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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10107, 2021. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142578

ABSTRACT

Ketamine (KET) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist with rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects, but how the drug shows its sustained effects is still a matter of controversy. The objectives were to evaluate the mechanisms for KET rapid (30 min) and long-lasting (15 and 30 days after) antidepressant effects in mice. A single dose of KET (2, 5, or 10 mg/kg, po) was administered to male Swiss mice and the forced swim test (FST) was performed 30 min, 15, or 30 days later. Imipramine (IMI, 30 mg/kg, ip), a tricyclic antidepressant drug, was used as reference. The mice were euthanized, separated into two time-point groups (D1, first day after KET injection; D30, 30 days later), and brain sections were processed for glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), histone deacetylase (HDAC), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical assays. KET (5 and 10 mg/kg) presented rapid and long-lasting antidepressant-like effects. As expected, the immunoreactivities for brain GSK-3 and HDAC decreased compared to control groups in all areas (striatum, DG, CA1, CA3, and mainly pre-frontal cortex, PFC) after KET injection. Increases in BDNF immunostaining were demonstrated in the PFC, DG, CA1, and CA3 areas at D1 and D30 time-points. GFAP immunoreactivity was also increased in the PFC and striatum at both time-points. In conclusion, KET changed brain BDNF and GFAP expressions 30 days after a single administration. Although neuroplasticity could be involved in the observed effects of KET, more studies are needed to explain the mechanisms for the drug's sustained antidepressant-like effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Brain/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Ketamine/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Astrocytes , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Disease Models, Animal , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Histone Deacetylases
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 305-308, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056439

ABSTRACT

Fixation is one of the processes in preparing histology and pathology. The common material for fixation is buffered formalin including paraformaldehyde. However, the effect of the damaged cells, which is fixed for a long time, causes the research for other fixation materials to become necessary. In addition, paraformaldehyde is also harmful to human body and natural environment. Ethanol is one of the alternative fixation materials, which has been used for two hundred years. It has been used for many purposes, both in routine staining and immunohistochemistry. Nonetheless, no research confirms its effect on the electron microscope. The authors studied the effect of 50 % of ethanol on the cell membrane, organelles, and nucleus of Purkinje cells (Neuron purkinjense) observed on a light microscope and Transmitted Electron Microscope (TEM). Then it was compared to buffered formalin. In the light microscope, it shows that both of fixations have no different effects of the morphology of the cell membrane, cytoplasm, the nucleus of Purkinje cells and the neutrophils. We assume that our 50 % of ethanol concentration is almost the same as BF 10 % in the ability of hardening tissue and color absorption based on the previous study. In TEM, the structure of the cell membrane, organelles, and cytoplasm of Purkinje cell look broken in the cerebellum of 50 % of ethanol except for the nucleus. There was no significant difference diameter of the nucleus. It happened in general because of the shrinkage effect of ethanol. However, the authors recommend using 50 % of ethanol for routine staining.


La fijación es uno de los procesos en la preparación de muestras para histología y patología. El material más común para la fijación es la formalina tamponada. Sin embargo, el daño a las células que se mantienen en formalina durante mucho tiempo, hace necesario buscar otros materiales de fijación. Además, el paraformaldehido también es perjudicial para el cuerpo humano y el medio ambiente natural. El etanol es uno de los materiales de fijación alternativos que se ha utilizado durante muchos años, con diversos objetivos, tanto en la tinción de rutina como en la inmunohistoquímica. Sin embargo no se ha confirmdo su efecto con microscopio electrónico. Los autores estudiaron el efecto del 50 % de etanol sobre la membrana celular, los orgánulos y el núcleo de las células de Purkinje observados en un microscopio óptico y un microscopio de transmisión electrónico (TEM). Luego se comparó con la formalina tamponada. En el microscopio óptico se observó que ambas fijaciones no tienen efectos diferentes a la morfología de la membrana celular, el citoplasma, el núcleo de las células de Purkinje y los neutrófilos. Suponemos que nuestra concentración de 50 % de etanol es casi la misma que BF 10 % en la capacidad de endurecer el tejido y la absorción de color según el estudio anterior. En TEM, la estructura de la membrana celular, los orgánulos y el citoplasma de la célula de Purkinje presentaban daño en el cerebelo con un 50 % de etanol, a excepción del núcleo. No hubo diferencia significativa en el diámetro del núcleo. En general lo anterior se debió al efecto de contracción del etanol. En conclusión los autores recomiendan usar 50% de etanol para la tinción de rutina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Brain/drug effects , Brain/ultrastructure , Tissue Fixation/methods , Ethanol/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron , Organelles/drug effects , Organelles/ultrastructure , Mice, Inbred BALB C
3.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(5): 435-445, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974183

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two methods of local application of alendronate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone repair and the systemic implications. A critically sized defect (5 mm) was created in the cranial region of twenty-five male Wistar rats, and the bone removed was particulated, and grafted back to the defect with different treatments. The animals were randomly divided into five groups: A1- bone graft immersion in alendronate solution (3 mg/kg) for 5 minutes; P1- bone graft immersion in PTH solution (20 µg); A2- weekly local applications of alendronate 1 mg/kg; P2- weekly local applications of PTH (20 µg); C- no drugs were used. The animals were euthanized 60 days after surgery. Cranial bone blocks were removed for histological, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical analyses. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were used for immunolabeling. The kidneys, liver, and brain were also removed from all the rats for histological analysis. The data were submitted for statistical analysis with a level of significance of 0.05 (One-way ANOVA). The group C and group P2 presented a higher quantity of viable bone particles than the remaining groups. Groups A1, A2, and P1 presented with fewer viable bone particles than the control group, with a predominance of non-mineralized connective tissue. The histomorphometric analysis revealed no differences in relative bone area or MMP-2 or MMP-9 immunolabeling between the groups (p>0.05). Group A2 showed presence of fat in the liver consistent with hepatic steatosis. Changes in brain tissue were observed in groups A1 and P1.


Resumo Este estudo visou avaliar o efeito de dois métodos de aplicação local de alendronato e de paratormônio (PTH) no reparo ósseo e avaliar as implicações sistêmicas. Um defeito de tamanho crítico (5 mm) foi criado na calota craniana de vinte e cinco ratos Wistar machos, e o osso removido foi particulado e enxertado de volta no defeito com diferentes tratamentos. Os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em cinco grupos: A1: imersão do enxerto ósseo em solução de alendronato (3 mg/kg) durante 5 min; P1- imersão do osso em solução de PTH (20 μg); A2- aplicações locais semanais de alendronato 1 mg/kg; P2- aplicações locais semanais de PTH 20 μg; C: não foram utilizados medicamentos. Os animais foram eutanasiados 60 dias após a cirurgia. Foram removidos os blocos ósseos envolvendo a região do defeito para realização das análises histológica, histomorfométrica e imuno-histoquímica. MMP2 e MMP9 foram as imunomarcações utilizadas. Os rins, fígado e cérebro também foram removidos de todos os ratos para análise histológica. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística com um nível de significância de 0,05 (One-way ANOVA). A análise histológica revelou que o grupo C e o grupo P2 apresentaram maior quantidade de partículas ósseas viáveis do que as apresentadas pelos demais grupos. Os grupos A1, A2 e P1 apresentaram menos partículas ósseas viáveis em comparação com o grupo controle com predominância de tecido conjuntivo não mineralizado. A análise histomorfométrica não revelou diferenças entres os grupos na área óssea relativa ou em MMP2 e MMP9 (p>0,05). O grupo A2 mostrou presença de gordura no fígado consistente com esteatose hepática. Alterações no tecido cerebral foram observadas nos grupos A1 e P1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Parathyroid Hormone/pharmacology , Skull/surgery , Skull/drug effects , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Alendronate/pharmacology , Wound Healing/drug effects , Bone Resorption , Brain/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Bone Transplantation/methods , Alendronate/administration & dosage , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects
4.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 273-283, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886645

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tryptophan is the only precursor of serotonin and mediates serotonergic activity in the brain. Previous studies have shown that the administration of tryptophan or tryptophan depletion significantly alters cognition, mood and anxiety. Nevertheless, the neurobiological alterations that follow these changes have not yet been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a tryptophan-enriched diet on immunoreactivity to Fos-protein in the rat brain. Sixteen male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups that either received standard chow diet or a tryptophan-enriched diet for a period of thirty days. On the morning of the 31st day, animals were euthanized and subsequently analyzed for Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei and in regions that receive serotonin innervation from these two brain areas. Treatment with a tryptophan-enriched diet increased Fos-ir in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, paraventricular hypothalamus, arcuate and ventromedial hypothalamus, dorsolateral and dorsomedial periaqueductal grey and dorsal and median raphe nucleus. These observations suggest that the physiological and behavioral alterations that follow the administration of tryptophan are associated with the activation of brain regions that regulate cognition and mood/anxiety-related responses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anxiety/drug therapy , Brain/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/drug effects , Cognition/drug effects , Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation/administration & dosage , Affect/drug effects , Anxiety/metabolism , Time Factors , Tryptophan/administration & dosage , Brain/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Serotonin/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Dietary Supplements , Diet Therapy/methods
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(12): e6346, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888962

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the anesthetic potential of thymol and carvacrol, and their influence on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the muscle and brain of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The AChE activity of S-(+)-linalool was also evaluated. We subsequently assessed the effects of thymol and S-(+)-linalool on the GABAergic system. Fish were exposed to thymol and carvacrol (25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to evaluate time for anesthesia and recovery. Both compounds induced sedation at 25 mg/L and anesthesia with 50-100 mg/L. However, fish exposed to carvacrol presented strong muscle contractions and mortality. AChE activity was increased in the brain of fish at 50 mg/L carvacrol and 100 mg/L thymol, and decreased in the muscle at 100 mg/L carvacrol. S-(+)-linalool did not alter AChE activity. Anesthesia with thymol was reversed by exposure to picrotoxin (GABAA antagonist), similar to the positive control propofol, but was not reversed by flumazenil (antagonist of benzodiazepine binding site), as observed for the positive control diazepam. Picrotoxin did not reverse the effect of S-(+)-linalool. Thymol exposure at 50 mg/L is more suitable than carvacrol for anesthesia in silver catfish, because this concentration did not cause any mortality or interference with AChE activity. Thymol interacted with GABAA receptors, but not with the GABAA/benzodiazepine site. In contrast, S-(+)-linalool did not act in GABAA receptors in silver catfish.


Subject(s)
Animals , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Catfishes , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Receptors, GABA-A/metabolism , Thymol/pharmacology , Acetylcholinesterase/physiology , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Anesthesia/veterinary , Brain/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Catfishes/metabolism , Diazepam/pharmacology , GABA Antagonists/pharmacology , Muscles/drug effects , Muscles/enzymology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Picrotoxin/pharmacology , Receptors, GABA-A/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
6.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2209-2218, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886809

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of benzocaine and tricaine methanesulfonate on oxidative stress parameters of juvenile tambaqui tissues. Fish (n=80) were anesthetized with benzocaine (100 mg L-1) or tricaine (240 mg L-1) and two control groups were used (non-anesthetized fish and fish exposed to ethanol-only). After anesthetic induction 10 fish/anesthetic were euthanized after 3, 12 and 24 hours post-anesthesia and tissue samplings (gills, liver and brain) were performed. Samples were submitted to analyses of enzyme activity glutathione-S-transferase (GST), cellular lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity (ACAP). ACAP increased in gills of benzocaine treatment after 12 hours. The liver showed a reduction in ACAP of tricaine treatment after 12 hours. Both anesthetic treatments showed an increase of ACAP at 24 hours compared to control group. The activity of the GST enzyme increased in the gills for treatments benzocaine and tricaine after 3 and 12 hours. Liver showed increased GST activity (benzocaine after 24 hours and tricaine after 3 and 24 hours). Lipid damage decreased in gills (both anesthetics) and brain (tricaine) after 24 hours. The results demonstrate that benzocaine and tricaine did not cause oxidative damage in juvenile tambaqui under the experimental conditions herein established.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzocaine/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Aminobenzoates/pharmacology , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Fishes , Gills/drug effects , Anesthetics/administration & dosage , Liver/drug effects
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(3): 198-205, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777088

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effect of Bg on cisplatin (CP)-induced neurotoxicity in rats. METHODS: Twenty eight rats were randomly distributed into four groups. The first group was kept as a control. In the second group, CP was given at the single dose of 7 mg/kg intraperitoneally. In the third group, βg was orally administered at the dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 14 days. In the fourth group, CP and βg were given together at the same doses. RESULTS: CP treatment caused significant oxidative damage via induction of lipid peroxidation and reductions antioxidant defense system potency in the brain tissue. In addition, histopathological damage increased with CP treatment. On the other hand, βg treatment largely prevented oxidative and histopathological negative effects of CP. CONCLUSIONS: Cisplatin has severe neurotoxic effects in rats and βg supplementation has significant beneficial effects against CP toxicity depending on its antioxidant properties. Thus, it appears that βg might be useful against CP toxicity in patients with cancer in terms of nervous system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Brain/drug effects , Brain Diseases/prevention & control , Cisplatin/adverse effects , beta-Glucans/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , Brain Diseases/chemically induced , Brain Diseases/pathology , Random Allocation , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Cisplatin/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Models, Animal , Antineoplastic Agents/metabolism
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(6): 394-400, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749642

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the central nervous system toxicity of cisplatin and neuroprotective effect of selenium. METHODS: Twenty-one male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: control (C), cisplatin (CS), cisplatin and selenium (CSE, n=7 in each group). Cisplatin (12 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was administered to CS and CSE groups for three days. Furthermore, CSE group received 3mg/kg/day (twice-a-day as 1.5 mg/kg) selenium via oral gavage five days before cisplatin injection and continued for 11 consecutive days. The same volumes of saline were administered to C group intraperitoneally and orally at same time. RESULTS: Heterochromatic and vacuolated neurons and dilated capillary vessels in the brain were observed in the histochemical examinations of cisplatin treated group. Rats that were given a dose of 3mg/kg/day selenium decreased the cisplatin induced histopathological changes in the brain, indicating a protective effect. In addition, cytoplasmic staining of the cell for bcl-2, both cytoplasmic and nuclear staining for bax were determined to be positive in the all groups. Bax positive cells were increased in the CS group compared to C group, in contrast to decreased bcl-2 positivity. CONCLUSION: Selenium limited apototic activity and histological changes due to the cisplatin related central neurotoxicity. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Cisplatin/toxicity , Neurons/drug effects , Selenium/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Brain/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Models, Animal , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors
9.
Clinics ; 70(5): 313-317, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748277

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the serum interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and to evaluate the association between IL-17 and clinical manifestations, disease activity, laboratory findings and treatment. METHODS: We included 67 consecutive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients [61 women; median age 18 years (range 11-31)], 55 first-degree relatives [50 women; median age 40 years (range 29-52)] and 47 age- and sex-matched healthy controls [42 women; median age 19 years (range 6-30)]. The childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients were assessed for clinical and laboratory systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations, disease activity [Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI)], cumulative damage [Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Damage Index] and current drug use. Serum IL-17 levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using commercial kits. RESULTS: The median serum IL-17 level was 36.3 (range 17.36-105.92) pg/mL in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 29.47 (15.16-62.17) pg/mL in healthy controls (p=0.009). We observed an association between serum IL-17 levels and active nephritis (p=0.01) and migraines (p=0.03). Serum IL-17 levels were not associated with disease activity (p=0.32), cumulative damage (p=0.34), or medication use (p=0.63). CONCLUSION: IL-17 is increased in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus and may play a role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric and renal manifestations. Longitudinal studies are necessary to determine the role of IL-17 in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Affect/physiology , Brain/physiology , Estrogens/physiology , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Menopause/physiology , Menopause/psychology , Serotonin/physiology , Administration, Cutaneous , Administration, Oral , Amino Acids/administration & dosage , Amino Acids/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Brain/metabolism , Cross-Over Studies , Double-Blind Method , Estradiol/administration & dosage , Estradiol/blood , Estradiol/pharmacology , Functional Neuroimaging/methods , Functional Neuroimaging/psychology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/psychology , Psychomotor Performance/physiology , Serotonin/metabolism , Tryptophan/administration & dosage , Tryptophan/blood , Tryptophan/pharmacology
10.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(2): 215-223, Mar-Apr/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-746543

ABSTRACT

Injectable bone substitutes and techniques have been developed for use in minimally invasive procedures for bone augmentation. Objective : To develop a novel injectable thermo-sensitive alginate hydrogel (TSAH) as a scaffold to induce bone regeneration, using a minimally invasive tunnelling technique. Material and Methods : An injectable TSAH was prepared from a copolymer solution of 8.0 wt% Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and 8.0 wt% AAlg-g-PNIPAAm. In vitro properties of the material, such as its microstructure and the sustained release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), were investigated. Then, with the subperiosteal tunnelling technique, this material, carrying rhBMP-2, was injected under the labial periosteum of the maxillary anterior alveolar ridge in a rabbit model. New bone formation was evaluated by means of X-ray, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), fluorescence labelling, histological study, and immunohistochemistry study. Results : The material exhibited good injectability and thermo-irreversible properties. SEM showed an interconnected porous microstructure of the TSAH. The result of ALP activity indicated sustained delivery of BMP-2 from the TSAH from days 3 to 15. In a rabbit model, both TSAH and TSAH/rhBMP-2 induced alveolar ridge augmentation. The percentage of mineralised tissue in the TSAH/rhBMP-2 group (41.6±3.79%) was significantly higher than in the TSAH group (31.3±7.21%; p<0.05). The density of the regenerating tissue was higher in the TSAH/rhBMP-2 group than in the other groups (TSAH group, positive control, blank control; p<0.05). Conclusions : The TSAH provided convenient handling properties for clinical application. To some extent, TSAH could induce ridge augmentation and mineral deposition, which can be enhanced when combined with rhBMP-2 for a minimally invasive tunnelling injection. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Brain Injuries/drug therapy , Brain/drug effects , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Receptors, Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Brain Injuries/immunology , Brain Injuries/pathology , Brain/immunology , Brain/pathology , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/immunology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/adverse effects , Receptors, Interleukin-1/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/adverse effects , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(2): 147-154, 02/2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741177

ABSTRACT

The aim was to describe current reports in the scientific literature on sleep in the intensive care environment and sleep deprivation associated with painful experiences in premature infant. A systematic search was conducted for studies on sleep, pain, premature birth and care of the newborn. Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, VHL and SciELO databases were consulted. The association between sleep deprivation and pain generates effects that are observed in the brain and the behavioral and physiological activity of preterm infants. Polysomnography in intensive care units and pain management in neonates allow comparison with the first year of life and term infants. We have found few references and evidence that neonatal care programs can influence sleep development and reduce the negative impact of the environment. This evidence is discussed from the perspective of how hospital intervention can improve the development of premature infants.


O objetivo foi descrever o estado atual na literatura científica sobre privação do sono associado a experiências dolorosas no prematuro e o papel na evolução do sono em ambiente de terapia intensiva. Realizou-se uma busca sistemática para estudos sobre sono, dor, prematuridade e programas de atenção ao neonato. Foram consultados as bases Web-of-Knowledge, MEDLINE, LILACS, Biblioteca Cochrane, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, BVS e SciELO. A associação entre privação do sono e dor gera efeitos que são observados na atividade cerebral, fisiológica e comportamental dos prematuros. A polissonografia nas unidades intensivas e o manejo da dor em neonatos permitem comparação no primeiro ano de vida com crianças nascidas a termo. Encontraram-se poucas evidências de que programas de cuidado neonatal podem influenciar o desenvolvimento do sono e diminuir o impacto negativo do ambiente. Estas evidências são discutidas na perspectiva de como a intervenção hospitalar pode melhorar o desenvolvimento do prematuro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Betamethasone/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Brain/embryology , Cytoskeleton/drug effects , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Presynaptic Terminals/drug effects , Body Weight , Brain Chemistry/drug effects , Cytoskeleton/chemistry , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/analysis , Papio
12.
Salud pública Méx ; 57(1): 22-28, ene.-feb. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-736458

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Explicar la variación de la desnutrición infantil (DI), entendida como baja talla para la edad (0 a 5 años) entre 1999 y 2006. Material y métodos. Se emplearon estimaciones estatales de DI y diversos indicadores que reflejan las probables causas subyacentes del fenómeno como la pobreza, el producto per cápita estatal, la educación de las mujeres y los accesos a infraestructura de salud y de drenaje. Para el análisis de datos se utilizaron los métodos de regresión con datos panel de efectos fijos y aleatorios. Resultados. Se encontró que la carencia de salud y drenaje, así como la pobreza, empeoran la DI, mientras que la educación de las mujeres la disminuye. Conclusiones. El estudio muestra que las variables de infraestructura explican en buena parte la variación reciente de la DI entre estados, y que el crecimiento económico no es una condición suficiente para reducir la DI.


Objective. Explain the variation in child malnutrition (CM), understood as low height for age (0 to 5 years old) for the period 1999-2006. Materials and methods. State estimations of child malnutrition and several indicators of subjacent probable causes of CM were employed, such as poverty indices, state product per capita, women scholar attainment and access to health and the sewage system. Panel data regression analysis with fixed and random effects were used to analyze the data. Results. The results indicate that the lack to access to health and sewage systems and poverty worsen CM, whereas women education helps to diminish CM. Conclusion. The study shows that infrastructure variables explain a significant part of the recent variation in DI across Mexican states, and that economic growth is not a sufficient condition to diminish DI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Brain/metabolism , G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels/biosynthesis , G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels/genetics , Neurons/metabolism , Baclofen/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , In Vitro Techniques , Mice, Knockout , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/ultrastructure
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Jan; 53(1): 31-35
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154989

ABSTRACT

Argemone mexicana (L.) has a role in the treatment of epileptic disorders in Indian traditional system of medicine. We studied its effect on induced status epilepticus (SE) and oxidative stress in rats. SE was induced in male albino rats by administration of pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, ip) 24 h after injection of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg, ip). Different doses of the ethanol extract of A. mexicana were administered orally 1 h before the injection of pilocarpine. The severity of SE was observed and recorded every 15 min for 90 min and thereafter at every 30 min for another 90 min, using the Racine scoring system. In vivo lipid peroxidation of rat brain tissue was measured utilizing thiobarbiturate-reactive substances. Both in vitro free radical nitric oxide and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl scavenging activities of the extract were also determined. The SE severity was significantly reduced following oral administration of the extract at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses. None of the animals from groups 3 to 5 (with A. mexicana extract) have exhibited forelimb clonus of stage 4 seizure. The extract also exhibited both in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Argemone/chemistry , Brain/drug effects , Brain/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Lithium Compounds/toxicity , Male , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Pilocarpine/toxicity , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Status Epilepticus/chemically induced , Status Epilepticus/prevention & control
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53687

ABSTRACT

The use of prokinetics/antiemetics is one of the leading causes of drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) observed in neurology clinics. Cognitive dysfunction in DIP has recently been recognized, but pathologies related with cognitive dysfunction is unknown. Among our retrospective cohort of 385 consecutive parkinsonian patients enrolled in our parkinsonism registry, 14 patients were identified who satisfied our inclusion criteria: parkinsonism caused by prokinetics/antiemetics, existing T1-weighted 3D volumetric MR images, and normal [18F]-N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane PET scan images. For the comparison of volumetric MR data, 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were included in this study. Among 14 patients with DIP, 4 patients were diagnosed with dementia, and all other patients had mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Comparisons of MR volumetric data between DIP patients with MCI and controls show that cortical gray matter volumes are reduced bilaterally in DIP (P=0.041) without changes in either total white matter volume or total intracranial volume. Among subcortical structures, the volume of the right hippocampus is reduced in DIP patients compared with controls (P=0.011, uncorrected). In DIP, cortical thickness is reduced in the bilateral lingual (P=0.002), right fusiform (P=0.032) and part of the left lateral occipital gyri (P=0.007). Our results suggests that cognitive dysfunction in DIP caused by prokinetics/antiemetics is common. Structural changes in the brain by 3D MRI may be associated with cognitive decline in DIP.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiemetics/adverse effects , Brain/drug effects , Cognition Disorders/chemically induced , Female , Gastrointestinal Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Parkinson Disease, Secondary/chemically induced , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Treatment Outcome
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-215492

ABSTRACT

Although methyltransferase has been recognized as a major element that governs the epigenetic regulation of the genome during temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients, its regulatory effect on glioblastoma chemoresistance has not been well defined. This study investigated whether DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) expression was associated with TMZ sensitivity in glioma cells and elucidated the underlying mechanism. DNMT expression was analyzed by western blotting. miR-20a promoter methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assays, respectively. The results showed that compared with parental U251 cells, DNMT1 expression was downregulated, miR-20a promoter methylation was attenuated and miR-20a levels were elevated in TMZ-resistant U251 cells. Methyltransferase inhibition by 5-aza-2\'-deoxycytidine treatment reduced TMZ sensitivity in U251 cells. In U251/TM cells, DNMT1 expression was negatively correlated with miR-20a expression and positively correlated with TMZ sensitivity and leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 expression; these effects were reversed by changes in miR-20a expression. DNMT1 overexpression induced an increase in U251/TM cell apoptosis that was inhibited by the miR-20a mimic, whereas DNMT1 silencing attenuated U251/TM cell apoptosis in a manner that was abrogated by miR-20a inhibitor treatment. Tumor growth of the U251/TM xenograft was inhibited by pcDNA-DNMT1 pretreatment and boosted by DNMT1-small hairpin RNA pretreatment. In summary, DNMT1 mediated chemosensitivity by reducing methylation of the microRNA-20a promoter in glioma cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Brain/drug effects , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , DNA Methylation , Dacarbazine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Glioma/drug therapy , Humans , Mice, Inbred C57BL , MicroRNAs/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81041

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In this study, there was an investigation as to whether there is a functional difference in essential tremor (ET), according to responses to beta-blockers, by evaluating regional changes in cerebral glucose metabolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen male patients with ET were recruited and categorized into two groups: 8 that responded to medical therapy (group A); and 9 that did not respond to medical therapy (group B). Eleven age-sex matched healthy control male subjects were also included in this study. All subjects underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, and evaluated for their severity of tremor symptoms, which were measured as a score on the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin tremor rating scale (FTM). The FDG-PET images were analyzed using a statistical parametric mapping program. RESULTS: The mean FTM score 6 months after the initiation of propranolol therapy was significantly lower in group A (18.13 > 8.13), compared with group B (14.67 = 14.67). The glucose metabolism in group A in the left basal ganglia was seen to be decreased, compared with group B. The ET showed a more significantly decreased glucose metabolism in both the fronto-temporo-occipital lobes, precuneus of right parietal lobe, and both cerebellums compared with the healthy controls. CONCLUSION: Essential tremor is caused by electrophysiological disturbances within the cortical-cerebellar networks and degenerative process of the cerebellum. Furthermore, ET may have different pathophysiologies in terms of the origin of disease according to the response to first-line therapy.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Aged , Brain/drug effects , Brain Mapping , Essential Tremor/diagnosis , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/chemistry , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Positron-Emission Tomography , Propranolol/pharmacology , Radiopharmaceuticals/chemistry
17.
IBJ-Iranian Biomedical Journal. 2015; 19 (4): 247-253
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-171815

ABSTRACT

Deltamethrin [DM] is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide that can elicit neurotoxicity, leading to apoptosis. There is accumulating evidence that oleuropein [OE] has anti-apoptotic effect. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-apoptotic effect of OE pretreatment in the neuronal cells of cerebral cortex. Rats were randomly divided into four groups each containing five rats: DM-treated group [12.5 mg/kg, a single dose], OE-treated group [20 mg/kg per day], DM + OE-treated group, and vehicle group. Sections of the brain were obtained 24 hours after DM injection and studied for histopathological and immunohistochemistry assessment. The histopathological assessments showed lesser characteristics of neural degeneration in DM + OE group compared with DM group. Greater Bcl-2 and attenuated Bax expression could be detected in the DM + OE treatedmice compared with DM group. The results suggested that DM-induced neurotoxicity can be subsided by OE


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Nitriles , Pyrethrins , Neurotoxins , Protective Agents , Rats , Brain/drug effects , Apoptosis
18.
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2015; 14 (2): 547-557
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-167961

ABSTRACT

Regarding the therapeutic properties of Nigella sativa [NS], the effects of the plant hydro–alcoholic extract on learning, memory and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in penthylenetetrazole [PTZ]-induced repeated seizures. There were 4 experimental groups including: 1- control group; received saline, 2- PTZ group; received saline and PTZ [50 mg/Kg, i.p], 3- PTZ-NS 200 and 4- PTZ-NS 400 ; received 200 and 400 mg/Kg of NS extract respectively, before PTZ injection in 5 consecutive days. Seizure scores were lower in PTZ–NS 200 and 400, furthermore the seizure onset latencies were higher in these groups than PTZ group [P<0.05 and P<0.01]. In Morris water maze, the time spent in target quadrant by PTZ group was lower than control group [P<0.05]; while, 400 mg/Kg of the extract increased it [P<0.01]. In the passive avoidance test, delay time to enter the dark by PTZ group was lower than control at 1 and 24 hours after training [P<0.01 - P<0.001]; while, 400 mg/Kg of the extract increased it [P<0.05]. The total thiol concentration in hippocampal and cortical tissues of PTZ group was reduced while, MDA concentration was higher than control [p<0.05 - p<0.001]. Administration of the extract increased the total thiol and decreased the MDA concentrations [p<0.01 - p<0.001]. It is concluded that the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS possess beneficial effects on learning and memory impairments in repeated seizures model which is accompanied by antioxidant effects in the brain


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Plant Extracts , Memory/drug effects , Brain/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Seizures , Rats, Wistar , Pentylenetetrazole
19.
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2015; 14 (2): 559-566
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-167962

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to observe the protective effects of sufentanil pretreatment on rat cerebral injury during cardiopulmonary bypass [CPB] and to explore the underlying mechanism. Twenty-four male adult Sprague Dawley [SD] rats were divided into 4 groups. Then, the rat CPB model was established. A 14G trocar was inserted into the atrium dextrum. For rats in S1 and S5 groups, sufentanil [1 microgKg[-1] and 5 microgKg[-1]] were applied before CPB process. After the operation, rat brain samples were harvested for measurement of the water content of the brains, total calcium in brain tissue and the level of serum S100beta. Compared with the Sham group, the water content and the total calcium of the brain tissue, and the expression of S100beta in serum were significantly increased in the CPB group [P<0.05]. Compared with the CPB group, sufentanil treatment significantly reduced the water content of the brains, the total calcium and S100beta expression [P<0.05]. The blood pressure and heart rate were significantly decreased in groups CPB, S1, and S5 compared with Sham group during CPB. Compared with the Sham group, the levels of pH and blood lactate in other groups were decreased and increased, respectively, in the post-CPB period. During the CPB and post-CPB periods, the hematocrit levels were significantly down-regulated in groups CPB, S1, and S5 compared with Sham group. In conclusion, sufentanil pretreatment was effective in reducing the cerebral injury during CPB. Reduction in calcium overload may be a potential mechanism in such process


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Protective Agents , Brain/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 32(4): 1467-1471, Dec. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-734700

ABSTRACT

Propineb is a fungicide with a propylene-bis-dithiocarbamate structure. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 400 ppm propineb concentrations in 5 ml distilled water, 5 days per week until the end of pregnancy. The rats were treated with propineb for 16 days and the brains of litter rats were sacrificed at first day of birth after which their brains were collected. Ultrastructural examination of the brains of the fetuses and propineb-treated pregnant females revealed a variety of histopathological effects. We suggest that mitochondrial damage may be an effective factor for neuron necrosis. These results supported the proposal that the exposure to fungicides such as propineb and to other naturally occurring compounds which inhibit mitochondrial function, may contribute to Parkinson's disease development.


El Propineb es un fungicida con una estructura de propileno-bis-ditiocarbamato. Ratas Wistar preñadas fueron expuestas a concentraciones de depropineb (400 ppm) en 5 ml de agua destilada, 5 días por semana hasta el final de la preñez. Las ratas fueron tratadas por 16 días y las crías fueron sacrificados el primer día de nacimiento para recolectar sus cerebros. El examen ultraestructural de los cerebros de los fetos y las hembras preñadas tratadas con propineb reveló una variedad de efectos histopatológicos. Sugerimos que el daño mitocondrial puede ser un factor eficaz para la necrosis neuronal. Estos resultados apoyaron la propuesta de que la exposición a los fungicidas tales como propineb y de otros compuestos de origen natural que inhiben la función mitocondrial, puede contribuir al desarrollo de la enfermedad de Parkinson.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Zineb/analogs & derivatives , Zineb/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Brain/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron , Rats, Wistar
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