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Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1310-1316, oct. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521015


SUMMARY: Although COVID-19 is primarily considered a respiratory pathology, it has been observed to impact other bodily systems, including the nervous system. While several studies have investigated anatomical changes in brain structures, such as volume or thickness post-COVID-19, there are no comprehensive reviews of these changes using imaging techniques for a holistic understanding. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the literature on brain changes observed through neuroimaging after COVID-19. We conducted a systematic review according to PRISMA guidelines using Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, Pubmed, Sciencedirect, and LitCOVID. We selected studies that included adult patients during or after COVID-19 development, a control group or pre-infection images, and morphometric measurements using neuroimaging. We used the MSQ scale to extract information on sample characteristics, measured anatomical structures, imaging technique, main results, and methodological quality for each study. Out of 1126 identified articles, we included 19 in the review, encompassing 1155 cases and 1284 controls. The results of these studies indicated a lower volume of the olfactory bulb and variable increases or decreases in cortical and limbic structures' volumes and thicknesses. Studies suggest that brain changes occur post-COVID-19, primarily characterized by a smaller olfactory bulb. Additionally, there may be variations in cortical and limbic volumes and thicknesses due to inflammation or neuroplasticity, but these findings are not definitive. These differences may be attributed to methodological, geographical, and temporal variations between studies. Thus, additional studies are required to provide a more comprehensive and quantitative view of the evidence.

Aunque el COVID-19 se considera principalmente una patología respiratoria, se ha observado que afecta otros sistemas corporales, incluido el sistema nervioso. Si bien varios estudios han investigado los cambios anatómicos en las estructuras cerebrales, como el volumen o el grosor posteriores a la COVID-19, no hay revisiones exhaustivas de estos cambios que utilicen técnicas de imágenes para una comprensión holística. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar sistemáticamente la literature sobre los cambios cerebrales observados a través de neuroimagen después de COVID-19. Realizamos una revisión sistemática de acuerdo con las pautas PRISMA utilizando Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, Pubmed, Sciencedirect y LitCOVID. Seleccionamos estudios que incluyeron pacientes adultos durante o después del desarrollo de COVID-19, un grupo de control o imágenes previas a la infección y mediciones morfométricas mediante neuroimagen. Utilizamos la escala MSQ para extraer información sobre las características de la muestra, las estructuras anatómicas medidas, la técnica de imagen, los principales resultados y la calidad metodológica de cada estudio. De 1126 artículos identificados, incluimos 19 en la revisión, que abarca 1155 casos y 1284 controles. Los resultados de estos estudios indicaron un menor volumen del bulbo olfatorio y aumentos o disminuciones variables en los volúmenes y espesores de las estructuras corticales y límbicas. Los estudios sugieren que los cambios cerebrales ocurren después del COVID-19, caracterizados principalmente por un bulbo olfatorio más pequeño. Además, pueden haber variaciones en los volúmenes y grosores corticales y límbicos debido a la inflamación o la neuroplasticidad, pero estos hallazgos no son definitivos. Estas diferencias pueden atribuirse a variaciones metodológicas, geográficas y temporales entre estudios. Por lo tanto, se requieren estudios adicionales para proporcionar una visión más completa y cuantitativa de la evidencia.

Humans , Brain/pathology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Neuroimaging , Neurologic Manifestations
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 367-373, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980730


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the brain effect mechanism and the correlation between brain functional imaging and cognitive function in treatment of depressive disorder (DD) with transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) based on the resting-state functional magenetic reasonance imaging (rs-fMRI).@*METHODS@#Thirty-two DD patients were included in a depression group and 32 subjects of healthy condition were enrolled in a normal group. In the depression group, the taVNS was applied to bilateral Xin (CO15) and Shen (CO10), at disperse-dense wave, 4 Hz/20 Hz in frequency and current intensity ≤20 mA depending on patient's tolerance, 30 min each time, twice daily. The duration of treatment consisted of 8 weeks. The patients of two groups were undertaken rs-fMRI scanning. The scores of Hamilton depression scale (HAMD), Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) and Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) were observed in the normal group at baseline and the depression group before and after treatment separately. The differential brain regions were observed before and after treatment in the two groups and the value of degree centrality (DC) of fMRI was obtained. Their correlation was analyzed in terms of HAMD, HAMA and WCST scores.@*RESULTS@#The scores of HAMD and HAMA in the depression group were all higher than those in the normal group (P<0.05). After treatment, the scores of HAMD and HAMA were lower than those before treatment in the depression group; the scores of total responses, response errors and perseverative errors of WCST were all lower than those before treatment (P<0.05). The brain regions with significant differences included the left inferior temporal gyrus, the left cerebellar peduncles region 1, the left insula, the right putamen, the bilateral supplementary motor area and the right middle frontal gyrus. After treatment, the value of DC in left supplementary motor area was negatively correlated to HAMD and HAMA scores respectively (r=-0.324, P=0.012; r=-0.310, P=0.015); the value of DC in left cerebellar peduncles region 1 was negatively correlated to the total responses of WCST (r=-0.322, P=0.013), and the left insula was positively correlated to the total responses of WCST (r=0.271, P=0.036).@*CONCLUSION@#The taVNS can modulate the intensity of the functional activities of some brain regions so as to relieve depressive symptoms and improve cognitive function.

Humans , Depression/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/methods , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation/methods , Vagus Nerve
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 482-491, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981566


Recently, deep learning has achieved impressive results in medical image tasks. However, this method usually requires large-scale annotated data, and medical images are expensive to annotate, so it is a challenge to learn efficiently from the limited annotated data. Currently, the two commonly used methods are transfer learning and self-supervised learning. However, these two methods have been little studied in multimodal medical images, so this study proposes a contrastive learning method for multimodal medical images. The method takes images of different modalities of the same patient as positive samples, which effectively increases the number of positive samples in the training process and helps the model to fully learn the similarities and differences of lesions on images of different modalities, thus improving the model's understanding of medical images and diagnostic accuracy. The commonly used data augmentation methods are not suitable for multimodal images, so this paper proposes a domain adaptive denormalization method to transform the source domain images with the help of statistical information of the target domain. In this study, the method is validated with two different multimodal medical image classification tasks: in the microvascular infiltration recognition task, the method achieves an accuracy of (74.79 ± 0.74)% and an F1 score of (78.37 ± 1.94)%, which are improved as compared with other conventional learning methods; for the brain tumor pathology grading task, the method also achieves significant improvements. The results show that the method achieves good results on multimodal medical images and can provide a reference solution for pre-training multimodal medical images.

Humans , Algorithms , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Recognition, Psychology
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; : 88-95, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970015


INTRODUCTION@#Detection of neurological conditions is of high importance in the current context of increasingly ageing populations. Imaging of the retina and the optic nerve head represents a unique opportunity to detect brain diseases, but requires specific human expertise. We review the current outcomes of artificial intelligence (AI) methods applied to retinal imaging for the detection of neurological and neuro-ophthalmic conditions.@*METHOD@#Current and emerging concepts related to the detection of neurological conditions, using AI-based investigations of the retina in patients with brain disease were examined and summarised.@*RESULTS@#Papilloedema due to intracranial hypertension can be accurately identified with deep learning on standard retinal imaging at a human expert level. Emerging studies suggest that patients with Alzheimer's disease can be discriminated from cognitively normal individuals, using AI applied to retinal images.@*CONCLUSION@#Recent AI-based systems dedicated to scalable retinal imaging have opened new perspectives for the detection of brain conditions directly or indirectly affecting retinal structures. However, further validation and implementation studies are required to better understand their potential value in clinical practice.

Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Retina , Optic Disk , Aging
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 125-132, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970682


The cleft lip and palate (CLP) is one of the most common craniofacial malformations in humans. We collected functional magnetic resonance data of 23 CLP patients before rehabilitation training (Bclp) and 23 CLP patients after rehabilitation training (Aclp), who were performing Chinese character pronunciation tasks, and performed brain activation analysis to explore the changes of brain mechanism in CLP patients after articulation disorder rehabilitation training. The study found that Aclp group had significant activation in the motor cortex, Broca area, Wernicke area and cerebellum. While the Bclp group had weak activation in the motor cortex with a small activation range. By comparing the differences and co-activated brain regions between the two groups, we found that rehabilitation training increased the activity level of negatively activated brain areas (cerebellum, left motor area, Wernicke area, etc.) to a positive level. At the same time, the activity level of weakly activated brain areas (right motor area, Broca area, etc.) was also increased. Rehabilitation training promoted the activity level of articulation-related brain regions. So that the activation intensity of articulation-related brain regions can be used as a quantifiable objective evaluation index to evaluate the effect of rehabilitation training, which is of great significance for the formulation of rehabilitation training programs.

Humans , Articulation Disorders/therapy , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Cleft Lip/diagnostic imaging , Cleft Palate/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Speech Therapy/psychology
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 110-117, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970680


The extraction of neuroimaging features of migraine patients and the design of identification models are of great significance for the auxiliary diagnosis of related diseases. Compared with the commonly used image features, this study directly uses time-series signals to characterize the functional state of the brain in migraine patients and healthy controls, which can effectively utilize the temporal information and reduce the computational effort of classification model training. Firstly, Group Independent Component Analysis and Dictionary Learning were used to segment different brain areas for small-sample groups and then the regional average time-series signals were extracted. Next, the extracted time series were divided equally into multiple subseries to expand the model input sample. Finally, the time series were modeled using a bi-directional long-short term memory network to learn the pre-and-post temporal information within each time series to characterize the periodic brain state changes to improve the diagnostic accuracy of migraine. The results showed that the classification accuracy of migraine patients and healthy controls was 96.94%, the area under the curve was 0.98, and the computation time was relatively shorter. The experiments indicate that the method in this paper has strong applicability, and the combination of time-series feature extraction and bi-directional long-short term memory network model can be better used for the classification and diagnosis of migraine. This work provides a new idea for the lightweight diagnostic model based on small-sample neuroimaging data, and contributes to the exploration of the neural discrimination mechanism of related diseases.

Humans , Time Factors , Migraine Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 223-230, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984113


OBJECTIVES@#To apply the convolutional neural network (CNN) Inception_v3 model in automatic identification of acceleration and deceleration injury based on CT images of brain, and to explore the application prospect of deep learning technology in forensic brain injury mechanism inference.@*METHODS@#CT images from 190 cases with acceleration and deceleration brain injury were selected as the experimental group, and CT images from 130 normal brain cases were used as the control group. The above-mentioned 320 imaging data were divided into training validation dataset and testing dataset according to random sampling method. The model classification performance was evaluated by the accuracy rate, precision rate, recall rate, F1-value and AUC value.@*RESULTS@#In the training process and validation process, the accuracy rate of the model to classify acceleration injury, deceleration injury and normal brain was 99.00% and 87.21%, which met the requirements. The optimized model was used to test the data of the testing dataset, the result showed that the accuracy rate of the model in the test set was 87.18%, and the precision rate, recall rate, F1-score and AUC of the model to recognize acceleration injury were 84.38%, 90.00%, 87.10% and 0.98, respectively, to recognize deceleration injury were 86.67%, 72.22%, 78.79% and 0.92, respectively, to recognize normal brain were 88.57%, 89.86%, 89.21% and 0.93, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Inception_v3 model has potential application value in distinguishing acceleration and deceleration injury based on brain CT images, and is expected to become an auxiliary tool to infer the mechanism of head injury.

Humans , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain Injuries , Deep Learning , Neural Networks, Computer
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 237-243, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929224


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the changes in the functional connectivity (FC) in the right insula between migraine without aura (MWoA) and healthy controls by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), and to observe the instant alteration of FC in MWoA during electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation at Shuaigu (GB8).@*METHODS@#A total of 30 patients with MWoA (PM group) and 30 healthy controls (HC group) underwent rs-fMRI scans. The PM group underwent a second rs-fMRI scan while receiving EA at GB8. The right insula subregions, including the ventral anterior insula (vAI), dorsal anterior insula (dAI) and posterior insula (PI), were selected as the seed points for FC analysis.@*RESULTS@#Aberrant FC, including dAI with right postcentral gyrus, PI with left precuneus, was found among PM before EA (PMa), PM during EA (PMb) and HC. Meanwhile, decreased FC between dAI and the right postcentral gyrus was found in the PMa compared to the HC and PMb. Increased FC between the PI and left precuneus was found in the PMa compared to the HC and PMb. Correlation analysis showed that the FC value of the right postcentral gyrus in PMa was negatively correlated with the scores of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety. The FC value of the left precuneus in PMa was positively correlated with the visual analogue scale score.@*CONCLUSION@#The alteration of FC between the right insula subregions and multiple brain regions may be an important index for MWoA. EA at GB8 was able to adjust the FC between the right insula subregions and parietal lobe, namely, the right dAI and right postcentral gyrus, and the right PI and left precuneus, thereby rendering an instant effect in the management of MWoA.

Humans , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Electroacupuncture , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Migraine without Aura
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 519-532, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929106


Functional hubs with disproportionately extensive connectivities play a crucial role in global information integration in human brain networks. However, most resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies have identified functional hubs by examining spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygen level-dependent signal within a typical low-frequency band (e.g., 0.01-0.08 Hz or 0.01-0.1 Hz). Little is known about how the spatial distributions of functional hubs depend on frequency bands of interest. Here, we used repeatedly measured R-fMRI data from 53 healthy young adults and a degree centrality analysis to identify voxelwise frequency-resolved functional hubs and further examined their test-retest reliability across two sessions. We showed that a wide-range frequency band (0.01-0.24 Hz) accessible with a typical sampling rate (fsample = 0.5 Hz) could be classified into three frequency bands with distinct patterns, namely, low-frequency (LF, 0.01-0.06 Hz), middle-frequency (MF, 0.06-0.16 Hz), and high-frequency (HF, 0.16-0.24 Hz) bands. The functional hubs were mainly located in the medial and lateral frontal and parietal cortices in the LF band, and in the medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, and several cerebellar regions in the MF and HF bands. These hub regions exhibited fair to good test-retest reliability, regardless of the frequency band. The presence of the three frequency bands was well replicated using an independent R-fMRI dataset from 45 healthy young adults. Our findings demonstrate reliable frequency-resolved functional connectivity hubs in three categories, thus providing insights into the frequency-specific connectome organization in healthy and disordered brains.

Humans , Young Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Connectome/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Rest
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 303-317, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929085


Understanding the connection between brain and behavior in animals requires precise monitoring of their behaviors in three-dimensional (3-D) space. However, there is no available three-dimensional behavior capture system that focuses on rodents. Here, we present MouseVenue3D, an automated and low-cost system for the efficient capture of 3-D skeleton trajectories in markerless rodents. We improved the most time-consuming step in 3-D behavior capturing by developing an automatic calibration module. Then, we validated this process in behavior recognition tasks, and showed that 3-D behavioral data achieved higher accuracy than 2-D data. Subsequently, MouseVenue3D was combined with fast high-resolution miniature two-photon microscopy for synchronous neural recording and behavioral tracking in the freely-moving mouse. Finally, we successfully decoded spontaneous neuronal activity from the 3-D behavior of mice. Our findings reveal that subtle, spontaneous behavior modules are strongly correlated with spontaneous neuronal activity patterns.

Animals , Mice , Behavior, Animal , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Neuroimaging , Rodentia
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 59(3): 255-261, sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388395


Resumen La presencia de alteraciones de señal en resonancia magnética (RM) cerebral durante o posterior a un evento epiléptico es cada vez más reconocida en la literatura. Los cambios de señal peri-ictales se considera que sería el resultado de edema cerebral localizado, defecto de la autorregulación cerebral y disrupción de la barrera hemato-encefálica que ocurre durante una crisis epiléptica sostenida. Reportamos el caso de un hombre de 62 años diagnosticado de un síndrome parietal de instalación subaguda cuyo estudio con RM de cerebro mostró una lesión tumefacta con edema cortico-subcortical de ubicación temporo-occipital derecha. El estudio con electroencefalograma mostró actividad ictal en la misma localización. Se inició terapia con fármacos anticonvulsivantes mostrando franca mejoría clínica y electrofisiológica. El control con RM diferido mostró resolución completa de las alteraciones descritas.

The presence seizure-induced signal changes on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been increasingly recognized in the literature. The reversible MRI changes in epileptic patients may be the result of a local brain swelling, a defect of cerebral autoregulation and a blood-brain barrier disruption during sustained epileptogenic activity. We report a 62 years old man diagnosed with a subacute right parietal syndrome. MRI shows a tumefactive lesion in right temporo-occipital lobes mimicking a structural lesion. Electroencephalogram (EEG) exhibits continuous ictal activity in the same region. Antiepileptic drugs were started achieving progressive electro-clinical improvement. Subsequent MRI showed remission of signal changes.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Seizures/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Seizures/physiopathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(4): 425-429, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288605


ABSTRACT Introduction: The rapid development of rs-fMRI in recent years can provide new scientific evidence of the plasticity of the child's brain. Objective: To reveal the effect of short-term moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on local consistency of brain function in children at rest, and to provide new evidence for elucidating the relationship between physical exercise and plasticity of children's brain. Methods: Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) technology and local consistency (ReHo) analysis method to detect a 30-min short-term moderate-intensity aerobic exercise before and after children's brain function local consistency changes; using the Flanker task measurement Changes in children's executive function before and after exercise. Results: 1) A 30-min short-term moderate-intensity aerobic exercise made the children's bilateral posterior buckle back, left dorsolateral prefrontal lobe, left frontal medial gyrus, bilateral central posterior gyrus, left suboccipital gyrus, and tongue gyrus. 2) A 30-minute short-term moderate-intensity aerobic exercise improves children's executive function. 3) ReHo increases in bilateral posterior buckle gyrus, bilateral central parietal posterior gyrus, and left dorsal lateral prefrontal lobe are significantly associated with improved executive function. Conclusions: Short-term moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can improve brain plasticity and executive function by increasing local consistency of brain function in children at rest. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

RESUMO Introdução: O rápido desenvolvimento dos rs-fMRI nos últimos anos pode fornecer novas evidências científicas da plasticidade do cérebro da criança. Objetivo: revelar o efeito do exercício aeróbio de intensidade moderada de curta duração na consistência local da função cerebral em crianças em repouso e fornecer novas evidências para elucidar a relação entre exercício físico e plasticidade cerebral em crianças. Métodos: Usando a tecnologia de imagem de ressonância magnética funcional em estado de repouso (rs-fMRI) e o método de análise de consistência local (ReHo) para detectar exercícios aeróbicos de intensidade moderada e de curta duração 30 minutos antes e depois de alterações de consistência local na função cerebral das crianças; usando a medição de Flanker das mudanças na função executiva das crianças antes e depois do exercício. Resultados: 1) Um curto exercício aeróbico de 30 min de intensidade moderada fez com que as crianças se curvassem para trás, lobo pré-frontal dorsolateral esquerdo, giro frontal medial esquerdo, giro central posterior bilateral, giro suboccipital esquerdo e giro da língua. 2) Um exercício aeróbico de curta duração, 30 minutos e intensidade moderada melhora a função executiva das crianças. 3) Aumentos em ReHo no giro da fivela posterior bilateral, no giro parietal posterior central bilateral e no lobo pré-frontal lateral dorsal esquerdo estão significativamente associados à função executiva melhorada. Conclusões: O exercício aeróbico de intensidade moderada de curto prazo pode melhorar a plasticidade cerebral e a função executiva, aumentando a consistência local da função cerebral em crianças em repouso. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.

RESUMEN Introducción: El rápido desarrollo de rs-fMRI en los últimos años puede proporcionar nueva evidencia científica de la plasticidad del cerebro del niño. Objetivo: Revelar el efecto del ejercicio aeróbico de intensidad moderada a corto plazo sobre la consistencia local de la función cerebral en niños en reposo y proporcionar nueva evidencia para dilucidar la relación entre el ejercicio físico y la plasticidad del cerebro de los niños. Métodos: uso de la tecnología de imágenes de resonancia magnética funcional (rs-fMRI) en estado de reposo y el método de análisis de consistencia local (ReHo) para detectar un ejercicio aeróbico de intensidad moderada a corto plazo de 30 minutos antes y después de los cambios de consistencia local de la función cerebral de los niños; utilizando la medición de Flanker de los cambios en la función ejecutiva de los niños antes y después del ejercicio. Resultados: 1) Un ejercicio aeróbico de intensidad moderada y corta duración de 30 min hizo que los niños se doblaran hacia atrás, lóbulo prefrontal dorsolateral izquierdo, circunvolución medial frontal izquierda, circunvolución posterior central bilateral, circunvolución suboccipital izquierda y circunvolución de la lengua. 2) Un ejercicio aeróbico de intensidad moderada a corto plazo de 30 minutos mejora la función ejecutiva de los niños. 3) Los aumentos de ReHo en la circunvolución de la hebilla posterior bilateral, la circunvolución posterior parietal central bilateral y el lóbulo prefrontal lateral dorsal izquierdo se asocian significativamente con una función ejecutiva mejorada. Conclusiones: El ejercicio aeróbico de intensidad moderada a corto plazo puede mejorar la plasticidad cerebral y la función ejecutiva al aumentar la consistencia local de la función cerebral en niños en reposo. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Exercise/physiology , Time Factors , Brain/physiology , Models, Theoretical
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(8): 666-675, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339239


ABSTRACT Background: Multiple sclerosis exhibits specific neuropathological phenomena driving to both global and regional brain atrophy. At the clinical level, the disease is related to functional decline in cognitive domains as the working memory, processing speed, and verbal fluency. However, the compromise of social-cognitive abilities has concentrated some interest in recent years despite the available evidence suggesting the risk of disorganization in social life. Recent studies have used the MiniSEA test to assess the compromise of social cognition and have found relevant relationships with memory and executive functions, as well as with the level of global and regional brain atrophy. Objective: The present article aimed to identify structural changes related to socio-cognitive performance in a sample of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Methods: 68 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis Chilean patients and 50 healthy control subjects underwent MRI scans and neuropsychological evaluation including social-cognition tasks. Total brain, white matter, and gray matter volumes were estimated. Also, voxel-based morphometry was applied to evaluate regional structural changes. Results: Patients exhibited lower scores in all neuropsychological tests. Social cognition exhibited a significant decrease in this group mostly related to the declining social perception. Normalized brain volume and white matter volume were significantly decreased when compared to healthy subjects. The regional brain atrophy analysis showed that changes in the insular cortex and medial frontal cortices are significantly related to the variability of social-cognitive performance among patients. Conclusions: In the present study, social cognition was only correlated with the deterioration of verbal fluency, despite the fact that previous studies have reported its link with memory and executive functions. The identification of specific structural correlates supports the comprehension of this phenomenon as an independent source of cognitive disability in these patients.

RESUMEN Antecedentes: La esclerosis múltiple presenta fenómenos neuropatológicos específicos que conducen a la atrofia cerebral global y regional. A nivel clínico, la enfermedad está relacionada con el deterioro funcional de los dominios cognitivos como la memoria de trabajo, la velocidad de procesamiento y la fluidez verbal. Sin embargo, el compromiso de las habilidades socio-cognitivas ha concentrado cierto interés en los últimos años debido a la evidencia disponible que sugiere el riesgo de desorganización en la vida social. Estudios recientes han utilizado la prueba MiniSEA para evaluar el compromiso de la cognición social y han encontrado relaciones relevantes con la memoria y funciones ejecutiva, así como con el nivel de atrofia cerebral global y regional. Objetivo: El presente artículo tiene como objetivo identificar cambios estructurales relacionados con el rendimiento sociocognitivo en una muestra de pacientes con esclerosis múltiple recurrente-remitente. Métodos: 68 pacientes Chilenos con esclerosis múltiple recurrente-remitente y 50 sujetos de control sanos se sometieron a resonancias magnéticas y evaluación neuropsicológica, incluidas las tareas de cognición social. Se estimaron los volúmenes cerebrales totales, de materia blanca y materia gris. Además, se aplicó la morfometría basada en vóxel para evaluar los cambios estructurales regionales. Resultados: Los pacientes muestran puntuaciones más bajas en todas las pruebas neuropsicológicas. La cognición social exhibe una disminución significativa en este grupo principalmente relacionada con la disminución de la percepción social. El volumen normalizado del cerebro y el volumen de la materia blanca disminuyeron significativamente en comparación con los sujetos sanos. El análisis regional de atrofia cerebral mostró que los cambios en la corteza insular y la corteza frontal medial están significativamente relacionados con la variabilidad del rendimiento sociocognitivo entre los pacientes. Conclusiones: En el presente estudio, la cognición social sólo se correlacionó con el deterioro de la fluencia verbal, a pesar de que estudios previos han reportado su vinculación con la memoria y funciones ejecutivas. La identificación de correlatos estructurales específicos apoya la comprensión de este fenómeno como una fuente independiente de discapacidad cognitiva en estos pacientes.

Humans , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Atrophy/pathology , Brain/pathology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cognition , Gray Matter/diagnostic imaging , Social Cognition , Neuropsychological Tests
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(7): 1085-1089, jul. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389558


Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare multisystemic autoimmune disorder characterized by the inflammation and destruction of cartilages, with preference for auricular, nasal and laryngotracheal cartilages. RP may also affect proteoglycan-rich structures, such as, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and heart. The central nervous system (CNS) is involved in less than 3% of patients. We report a 32-year-old female with RP associated with a progressive subacute encephalopathy characterized by behavioral disturbances, auditory and visual hallucinations. The EEG showed generalized slow activity and a mononuclear pleocytosis with increased protein was found in the cerebrospinal fluid. The brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple supra and infratentorial nodular inflammatory lesions. After initiating treatment with corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, a significant improvement in chondritis and neurological status was observed.

Humans , Female , Adult , Polychondritis, Relapsing/complications , Polychondritis, Relapsing/diagnosis , Polychondritis, Relapsing/drug therapy , Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Adrenal Cortex Hormones
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(7): 545-559, July 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347249


Abstract Fetal growth restriction (FGR) occurswhen the fetus does not reach its intrauterine potential for growth and development as a result of compromise in placental function. It is a condition that affects 5 to 10% of pregnancies and is the second most common cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Children born with FGR are at risk of impaired neurological and cognitive development and cardiovascular or endocrine diseases in adulthood. The purpose of the present revision is to perform a literature search for evidence on the detection and assessment by ultrasound of brain injury linked to FGR during fetal life. Using a systematic approach and quantitative evaluation as study methodology, we reviewed ultrasound studies of the fetal brain structure of growth-restricted fetuses with objective quality measures. A total of eight studies were identified. High quality studies were identified for measurement of brain volumes; corpus callosum; brain fissure depth measurements, and cavum septi pellucidi width measurement. A low-quality study was available for transverse cerebellar diameter measurement in FGR. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to understand the changes that occur in the brain of fetuseswith restricted growth, as well as their correlation with the changes in cognitive development observed.

Resumo A restrição do crescimento fetal (RCF) ocorre quando umfeto não consegue atingir seu potencial de crescimento intrauterino, na maioria das vezes por compromisso da função placentária. É uma condição que afeta de 5 a 10% das gravidezes e é a segunda causa mais comum de morbidade e mortalidade perinatal. Crianças nascidas com RCF incorrem em maior risco de atraso no desenvolvimento neurológico e cognitivo, bem como de doenças cardiovasculares e/ou endócrinas, na idade adulta. O objetivo desta revisão foi o de pesquisar na literatura evidência sobre o diagnóstico pré-natal por ecografia de lesões cerebrais relacionadas com a RCF. Utilizando uma abordagem sistemática, avaliamos de forma quantitativa a metodologia dos oito estudos que preencheram os critérios de inclusão e foram, assim, incluídos nesta revisão. Foram identificados estudos de alta qualidade para a medição dos volumes cerebrais;medição do corpo caloso; medição da profundidade das incisuras cerebrais emedição do cavum do septo pelúcido. Os autores identificaram um estudo de qualidade inferior sobre a medição transversal do diâmetro transcerebelar em fetos com RCF. Mais estudos prospectivos randomizados são necessários para perceber quais as alterações que ocorrem no cerébro dos fetos com restrição do seu crescimento, bem como, a sua correlação com as alterações do desenvolvimento cognitivo observadas.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adult , Placenta , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Biometry , Gestational Age , Fetal Growth Retardation/diagnostic imaging , Fetus
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(2): 147-152, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285532


Objective: The increased prevalence rate of white matter hyperintensities is one of the most consistently reported brain abnormalities in adults with bipolar disorder. However, findings in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder are less consistent. Prior studies have been constrained by small sample sizes and/or poor age- and sex-matching of healthy controls. We examined this topic in the largest sample of adolescents with bipolar disorder to date. Methods: T2-weighted 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired for 83 adolescents with bipolar disorder diagnosed via the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and the Schizophrenia, Present and Lifetime version semi-structured interview and 64 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All acquired scans were examined by neuroradiologists and the presence or absence of white matter hyperintensities was determined for each participant. Results: The prevalence of white matter hyperintensities did not differ between adolescents with bipolar disorder (13.3%) and controls (21.9%; χ2 = 1.90; p = 0.168). Conclusion: In contrast to the study hypothesis, the prevalence of white matter hyperintensities was not higher in adolescents with bipolar disorder than controls. The large sample size and good matching for age and sex bolster the reliability of this negative finding. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the prevalence, incidence, and predictors of white matter hyperintensities in early-onset bipolar disorder prospectively.

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Bipolar Disorder/epidemiology , Bipolar Disorder/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 43(1): 1-8, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156991


Abstract Despite major advances in the study of the brain, investigations on neurochemistry in vivo still lack the solid ground of more established methods, such as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a technique that might potentially fill in this gap. Nevertheless, studies using this approach feature great methodological heterogeneity, such as varying voxel of choice, differences on emphasized metabolites, and absence of a standardized unit. In this study, we present a methodology for creating a systematic review and meta-analysis for this kind of scientific evidence using the prototypical case of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Systematic review registration: International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), CRD42018112418.

Humans , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Systematic Reviews as Topic
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(1): 70-74, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153286


Objective: To investigate whether poor antidepressant tolerability is associated with functional brain changes in children and adolescents of parents with bipolar I disorder (at-risk youth). Methods: Seventy-three at-risk youth (ages 9-20 years old) who participated in a prospective study and had an available baseline functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan were included. Research records were reviewed for the incidence of adverse reactions related to antidepressant exposure during follow-up. The sample was divided among at-risk youth without antidepressant exposure (n=21), at-risk youth with antidepressant exposure and no adverse reaction (n=12), at-risk youth with antidepressant-related adverse reaction (n=21), and healthy controls (n=20). The fMRI task was a continuous performance test with emotional distracters. Region-of-interest mean activation in brain areas of the fronto-limbic emotional circuit was compared among groups. Results: Right amygdala activation in response to emotional distracters significantly differed among groups (F3,66 = 3.1, p = 0.03). At-risk youth with an antidepressant-related adverse reaction had the lowest amygdala activation, while at-risk youth without antidepressant exposure had the highest activation (p = 0.004). Conclusions: Decreased right amygdala activation in response to emotional distracters is associated with experiencing an antidepressant-related adverse reaction in at-risk youth. Further studies to determine whether amygdala activation is a useful biomarker for antidepressant-related adverse events are needed.

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prospective Studies , Emotions , Amygdala , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects
Rev. argent. radiol ; 85(1): 11-20, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155708


Resumen La presencia de lesiones quísticas de etiología oncológica en el encéfalo es cada vez más frecuente. El rol del especialista en imágenes es describir sus características, morfología y comportamiento con el contraste endovenoso, para llegar a realizar un diagnóstico presuntivo y enumerar sus diagnósticos diferenciales, y así orientar al médico tratante. Haremos una revisión de las lesiones quísticas de etiología oncológica de presentación frecuente en el encéfalo.

Abstract The presence of an oncologic cystic formation in the brain is frequent. The imaging specialist's role is to describe its features, morphology, and image enhancement characteristics with endovenous contrast, to make a presumptive diagnosis, and enumerated differential diagnoses and thus orientate the practitioner. We will analyze the most common expansive cystic formations.

Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cysts/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Neurocytoma , Hemangioblastoma , Ependymoma