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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10107, 2021. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142578

ABSTRACT

Ketamine (KET) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist with rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects, but how the drug shows its sustained effects is still a matter of controversy. The objectives were to evaluate the mechanisms for KET rapid (30 min) and long-lasting (15 and 30 days after) antidepressant effects in mice. A single dose of KET (2, 5, or 10 mg/kg, po) was administered to male Swiss mice and the forced swim test (FST) was performed 30 min, 15, or 30 days later. Imipramine (IMI, 30 mg/kg, ip), a tricyclic antidepressant drug, was used as reference. The mice were euthanized, separated into two time-point groups (D1, first day after KET injection; D30, 30 days later), and brain sections were processed for glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), histone deacetylase (HDAC), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical assays. KET (5 and 10 mg/kg) presented rapid and long-lasting antidepressant-like effects. As expected, the immunoreactivities for brain GSK-3 and HDAC decreased compared to control groups in all areas (striatum, DG, CA1, CA3, and mainly pre-frontal cortex, PFC) after KET injection. Increases in BDNF immunostaining were demonstrated in the PFC, DG, CA1, and CA3 areas at D1 and D30 time-points. GFAP immunoreactivity was also increased in the PFC and striatum at both time-points. In conclusion, KET changed brain BDNF and GFAP expressions 30 days after a single administration. Although neuroplasticity could be involved in the observed effects of KET, more studies are needed to explain the mechanisms for the drug's sustained antidepressant-like effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Brain/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Ketamine/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Astrocytes , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Disease Models, Animal , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Histone Deacetylases
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(4): 374-380, Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001285

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Mercury's deleterious effects are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Objective: To determine whether chronic exposure to inorganic mercury increases the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme and its relationship with oxidative stress in several organs and tissues. Methods: We studied male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (3-month-old) exposed or not to HgCl2 for 30 days. At the end of treatment, we investigated the following: changes in body weight, hemodynamic parameters, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and oxidative stress in the heart, aorta, lung, brain and kidney in hypertensive compared to normotensive animals. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Chronic exposure to HgCl2 did not affect weight gain in either group. Systolic blood pressure, measured weekly, did not increase in Wistar rats but showed a small increase in SHR rats. We also observed increases in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and ACE activity in the plasma and hearts of normotensive rats. In the SHR+Hg group, ACE activity increased in plasma but decreased in kidney, lung, heart, brain and aorta. Oxidative stress was assessed indirectly by malondialdehyde (MDA) production, which increased in Hg-treated rats in both plasma and heart. In the SHR+Hg group, MDA increased in heart and aorta and decreased in lungs and brain. Conclusion: These results suggest that chronic exposure to inorganic mercury aggravates hypertension and produces more expressive changes in ACE activity and oxidative stress in SHRs. Such exposure affects the cardiovascular system, representing a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disorders in normotensive rats and worsening of pre-existing risks for hypertension.


Resumo Fundamento: Os efeitos deletérios do mercúrio estão associados ao risco cardiovascular aumentado. Objetivo: Determinar se a exposição crônica ao mercúrio inorgânico aumenta a atividade da enzima conversora de angiotensina e sua relação com o estresse oxidativo em vários órgãos e tecidos. Métodos: Estudamos ratos Wistar e ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR) (3 meses de idade) expostos ou não a HgCl2 por 30 dias. Ao final do tratamento, investigamos: alterações de peso, parâmetros hemodinâmicos, atividade da enzima conversora de angiotensina (ECA) e estresse oxidativo no coração, aorta, pulmão, cérebro e rim de animais hipertensos comparados a animais normotensos. Um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: A exposição crônica ao HgCl2 não afetou o ganho de peso em nenhum dos grupos. A pressão arterial sistólica, medida semanalmente, não aumentou em ratos Wistar, mas mostrou um pequeno aumento nos ratos SHR. Também observamos aumentos na pressão diastólica final do ventrículo esquerdo e na atividade da ECA no plasma e no coração de ratos normotensos. No grupo SHR + Hg, a atividade da ECA aumentou no plasma, mas diminuiu no rim, pulmão, coração, cérebro e aorta. O estresse oxidativo foi avaliado indiretamente pela produção de MDA, que aumentou nos ratos tratados com Hg tanto no plasma quanto no coração. No grupo SHR + Hg, o MDA aumentou no coração e na aorta e diminuiu nos pulmões e no cérebro. Conclusão: Estes resultados sugerem que a exposição crônica ao mercúrio inorgânico agrava a hipertensão e produz mudanças mais expressivas na atividade da ECA e no estresse oxidativo em SHRs. Essa exposição afeta o sistema cardiovascular, representando um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de distúrbios cardiovasculares em ratos normotensos e para piorar riscos pré-existentes para hipertensão.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hypertension/metabolism , Mercury/toxicity , Mercury Poisoning/complications , Aorta/enzymology , Rats, Inbred SHR , Reference Values , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Risk Factors , Rats, Wistar , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/analysis , Heart , Hypertension/physiopathology , Kidney/enzymology , Lung/enzymology , Malondialdehyde/blood
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(12): e6346, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888962

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the anesthetic potential of thymol and carvacrol, and their influence on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the muscle and brain of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The AChE activity of S-(+)-linalool was also evaluated. We subsequently assessed the effects of thymol and S-(+)-linalool on the GABAergic system. Fish were exposed to thymol and carvacrol (25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to evaluate time for anesthesia and recovery. Both compounds induced sedation at 25 mg/L and anesthesia with 50-100 mg/L. However, fish exposed to carvacrol presented strong muscle contractions and mortality. AChE activity was increased in the brain of fish at 50 mg/L carvacrol and 100 mg/L thymol, and decreased in the muscle at 100 mg/L carvacrol. S-(+)-linalool did not alter AChE activity. Anesthesia with thymol was reversed by exposure to picrotoxin (GABAA antagonist), similar to the positive control propofol, but was not reversed by flumazenil (antagonist of benzodiazepine binding site), as observed for the positive control diazepam. Picrotoxin did not reverse the effect of S-(+)-linalool. Thymol exposure at 50 mg/L is more suitable than carvacrol for anesthesia in silver catfish, because this concentration did not cause any mortality or interference with AChE activity. Thymol interacted with GABAA receptors, but not with the GABAA/benzodiazepine site. In contrast, S-(+)-linalool did not act in GABAA receptors in silver catfish.


Subject(s)
Animals , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Catfishes , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Receptors, GABA-A/metabolism , Thymol/pharmacology , Acetylcholinesterase/physiology , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Anesthesia/veterinary , Brain/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Catfishes/metabolism , Diazepam/pharmacology , GABA Antagonists/pharmacology , Muscles/drug effects , Muscles/enzymology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Picrotoxin/pharmacology , Receptors, GABA-A/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
4.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 36(3): 220-226, Jul-Sep/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-718443

ABSTRACT

Objective: Several studies support the hypothesis that metabolism impairment is involved in the pathophysiology of depression and that some antidepressants act by modulating brain energy metabolism. Thus, we evaluated the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and creatine kinase in the brain of rats subjected to prolonged administration of fluvoxamine. Methods: Wistar rats received daily administration of fluvoxamine in saline (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) for 14 days. Twelve hours after the last administration, rats were killed by decapitation and the prefrontal cortex, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum were rapidly isolated. Results: The activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV were decreased after prolonged administration of fluvoxamine in rats. However, the activities of complex II, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase were increased. Conclusions: Alterations in activity of energy metabolism enzymes were observed in most brain areas analyzed. Thus, we suggest that the decrease in citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV can be related to adverse effects of pharmacotherapy, but long-term molecular adaptations cannot be ruled out. In addition, we demonstrated that these changes varied according to brain structure or biochemical analysis and were not dose-dependent. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Brain/drug effects , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Fluvoxamine/administration & dosage , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Antidepressive Agents/administration & dosage , Brain/enzymology , Citric Acid Cycle/drug effects , Creatine Kinase/drug effects , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Electron Transport/drug effects , Malate Dehydrogenase/drug effects , Rats, Wistar
5.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 May; 52(5): 527-537
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153730

ABSTRACT

Seasonal variations in the aromatase activity in H. fossilis estimated by a microassay were correlated with the sex steroids, vitellogenin in and ovarian weight during circannual reproductive cycle. In the female catfish, aromatase activity was detectable in the hypothalamus throughout the year whereas in ovary only during active vitellogenesis. In the catfish, hypothalamic aromatase levels increased two times during annual gonadal cycle, once in a fully gravid fish and then in a reproductively quiescent fish. On the other hand, increase in the ovarian aromatase activity was observed only during vitellogenesis, which showed a direct correlation with plasma levels of sex steroids. Further, plasma levels of testosterone and estradiol suggested a precursor-product relationship. At the completion of vitellogenesis, ovarian aromatase activity declined sharply resulting in elevation of plasma testosterone levels, which in turn could be utilized as substrate by the hypothalamic aromatase whose activity was the highest in the postvitellogenic catfish. At least two isoforms of gene, cyp19a and cyp19b, coding for aromatase in ovary and brain respectively were expressed in the catfish. Aromatase activity was more concentrated in those areas of catfish brain, which have been implicated in the control of reproduction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aromatase/genetics , Aromatase/metabolism , Brain/enzymology , Brain/metabolism , Catfishes/physiology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Female , Ovary/enzymology , Ovary/metabolism , Seasons , Substrate Specificity
6.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 36(2): 138-142, 13/05/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710202

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Fenproporex is an amphetamine-based anorectic which is rapidly converted into amphetamine in vivo. Na+, K+-ATPase is a membrane-bound enzyme necessary to maintain neuronal excitability. Considering that the effects of fenproporex on brain metabolism are poorly known and that Na+, K+-ATPase is essential for normal brain function, this study sought to evaluate the effect of this drug on Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum of young rats. Methods: Young male Wistar rats received a single injection of fenproporex (6.25, 12.5, or 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or polysorbate 80 (control group). Two hours after the last injection, the rats were killed by decapitation and the brain was removed for evaluation of Na+, K+-ATPase activity. Results: Fenproporex decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the striatum of young rats at doses of 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg and increased enzyme activity in the hypothalamus at the same doses. Na+, K+-ATPase activity was not affected in the hippocampus or prefrontal cortex. Conclusion: Fenproporex administration decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the striatum even in low doses. However, in the hypothalamus, Na+, K+-ATPase activity was increased. Changes in this enzyme might be the result of the effects of fenproporex on neuronal excitability. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Amphetamines/administration & dosage , Brain/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
7.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-6, 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effect of aqueous extracts of Allium sativum (garlic), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Capsicum fructensces (cayenne pepper) and their mixture on oxidative stress in rats fed high Cholesterol/high fat diet was investigated. Rats were randomly distributed into six groups (n = 6) and given different dietary/spice treatments. Group 1 standard rat chow (control), group 2, hypercholesterolemic diet plus water, and groups 3, 4, 5, 6, hypercholesterolemic diet with 0.5 ml 200 mg · kg-1 aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, cayenne pepper or their mixture respectively daily for 4 weeks. RESULTS: Pronounced oxidative stress in the hypercholesterolemic rats evidenced by significant (p < 0.05) increase in MDA levels, and suppression of the antioxidant enzymes system in rat's liver, kidney, heart and brain tissues was observed. Extracts of spices singly or combined administered at 200 mg.kg-1 body weight significantly (p < 0.05) reduced MDA levels and restored activities of antioxidant enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that consumption of garlic, ginger, pepper, or their mixture may help to modulate oxidative stress caused by hypercholesterolemia in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Diet, High-Fat , Hypercholesterolemia/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Spices , Brain/enzymology , Capsicum/metabolism , Drug Combinations , Garlic/metabolism , Ginger/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Glutathione Reductase/metabolism , Hypercholesterolemia/etiology , Hypercholesterolemia/metabolism , Kidney/enzymology , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Myocardium/enzymology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(12): 1196-1202, Dec. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-532292

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute intracerebroventricular (icv) insulin administration on central mechanisms regulating urinary sodium excretion in simultaneously centrally NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME)-injected unanesthetized rats. Male Wistar-Hannover rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups: a) icv 0.15 M NaCl-injected rats (control, N = 10), b) icv dose-response (1.26, 12.6 and 126 ng/3 µL) insulin-injected rats (N = 10), c) rats icv injected with 60 µg L-NAME in combination with NaCl (N = 10) or d) with insulin (N = 10), and e) subcutaneously insulin-injected rats (N = 5). Centrally administered insulin produced an increase in urinary output of sodium (NaCl: 855.6 ± 85.1 Ä percent/min; 126 ng insulin: 2055 ± 310.6 Ä percent/min; P = 0.005) and potassium (NaCl: 460.4 ± 100 Ä percent/min; 126 ng insulin: 669.2 ± 60.8 Ä percent/min; P = 0.025). The urinary sodium excretion response to icv 126 ng insulin microinjection was significantly attenuated by combined administration of L-NAME (126 ng insulin: 1935 ± 258.3 Ä percent/min; L-NAME + 126 ng insulin: 582.3 ± 69.6 Ä percent/min; P = 0.01). Insulin-induced natriuresis occurred by increasing post-proximal sodium excretion, despite an unchanged glomerular filtration rate. Although the rationale for decreased urinary sodium excretion induced by combined icv L-NAME and insulin administration is unknown, it is tempting to suggest that perhaps one of the efferent signals triggered by insulin in the CNS may be nitrergic in nature.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Brain/enzymology , Insulin/pharmacology , Natriuresis/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Injections, Intraventricular , Insulin/administration & dosage , Microinjections , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
9.
West Indian med. j ; 58(5): 422-427, Nov. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672514

ABSTRACT

Aluminium has a unique combination of physical and chemical properties which has enabled man to put this metal to very wide and varied use. However, prolonged exposure to aluminium ions may lead to adverse health effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary aluminium on the protein composition and the intrinsic activity of cytochrome oxidase (COX) for brain mitochondria. New Zealand white rabbits were maintained on a diet of commercial rabbit pellets and distilled water for a period of 12 weeks. For the experimental group, AlCl3, 330mg/kg/L was added to the drinking water. When compared to the control, mitochondria isolated from the brains of the AlCl3 fed rabbits showed no change in Km but an approximate 35% decrease in both the low and high affinity Vmax values. Also, whereas the protein composition of the mitochondria from both sources appeared to be normal, isolation of highly purified COX proved to be difficult and for the AICI3 fed rabbits, a number of the enzyme's low molecular weight subunits were absent. These results appear to confirm a relationship between long term aluminium consumption and low brain COX activity; they further suggest that an altered COX structure may be the cause of the low enzymic activity.


El aluminio posee una combinación única de las propiedades físicas y químicas que ha permitido al ser humano hacer un uso amplio y variado de este metal. Sin embargo, un número de estudios recientes, sugiere que la exposición prolongada a los iones de aluminio puede tener efectos nocivos sobre la salud. En el presente estudio, evaluamos los efectos del aluminio dietético sobre la composición proteínica y la actividad intrínseca de la oxidasa citocrómica (COX) para la mitocondria cerebral. Conejos blancos de Nueva Zelanda, fueron mantenidos con una dieta de alimento para conejos y agua destilada por un período de 12 semanas. Para el grupo experimental AlCl3, 330mg/kg/L fueron añadidos al agua potable. En comparación con el grupo de control, las mitocondrias aisladas de los cerebros de los conejos alimentados con AlCl3 no mostraron cambios en Km pero hubo una disminución de aproximadamente 35% tanto en los valores Vmax de baja y alta afinidad. Por otro lado, mientras que la composición proteica de las mitocondrias de ambas fuentes parecía ser normal, resultó difícil aislar el COX altamente purificado y un número de enzimas de subunidades de bajo peso molecular MMMM estuvieron ausentes. Estos resultados parecen confirmar una relación entre el consumo de aluminio a largo plazo y la baja actividad del COX del cerebro. Asimismo, sugieren que una alteración de la estructura del COX puede ser la causa de una baja actividad enzimática.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Aluminum Compounds/toxicity , Brain/metabolism , Chlorides/toxicity , Electron Transport Complex IV/drug effects , Electron Transport Complex IV/metabolism , Mitochondria/enzymology , Administration, Oral , Aluminum Compounds/administration & dosage , Astringents/administration & dosage , Astringents/toxicity , Brain Chemistry/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Chlorides/administration & dosage , Mitochondria/chemistry
10.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 31(3): 247-252, Sept. 2009. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-526264

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Clinical findings suggest that ketamine may be used for the treatment of major depression. The present study aimed to compare behavioral effects and brain Creatine kinase activity in specific brain regions after administration of ketamine and imipramine in rats. METHOD: Rats were acutely given ketamine or imipramine and antidepressant-like activity was assessed by the forced swimming test; Creatine kinase activity was measured in different regions of the brain. RESULTS: The results showed that ketamine (10 and 15mg/kg) and imipramine (20 and 30mg/kg) reduced immobility time when compared to saline group. We also observed that ketamine (10 and 15mg/kg) and imipramine (20 and 30mg/kg) increased Creatine kinase activity in striatum and cerebral cortex. Ketamine at the highest dose (15mg/kg) and imipramine (20 and 30mg/kg) increased Creatine kinase activity in cerebellum and prefrontal cortex. On the other hand, hippocampus was not affected. CONCLUSION: Considering that metabolism impairment is probably involved in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders, the modulation of energy metabolism (like increase in Creatine kinase activity) by antidepressants could be an important mechanism of action of these drugs.


OBJETIVO: Vários achados clínicos sugerem que a cetamina apresenta efeito antidepressivo. O presente estudo tem como objetivo comparar efeitos comportamentais e a atividade da creatina quinase em regiões específicas do encéfalo após a administração de cetamina e imipramina em ratos. MÉTODO: Ratos Wistar receberam uma administração aguda de cetamina ou imipramina e a atividade antidepressiva foi avaliada pelo teste de nado forçado; a atividade da creatina quinase foi medida em diferentes regiões encefálicas. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que a cetamina (10 e 15mg/kg) e a imipramina (20 e 30mg/kg) diminuíram o tempo de imobilidade quando comparados ao grupo salina. Também foi observado que a cetamina (10 e 15mg/kg) e a imipramina (20 e 30mg/kg) aumentaram a atividade da creatina quinase no estriado e córtex cerebral. A dose mais alta de cetamina (15mg/kg) e a imipramina (20 e 30mg/kg) aumentaram a atividade da creatina quinase no cerebelo e córtex pré-frontal. Por outro lado, o hipocampo não foi alterado. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando que a diminuição no metabolismo provavelmente está envolvida na fisiopatologia da depressão, a modulação do metabolismo energético (como um aumento na atividade da creatina quinase) por antidepressivos pode ser um importante mecanismo de ação destes fármacos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Brain/drug effects , Creatine Kinase/metabolism , Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists/administration & dosage , Imipramine/administration & dosage , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic/administration & dosage , Brain/enzymology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Depression/drug therapy , Rats, Wistar , Stress, Physiological
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 69(2): 319-325, May 2009. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-519173

ABSTRACT

The metabolic profiles of selected tissues were analyzed in hatchlings of the Amazonian freshwater turtles Podocnemis expansa, P. unifilis and P. sextuberculata. Metabolic design in these species was judged based on the key enzymes of energy metabolism, with special emphasis on carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and ketone body metabolism. All species showed a high glycolytic potential in all sampled tissues. Based on low levels of hexokinase, glycogen may be an important fuel for these species. The high lactate dehydrogenase activity in the liver may play a significant role in carbohydrate catabolism, possibly during diving. Oxidative metabolism in P. sextuberculata appears to be designed for the use of lipids, amino acids and ketone bodies. The maximal activities of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glutamine dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and succinyl-CoA keto transferase display high aerobic potential, especially in muscle and liver tissues of this species. Although amino acids and ketone bodies may be important fuels for oxidative metabolism, carbohydrates and lipids are the major fuels used by P. expansa and P. unifilis. Our results are consistent with the food habits and lifestyle of Amazonian freshwater turtles. The metabolic design, based on enzyme activities, suggests that hatchlings of P. unifilis and P. expansa are predominately herbivorous, whereas P. sextuberculata rely on a mixed diet of animal matter and vegetation.


O perfil metabólico de vários tecidos foi analisado em quelônios aquáticos recém-eclodidos: Podocnemis expansa, P. unifilis e P. sextuberculata. O potencial metabólico dessas espécies foi avaliado por meio das atividades absolutas das enzimas do metabolismo energético com ênfase no metabolismo dos carboidratos, lipídios, aminoácidos e corpos cetônicos. Todas as espécies estudadas apresentaram alto potencial glicolítico em todos os tecidos analisados. Com base nos baixos níveis da enzima hexoquinase, as reservas de glicogênio podem ser importantes substratos energéticos para estas espécies. A alta atividade da lactato desidrogenase no fígado pode indicar que este órgão desempenha um importante papel no metabolismo dos carboidratos, possivelmente relacionado com a resistência ao mergulho prolongado. O perfil metabólico de P. sextuberculata parece organizado para utilizar preferencialmente lipídios, aminoácidos e corpos cetônicos. Os dados das atividades máximas das enzimas 3-hidroxi-acil-Co A desidrogenase, malato desidrogenase e succinil-Co A ceto-transferase, especialmente no músculo branco e no fígado dessa espécie corroboram esta hipótese. Por outro lado, os carboidratos e os lipídios parecem ser os principais substratos metabólicos de P. expansa e P. unifilis, muito embora, os corpos cetônicos e aminoácidos sejam importantes metabólitos para sustentar o potencial oxidativo nessas espécies. Os dados enzimáticos parecem estar correlacionados com o hábito alimentar e o estilo de vida dos quelônios de água doce da Amazônia. O perfil metabólico sugere que os recém-eclodidos de P. unifilis e P. expansa são predominantemente herbívoros, enquanto que P. sextuberculata pode depender de uma dieta mista de material vegetal e proteína animal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Turtles/metabolism , Brain/enzymology , Fresh Water , Liver/enzymology , Muscles/enzymology , Myocardium/enzymology , Turtles/classification , Turtles/physiology
12.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2009 Feb; 46(1): 53-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-28834

ABSTRACT

Chronic exposure to psychological stress in humans and restraint stress in experimental animals results in increased oxidative stress and resultant tissue damage. To study the contribution of stress hormones towards stress-induced oxidative processes in the brain, we investigated the response of important free-radical scavenging enzymes toward chronic administration of two doses of corticosterone (low dose: 10 mg/kg/day, high dose: 40 mg/kg/day) in rodents. After a 21-day experimental period, a significant decline in both superoxide dismutase and catalase was observed in both stressed and stress hormone-treated animals. The brain levels of glutathione as well as the activities of glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase were also significantly decreased, while lipid peroxidation levels were significantly increased in comparison to controls. A direct pro-oxidant effect of stress hormones in the brain during physical and psychological stress was observed, indicating important implications for oxidative stress as a major pathological mechanism during chronic stress and a consequent target option for anti-stress therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
Analysis of Variance , Animals , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Brain/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Brain/metabolism , Catalase/metabolism , Corticosterone/administration & dosage , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Glutathione Reductase/metabolism , Glutathione Transferase/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Oxidants/administration & dosage , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Random Allocation , Rats , Restraint, Physical , Stress, Psychological , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2009 Jan; 47(1): 24-31
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60206

ABSTRACT

Exhaustive exercise may generate oxidative stress in brain and reported findings are conflicting. Long term dietary restriction (DR) may be useful in the inhibiting of free oxygen radicals generated during exhaustive exercise in the brain of rat. Hence, in this study we evaluated beneficial effects of long term DR on the oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme systems in brain cortex and lung in rats after different intensities of swimming exercise. Sprague-Dawley rats (60) were assigned as DR and ad libitum (AL) groups, and each group was further subdivided into three groups namely control (sedentery), submaximal exercise (endurance exercise) and maximal exercise (exhaustive swimming exercise) groups. Animals in the endurance exercise group swam 5 days/week for 8 weeks while exhaustive swimming group was subjected to an acute bout of exercise. With the increase in intensity of exercise, degree of lipid peroxidation (LP) and protein oxidation (PO) were also increased in DR and AL groups; however rate of increase was lower in DR group than AL group. Glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were lower but glutathione reductase (GR) activity was higher in DR group compared to AL group in endurance and exhaustive swimming exercise. With increase in exercise intensity, GSH and GR enzyme activity decreased, whereas an increase was observed in GSH-Px enzyme activity. There was no difference in LP, PO, GSH and GR activity between DR and AL groups. GSH-Px activity in brain cortex was significantly lower in DR group than in AL group and sedentary rats. Results indicate that long term dietary restriction may protect against endurance and exhaustive swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress in rats by inhibiting oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Aging/metabolism , Animals , Body Weight , Brain/enzymology , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , Caloric Restriction , Glutathione/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Glutathione Reductase/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation , Lung/enzymology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Organ Specificity , Oxidative Stress , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Swimming/physiology , Time Factors
14.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2008 Nov; 46(11): 764-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61661

ABSTRACT

In the present in vitro study, the involvement of cAMP dependent-protein kinase A (PKA) and calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) in the regulation of forebrain (telencephalon and hypothalamus) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity was demonstrated during the reproductive seasons of the female catfish H. fossilis. In the concentration studies conducted in prespawning phase, cAMP (0.05 nM, 0.5 nM, 1 mM and 2.0 mM) or the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX-0.5-2.0 mM) stimulated enzyme activity. Likewise, the incubation of the enzyme preparations with the cAMP dependent-protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 (1 and 10 microM) and PKC inhibitor calphostin C (cal C; 1 and 10 microM) inhibited enzyme activity in a concentration-dependent manner. In seasonal studies, the incubation of the enzyme preparations with cAMP (1 mM), IBMX (1 mM), H-89 (10 microM) and cal-C (10 microM) produced season-dependent effects on enzyme activity. The stimulatory effect of cAMP and IBMX and the inhibitory effect of H-89 and cal C were greater in the resting and spawning phases. The results suggest the involvement of both signal transduction pathways in TH activation vis-à-vis catecholaminergic activity with a more dominant role by the cAMP-PKA pathway.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine/pharmacology , Animals , Brain/enzymology , Calcium/metabolism , Catfishes , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Female , Fossils , Isoquinolines/pharmacology , Naphthalenes/pharmacology , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Seasons , Signal Transduction , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/chemistry
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 Nov; 45(11): 1003-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61809

ABSTRACT

Occurrence of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in mammary gland and tongue taste epithelium was demonstrated for the first time. Six times higher ACE activity in lactating mammary gland, than non-lactating mammary gland, suggested pregnancy and lactation hormonal dependent expression of ACE in female mammals. ACE activity was highest in choroid plexus, less in spinal cord and moderate in cerebrum, medulla, cerebellum and pons. Distribution of ACE in different regions of skin, kidney and among other tissues was different. Presence of ACE in adrenal glands, pancreas, bone marrow and thyroid gland indicated functions other than blood pressure homeostasis for this enzyme.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain/enzymology , Female , Lactation/metabolism , Mammary Glands, Animal/enzymology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/isolation & purification , Sheep , Skin/enzymology , Tongue/enzymology
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 64(3b): 711-717, set. 2006. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-437171

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report the clinical and neuroimaging, central nervous system (CNS) findings of patients with Fabry disease (FD) during 24 months of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with agalsidase-alpha. METHOD: Eight patients were included. Six completed 24 months of ERT. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were obtained at 0, 12 and 24 months of ERT. White matter lesions (WML) were evaluated as well as their relation to age, symptoms and neurological examination (CNS score). RESULTS: MRI was stable in 3 patients. WML and CNS score worsened in one patient, fluctuated in another, and improved in the sixth patient. In the whole series, there were 15 WML at baseline, and 19 at the 24th month. In two years, 4 lesions disappeared, whereas 8 appeared. CONCLUSION: A widespread pattern of silent WML in FD was seen. In two years, some WML appeared, and some disappeared. If these phenomena were related to the natural history, remains to be demonstrated.


OBJETIVO: Relatar os achados neurológicos e de imagem do sistema nervoso central (SNC), observados durante 24 meses de tratamento de reposição enzimática (ERT) com agalsidase-alfa, em pacientes com a doença de Fabry (FD). MÉTODO: 8 pacientes foram incluídos; 6 completaram 24 meses de ERT. Os dados foram obtidos aos 0, 12 e 24 meses de ERT. Lesões de substância branca (WML) foram avaliadas assim como sua relação com a idade e o exame neurológico (escore SNC). RESULTADOS: Os achados de ressonância nuclear magnética foram estáveis em 3 pacientes. As WML e o escore SNC pioraram em um caso; flutuaram em um outro caso; e melhoraram no sexto paciente. No todo, havia 15 WML antes da ERT e 19 WML depois de 24 meses de ERT. Em dois anos, 4 lesões desapareceram e 8 novas surgiram. CONCLUSÕES: Viu-se um padrão difuso de WML assintomáticas, na FD. Em dois anos, algumas WML surgiram, enquanto outras desapareceram. Resta demonstrar se esses fenômenos fazem parte da história natural da doença.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain/pathology , Fabry Disease/drug therapy , alpha-Galactosidase/administration & dosage , Brain/enzymology , Follow-Up Studies , Fabry Disease/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neurologic Examination , Treatment Outcome
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 39(9): 1159-1169, Sept. 2006. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-435432

ABSTRACT

In mammals, hexokinase (HK) is strategically located at the outer membrane of mitochondria bound to the porin protein. The mitochondrial HK is a crucial modulator of apoptosis and reactive oxygen species generation. In plants, these properties related to HK are unknown. In order to better understand the physiological role of non-cytosolic hexokinase (NC-HK) in plants, we developed a purification strategy here described. Crude extract of 400 g of maize roots (230 mg protein) contained a specific activity of 0.042 æmol G6P min-1 mg PTN-1. After solubilization with detergent two fractions were obtained by DEAE column chromatography, NC-HK 1 (specific activity = 3.6 æmol G6P min-1 mg PTN-1 and protein recovered = 0.7 mg) and NC-HK 2. A major purification (yield = 500-fold) was obtained after passage of NC-HK 1 through the hydrophobic phenyl-Sepharose column. The total amount of protein and activity recovered were 0.04 and 18 percent, respectively. The NC-HK 1 binds to the hydrophobic phenyl-Sepharose matrix, as observed for rat brain HK. Mild chymotrypsin digestion did not affect adsorption of NC-HK 1 to the hydrophobic column as it does for rat HK I. In contrast to mammal mitochondrial HK, glucose-6-phosphate, clotrimazole or thiopental did not dissociate NC-HK from maize (Zea mays) or rice (Oryza sativa) mitochondrial membranes. These data show that the interaction between maize or rice NC-HK to mitochondria differs from that reported in mammals, where the mitochondrial enzyme can be displaced by modulators or pharmacological agents known to interfere with the enzyme binding properties with the mitochondrial porin protein.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Hexokinase/isolation & purification , Hexokinase/metabolism , Mitochondria/enzymology , Plant Roots/enzymology , Zea mays/enzymology , Brain/enzymology , Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose , Oryza , Solubility
18.
Alexandria Medical Journal [The]. 2006; 48 (1): 45-57
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-128767

ABSTRACT

Hyperglycemia is a key factor in diabetic complications. However, the mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced brain changes remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of diabetes on serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT] levels and protein kinase C-alpha [PKC-alpha] expression in brain. The potential protective effect of quercetin [QE]; as phytochemical on diabetic brain was additionally studied. This study was carried out on 60 adult male albino rats divided into three main groups; group I [control] included 20 vehicle-treated rats, group II [diabetic] consisted of 20 rats injected once intraperitonially with streptozotocin [STZ; 50mg/kb body weight] amid group III [insulin-treated diabetic] comprised 20 diabetic rats injected subcutaneously with insulin [SIU/kg/day]. Each group was subdivided into 2 subgroups; subgroup I [non-QE treated] and subgroup 2[QE-treated]. QE was administered orally [10mg/kg/day]. At the end of the implemental period, all rats were sacrificed, blood samples were withdrawn and their brains were rapidly removed and dissected. 5-HT was extracted from brain samlples and their concentrations were estimated fluorophotometrically. PKC-alpha expression was quantitated by immunoblot from extracted brain samples. The STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant marked hyperglycemia and higher brain PKC-alpha expression as compared to both control and insulin-treated diabetic groups. However, brain 5-HT concentrations did not differ significantly between the three studied groups. Only in diabetic rats, QE administration produced a significant increase in 5-HT concentrations and a decrease in PKC-alpha expression but with no effect on blood glucose levels. A highly significant direct correlation was found between blood glucose and PKC-alpha expression levels. However, 5-HT did not correlate with either blood glucose or PKC-alpha expression. it could be concluded that STZ-induced chronically hyperglycemic rats were associated with enhanced PKC-alpha expression as well as unaltered neurotransmitter; 5-HT in brain. QE seems to act perfectly in diabetic rats by mechanisms other than antihyperglycemic action. The neuroprotective effect of QE in diabetics was suggested to be through both elevating 5-HT and lowering PKC-alpha expression. Consequently, controlling hyperglycemia is still the most essential approach for primary prevention of diabetic complications


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Protein Kinase C-alpha/analysis , Serotonin/analysis , Brain/enzymology , Rats , Quercetin
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-112017

ABSTRACT

Human cerebral malaria is caused by a protozoan parasitic with no cure till date. The isolation of brain capillaries i.e. microvessels has permitted the in vitro study related to cerebral function. Microvessels were isolated from normal and P. yoelii infected mice brain cortex and subjected to biochemical characterization by the following enzyme markers viz alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyI transpeptidase and monoamine oxidase and electron microscopically. Limited studies have been carried out in relation to drug metabolizing enzymes in cerebral microvessels of rodents. The present studies have been carried out in relation to status of drug metabolizing enzymes during P. yoelii infection in cerebral microvessels of mice. The data obtained depicted a clear cut impairment of cytochrome P450 (a terminal monooxygenase) and related indices viz b5, benzopyrene hydroxylase, aminopyrene-n-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase except NADH cytochrome e reductase which increased during P. yoelii infection in mice as compared to normal. Further the oral drug administration (arteether) treatment brought back the altered MFO system normal a week alter cessation of drug treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Artemisinins/therapeutic use , Brain/enzymology , Disease Models, Animal , Malaria, Cerebral/drug therapy , Mice , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Plasmodium yoelii
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 100(supl.1): 25-27, Mar. 2005. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-402172

ABSTRACT

We have previously reported that in comparison with normal rats, the presence of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) leads to decreased endogenous inhibitory activity (EIA) of Ca2+-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in both brain and serum, and increased expression of protein 3-nitrotyrosine (NT) in brain. In this work we show that animals recovered from the clinical signs of EAE are not different from controls in terms of either brain NOS activity, EIA of NOS, or NT expression. These results suggest that parallel to the reversal of the disease symptoms, a normalization of the production of nitric oxide and related species occurs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Brain/enzymology , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/enzymology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Dyneins/metabolism , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/blood , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Inbred Lew
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