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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879521

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a Chinese pedigree affected with non-syndromic cleft lip and cleft palate (NSCLP).@*METHODS@#With informed consent obtained, members of the pedigree were subjected to clinical examination and history taking to exclude syndromic cleft lip and palate. One affected member was subjected to whole-exome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing and co-segregation analysis of her family members and 100 unrelated healthy individuals.@*RESULTS@#Whole-exome sequencing and co-segregation analysis showed that all affected members of this pedigree have carried a heterozygous missense c.253A>G (p.Cys85Arg) variant in exon 4 of the IRF6 gene, which has co-segregated with the phenotype and was not found among the 100 unrelated healthy individuals.@*CONCLUSION@#The missense c.253A>G variant in exon 4 of the IRF6 gene probably underlay the NSCLP in this pedigree.


Subject(s)
Brain/abnormalities , China , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Female , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factors/genetics , Mutation, Missense , Pedigree , Whole Exome Sequencing
2.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 130 p. ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-998563

ABSTRACT

Uma das principais dificuldades enfrentadas na dependência à cocaína está relacionada aos sintomas de abstinência, como ansiedade, desejo e irritabilidade. Estes efeitos podem durar meses ou anos após a interrupção do consumo prolongado, fazendo com que o indivíduo volte a procurá-la. Os efeitos recompensadores da cocaína levam a alterações neurobiológicas do sistema mesocorticolímbico dopaminérgico, que se origina na área tegmental ventral e se projeta para o núcleo accumbens, e córtex pré-frontal, áreas intimamente ligadas ao desenvolvimento da dependência. Esses neurônios dopaminérgicos recebem estímulos dos neurônios colinérgicos que contribuem para os aspectos cognitivos da dependência. Devido à complexidade neurobilógica envolvida durante a abstinência, pouco se sabe sobre as alterações no sistema colinérgico muscarínico durante este período no encéfalo, objetivo deste estudo. Para tal, camundongos machos adultos Swiss-Webster foram submetidos à cocaína em padrão agudo em binge (3×30 mg/kg/dia) e cronicamente por escalonamento de dose em binge por 14 dias (3×15 mg/kg/dia nos dias 1-4; 3×20 mg/kg/dia nos dias 5-8; 3×25 mg/kg/dia nos dias 9-12; e 3×30 mg/kg/dia nos dias 13 e 14). A atividade locomotora de cada animal foi avaliada em campo aberto (CA), onde permaneceram no aparato por 60 minutos entre cada administração. Após o período de exposição os animais permaneceram 14 dias em abstinência, a fim de avaliar a ansiedade no labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE). Em seguida os animais foram eutaniasiados, sendo o córtex pré-frontal (CPF), o estriado e o hipocampo dissecados e armazenados a -80ºC para a análise dos receptores dopaminérgicos D1 e D2, receptores colinérgicos muscarínicos M1, M2, M3, M4 e M5 (mAChRs) e moléculas colinérgicas (acetilcolinesterase, AChE; colina acetiltransferase, ChAT e transportador vesicular de acetilcolina, VAChT) por Western Blotting (n=6). Os resultados comportamentais mostraram maior atividade locomotora nos animais tratados com cocaína no tratamento agudo ou crônico, quando comparado ao basal. Mais ainda, a sensibilização comportamental foi detectada a partir do segundo dia de administração de cocaína. No teste de LCE, realizado 14 dias após a interrupção da administração de cocaína, não foi observada diferença estatística entre os animais previamente expostos à cocaína e grupo controle. No CPF observou-se diminuição de D2R, M1 mAChRs e aumento M2 e M4 mAChRs no tratamento agudo; no tratamento crônico houve diminuição de M1 e M5 mAChRs e ChAT. No estriado observou-se aumento de D1R, M1 e M2 mAChRs, ChAT no tratamento agudo; e aumento D1R, VAChT, ChAT e diminuição D2R, M1 e M2 mAChRs no tratamento crônico. Já no hipocampo observou-se aumento de D1R, D2R, M2 mAChRs, VAChT e diminuição M1 mAChRs no tratamento agudo; e aumento de D1R, VAChT e diminuição D2R, M1 mAChRs no tratamento crônico. Nossos resultados mostram envolvimento de processo de neuroplasticidade, tanto no sistema dopaminérgico quanto no colinérgico muscarínico, em ambos os protocolos utilizados, mesmo após 14 dias de abstinência


Una de las dificultades enfrentadas en la dependencia de cocaína son los síntomas de abstinencia, como ansiedad, deseo y irritabilidad. Estos efectos pueden durar meses o años después de la interrupción del consumo prolongado, haciendo que el individuo vuelva a consumirlo. Los efectos recompensadores de la cocaína causa alteraciones neurobiológicas del sistema mesocorticolímbico dopaminérgico, que se origina en el área tegmental ventral y se proyecta hacia el núcleo accumbens y córtex pré-frontal, áreas íntimamente ligadas al desenvolvimiento de la dependencia. Esas neuronas dopaminérgicas reciben estímulos de neuronas colinérgicas la cual contribuyen para los aspectos cognitivos de la dependencia. Debido a la complejidad neurobiológica involucrada durante la abstinencia, poco se sabe sobre las alteraciones del sistema colinérgico muscarínico durante este periodo en el encéfalo, objetivo de este estudio. Por tanto, ratones adultos macho Swiss-Webster fueron sometidos a cocaína en dosis padrón agudo en binge (3×30 mg/kg/día) y crónicamente por escalonamiento de dosis en binge por 14 días (3×15 mg/kg/día en los días 1-4; 3×20 mg/kg/día en los días 5-8; 3×25 mg/kg/día en los días 9-12; y 3×30 mg/kg/día en los días 13 e 14). La actividad locomotora de cada animal fue evaluada en el test de campo abierto (CA), donde permanecieron por 60 minutos entre cada administración. Después del periodo de exposición los animales permanecieron 14 días de abstinencia, a fin de evaluar la ansiedad en el labirinto de cruz elevado (LCE). En seguida los animales fueron eutanasiados, donde el córtex pré-frontal (CPF), estriado y hipocampo fueron disecados y almacenados a -80ºC para analizar los receptores dopaminérgicos D1 e D2, receptores colinérgicos muscarínicos M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5 (mAChRs) y moléculas colinérgicas (acetilcolinesterasa, AChE; colina acetiltransferasa, ChAT y transportador vesicular de acetilcolina, VAChT) por Western Blotting (n=6). Los resultados comportamentales mostraron mayor actividad locomotora en los animales tratados con cocaína en tratamiento agudo y crónico, comparado al control. Por otra parte, la sensibilización comportamental fue detectado a partir de segundo día de administración de cocaína. En la prueba de LCE, realizado después de 14 días de interrupción de la administración de cocaína, no fue observado diferencia estadística entre los animales previamente expuestos a la cocaína y el grupo control. En CPF se observó disminución de D2R, M1 mAChRs y aumento de M2 y M4 mAChRs en tratamiento agudo; en el tratamiento crónico mostro disminución de M1 y M5 mAChRs y ChAT. En el estriado se observó aumento de D1R, M1 y M2 mAChRs, ChAT en el tratamiento agudo; aumento D1R, VAChT, ChAT y disminución de D2R, M1 y M2 mAChRs en el tratamiento crónico. Por último, en el hipocampo se observó aumento de D1R, D2R, M2 mAChRs, VAChT y disminución M1 mAChRs en el tratamiento agudo; aumento de D1R, VAChT y disminución D2R, M1 mAChRs en el tratamiento crónico. Nuestros resultados muestran envolvimiento de procesos de neuroplasticidad, tanto en el sistema dopaminérgico como el sistema colinérgico muscarínico, en ambos protocolos utilizados, después de 14 días de abstinencia


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/drug therapy , Receptors, Cholinergic/analysis , Cocaine/adverse effects , Cholinergic Agents/analysis , Anxiety/classification , Brain/abnormalities , Receptors, Dopamine , Substance-Related Disorders/complications
3.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 54(4): 26-29, out.-dez. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-967834

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Variantes de número de cópias (CNVs) são variações no número de cópias de uma região da sequência genômica, descrevendo deleções ou ganhos em relação a indivíduos controle. Podem ser comuns e de caráter benigno, de significado incerto ou variantes patogênicas. Para interpretação, classificação e avaliação de significado clínico, é realizado comparação dos resultados nas bases de dados do laboratório e análise da literatura científica. OBJETIVO: Relatar caso de adolescente com duplicação/triplicação no cromossomo 4 com déficit cognitivo e dismorfismo facial e discutir se essa CNV pode ser responsável pelos achados clínicos. RELATO DE CASO: Paciente de 15 anos, sexo feminino, levada ao ambulatório de Genética para investigação de possível síndrome genética. Pais consanguíneos (primos). Desde a infância apresenta estrabismo divergente, atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor com dificuldade de fala. Cursou com síndrome hipotônica com espasmos mioclônicos. Evoluiu com déficit cognitivo. A Ressonância magnética de encéfalo demonstrou comprometimento de hemisférios cerebelares e atrofia de ponte e mesencéfalo. Cariótipo normal (46, XX) e hibridização genômica comparativa baseada em microarranjos (a-CGH) revelou duplicação/ triplicação na região 4p 15.32p15.31, variante de significado incerto. CONCLUSÃO: Destaca-se a importância da investigação através de análises cromossômicas por microarranjos em pacientes com deficiência intelectual, síndrome do espectro do autismo e múltiplas malformações congênitas - isto para aprimoramento diagnóstico, cuidados médicos específicos e aconselhamento genético.


INTRODUCTION: Copy number variants (CNVs) are variations in the number of copies of a region of the genomic sequence, describing deletions or gains in relation to control individuals. They may be common and of benign nature, of uncertain meaning or pathogenic variants. For interpretation, classification and evaluation of clinical significance, a comparison of the results in the laboratory databases and analysis of the scientific literature is performed. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of adolescent with duplication / triplication on chromosome 4 with cognitive deficit and facial dysmorphism and to discuss whether this CNV can be responsible for the clinical findings. CASE REPORT: A 15-year-old female patient was taken to the Genetics outpatient clinic to investigate a possible genetic syndrome. Consanguineous parents. Since childhood, she has divergent strabismus, delayed neuropsychomotor development with speech difficulties. She developed with hypotonic syndrome with myoclonic spasms. She evolved with cognitive deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain showed compromised cerebellar hemispheres and atrophy of the bridge and midbrain. Normal karyotype (46, XX) and comparative genomic hybridization based on microarrays (a-CGH) revealed duplication / triplication in the region 4p 15.32p15.31, variant of uncertain meaning. CONCLUSION: The importance of research through chromosomal analysis by microarray in patients with intellectual disability, autism spectrum syndrome and multiple congenital malformations is highlighted ­ this for diagnosis improvement, specific medical care and genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4 , Developmental Disabilities/diagnosis , DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/diagnosis , Brain/abnormalities , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Strabismus , Intellectual Disability
4.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 405-411, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949868

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Infantile hemangioma can be linked to other organ malformations. In 1996, PHACE syndrome was first defined as the association of large and segmental infantile hemangioma, usually on the face, head, or cervical region, with malformations of the posterior fossa of the brain, arterial anomalies of the central nervous system, coarctation of the aorta, cardiac defects, and ocular abnormalities. Over 300 cases of PHACE syndrome have been reported, and it is cconsidered one of the most common neurocutaneous vascular disorders in childhood. Knowledge of the features and locations of lesions that imply a greater risk of systemic involvement is crucial for the diagnosis and proper management of PHACE syndrome patients. This review highlights the diagnostic criteria for PHACE syndrome, the imaging workup for extracutaneous involvement, the treatment of infantile hemangioma, and the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the management of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aortic Coarctation/diagnosis , Facial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Eye Abnormalities/diagnosis , Neurocutaneous Syndromes/diagnosis , Hemangioma/diagnosis , Aortic Coarctation/complications , Aortic Coarctation/diagnostic imaging , Propranolol/therapeutic use , Brain/abnormalities , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Facial Neoplasms/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Eye Abnormalities/complications , Eye Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Neurocutaneous Syndromes/complications , Neurocutaneous Syndromes/diagnostic imaging , Face/diagnostic imaging , Hemangioma/drug therapy , Infant
7.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(3): 272-278, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-752426

ABSTRACT

Objective Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NS-CL/P) are among the most common congenital birth defects worldwide. Several lines of evidence point to the involvement of folate, as well as folate metabolizing enzymes in risk reduction of orofacial clefts. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme participates in the metabolic cycle of folate and has a crucial role in DNA synthesis, a fundamental feature of gestation and development. A functional polymorphic 19-bp deletion within intron-1 of DHFR has been associated with the risk of common congenital malformations. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible association between DHFR 19-bp deletion polymorphism and susceptibility to NS-CL/P in an Iranian population. Material and Methods The current study recruited 100 NS-CL/P patients and 100 healthy controls. DHFR 19-bp deletion was determined using an allele specific-PCR method. Results We observed the DHFR 19-bp homozygous deletion genotype (D/D) vs. homozygous wild genotype (WW) was more frequent in controls than in NS-CL/P patients (25% vs. 13%), being associated with a reduced risk of NS-CL/P in both codominant (OR=0.33, P=0.027) and recessive (OR=0.45, P=0.046) tested inheritance models. We also stratified the cleft patients and reanalyzed the data. The association trend for CL+CL/P group compared to the controls revealed that the DD genotype in both codominant (OR=0.30, P=0.032) and recessive models (OR=0.35, P=0.031) was associated with a reduced risk of CL+CL/P. Conclusions Our results for the first time suggested the DHFR 19-bp D/D genotype may confer a reduced risk of NS-CL/P and might act as a protective factor against NS-CL/P in the Iranian subjects. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Brain/abnormalities , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Gene Deletion , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Gene Frequency , Genetic Association Studies , Logistic Models , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Values , Risk Assessment
8.
Oman Journal of Ophthalmology. 2013; 6 (2): 77-82
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-132951

ABSTRACT

Optic nerve hypoplasia [ONH] is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc that might result in moderate to severe vision loss in children. With a vast number of cases now being reported, the rarity of ONH is obviously now refuted. The major aspects of ophthalmic evaluation of an infant with possible ONH are visual assessment, fundus examination, and visual electrophysiology. Characteristically, the disc is small, there is a peripapillary double-ring sign, vascular tortuosity, and thinning of the nerve fiber layer. A patient with ONH should be assessed for presence of neurologic, radiologic, and endocrine associations. There may be maternal associations like premature births, fetal alcohol syndrome, maternal diabetes. Systemic associations in the child include endocrine abnormalities, developmental delay, cerebral palsy, and seizures. Besides the hypoplastic optic nerve and chiasm, neuroimaging shows abnormalities in ventricles or white- or gray-matter development, septo-optic dysplasia, hydrocephalus, and corpus callosum abnormalities. There is a greater incidence of clinical neurologic abnormalities in patients with bilateral ONH [65%] than patients with unilateral ONH. We present a review on the available literature on the same to urge caution in our clinical practice when dealing with patients with ONH. Fundus photography, ocular coherence tomography, visual field testing, color vision evaluation, neuroimaging, endocrinology consultation with or without genetic testing are helpful in the diagnosis and management of ONH. [Method of search: MEDLINE, PUBMED].


Subject(s)
Humans , Optic Nerve Diseases , Optic Disk/abnormalities , Hypopituitarism , Brain/abnormalities
9.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-596265

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: avaliar a distância das fissuras cerebrais fetais à borda interna da calota craniana por meio da ultrassonografia tridimensional (US3D). MÉTODOS: realizou-se um estudo de corte transversal em 80 gestantes normais entre a 21ª e 34ª semanas de gestação. Avaliou-se a distância entre a tábua óssea interna da calota craniana fetal e as fissuras de Sylvius, parieto-occipital, hipocampo e calcarina. Para a obtenção desta distância para as três primeiras fissuras, realizou-se uma varredura tridimensional através do plano axial (nível dos ventrículos laterais). Para a obtenção da distância da fissura calcarina utilizou-se uma varredura coronal (nível dos lobos occiptais). Para avaliar a correlação entre as fissuras e a idade gestacional foram realizadas regressões de primeiro grau, sendo os ajustes calculados pelo coeficiente de determinação (R²). Foram determinados percentis 5, 50 e 95 para cada fissura. Avaliou-se ainda a correlação entre a distância destas fissuras com os diâmetros biparietal (DBP) e circunferência craniana (CC) utilizando o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson (r). RESULTADOS: todas as medidas das fissuras apresentaram correlação linear com a idade gestacional (Sylvius: R²=0,5; parieto-occipital: R²=0,7; hipocampo: R²=0,3 e calcarina: R²=0,3). A média da distância das fissuras variou de 7,0 a 14,0 mm, 15,9 a 28,7 mm, 15,4 a 25,4 mm e 15,7 a 24,8 mm para as fissuras de Sylvius, parieto-occipital, hipocampo e calcarina, respectivamente. As fissuras de Sylvius e parieto-occipital apresentaram as maiores correlações com o DBP (r=0,8 e 0,7, respectivamente) e a CC (r=0,7 e 0,8, respectivamente). CONCLUSÕES: a distância das fissuras cerebrais fetais à borda interna da calota craniana por meio da US3D apresentou correlação positiva com a idade gestacional.


PURPOSE: to assess the distance of the fetal cerebral fissures from the inner edge of the skull by three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS). METHODS: this cross-sectional study included 80 women with normal pregnancies between 21st and 34th weeks. The distances between the Sylvian, parieto-occiptal, hippocampus and calcarine fissures and the internal surface of the fetal skull were measured. For the evaluation of the distance of the first three fissures, an axial three-dimensional scan was obtained (at the level of the lateral ventricles). To obtain the calcarine fissure measurement, a coronal scan was used (at the level of the occipital lobes). First degree regressions were performed to assess the correlation between fissure measurements and gestational age, using the determination coefficient (R²) for adjustment. The 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles were calculated for each fissure measurement. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to assess the correlation between fissure measurements and the biparietal diameter (BPD) and head circumference (HC). RESULTS: all fissure measurements were linearly correlated with gestational age (Sylvian: R²=0.5; parieto-occiptal: R²= 0.7; hippocampus: R²= 0.3 and calcarine: R²= 0.3). Mean fissure measurement ranged from 7.0 to 14.0 mm, 15.9 to 28.7 mm, 15.4 to 25.4 mm and 15.7 to 24.8 mm for the Sylvian, parieto-occiptal, hippocampus and calcarine fissures, respectively. The Sylvian and parieto-occiptal fissure measurements had the highest correlations with the BPD (r=0.8 and 0.7, respectively) and HC (r=0.7 and 0.8, respectively). CONCLUSION: the distance from the fetal cerebral fissures to the inner edge of the skull measured by 3DUS was positively correlated with gestational age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Brain/anatomy & histology , Brain/abnormalities , Fetal Development , Gestational Age , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Reference Values , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
10.
Rev. chil. ultrason ; 14(2): 57-62, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-718939

ABSTRACT

Abnormalities of the brain are among the most frequent congenital malformations and its incidence is probably higher than reported as many of the anomalies are only recognized postnatally. Fetal neurosonography performed transvaginally has become an important imaging technique based on its improved resolution and resulting better sensibility. Nevertheless, there are several maternal and fetal factors that can affect visualization rate and, therefore, it has been recommended that US should be complemented with 3D ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the prenatal evaluation of brain pathology. In the last years, the incorporation of ultrafast MRI has allowed to obtain high-quality images from the fetal lungs and brain. In this collaborative work from 2 public hospitals, we compare the diagnostic performance of fetal neurosonography and MRI in 17 cases of severe fetal brain abnormalities. MRI was able to confirm the diagnosis in 100 percent of the cases, adding important clinical information in 17 percent, although missed diagnoses were documented in 12 percent of them. These results are comparable to other published series, highlighting the diagnostic correlation between the 2 techniques. Nevertheless, ultrasound has the advantages of its wider availability and lower costs than MRI, which make it the prefered imaging modality when a fetal brain malformation is suspected.


Las malformaciones congénitas cerebrales son muy frecuentes y probablemente tengan una incidencia mayor aun a la descrita, pues muchas de ellas solo son reconocidas en la etapa postnatal. La neurosonografía fetal dirigida por vía transvaginal se ha incorporado los últimos años como el estándar de referencia en el diagnostico de estas malformaciones, especialmente por la mayor sensibilidad y una mejor resolución. Aun así, pueden existir condiciones maternas o fetales que obligan a complementar el estudio con otras tecnologías como el ultrasonido 3D y la resonancia magnética (RM). Con la incorporación de secuencias ultrarrápidas, la RM ha permitido obtener imágenes prenatales de calidad diagnostica donde destacan el estudio de malformaciones de tórax y del cerebro fetal. Este trabajo colaborativo de 2 centros públicos compara los resultados diagnósticos entre la neurosonografía y RM en 17 casos de patología neurológica fetal. La RM confirma el 100 por ciento de los diagnósticos, pero además entrega información adicional en un 17 por ciento pero omite información parcial en un 12 por ciento de los casos. Estos resultados son comparables a lo publicado en series extranjeras, destacando la alta correlación diagnostica entre los 2 métodos. Sin embargo, los beneficios que tiene el US en comparación con la RM, como la alta disponibilidad y el bajo costo, aconsejan su uso preferente en nuestro medio.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Brain/abnormalities , Fetal Diseases/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Nervous System Malformations/diagnosis , Prenatal Diagnosis , Brain/pathology , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30861

ABSTRACT

Miller-Dieker syndrome involves a severe type of lissencephaly, which is caused by defects in the lissencephaly gene (LIS1). We report the case of a female infant with der(17)t(12;17)(q24.33;p13.3)pat caused by an unbalanced segregation of the parental balanced translocation of 17p with other chromosomes. The proband presented with facial dysmorphism, arthrogryposis, and intrauterine growth retardation. Most cases of Miller-Dieker syndrome have a de novo deletion involving 17p13.3. When Miller-Dieker syndrome is caused by an unbalanced translocation, mild-to-severe phenotypes occur according to the extension of the involved partner chromosome. However, a pure partial monosomy derived from a paternal balanced translocation is relatively rare. In this case, the submicroscopic cryptic deletion in the proband was initially elucidated by FISH, and karyotype analysis did not reveal additional chromosome abnormalities such as translocation. However, a family history of recurrent pregnancy abnormalities strongly suggested familial translocation. Sequential G-banding and FISH analysis of the father's chromosomes showed that the segment of 17p13.3-->pter was attached to the 12qter. Thus, we report a case that showed resemblance to the findings in cases of a nearly pure 17p deletion, derived from t(12;17), and delineated by whole genome array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). If such cases are incorrectly diagnosed as Miller-Dieker syndrome caused by de novo 17p13.3 deletion, the resultant improper genetic counseling may make it difficult to exactly predict the potential risk of recurrent lissencephaly for successive pregnancies.


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Adult , Brain/abnormalities , Chromosome Banding , Chromosome Segregation , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12 , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 , Classical Lissencephalies and Subcortical Band Heterotopias/diagnosis , Female , Gene Deletion , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Infant, Newborn , Karyotyping , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Phenotype , Risk , Translocation, Genetic
12.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 80(4): 249-254, oct.-dic. 2010. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-632018

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de un lactante de dos meses con una cardiopatía congénita compleja del tipo coartación aórtica con comunicación interventricular asociada a un trastorno de migración celular cerebral. El manejo consistió en la corrección de la cardiopatía congénita en dos tiempos quirúrgicos sin haber profundizado en la evaluación neurológica preoperatoria. El paciente desarrolló múltiples complicaciones perioperatorias que incluyeron paro cardiaco en dos ocasiones, reconexiones consecutivas a circulación extracorpórea, tamponamiento cardiaco, quilotórax y choque séptico. Concomitante a las complicaciones postoperatorias, se realizó una evaluación neurológica secundaria bajo un protocolo de abordaje neurológico que consistió en electroencefalografía, resonancia nuclear magnética y tomografía por emisión de positrón (SPECT). De esta forma se detectó paquigiria con microgiria y se sospechó trastorno de migración celular cerebral. La evolución final fue hacia el deceso por falla multisistémica y la autopsia confirmó la patología neural, así como el pobre pronóstico para la función y la vida. De haberse considerado en el preoperatorio un estudio integral que incluyera el binomio corazón-cerebro, el planteamiento terapéutico podría haberse modificado.


A case of a two month infant with complex congenital heart disease (aortic coarctation with ventricular septal defect) associated to a cellular brain migration failure is presented. The management strategy consisted on the correction of congenital heart disease by means of a two-stage surgery without a further preoperative evaluation of the neurological status. The patient developed several perioperative complications such as two episodes of cardiac arrest, reconnection to cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiac tamponade, chilothorax and septic shock. A neurological protocol consisting in electroencephalography, brain magnetic resonance and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) was practiced during the postoperative period, which detected microgyria with paquigyria and a cellular brain migration failure was suspected. The final outcome was death due to multisystemic failure and the autopsy confirmed the neurological disease, as well as poor life function prognosis. Should the heart-brain binomial had been considered in an integral preoperative evaluation, the therapeutical approach could have been modified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Male , Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnosis , Brain/abnormalities , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Brain/pathology , Fatal Outcome
13.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2010 Sept; 16(3): 169-171
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-138920

ABSTRACT

Congenital heart defects are known to be associated with facial dysmorphism and other congenital anomalies. Oculo-facio-cardio-dental (OFCD) syndrome is one such rare multiple congenital anomaly syndrome inherited as an X-linked dominant condition characterized by congenital cataracts, multiple minor facial dysmorphic features, congenital heart defects and dental anomalies. It is unrecognized by many medical and dental professionals. Only 21 cases have been reported so far. This syndrome is often misrecognized as rubella embryopathy because of association of congenital cataract with cardiac anomalies. It is usually the orthodontists who diagnose the syndrome based on typical findings on dental panoramic radiographs. But we suspected our patient to be having OFCD syndrome based on typical facial dysmorphism, ocular and cardiac defects, and finally it was confirmed after noticing typical dental radiographic findings.


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Adult , Brain/abnormalities , Cataract/congenital , Cataract/epidemiology , Cataract/genetics , Cuspid/abnormalities , Child , Face/abnormalities , Facial Bones/abnormalities , Female , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/genetics , Humans , /congenital , Microphthalmos/epidemiology , /genetics , Mothers , Tooth Abnormalities
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15546

ABSTRACT

Individuals at ultra-high-risk (UHR) for psychosis have become a major focus for research designed to explore markers for early detection of and clinical intervention in schizophrenia. In particular, structural magnetic resonance imaging studies in UHR individuals have provided important insight into the neurobiological basis of psychosis and have shown the brain changes associated with clinical risk factors. In this review, we describe the structural brain abnormalities in magnetic resonance images in UHR individuals. The current accumulated data demonstrate that abnormalities in the prefrontal and temporal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex occur before illness onset. These regions are compatible with the regions of structural deficits found in schizophrenia and first-episode patients. In addition, the burgeoning evidence suggests that such structural abnormalities are potential markers for the transition to psychosis. However, most findings to date are limited because they are from cross-sectional rather than longitudinal studies. Recently, researchers have emphasized neurodevelopmental considerations with respect to brain structural alterations in UHR individuals. Future studies should be conducted to characterize the differences in the brain developmental trajectory between UHR individuals and healthy controls using a longitudinal design. These new studies should contribute to early detection and management as well as provide more predictive markers of later psychosis.


Subject(s)
Brain/abnormalities , Gyrus Cinguli/pathology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Temporal Lobe/pathology
16.
Neurosciences. 2009; 14 (4): 368-370
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-136919

ABSTRACT

Dandy Walker malformation [DWM] is a rare congenital brain anomaly characterized by cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis. Other extracranial anomalies can be associated, including cardiac defects. We report a rare patient with DWM associated with progressive heart failure secondary to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. He was diagnosed at 2 months of age and died 5 months later. We conclude that hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can be associated with DWM with poor prognosis. A careful cardiac evaluation is needed in all infants with DWM for early recognition of such potentially serious associated cardiac malformations


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Brain/abnormalities , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/mortality , Abnormalities, Multiple/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Infant, Newborn
17.
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics. 2009; 19 (2): 180-184
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-91439

ABSTRACT

Hemihydranencephaly is a rare disorder of the brain characterized by complete or almost complete unilateral absence of cerebral cortex with preservation of meninges, basal ganglia, pons, medulla, cerebellum, and falx. Thirteen year-old male child presented with left sided upper and lower limb weakness with facial asymmetry since the age of six months. His magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] scans demonstrated a nearly complete absence of the right cerebral hemisphere including basal ganglion, which was replaced by cerebrospinal fluid with a small residual rim of the occipital cortex. The imaging features were suggestive of right-sided hemihydranencephaly. Patients with hemihydranencephaly provide an experiment of nature with potential implications for normal cognitive development and illustrate how much there is still to be learned about human development


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Hydranencephaly/diagnostic imaging , Paresis , Facial Asymmetry , Brain/abnormalities , Carotid Arteries/abnormalities , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Angiography
18.
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2009; 19 (1): 67-68
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-91588

ABSTRACT

This is the case report of a two-and-a-half-year old male infant with Farber disease, which is a rare neurodegenerative mucolipidosis. The child presented with regression of milestones, laryngeal involvement and painful joints with swellings around the joints. Neuroimaging findings and the biopsy of the soft tissue swellings helped to reach the diagnosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Neurodegenerative Diseases/diagnosis , Mucolipidoses , Joints/pathology , Brain/abnormalities
19.
Col. med. estado Táchira ; 17(2): 36-39, abr.-jun. 2008. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-531282

ABSTRACT

Las malformaciones congénitas son un problema poco frecuente; considerando todas las malformaciones en conjunto, éstas se presentan en menos del 2 por ciento de los recién nacidos. Los defectos del cierre del tubo neural: anencefalia, espina bifida, acrania y meningocele, al igual que la mayoría de las malformaciones congénitas, son un grupo de afecciones de etiología multifactorial, producto de la interacción de factores genéticos y ambientales. Los factores genéticos actúan en un sistema poligenético, en el que se tienen que considerar los riesgos de recurrencia, cálculos de heredabilidad, la frecuencia de consanguineidad y las variaciones raciales, los factores ambientales, las infecciones virales, agentes físicos como la hipertemia (fiebre), deficiencia o alteraciones del metabolismo del ácido fólico, así como la exposición a diversas substancias químicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Female , Infant, Newborn , Folic Acid/genetics , Congenital Abnormalities/genetics , Neural Tube Defects/genetics , Neural Tube Defects/mortality , Neural Tube Defects/pathology , Embryonic Development/genetics , Spinal Dysraphism/pathology , Fetus/abnormalities , Central Nervous System/embryology , Ultrasonography , Anencephaly/genetics , Anencephaly/mortality , Chemical Compounds/adverse effects , Brain/abnormalities , Gynecology , Misoprostol/pharmacology , Obstetrics , Neural Plate/abnormalities
20.
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics [The]. 2008; 9 (2): 257-262
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-135307

ABSTRACT

C syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by trigonocephaly, partial or complete obliteration of the metopic suture which is characteristic, and short limbs. In this paper we describe an Egyptian boy affected with this syndrome, with no exophthalmos and with dilated brain ventricles and heterotopia


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Chromosome Aberrations , Phenotype , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Brain/abnormalities , Echocardiography
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