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Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10107, 2021. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142578


Ketamine (KET) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist with rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects, but how the drug shows its sustained effects is still a matter of controversy. The objectives were to evaluate the mechanisms for KET rapid (30 min) and long-lasting (15 and 30 days after) antidepressant effects in mice. A single dose of KET (2, 5, or 10 mg/kg, po) was administered to male Swiss mice and the forced swim test (FST) was performed 30 min, 15, or 30 days later. Imipramine (IMI, 30 mg/kg, ip), a tricyclic antidepressant drug, was used as reference. The mice were euthanized, separated into two time-point groups (D1, first day after KET injection; D30, 30 days later), and brain sections were processed for glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), histone deacetylase (HDAC), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical assays. KET (5 and 10 mg/kg) presented rapid and long-lasting antidepressant-like effects. As expected, the immunoreactivities for brain GSK-3 and HDAC decreased compared to control groups in all areas (striatum, DG, CA1, CA3, and mainly pre-frontal cortex, PFC) after KET injection. Increases in BDNF immunostaining were demonstrated in the PFC, DG, CA1, and CA3 areas at D1 and D30 time-points. GFAP immunoreactivity was also increased in the PFC and striatum at both time-points. In conclusion, KET changed brain BDNF and GFAP expressions 30 days after a single administration. Although neuroplasticity could be involved in the observed effects of KET, more studies are needed to explain the mechanisms for the drug's sustained antidepressant-like effects.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Brain/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Ketamine/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Astrocytes , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Disease Models, Animal , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Histone Deacetylases
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(5): e10717, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180740


Scorpion venom is a Chinese medicine for epilepsy treatment, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP), a peptide isolated from the venom of Buthus martensii Karsch, has an anti-epileptic effect by reducing seizure behavior according to a modified Racine scale. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of SVHRP on temporal lobe epilepsy. The hippocampus and hippocampal neurons from kainic acid-induced epileptic rats were treated with SVHRP at different doses and duration. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting were used to detect the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), stromal interaction molecule (STIM), and calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (ORAI1). In the hippocampal tissues and primary hippocampal neuron cultures, SVHRP treatment resulted in increased mRNA and protein levels of BDNF and NPY under the epileptic condition. The upregulation of BDNF and NPY expression was positively correlated with the dose level and treatment duration of SVHRP in hippocampal tissues from kainic acid-induced epileptic rats. On the other hand, no significant changes in the levels of CREB, STIM, or ORAI1 were observed. SVHRP may exhibit an anti-epileptic effect by upregulating the expression of BDNF and NPY in the epileptic hippocampus.

Animals , Rats , Scorpion Venoms/toxicity , Epilepsy/chemically induced , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Peptides , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Hot Temperature , Hippocampus/metabolism , Kainic Acid/toxicity , Neurons
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(3): 237-246, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043526


Abstract Objective To assess the association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and acute stress disorder (ASD) in patients who have suffered physical trauma. Methods Data were collected at an emergency hospital in Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Participants were over 18 years of age, victims of physical trauma, and had been hospitalized for a minimum of 48 hours. A total of 117 hospitalized patients who agreed to participate in the research were grouped according to the shift in which blood was collected (38 subjects from the morning shift and 79 from the afternoon shift), had their BDNF levels measured and responded to other questionnaires. Respondents were further grouped by age into three ranges: 18-30, 31-50 and 51-70 years. Results We found a significant difference in the distribution of BDNF between the two shifts in which blood samples were collected, with the afternoon group having higher BDNF levels (U = 1906.5, p = 0.018). A difference was observed only between the 18-30 group and the 51-70 group in the afternoon shift (Umorning = 1107, pmorning = 0.575; Uafternoon = 7175, pafternoon = 0.028). Conclusions The population whose blood samples were collected in the afternoon showed significantly higher values of BDNF compared to those of the morning shift. This same population presented lower BDNF levels when associated with ASD subtypes A1, A2, and A. We hypothesize that the lower values of BDNF measured in the morning shift were due to a response to the circadian cycle of cortisol, whose action inhibits the expression of serum neurotrophins.

Resumo Objetivo Verificar a associação entre os níveis de fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF]) e transtorno de estresse agudo (TEA) em pacientes que sofreram trauma físico. Métodos Os dados foram coletados em um hospital de emergência de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os participantes eram maiores de 18 anos, vítimas de trauma físico e estavam hospitalizados por um período mínimo de 48 horas. Um total de 117 pacientes hospitalizados que concordaram em participar da pesquisa foram agrupados de acordo com o turno de realização da coleta de sangue (38 sujeitos no turno da manhã e 79 sujeitos no turno da tarde), tiveram seus níveis de BDNF medidos e responderam a outros questionários. Os entrevistados também foram agrupados por idade em três faixas etárias: 18-30, 31-50 e 51-70 anos. Resultados Encontramos uma diferença significativa na distribuição de BDNF entre os turnos, sendo que o grupo da tarde apresentou níveis maiores de BDNF (U = 1906,5, p = 0,018). Houve diferença entre o grupo de 18-30 anos e o de 51-70 anos no turno da tarde (Umanhã = 1107, pmanhã = 0,575; Utarde = 7175, ptarde = 0,028). Conclusões A população cuja coleta ocorreu à tarde apresentou valores significativamente maiores de BDNF em relação à coleta do turno da manhã. Esta mesma população apresentou menores níveis dessa neurotrofina quando associada com os subtipos A1, A2 e A de TEA. É possível hipotetizar que os menores valores de BDNF aferidos na coleta do turno da manhã se devam a uma resposta ao ciclo circadiano do cortisol, cuja ação inibe a expressão de neurotrofinas séricas.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Wounds and Injuries/psychology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Brazil , Hydrocortisone/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Surveys and Questionnaires , Circadian Rhythm , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/blood , Emergency Service, Hospital , Emergency Treatment/methods , Hospitalization , Middle Aged
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(9): 603-608, Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973951


ABSTRACT The neuropeptide orexin-A and its receptors are widely distributed in both hippocampal circuitry and pain transmission pathways. Objective: Involvement of the CA1 orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) on the modulation of orofacial pain and pain-induced changes in hippocampal expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was investigated. Methods: Orofacial pain was induced by an intra-lip injection of capsaicin (100 μg). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analysis were used to indicate changes in hippocampal BDNF and COX-2 expression, respectively. Results: Capsaicin induces a significant pain response, which is not affected by either orexin-A or SB-334867-A, an OX1R antagonist. However, an increased expression of COX-2 and decreased expression of BDNF was observed in the hippocampus of animals that received capsaicin or SB-334867-A (80 nM) plus capsaicin. Meanwhile, orexin-A (40 pM) attenuated the effects of capsaicin on the expression of COX-2 and BDNF. Conclusions: CA1 OX1R activation moderates capsaicin-induced neuronal inflammation and neurotrophic deficiency.

RESUMO O neuropeptídeo orexina-A e seus receptores estão amplamente distribuídos nos circuitos do hipocampo e nas vias de transmissão da dor. Objetivo: O envolvimento do receptor de orexina 1 CA1 (OX1R) na modulação da dor orofacial e alterações induzidas pela dor na expressão do hipocampo de ciclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) e fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (BDNF) foi investigado. Métodos: A dor orofacial foi induzida por injeção intra-labial de capsaicina (100 μg). A reação em cadeia da polimerase de transcrição reversa e a análise de imunotransferência foram utilizadas para indicar alterações na expressão de BDNF e COX-2 no hipocampo, respectivamente. Resultados: A capsaicina induz uma resposta significativa à dor, que não é afetada pela orexina-A ou pelo SB-334867-A, um antagonista do OX1R. No entanto, uma expressão aumentada de COX-2 e uma expressão diminuída de BDNF foi observada no hipocampo de animais que receberam capsaicina ou SB-334867-A (80 nM) mais capsaicina. Enquanto isso, a orexina A (40 pM) atenuou os efeitos da capsaicina na expressão de COX-2 e BDNF. Conclusões: A ativação de CA1 OX1R modera a inflamação neuronal induzida por capsaicina e a deficiência neurotrófica.

Animals , Male , Rats , Facial Pain/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Orexin Receptors/metabolism , Orexins/pharmacology , Hippocampus/metabolism , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Urea/pharmacology , Benzoxazoles/pharmacology , Capsaicin , Rats, Wistar , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/drug effects , Naphthyridines , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/metabolism
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 39(3): 196-201, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904580


Abstract Introduction The rationale of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a novel therapeutic approach in certain neurodegenerative diseases is based on their ability to promote neurogenesis. Hippocampal atrophy has been related to bipolar disorder (BD) in preclinical, imaging and postmortem studies. Therefore, the development of new strategies to stimulate the neurogenesis process in BD is crucial. Objectives To investigate the behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by transplantation of MSCs in a model of mania-like behavior induced by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX). Methods Wistar rats (n=65) received one oral daily dose of LDX (10 mg/kg) or saline for 14 days. On the 8th day of treatment, the animals additionally received intrahippocampal saline or MSC (1 µL containing 25,000 cells) or lithium (47.5 mg/kg) as an internal experimental control. Two hours after the last administration, behavioral and neurochemical analyses were performed. Results LDX-treated rats had increased locomotor activity compared to saline-saline rats (p=0.004), and lithium reversed LDX-related hyperactive behavior (p<0.001). In contrast, the administration of MSCs did not change hyperlocomotion, indicating no effects of this treatment on LDX-treated rats (p=0.979). We did not find differences between groups in BDNF levels (p>0.05) in the hippocampus of rats. Conclusion Even though these results suggest that a single intrahippocampal injection of MSCs was not helpful to treat hyperactivity induced by LDX and neither influenced BDNF secretion, we cannot rule out the possible therapeutic effects of MSCs. Further research is required to determine direct effects of LDX on brain structures as well as in other pathophysiological targets related to BD.

Resumo Introdução Células-tronco mesenquimais (CTMs) têm emergido como um promissor tratamento em diversas doenças neurodegenerativas devido a sua plasticidade e capacidade de regenerar tecidos. Estudos pré-clínicos, clínicos e de neuroimagem têm demonstrado a presença de atrofia hipocampal no transtorno bipolar (TB). Portanto, o desenvolvimento de tratamentos capazes de regenerar tecido lesado e estimular a neurogênese poderia ser útil. Objetivos Investigar mudanças comportamentais e neuroquímicas induzidas pelo transplante de CTMs no hipocampo de ratos em um modelo animal de mania induzido por dimesilato de lisdexanfetamina (LDX). Métodos Ratos Wistar (n=65) receberam LDX (10 mg/kg) ou solução salina por via oral durante 14 dias. No oitavo dia, os animais foram transplantados com injeção de CTMs ou solução salina (1 µL contendo 25.000 células) ou lítio (47,5 mg/kg) como controle interno do experimento. Duas horas após a última dose, foram realizadas análises comportamentais e neuroquímicas. Resultados Animais que receberam LDX tiveram um aumento da atividade locomotora comparados ao grupo que recebeu solução salina (p=0,004); já o lítio reverteu a hiperatividade locomotora desses animais (p<0,001). Os animais que receberam CTMs não apresentaram alterações no comportamento, indicando ausência de efeitos sobre hiperatividade locomotora. Os níveis de BDNF hipocampais não diferiram entre os grupos (p>0.05). Conclusão Não foi possível demonstrar efeitos neuroprotetores das CTMs, administradas em dose única, em um modelo animal de mania induzido por LDX. No entanto, não se pode descartar os possíveis efeitos terapêuticos das CTMs. Mais estudos são necessários para determinar os efeitos das CTMs em estruturas cerebrais e outros alvos fisiopatológicos relacionados ao TB.

Animals , Male , Bipolar Disorder/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Bipolar Disorder/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Rats, Wistar , Lithium Compounds/pharmacology , Antimanic Agents/pharmacology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate , Proof of Concept Study , Hippocampus/surgery , Hippocampus/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Motor Activity/drug effects , Motor Activity/physiology
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 39(2): 98-105, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904574


Abstract Introduction: Agonistic behaviors help to ensure survival, provide advantage in competition, and communicate social status. The resident-intruder paradigm, an animal model based on male intraspecific confrontations, can be an ethologically relevant tool to investigate the neurobiology of aggressive behavior. Objectives: To examine behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior in male Swiss mice exposed to repeated confrontations in the resident intruder paradigm. Methods: Behavioral analysis was performed in association with measurements of plasma corticosterone of mice repeatedly exposed to a potential rival nearby, but inaccessible (social instigation), or to 10 sessions of social instigation followed by direct aggressive encounters. Moreover, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) were measured in the brain of these animals. Control mice were exposed to neither social instigation nor aggressive confrontations. Results: Mice exposed to aggressive confrontations exhibited a similar pattern of species-typical aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors on the first and the last session. Moreover, in contrast to social instigation only, repeated aggressive confrontations promoted an increase in plasma corticosterone. After 10 aggressive confrontation sessions, mice presented a non-significant trend toward reducing hippocampal levels of CRF, which inversely correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. Conversely, repeated sessions of social instigation or aggressive confrontation did not alter BDNF concentrations at the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion: Exposure to repeated episodes of aggressive encounters did not promote habituation over time. Additionally, CRF seems to be involved in physiological responses to social stressors.

Resumo Introdução: Comportamentos agonísticos ajudam a garantir a sobrevivência, oferecem vantagem na competição e comunicam status social. O paradigma residente-intruso, modelo animal baseado em confrontos intraespecíficos entre machos, pode ser uma ferramenta etológica relevante para investigar a neurobiologia do comportamento agressivo. Objetivos: Analisar os mecanismos comportamentais e neurobiológicos do comportamento agressivo em camundongos Swiss machos expostos a confrontos repetidos no paradigma residente-intruso. Métodos: A análise comportamental foi realizada em associação com medidas de corticosterona plasmática em camundongos expostos repetidamente a um rival em potencial próximo, porém inacessível (instigação social), ou a 10 sessões de instigação social seguidas de encontros agressivos diretos. Além disso, o fator de liberação de corticotrofina (CRF) e o fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (BNDF) foram medidos no encéfalo desses animais. Camundongos controles não foram expostos à instigação social ou confrontos agressivos. Resultados: Os camundongos expostos a confrontos agressivos exibiram um padrão semelhante de comportamentos agressivos e não agressivos típicos da espécie na primeira e na última sessão. Em contraste com instigação social apenas, confrontos agressivos repetidos promoveram aumento na corticosterona plasmática. Após 10 sessões de confrontos agressivos, os camundongos apresentaram uma tendência não significativa de redução dos níveis de CRF no hipocampo, que se correlacionaram inversamente com os níveis plasmáticos de corticosterona. Por outro lado, sessões repetidas de instigação social ou confronto agressivo não alteraram as concentrações de BDNF no córtex pré-frontal e hipocampo. Conclusão: A exposição a episódios repetidos de encontros agressivos não promoveu habituação ao longo do tempo. Adicionalmente, o CRF parece estar envolvido nas respostas fisiológicas aos estressores sociais.

Animals , Male , Corticosterone/blood , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Aggression/physiology , Limbic System/metabolism , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Analysis of Variance , Habituation, Psychophysiologic/physiology , Housing, Animal , Mice
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 37(3): 143-151, jul. set. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764667


Objective:To investigate the effects of ethanol exposure in adolescent rats during adulthood by assesssing aggression and anxiety-like behaviors and measuring the levels of inflammatory markers.Methods:Groups of male Wistar rats (mean weight 81.4 g, n = 36) were housed in groups of four until postnatal day (PND) 60. From PNDs 30 to 46, rats received one of three treatments: 3 g/kg of ethanol (15% w/v, orally, n = 16), 1.5 g/kg of ethanol (12.5% w/v, PO, n = 12), or water (n = 12) every 48 hours. Animals were assessed for aggressive behavior (resident x intruder test) and anxiety-like behaviors (elevated plus maze) during adulthood.Results:Animals that received low doses of alcohol showed reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus as compared to the control group. No significant difference was found in prefrontal cortex.Conclusions:Intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence is associated with lower levels of BDNF in the hippocampus, probably due the episodic administration of alcohol, but alcohol use did not alter the level agression toward a male intruder or anxiety-like behaviors during the adult phase.

Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos da exposição ao etanol em ratos adolescentes durante a idade adulta sobre os comportamentos agressivos e semelhantes à ansiedade, bem como sobre as medidas de níveis de marcadores inflamatórios.Métodos:Os grupos de ratos Wistar machos (peso médio de 81,4 g; n = 36) foram alojados em grupos de quatro até o dia pós-natal (DPN) 60. Entre os DPNs 30 e 46, os ratos receberam um dos três tratamentos: 3 g/kg de etanol (15% w/v, oralmente, n = 16), 1.5 g/kg de etanol (12,5% w/v, oralmente, n = 12), ou água (n = 12) a cada 48 horas. Os comportamentos agressivos (teste residente-intruso) e semelhantes à ansiedade (labirinto em cruz elevado) foram avaliados durante a idade adulta dos animais.Resultados:Os animais que receberam doses menores de álcool mostraram níveis reduzidos de fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (BDNF) no hipocampo quando comparados ao grupo controle. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi verificada no córtex pré-frontal.Conclusões:A exposição intermitente ao álcool durante a adolescência é associada com menores níveis de BDNF no hipocampo, provavelmente divido a administração episódica de álcool, mas o uso não alterou o nível de agressão contra o macho intruso ou os comportamentos semelhantes à ansiedade durante a fase adulta.

Animals , Male , Central Nervous System Depressants/administration & dosage , Ethanol/administration & dosage , Binge Drinking/metabolism , Binge Drinking/psychology , Hippocampus/growth & development , Hippocampus/drug effects , Anxiety/physiopathology , Risk-Taking , Central Nervous System Depressants/adverse effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Prefrontal Cortex/growth & development , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Aggression/drug effects , Aggression/physiology , Aggression/psychology , Disease Models, Animal , Ethanol/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Interleukin-1alpha/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(8): 703-710, 08/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753052


Chronic ethanol consumption can produce learning and memory deficits. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptors affect the pathogenesis of alcoholism. In this study, we examined the expression of BDNF, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) in the hippocampus of a dog model of chronic alcoholism and abstinence. Twenty domestic dogs (9-10 months old, 15-20 kg; 10 males and 10 females) were obtained from Harbin Medical University. A stable alcoholism model was established through ad libitum feeding, and anti-alcohol drug treatment (Zhong Yao Jie Jiu Ling, the main ingredient was the stems of watermelon; developed in our laboratory), at low- and high-doses, was carried out. The Zhong Yao Jie Jiu Ling was effective for the alcoholism in dogs. The morphology of hippocampal neurons was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The number and morphological features of BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR-positive neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG), and the CA1, CA3 and CA4 regions of the hippocampus were observed using immunohistochemistry. One-way ANOVA was used to determine differences in BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR expression. BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR-positive cells were mainly localized in the granular cell layer of the DG and in the pyramidal cell layer of the CA1, CA3 and CA4 regions (DG>CA1>CA3>CA4). Expression levels of both BDNF and TrkB were decreased in chronic alcoholism, and increased after abstinence. The CA4 region appeared to show the greatest differences. Changes in p75NTR expression were the opposite of those of BDNF and TrkB, with the greatest differences observed in the DG and CA4 regions.

Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Alcohol Abstinence , Alcoholism/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Hippocampus/chemistry , Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism , Receptor, trkB/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/genetics , Chronic Disease , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression Regulation , Hippocampus/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor/genetics , Receptor, trkB/genetics
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 22(1): 179-200, Jan-Mar/2015.
Article in English | LILACS, BDS | ID: lil-741513


This article examines the politics of midwifery and the persecution of untitled female assistants in childbirth in early republican Peru. A close reading of late colonial publications and the works of Benita Paulina Cadeau Fessel, a French obstetriz director of a midwifery school in Lima, demonstrates both trans-Atlantic and local influences in the campaign against untitled midwives. Cadeau Fessel's efforts to promote midwifery built upon debates among writers in Peru's enlightened press, who vilified untrained midwives' and wet nurses' vernacular medical knowledge and associated them with Lima's underclass. One cannot understand the transfer of French knowledge about professional midwifery to Peru without reference to the social, political, and cultural context.

Este artigo analisa as políticas de práticas de parteiras profissionais e a condenação de parteiras leigas nos primórdios do Peru republicano. A leitura atenta de publicações de fins do período colonial e dos trabalhos de Benita Paulina Cadeau Fessel, obstetriz francesa diretora de uma escola de parteiras em Lima, revela influência tanto transatlântica como local na campanha contra as parteiras sem titulação. Cadeau Fessel promovia seu ofício com base em debates veiculados na imprensa peruana ilustrada, que aviltavam o conhecimento tradicional de amas de leite e parteiras leigas e as associavam às classes desfavorecidas. Só é possível compreender a transferência do conhecimento francês sobre trabalho de parteiras profissionais para o Peru relacionando-a ao contexto social, político e cultural.

Animals , Male , Antiparkinson Agents/pharmacology , Curcumin/pharmacology , Hippocampus/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Oxidopamine , Parkinsonian Disorders/drug therapy , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Cytoprotection , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Dopamine/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Hippocampus/pathology , Nerve Regeneration/drug effects , Norepinephrine/metabolism , Parkinsonian Disorders/chemically induced , Parkinsonian Disorders/metabolism , Parkinsonian Disorders/pathology , Parkinsonian Disorders/psychology , /metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, trkB/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(12): 1050-1056, 12/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727667


People who suffer from traumatic brain injury (TBI) often experience cognitive deficits in spatial reference and working memory. The possible roles of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) in learning and memory impairment in mice with TBI are far from well known. Adult mice subjected to TBI were treated with the COX-1 selective inhibitor SC560. Performance in the open field and on the beam walk was then used to assess motor and behavioral function 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days following injury. Acquisition of spatial learning and memory retention was assessed using the Morris water maze on day 15 post-TBI. The expressions of COX-1, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin (IL)-6, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), synapsin-I, and synaptophysin were detected in TBI mice. Administration of SC560 improved performance of beam walk tasks as well as spatial learning and memory after TBI. SC560 also reduced expressions of inflammatory markers IL-6 and PGE2, and reversed the expressions of COX-1, BDNF, PDGF-BB, synapsin-I, and synaptophysin in TBI mice. The present findings demonstrated that COX-1 might play an important role in cognitive deficits after TBI and that selective COX-1 inhibition should be further investigated as a potential therapeutic approach for TBI.

Animals , Brain Injuries/complications , Cerebral Cortex/injuries , Cyclooxygenase 1/physiology , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Learning/drug effects , Memory Disorders/drug therapy , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Blotting, Western , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Cerebral Decortication , Cyclooxygenase 1/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Dinoprostone/analysis , Dinoprostone/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hippocampus/metabolism , /blood , Maze Learning/drug effects , Memory Disorders/etiology , Memory Disorders/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis/metabolism , Recovery of Function/drug effects , Synaptophysin/analysis , Synaptophysin/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69673


In this study, we determined how rosiglitazone (RSG) differentially affected hippocampal neurogenesis in mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% fat). LFD and HFD were given to the mice for 8 weeks. Four weeks after initiating the LFD and HFD feeding, vehicle or RSG was administered orally once a day to both groups of mice. We measured cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus using Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX), respectively, as markers. In addition, we monitored the effects of RSG on the levels of DCX and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampal homogenates. At 8 weeks after the LFD feeding, the numbers of Ki67- and DCX-positive cells as well as hippocampal levels of DCX and BDNF were significantly decreased in the RSG-treated group compared to the vehicle-treated animals. In contrast, the numbers of Ki67- and DCX-positive cells along with hippocampal levels of DCX and BDNF in the HFD fed mice were significantly increased in the RSG-treated mice compared to the vehicle-treated group. Our data demonstrate that RSG can modulate the levels of BDNF, which could play a pivotal role in cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

Animals , Blotting, Western , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dentate Gyrus/growth & development , Diet, Fat-Restricted , Diet, High-Fat , Hippocampus/growth & development , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Neurogenesis/drug effects , Neuropeptides/metabolism , Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 35(3): 262-266, Jul-Sep/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-687934


Objective: To evaluate behavioral changes and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in rats subjected to ketamine administration (25 mg/kg) for 7 days. Method: Behavioral evaluation was undertaken at 1 and 6 hours after the last injection. Results: We observed hyperlocomotion 1 hour after the last injection and a decrease in locomotion after 6 hours. Immobility time was decreased and climbing time was increased 6 hours after the last injection. BDNF levels were decreased in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala when rats were killed 6 hours after the last injection, compared to the saline group and to rats killed 1 hour after the last injection. BDNF levels in the striatum were decreased in rats killed 6 hours after the last ketamine injection, and BDNF levels in the hippocampus were decreased in the groups that were killed 1 and 6 hours after the last injection. Conclusion: These results suggest that the effects of ketamine on behavior and BDNF levels are related to the time at which they were evaluated after administration of the drug. .

Animals , Male , Rats , Anesthetics, Dissociative/administration & dosage , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Brain/drug effects , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Amygdala/drug effects , Amygdala/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Corpus Striatum/drug effects , Corpus Striatum/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/drug effects , Hippocampus/metabolism , Motor Activity/drug effects , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Swimming , Time Factors
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98492


In this study, we explored the potentiality of human arginine decarboxylase (ADC) to enhance the survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) against unfavorable milieu of host tissues as the low survival of MSCs is the issue in cell transplantation therapy. To address this, human MSCs overexpressing human ADC were treated with H2O2 and the resultant intracellular events were examined. First, we examined whether human ADC is overexpressed in human MSCs. Then, we investigated cell survival or death related events. We found that the overexpression of human ADC increases formazan production and reduces caspase 3 activation and the numbers of FITC, hoechst, or propidium iodide positive cells in human MSCs exposed to H2O2. To elucidate the factors underlying these phenomena, AKT, CREB, and BDNF were examined. We found that the overexpression of human ADC phosphorylates AKT and CREB and increases BDNF level in human MSCs exposed to H2O2. The changes of these proteins are possibly relevant to the elevation of agmatine. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the overexpression of human ADC stimulates pro-survival factors to protect human MSCs against H2O2 toxicity. In conclusion, the present findings support that ADC can enhance the survival of MSCs against hostile environment of host tissues.

Apoptosis/drug effects , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Carboxy-Lyases/genetics , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/toxicity , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Phosphorylation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 6(1): 4-8, abr. 2012. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-640033


INTRODUCCIÓN: La epilepsia del lóbulo temporal se desarrolla como consecuencia de insultos cerebrales como trauma, infartos, infección o convulsiones. Los circuitos neuronales del lóbulo temporal, incluyendo al hipocampo, se reorganizan generando redes hiperexcitables, el foco epiléptico, proceso denominado epileptogénesis; en cambio, la corteza cerebral es más resistente a la reorganización. La epileptogénesis en el hipocampo está mediada en parte por óxido nítrico, sintetizado por la óxido nítrico sintasa neuronal y por la neurotrofina BDNF, cuyo receptor es TrkB. Estas proteínas están localizadas en las sinapsis excitadoras y podrían estar implicadas en la sensibilidad diferencial entre el hipocampo y corteza cerebral a la epileptogénesis. OBJETIVO: Lograr un acercamiento a los mecanismos que participan en la sensibilidad diferencial a la epileptogénesis entre el hipocampo y la corteza, después de convulsiones. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Se indujeron convulsiones en ratas mediante inyección de kainato. Se obtuvieron membranas sinápticas reselladas (sinaptosomas) de corteza e hipocampo. En ellas, se cuantificó la co-localización de óxido nítrico sintasa neuronal, TrkB y un marcador de sinapsis excitadoras (Prosap2) mediante técnicas inmunohistoquímicas. Los resultados expresados como por ciento promedio +/- error estándar se sometieron a prueba de t-student. RESULTADOS: TrkB y óxido nítrico sintasa neuronal aumentaron de 20,6 +/- 3,5 por ciento a 35,7 +/- 2,6 por ciento (p = 0,0008) y de 32,4 +/- 3,8 por ciento a 51,5 +/- 3,5 por ciento (p = 0,0003), respectivamente, en sinaptosomas excitadores hipocampales después de convulsiones. En sinaptosomas excitadoras de cerebro corteza no se observaron cambios significativos. DISCUSIÓN: óxido nítrico sintasa neuronal y TrkB se asocian a sinapsis excitadoras hipocampales después de convulsiones, pudiendo contribuir así a la epileptogénesis. La cerebrocorteza es resistente a esta reorganización molecular.

INTRODUCTION: Temporal lobe epilepsy develops as a consequence of brain insults such as trauma, stroke, infection, or seizures. The temporal lobe circuit, including the hippocampus, reorganizes generating hyper-excitable networks and, therefore, the epileptic focus, process called epileptogenesis. Where as, the cerebral cortex is more resistant to the reorganization. Temporal lobe epileptogenesis is mediated partly by neuronal nitric oxide synthase and the neurotrophin BDNF with its receptor TrkB. These proteins are localized at excitatory synapses and might be involved in the differential sensitivity of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex to epileptogenesis. OBJECTIVE: Getting closer to mechanisms involved in epileptogenesis differential sensitivity between the hippocampus and cortex after seizures. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Seizures were induced in rats by injection of kainic acid. Resealed synaptic membranes (synaptosomes) were obtained from cortex and hippocampus. Then the co-localization of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, TrkB and a marker of excitatory synapses (Prosap2/Shank3) was quantified by immunohistochemistry. The results were expressed as mean +/- standard error and subjected to t-student test. RESULTS: TrkB and neuronal nitric oxide synthase increased from 20.6 +/- 3.5 percent to 35.7 +/- 2.6 percent (p = 0.0008) and from 32.4 +/- 3.8 percent to 51.5 +/- 3.5 percent (p = 0.0003), respectively in excitatory hippocampal synaptosomes after seizures. In excitatory cerebrocortical synaptosomes no significant changes were observed. DISCUSSION: neuronal nitric oxide synthase and TrkB associate to excitatory hippocampal synapses after seizures, thereby probably contributing to epileptogenesis. The cerebral cortex is resistant to this molecular reorganization.

Male , Animals , Rats , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Epilepsy/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Receptor, trkB , Kainic Acid/administration & dosage , Carrier Proteins , Epilepsy/chemically induced , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Temporal Lobe/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Synaptosomes
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202342


This research was performed to investigate the differences of the transplanted cells' survival and differentiation, and its efficacy according to the delivery routes following spinal cord injury. Allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were transplanted intravenously (IV group) or intralesionally (IL group) at post-injury 1 day in rats. Behavioral improvement, engraftment and differentiation of the transplanted cells and the expression of neurotrophic factors of the transplanted groups were analyzed and compared with those of the control group. At 6 weeks post-injury, the mean BBB motor scales in the control, IV and IL groups were 6.5 +/- 1.8, 11.1 +/- 2.1, and 8.5 +/- 2.8, respectively. Regardless of the delivery route, the MSCs transplantation following spinal cord injuries presented better behavioral improvement. The differentiations of the engrafted cells were different according to the delivery routes. The engrafted cells predominantly differentiated into astrocytes in the IV group and on the other hand, engrafted cells of the IL group demonstrated relatively even neural and glial differentiation. The expressions of neuronal growth factor were significantly higher in the IL group (mean relative optical density, 2.4 +/- 0.15) than those in the control (2.16 +/- 0.04) or IV group (1.7 +/- 0.23). Transplantation of MSCs in the early stage of spinal cord injury gives a significant clinical improvement. However, the fate of the transplanted MSCs and expression of neuronal growth factors are different along the transplantation route.

Animals , Behavior, Animal , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Drug Administration Routes , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy , Transplantation, Homologous
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200107


Neurotrophins protect neurons against excitotoxicity; however the signaling mechanisms for this protection remain to be fully elucidated. Here we report that activation of the phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is critical for protection of hippocampal cells from staurosporine (STS) induced apoptosis, characterized by nuclear condensation and activation of the caspase cascade. Both nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived growth factor (BDNF) prevent STS-induced apoptotic morphology and caspase-3 activity by upregulating phosphorylation of the tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) receptor. Inhibition of Trk receptor by K252a altered the neuroprotective effect of both NGF and BDNF whereas inhibition of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) had no effect. Impairment of the PI3K/Akt pathway or overexpression of dominant negative (DN)-Akt abolished the protective effect of both neurotrophins, while active Akt prevented cell death. Moreover, knockdown of Akt by si-RNA was able to block the survival effect of both NGF and BDNF. Thus, the survival action of NGF and BDNF against STS-induced neurotoxicity was mediated by the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling through the Trk receptor.

Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Hippocampus/cytology , Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism , Neurons/cytology , PC12 Cells , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats , Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Staurosporine/pharmacology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44277


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of early motor balance and coordination training on functional recovery and brain plasticity in an ischemic rat stroke model, compared with simple locomotor exercise. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with cortical infarcts were trained under one of four conditions: nontrained control, treadmill training, motor training on the Rota-rod, or both Rota-rod and treadmill training. All types of training were performed from post-operation day 1 to 14. Neurological and behavioral performance was evaluated by Menzies' scale, the prehensile test, and the limb placement test, at post-operation day 1, 7, and 14. Both Rota-rod and treadmill training increased the expression of synaptophysin in subcortical regions of the ischemic hemisphere including the hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and thalamus, but did not affect levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor or tyrosin kinase receptor B. The Rota-rod training also improved Menzies' scale and limb placement test scores, whereas the simple treadmill training did neither. The control group showed significant change only in Menzies' scale score. This study suggests that early motor balance and coordination training may induce plastic changes in subcortical regions of the ischemic hemisphere after stroke accompanied with the recovery of sensorimotor performance.

Animals , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Dentate Gyrus/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Motor Activity , Neuronal Plasticity/physiology , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Physical Therapy Modalities , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, trkB/metabolism , Stroke/metabolism , Synaptophysin/metabolism , Thalamus/metabolism , Time Factors
Biol. Res ; 43(2): 251-258, 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-567540


Object recognition memory allows discrimination between novel and familiar objects. This kind of memory consists of two components: recollection, which depends on the hippocampus, and familiarity, which depends on the perirhinal cortex (Pcx). The importance of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for recognition memory has already been recognized. Recent evidence suggests that DNA methylation regulates the expression of BDNF and memory. Behavioral and molecular approaches were used to understand the potential contribution of DNA methylation to recognition memory. To that end, rats were tested for their ability to distinguish novel from familiar objects by using a spontaneous object recognition task. Furthermore, the level of DNA methylation was estimated after trials with a methyl-sensitive PCR. We found a signifcant correlation between performance on the novel object task and the expression of BDNF, negatively in hippocampal slices and positively in perirhinal cortical slices. By contrast, methylation of DNA in CpG island 1 in the promoter of exon 1 in BDNF only correlated in hippocampal slices, but not in the Pxc cortical slices from trained animals. These results suggest that DNA methylation may be involved in the regulation of the BDNF gene during recognition memory, at least in the hippocampus.

Animals , Male , Rats , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , DNA Methylation/physiology , Hippocampus/metabolism , Memory/physiology , Recognition, Psychology/physiology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/physiology , Hippocampus/physiology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369260


El Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Cerebro (BDNF) se ha relacionado con los síntomas cognitivos de la esquizofrenia, lo que se ha documentado en revisiones previas. Sin embargo, recientemente el foco de la investigación neurobiológica ha pasado de estudiar la esquizofrenia como enfermedad a estudiar las psicosis como grupo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue realizar una revisión actualizada de las publicaciones de los últimos cinco años (2013 a 2018) respecto a BDNF y síntomas cognitivos, tanto en esquizofrenia como en psicosis en general. Para esto se revisaron en PubMed los artículos con las palabras clave BDNF, cognitive y schizophrenia, y luego se repitió este proceso con la palabra psychosis. Como resultado, en el desarrollo del artículo se describe la manera en que distintos estudios, tanto en seres humanos como en modelos animales, dan cuenta de la relación entre BDNF y cognición, y de cómo influyen en ella elementos importantes como por ejemplo el género o el ejercicio. Sin embargo, se constata que aún la mayor parte de la investigación respecto a BDNF y síntomas cognitivos en psicosis se realiza en torno a la esquizofrenia como enfermedad. Por lo tanto, es necesario ampliar el estudio de la relación entre BDNF y síntomas cognitivos a cuadros psicóticos de distintos estadios y orígenes

Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) has been linked to cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia, which has been documented in previous reviews. However, recently the focus of neurobiological research has moved from studying schizophrenia as a disease to studying psychosis as a group. The main aim of this research was to carry out an updated review of all relevant publications in the last 5 years (2013 to 2018) regarding BDNF and cognitive symptoms, both in schizophrenia and in psychosis. In order to achieve this, the keywords BDNF, cognitive and schizophrenia were reviewed in PubMed, and then this process was repeated with the word psychosis. As a result, in this article we describe the way in which different studies, both in human beings and in animal models, account for the relation between BDNF and cognition, and for the way in which important elements such as gender or exercise influence it. However, we found that still most of the research regarding BDNF and cognitive symptoms in psychosis is done around schizophrenia as a disease. Therefore, it is necessary to expand the study of the relationship between BDNF and cognitive symptoms to psychotic illnesses of different stages and origins

Humans , Animals , Psychotic Disorders/metabolism , Schizophrenia/metabolism , Cognition , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77902


New-born cells continue to proliferate and survive to become mature granule cells in adult rat hippocampus. Although this process, known as neurogenesis, is inhibited by acute stress, it is not clear whether chronic stress affects neurogenesis. To determine whether chronic mild stress (CMS) influences neurogenesis in the adult rat hippocampus, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CMS and administered bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) before or after CMS to observe the survival/differentiation or proliferation of new-born cells, respectively. In addition, we measured brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA in the granule cell layer (GCL) of the hippocampus, because BDNF is known to play an important role in the survival of new-born cells. CMS significantly decreased the survival of newborn cells in the GCL, but did not influence the proliferation or differentiation of new-born cells. CMS did not affect the proliferation and survival of new-born cells in the hilus. In addition, CMS did not change BDNF mRNA levels in the GCL. These results demonstrate that CMS reduces the survival of new-born cells but not of their proliferation, suggesting that repeated mild stress could influence a part of neurogenesis, but not the whole part of neurogenesis. These results raise the possibility that the survival of new-born cells may be suppressed in the presence of normal BDNF mRNA levels in GCL.

Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Bromodeoxyuridine/administration & dosage , S100 Calcium Binding Protein G/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Comparative Study , Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Fluorescent Dyes , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , Hippocampus/cytology , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Male , Microscopy, Confocal , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Restraint, Physical , Rhodamines , Stress, Physiological/pathology