolite groups (lactate, lipids, N-acetyl-aspartate, glutamate and glutamine group, total creatine, total choline, myo-inositol) were evaluated in all spectra by two methods: a manual one consisting of integration of manually defined peak areas, and the advanced method for accurate, robust and efficient spectral fitting (AMARES), a semi-automatic quantification method implemented in the jMRUI software. Statistical methods included discriminant analysis and the leave-one-out cross-validation method. Both manual and semi-automatic analyses detected differences in metabolite content between tumor groups and controls (P < 0.005). The classification accuracy obtained with the manual method was 75 percent for high-grade neuroglial tumors, 55 percent for meningiomas and 56 percent for pilocytic astrocytomas, while for the semi-automatic method it was 78, 70, and 98 percent, respectively. Both methods classified all control subjects correctly. The study demonstrated that ¹H-MRS accurately differentiated normal from tumoral brain tissue and confirmed the superiority of the semi-automatic quantification method.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Brain Neoplasms/classification , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Neoplasm Staging , Pilot Projects , Sensitivity and Specificity
Rev. méd. Chile ; 139(4): 415-424, abr. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597635


Background: Mortality rate is dramatically high in high grade brain tumors. The presence of multiple drug resistance transporters in glioblastoma multiforme, has contributed largely to the poor effcacy of targeted therapy against cancer in the central nervous system. Aim: To analyze the percentage of survival and mortality of patients with glioblastoma multiforme in a cohort of patients in Chile and to co-rrelate the chemo-resistance of these cells with the expression level of multiple drug resistance transporters. Materials and Methods: Eighteen biopsies of glioblastoma multiforme were obtained from patients at the Institute of Neurosurgery Dr. Asenjo (INCA). The tumor cells were obtained from primary cultures and the expression and activity of multiple drug resistance transporters was assessed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Population-based study was performed using the databases of the Department of Neurosurgery of INCA. Results: The number of patients with glioblastoma multiforme increased between 2007 and 2009, from 3.5 percent to 7.9 percent of total brain tumors. Mortality of these tumors is 90 percent at three years. A high expression and activity of the multiple drugs resistance associated protein 1 (Mrp1) transporter was observed in primary cultures of biopsies. Conclusions: We propose that Mrp1 activity is responsible for the chemo-resistance of the glioblastoma multiforme and inhibition of this transporter could represent a plausible strategy for the treatment.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Glioblastoma/drug therapy , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/mortality , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma/metabolism , Glioblastoma/mortality , Immunohistochemistry , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Survival Analysis , Tumor Cells, Cultured
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(2): 149-164, Feb. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-573658


High resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H MRS) can be used to detect biochemical changes in vitro caused by distinct pathologies. It can reveal distinct metabolic profiles of brain tumors although the accurate analysis and classification of different spectra remains a challenge. In this study, the pattern recognition method partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to classify 11.7 T ¹H MRS spectra of brain tissue extracts from patients with brain tumors into four classes (high-grade neuroglial, low-grade neuroglial, non-neuroglial, and metastasis) and a group of control brain tissue. PLS-DA revealed 9 metabolites as the most important in group differentiation: γ-aminobutyric acid, acetoacetate, alanine, creatine, glutamate/glutamine, glycine, myo-inositol, N-acetylaspartate, and choline compounds. Leave-one-out cross-validation showed that PLS-DA was efficient in group characterization. The metabolic patterns detected can be explained on the basis of previous multimodal studies of tumor metabolism and are consistent with neoplastic cell abnormalities possibly related to high turnover, resistance to apoptosis, osmotic stress and tumor tendency to use alternative energetic pathways such as glycolysis and ketogenesis.

Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Brain Neoplasms/classification , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Discriminant Analysis , Least-Squares Analysis , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Neoplasm Staging , Tissue Extracts
Clinics ; 66(10): 1747-1755, 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-601909


OBJECTIVES: 1) To correlate the methylation status of the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter to its gene and protein expression levels in glioblastoma and 2) to determine the most reliable method for using MGMT to predict the response to adjuvant therapy in patients with glioblastoma. BACKGROUND: The MGMT gene is epigenetically silenced by promoter hypermethylation in gliomas, and this modification has emerged as a relevant predictor of therapeutic response. METHODS: Fifty-one cases of glioblastoma were analyzed for MGMT promoter methylation by methylation-specific PCR and pyrosequencing, gene expression by real time polymerase chain reaction, and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: MGMT promoter methylation was found in 43.1 percent of glioblastoma by methylation-specific PCR and 38.8 percent by pyrosequencing. A low level of MGMT gene expression was correlated with positive MGMT promoter methylation (p = 0.001). However, no correlation was found between promoter methylation and MGMT protein expression (p = 0.297). The mean survival time of glioblastoma patients submitted to adjuvant therapy was significantly higher among patients with MGMT promoter methylation (log rank = 0.025 by methylation-specific PCR and 0.004 by pyrosequencing), and methylation was an independent predictive factor that was associated with improved prognosis by multivariate analysis. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: MGMT promoter methylation status was a more reliable predictor of susceptibility to adjuvant therapy and prognosis of glioblastoma than were MGMT protein or gene expression levels. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing methods were both sensitive methods for determining MGMT promoter methylation status using DNA extracted from frozen tissue.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , DNA Modification Methylases/genetics , DNA Repair Enzymes/genetics , Glioblastoma/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/genetics , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , DNA Methylation , DNA Modification Methylases/metabolism , DNA Repair Enzymes/metabolism , Gene Expression , Glioblastoma/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 68(5): 799-803, Oct. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-562812


The extracellular matrix (ECM) in the brain tissue is a complex network of glycoproteins and proteoglycans that fills the intercellular space serving as scaffolding to provide structural framework for the tissue and regulate the behavior of cells via specific receptors - integrins. There is enormous structural diversity among proteoglycans due to variation in the core protein, the number of glycosaminoglycans chains, the extent and position of sulfation. The lectican family of proteoglycans interacts with growth factors, hyaluronan and tenascin forming a complex structure that regulates neuronal plasticity and ion homeostasis around highly active neurons. In this review, we will discuss the latest insights into the roles of brain glycoproteins as modulators of cell adhesion, migration, neurite outgrowth and glial tumor invasion.

A matriz extracelular (ECM) no tecido cerebral é formada por uma rede complexa de glicoproteínas e proteoglicanas que preenchem o espaço intercelular participando como estrutura de sustentação do arcabouço tecidual regulando a função celular por interações com receptores específicos - as integrinas. Existe enorme diversidade estrutural entre as proteoglicanas, devido à variação na proteína central (core), à quantidade de cadeias de glicosaminoglicanas, ao grau e posição de grupamentos sulfato na molécula. As proteoglicanas lecticanas interagem com fatores de crescimento, com hialuronana e tenascina formando uma estrutura complexa regulando a homeostase de íons e a plasticidade neuronal. Neste artigo de revisão serão apresentados dados relevantes da literatura sobre o papel das glicoproteínas no microambiente do tecido cerebral, como moduladores da neuritogênese, da adesão, migração celular e invasividade de células tumorais de origem glial.

Humans , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Glioma/metabolism , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism , Brain Chemistry , Cell Adhesion , Cell Movement , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neuronal Plasticity
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 68(4): 603-607, Aug. 2010. graf, ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-555242


The unfavorable prognosis of malignant gliomas can also be explained by the incomplete knowledge of their molecular pathways. Studies regarding the regulatory process of apoptosis in glioblastoma (GBM), the most common malignant glioma, are few, and better knowledge of the expression of pro and anti-apoptotic proteins could collaborate with the development of new treatments founded on molecular basis. The objective of this study was to evaluate by immunohistochemistry the expression of caspase-3 and Bcl-2 in 30 samples of GBMs. The expression of caspase-3 (mean 17.67 percent) was lower than Bcl-2 (mean 30.92 percent), a statistically significant result (p<0.0001), suggesting low apoptotic activity in these tumors. Other studies of proteins related to the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway of apoptosis are required to provide additional information of this mechanism in GBMs.

O prognóstico desfavorável dos gliomas malignos também pode ser explicado pelo pouco conhecimento dos seus mecanismos moleculares. Estudos relacionados à regulação do processo de apoptose em glioblastoma (GBM), o glioma maligno mais comum, são poucos, e o melhor conhecimento da expressão de proteínas pró e anti-apoptóticas poderia colaborar com o desenvolvimento de novos tratamentos fundamentados sobre a base molecular. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar por imunohistoquímica, a expressão de caspase-3 e Bcl-2 em 30 amostras de GBM. A expressão de caspase-3 (média de 17,67 por cento) foi menor que a de Bcl-2 (média de 30,92 por cento), com resultado estatisticamente significante (p<0.0001), sugerindo menor atividade apoptótica nestes tumores. Outros estudos envolvendo proteínas relacionadas à via extrínseca e intrínseca da apoptose são necessários para fornecer informações complementares deste mecanismo em GBMs.

Female , Humans , Male , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , /metabolism , Glioblastoma/metabolism , /metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Apoptosis , Immunohistochemistry