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1.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 606-618, 01-03-2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146428

ABSTRACT

The radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a vegetable of the Brassicaceae family cultivated worldwide and has several medicinal properties. Its biological activities are related to various secondary metabolites present in the species, especially phenolics. Thus, the objectives of this study were the chemical analysis and evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the dry extract and fractions of the fodder turnip leaves (R. sativus var. oleiferus Metzg.). Samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry and the antioxidant activity was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method and the reducing power method. Antimicrobial activity was determined by the agar diffusion and microdilution methods. The total phenols were concentrated in the butanol fraction (121.27 mg GAE/g) and the flavonoids were concentrated in the ethyl acetate fraction (98.02 mg EQ/g). The ethyl acetate fraction showed the best antioxidants results, with 83.45% of free radical scavenging and 11.34% of ferric ions reduction. The analysis of antimicrobial activity showed that the dry extract had the highest average zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtilis (18.67 mm). Smaller values of the minimum inhibitory concentration for Micrococcus luteus were, and the ethyl acetate fraction showed a lower minimum inhibitory concentration (0.1 mg/ml) for that microorganism. There was a strong correlation between the antioxidant activity and the content of phenols and flavonoids. The results showed the potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of this extract with the ethyl acetate fraction being most promising for further studies.


O rabanete(Raphanus sativus L.) é um vegetal da família Brassicaceae cultivado em todo o mundo e possui diversas propriedades medicinais. Suas atividades biológicas estão relacionadas aos vários metabólitos secundários presentes na espécie, especialmente os compostos fenólicos. Desta forma, os objetivos deste estudo foram realizar análises químicas e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana do extrato seco e das frações das folhas de R. sativus var. oleiferus Metzg. As amostras foram analisadas em espectrômetro de massas e o potencial antioxidante foi avaliado pelos métodos do radical DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazila) e do poder redutor. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelos métodos de difusão em ágar e da microdiluição. Observou-se que os fenóis totais se concentraram na fração butanólica (121,27 mg EAG/g), enquanto que e os teores de flavonoides concentraram-se na fração acetato de etila (98,02 mg EQ/g). A fração acetato de etila apresentou os melhores resultados antioxidantes, com porcentagem de sequestro dos radicais DPPH de 83,45% e com porcentagem de redução dos íons férrico de 11,34%. A análise da atividade antimicrobiana revelou que o extrato seco teve maior média de halos de inibição frente ao Bacillus subtilis(18,67 mm). Os menores valores da concentração inibitória mínima foram para Micrococcus luteus, sendo que a fração acetato de etila demonstrou menor concentração inibitória mínima (0,1 mg/mL) para esse micro-organismo. Houve uma forte correlação entre a atividade antioxidante e o teor de fenóis e de flavonoides. Os resultados demonstraram potenciais ações antioxidante e antimicrobiana do extrato e das frações avaliados, sendo a fração acetato de etila promissora para estudos posteriores.


Subject(s)
Raphanus , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants , Plants, Medicinal , Bacillus subtilis , Micrococcus luteus , Brassicaceae , Phenolic Compounds , Chemical Phenomena
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880484

ABSTRACT

The dynamic activity of transposable elements (TEs) contributes to the vast diversity of genome size and architecture among plants. Here, we examined the genomic distribution and transposition activity of long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) in Arabidopsis thaliana (Ath) and three of its relatives, Arabidopsis lyrata (Aly), Eutrema salsugineum (Esa), and Schrenkiella parvula (Spa), in Brassicaceae. Our analyses revealed the distinct evolutionary dynamics of Gypsyretrotransposons, which reflects the different patterns of genome size changes of the four species over the past million years. The rate of Gypsy transposition in Aly is approximately five times more rapid than that of Ath and Esa, suggesting an expanding Aly genome. Gypsy insertions in Esa are strictly confined to pericentromeric heterochromatin and associated with dramatic centromere expansion. In contrast, Gypsy insertions in Spa have been largely suppressed over the last million years, likely as a result of a combination of an inherent molecular mechanism of preferential DNA removal and purifying selection at Gypsy elements. Additionally, species-specific clades of Gypsy elements shaped the distinct genome architectures of Aly and Esa.


Subject(s)
Brassicaceae/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Genome Size , Genome, Plant , Genomics , Phylogeny , Retroelements , Species Specificity
3.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0202019, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1118082

ABSTRACT

Induced resistance emerges as an alternative method for controlling plant diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of biotic and abiotic resistance inducers for controlling white rust in rocket (Eruca sativa), as well as biochemical changes (peroxidase) and fitness costs. The experiments were developed with the abiotic inducers acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) (12.5, 25, and 50 mg ai L-1) and citrus biomass (CB) (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5%), as well as with the biotic ones Saccharomyces cerevisiae (25 mg mL-1), Bacillus thuringiensis (25 mg p.c. mL-1), Saccharomyces boulardii (25 mg mL-1), and phosphorylated mannan oligosaccharide (PMO) (0.25%), in preventive and curative interventions. Fungicide mancozeb (1.6 g ai L-1), Bordeaux mixture (1%), and water were the control treatments. Leaf samples were collected 3, 7, 11, 15, and 19 days after the treatments to determine peroxidases and assess the severity and production. Concerning abiotic inducers, all doses of ASM and CB 0.5% (preventive) and CB 0.25% (curative) reduced the severity of white rust, whereas, among biotic inducers, only PMO applied preventively controlled the disease. Peroxidase activity was higher for CB 0.25% and ASM 50 mg L-1. Bordeaux mixture induced higher peroxidase activity.(AU)


A indução de resistência surge como um método alternativo para o controle de doenças em plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de indutores de resistência bióticos e abióticos no controle de ferrugem branca em rúcula (Eruca sativa), bem como alterações bioquímicas (peroxidase) e o impacto na produção. Foram desenvolvidos experimentos com os indutores abióticos acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM) (12,5; 25 e 50 mg i.a. L-1) e biomassa cítrica (BC) (0,1; 0,25 e 0,5%), e os bióticos Saccharomyces cerevisiae (25 mg p.c. mL-1), Bacillus thuringiensis (25 mg p.c. mL-1), Saccharomyces boulardii (25 mg p.c. mL-1) e manano-oligossacarídeo fosforilado (MOF) (0,25%), sendo aplicados preventiva e curativamente. Como controles foram utilizados o fungicida mancozeb (1,6 g i.a. L-1), calda bordalesa (1%) e água. Amostras de folhas foram coletadas aos 3, 7, 11, 15 e 19 dias após os tratamentos para a determinação de peroxidases, e avaliações de severidade e produção. Entre os indutores abióticos, todas as doses de ASM e BC 0,5% (preventivamente) e BC 0,25% (curativamente) reduziram a severidade da ferrugem branca, enquanto entre os indutores bióticos, apenas o MOF aplicado preventivamente, controlou a doença. A atividade de peroxidase foi superior para BC 0,25% e ASM 50 mg L-1. O tratamento com calda bordalesa também incrementou a atividade de peroxidase.(AU)


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases , Saccharomyces , Bacillus thuringiensis , Peroxidase , Brassicaceae , Efficiency
4.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(1): 177-186, jan./fev. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048571

ABSTRACT

Seeds of arugula (Eruca sativa Miller, cv. Cultivada), carrot (Daucus carota L., cv. Nantes), eggplant (Solanum melongena L., cv. Embú) and watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai cv. Crimson Sweet] were submitted to different osmotic potentials induced by polyethylene glycol(PEG) with the objective of evaluate the effects of drought stress on seed germination and initial seedling growth. Seeds were distributed in plastic boxes containing blotter paper, soaked with PEG solutions prepared with osmotic potentials 0.0 (control), ­0.2, ­0.4, and ­0.8 MPa and kept into a seed germinator, at 25 °C for 14 days. A completely randomized design in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme with four replicates of 50 seeds each was used. The results showed that by increasing of the osmotic potential level, germinated seeds number, germination rate index, root and shoot length, shoot and root dry matter, and seedling vigor indices decreased, while mean germination time and root: shoot ratio increased in all four vegetable crops. Additionally, the carrot and watermelon are more susceptible than arugula and eggplant to drought stress, with germination response declining more rapidly with the rise of osmotic potential level. Arugula and eggplant crops tolerate water stress of up to ­0.2 MPa, without reducing germination of the seeds; however, the growth of shoots and roots are inhibited. The germination process of eggplant and watermelon seeds are completely inhibited at ­0.8 MPa osmotic potential, whereas germination of carrot seeds is completely inhibited at ­0.4 MPa osmotic potential. Severe drought stress limits the process of seed germination and initial seedling growth of vegetable crops.


Sementes de rúcula (Eruca sativa Miller, cv. Cultivada), cenoura (Daucus carota L., cv. Nantes), berinjela (Solanum melongena L., cv. Embú) e melancia [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai cv. Crimson Sweet] foram submetidas a diferentes potenciais osmóticos simulados com polietileno glicol (PEG 6000) com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do estresse hídrico na germinação e no crescimento inicial das plântulas. As sementes foram distribuídas em caixas plásticas tipo Gerbox® contendo papel mata-borrão, o qual foi umedecido com diferentes soluções de PEG preparadas com quatro níveis de potenciais osmótico [0 (controle); ­0,2; ­0,4; e ­0,8 MPa]. As caixas plásticas foram então mantidas em câmara de germinação à 25 °C por 14 dias. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 × 4, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes cada. Os resultados mostraram que o aumento do nível de potencial osmótico da solução reduziu a porcentagem de germinação das sementes, o índice de velocidade de germinação, o comprimentos da parte aérea e da raiz principal, a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes e os índices de vigor das plântulas, enquanto que o tempo médio de germinação e a relação entre a matéria seca da raiz/parte aérea aumentou em todas as quatro espécies de hortaliças. As culturas de cenoura e melancia são mais susceptível que a rúcula e a berinjela ao estresse hídrico, com resposta de germinação declinando mais rapidamente com o aumento do nível de potencial osmótico. A rúcula e a berinjela toleram estresse hídrico de até ­0,2 MPa, sem reduzir o processo de germinação das sementes; no entanto, o crescimento da parte aérea e das raízes são inibidos. O processo de germinação das sementes de berinjela e melancia são completamente inibidos em potencial osmótico de ­0.8 MPa, ao passo que a germinação das sementes de cenoura é completamente inibida em potencial osmótico de ­0.4 MPa. O estresse hídrico severo limita o processo de germinação das sementes e crescimento inicial de plântulas das quatro espécies de hortaliças.


Subject(s)
Seeds , Daucus carota , Brassicaceae , Citrullus , Dehydration , Solanum melongena , Vegetables
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 34: 9-16, july. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026852

ABSTRACT

Background: Epigenetic modifications are key factors modulating the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of phytochemicals. The knowledge of plant epigenetic and genetic variations can contribute to enhance the production of bioactive compounds. These issues have been little explored thus far in Rorippa nasturtium var. aquaticum L. (watercress), an edible and medicinal plant. The aim of the current study was to determine and compare the phenolic composition and epigenetic and genetic variations between wild and cultivated watercress. Results: Significant differences were found in the quantitative phenolic composition between wild and cultivated watercress. The eight primer combinations used in the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) method revealed different epigenetic status for each watercress type, the cultivated one being the most epigenetically variable. The genetic variability revealed by the EcoRI/MspI amplification profile and also by eight inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers was different between the two types of watercress. The results of the Mantel test showed that the correlation between genetic and epigenetic variations has diminished in the cultivated type. Cluster analyses showed that the epigenetic and genetic characterizations clearly discriminated between wild and cultivated watercress. Conclusions: Relevant chemical, epigenetic, and genetic differences have emerged between wild and cultivated watercress. These differences can contribute to fingerprint and develop quality control tools for the integral and safety use and the commercialization of watercress. The richness of epialleles could support the development of tools to manipulate the watercress epigenome to develop high bioproduct­producing cultivars


Subject(s)
Nasturtium/genetics , Nasturtium/chemistry , Plants, Edible , Genetic Variation , Cluster Analysis , Microsatellite Repeats , DNA Methylation , Brassicaceae/genetics , Brassicaceae/chemistry , Cytosine/metabolism , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis , Epigenomics , Phytochemicals
6.
Mycobiology ; : 172-176, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729782

ABSTRACT

A new species belonging to the genus Alternaria was isolated from the necrotic leaf spots of Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis in Yuseong district, Daejeon, Korea. It is an occasional isolate, not an etiological agent, which is morphologically similar to A. broccoli-italicae, but differs in conidial size and conidiophore shape. Phylogenetic analysis using the sequence datasets of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and plasma membrane ATPase genes showed that it is distantly related to A. broccoli-italicae and closely related to Alternaria species in the section Pseudoalternaria, which belonged to a clade basal to the section Infectoriae. Morphologically, the species is unique because it produces solitary conidia or conidial chains (two units), unlike the four members in the section Pseudoalternaria that produce conidia as short branched chains. It exhibits weak pathogenicity in the host plant. This report includes the description and illustration of A. brassicifolii as a new species.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphatases , Alternaria , Brassica rapa , Brassica , Brassicaceae , Cell Membrane , Dataset , DNA, Ribosomal , Korea , Oxidoreductases , Plants , Spores, Fungal , Virulence
7.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e0362017, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-996829

ABSTRACT

Collard greens Brassica oleracea var. acephala is one of the most important horticultural grown in Brazil for human feeding. The caterpillar Ascia monuste orseis (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) stands out among the important pest in Brassicaceae causing severe plant defoliation. The objective of this study was to identify resistant genotypes (antixenosis) in 26 collard greens genotypes to A. monuste orseis. In free-choice test, randomized blocks were used; and in the non-choice test we adopted a completely randomized design. Manteiga de Jundiaí, crespa de Capão Bonito, couve de Arthur Nogueira 1, manteiga I-1811, manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-1811, orelha-de-elefante and Pires 1 de Campinas presented antixenosis (non-preference for oviposition). Pires 1 de Campinas, manteiga I-1811, manteiga de São José, verde-escura and manteiga de Monte Alegre presented antixenosis (non-preference for feeding). These collard greens genotypes can be directly used by farmers for cultivation or by breeders as donor sources in breeding programs for resistance to A. monuste orseis.(AU)


Brassica oleracea var. acephala (couve comum) é uma das mais importantes olerícolas cultivadas no Brasil para alimentação humana. A lagarta Ascia monuste orseis (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) destaca-se entre as pragas mais significativas no cultivo de Brassicaceae por causar severa desfolha na planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar, em 26 genótipos de couve comum, fontes de resistência (antixenose) a A. monuste orseis. No teste de livre escolha, adotou-se o esquema casualizado de blocos; e no teste sem chance de escolha o esquema foi inteiramente casualizado. Manteiga de Jundiaí, crespa de Capão Bonito, couve de Arthur Nogueira 1, manteiga I-1811, manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-1811, orelha-de-elefante e Pires 1 de Campinas apresentaram antixenose (não preferência para oviposição). Pires 1 de Campinas, manteiga I-1811, manteiga de São José, verde-escura e manteiga de Monte Alegre apresentaram antixenose (não preferência para alimentação). Esses genótipos de couve comum podem ser cultivados diretamente por agricultores ou ser usados por melhoristas em programas de melhoramento genético para resistência a A. monuste orseis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pest Control/methods , Brassicaceae , Brassica , Lepidoptera
8.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 132-138, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741604

ABSTRACT

Phytochemical investigation of 80% MeOH extract of the aerial parts of Capsella bursa-pastoris yielded fourteen compounds (1 – 14). The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods to be methyl-1-thio-β-D-glucopyranosyl disulfide (1), 10-methylsulphinyl-decanenitrile (2), 11-methyl-sulphinyl-undecanenitrile (3), 1-O-(lauroyl)glycerol (4), phytene-1, 2-diol (5), (3S,5R,6S,7E)-5,6-epoxy-3-hydroxy-7-megastigmen-9-one (6), loliolide (7), β-sitosterol (8), 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-propanone (9), 1-feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), pinoresinol-4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (11), luteolin (12), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (13), and luteolin 6-C-β-glucopyranoside (14). Although compound 1 was reported as synthetic compound, 1 was first isolated from natural source. NMR spectral data assignments of 1, 2 and 3 were reported for the first time, and compounds 1 – 14 were for the first time reported from this plant source. The anti-inflammatory effects of 1 – 14 were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine microglia BV-2 cells. Compounds 12 exhibited strong inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in LPS-activated BV-2 cells with IC50 values of 9.70 µM.


Subject(s)
Brassicaceae , Capsella , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Luteolin , Microglia , Nitric Oxide , Plants
9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 61: e18180249, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974119

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to search the efficacy of radish (Raphanus sativus) and arugula (Eruca sativa) for the control of Meloidogyne arenaria in the commercial tomato growing greenhouse. R. sativus and E. sativa were used as winter cycle crops and lettuce as a susceptible crop and 4 months after sowing, host level of the treatment plants was evaluated. All parts of R. sativus and E. sativa were incorporated except lettuce was covered with transparent polyethylene film for 4 weeks. R. sativus and E. sativa had not any root galls, and these plants caused reducing number of juveniles in the soil, in contrast to control and lettuce plots before growing tomato. Gall index and egg masses were significantly decreased on tomatoes in plots of applied biofumigation with E. sativa and R. sativus. It was concluded that growing R. sativus and E. sativa as a winter cycle plants before susceptible plants would be helpful to reduce the damage of root-knot nematode M. arenaria and increased crop yields.


Subject(s)
Tylenchoidea , Brassicaceae , Raphanus , Fumigation , Nematoda
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 703-709, Nov. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888815

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the development and reproduction of the zoophytophagous predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed kale, broccoli and cabbage affects its. Nymphs and adults of this predator were fed on larvae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) as prey with kale, cabbage, or broccoli. In the nymph period, the duration and prey consumption were similar with all the Brassicacea cultivar. However, nymph viability was higher for predators with broccoli leaves. The mean weight of 5th-instar nymphs, newly emerged females and the sex ratio were similar among the Brassicacea cultivars, while newly emerged males were heavier with kale and broccoli leaves. The supply of broccoli leaves resulted in greater oviposition, higher number of eggs per egg mass and longer longevity of P. nigrispinus males and females. Furthermore, the consumption of P. xylostella larvae by adult predators was higher with these cultivars. The net reproductive rate (R0) and mean generation time (T) were highest for predators with prey and broccoli leaves. The reproductive parameters of P. nigrispinus were enhanced when fed on P. xylostella larvae with and broccoli leaves, which can be an alternative diet in laboratory rearing of this predator.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o desenvolvimento e reprodução do zoofitófago Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) em couve, brócolis e repolho. Ninfas e adultos deste predador foram alimentados com lagartas de Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) como presa e receberam folhas de couve, repolho ou brócolis. Durante o período ninfal, a duração do período e o consumo de presas foram semelhantes com as diferentes cultivares de brassicácea. Porém, a viabilidade ninfal foi maior para predadores com folhas de brócolis. O peso de ninfas de quinto instar e de fêmeas recém-emergidas e a razão sexual de P. nigrispinus foram semelhantes entre as cultivares de brassicáceas, enquanto que o peso de machos recém-emergidos foi maior com folhas de couve e brócolis. Folhas de brócolis proporcionaram maiores número de oviposições, ovos por postura e longevidade de machos e fêmeas de P. nigrispinus. Além disso, o consumo de lagartas de P. xylostella por adultos desse predador fora maiores com esta cultivar. A taxa líquida de reprodução (R0) e o tempo médio de geração (T) foram maiores para predadores com presa e folhas de brócolis. Podisus nigrispinus alimentados com lagartas de P. xylostella e folhas de brócolis apresentaram melhores parâmetros reprodutivos, podendo ser uma alternativa para a criação deste predador em laboratório.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Predatory Behavior , Brassicaceae/chemistry , Heteroptera/physiology , Moths/chemistry , Nymph/physiology , Heteroptera/growth & development , Food Chain , Larva/growth & development , Larva/chemistry , Moths/growth & development , Nymph/growth & development
11.
Mycobiology ; : 139-149, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729301

ABSTRACT

The genus Hyaloperonospora (Peronosporaceae; Oomycota) is an obligate biotrophic group that causes downy mildew disease on the Brassicaceae and allied families of Brassicales, including many economically relevant crops, such as broccoli, cabbage, radish, rape, and wasabi. To investigate the diversity of Hyaloperonospora species in northeast Asia, we performed a morphological analysis for the dried herbarium specimens collected in Korea, along with molecular phylogenetic inferences based on internal transcribed spacer rDNA and cox2 mtDNA sequences. It was confirmed that 14 species of Hyaloperonospora exist in Korea. Of these, three species, previously classified under the genus Peronospora, were combined to Hyaloperonospora: H. arabidis-glabrae comb. nov. (ex Arabis glabra), H. nasturtii-montani comb. nov. (ex Rorippa indica), and H. nasturtii-palustris comb. nov. (ex Rorippa palustris). In addition, finding two potentially new species specific to northeast Asian plants is noteworthy in support of the view that the species abundance of Hyaloperonospora has been underestimated hitherto.


Subject(s)
Arabis , Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Brassica , Brassicaceae , DNA, Mitochondrial , DNA, Ribosomal , Humans , Korea , Peronospora , Phylogeny , Rape , Raphanus , Rorippa
12.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(3): 182-191, May. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-907534

ABSTRACT

La decocción de la planta de Tarenaya hassleriana es utilizada en la región del Río de La Plata por sus propiedades como rubefaciente, digestiva, y antiescorbútica. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar caracteres de la hoja y tallo para identificar esta especie a partir de muestras enteras o fragmentadas. Se emplearon técnicas habituales de microscopia óptica y análisis histoquímico para identificar almidón, sustancias lipofílicas, fenólicas y mirosina. Los caracteres diagnósticos fueron: en la hoja, folíolos con venación eucamptódroma, con estomas anomocíticos presentes en ambas caras; tricomas glandulares uniseriados y pluriseriados, con cabezas unicelulares y pluricelulares conteniendo sustancias lipofílicas; mesofilo dorsiventral; en el tallo, la corteza primaria formada por varias capas de colénquima tangencial seguido de parénquima; el cilindro vascular secundario rodea la médula sólida, en cuyo parénquima se halló almidón, cristales poliédricos y esferocristales. Se detectaron idioblastos de mirosina en la epidermis y parénquimas de la hoja y el tallo. Los parámetros micrográficos descriptos garantizan una correcta identificación de T. hassleriana.


Plant decoction of Tarenaya hassleriana is used as a traditional medicine in the Río de La Plata area. It has rubefacient, digestive, and antiscorbutic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate leaf and stem microcharacters to identify this species from whole or fragmented samples. The usual techniques of optical microscopy were employed. Histochemical tests for starch, lipophilic substances, phenolic substances, and mirosina were used. The main differential traits were: leaflets with eucamptodromous venation, amphistomatic with anomocytic stomata type; uniseriate and pluriseriate glandular trichomes, with unicellular and pluricellular heads containing lipophilic substances; dorsiventral mesophyll; stem with a primary cortex formed by tangential collenchyma followed by parenchyma; the secondary vascular cylinder surrounding the pith with starch, polyhedral microcrystals and spherocrystals. Idioblast of myrosin were detected in the epidermis and parenchyma of leaves and stems. The micrographic parameters described ensure a correct identification of T. hassleriana.


Subject(s)
Brassicaceae/anatomy & histology , Brassicaceae/chemistry , Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Stems/anatomy & histology , Plant Stems/chemistry , Argentina
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 31(4): 1024-1029, july/aug. 2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-964554

ABSTRACT

Cadmium (Cd) of tobacco is a pollutant that is extremely toxic to the health of humans. Protein plant cadmium resistance 8 gene has been characterized to increase the plant Cd resistance. In present experiment, the complete mRNA sequence of tobacco protein plant cadmium resistance 8 gene was amplified using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. The full-length tobacco protein plant cadmium resistance 8 gene mRNA was 887bp containing an 555 bp open reading frame, which encodes a protein of 184 amino acids. BLAST analysis revealed that tobacco protein plant cadmium resistance 8 protein shares high homology with the protein plant cadmium resistance 8 of potato (81%), Lycopersicon esculentum (80%), Eutrema salsugineum (60%), Capsella rubella (58%) and thale cress (57%). Results also showed that tobacco protein plant cadmium resistance 8 gene has a closer genetic relationship with the protein plant cadmium resistance 8 gene of Lycopersicon esculentum. The expression profile was studied and the results indicated that tobacco protein plant cadmium resistance 8 gene was highly expressed in root, moderately expressed in stem, and hardly expressed in flower and leaf. These results established the primary foundation of utilizing tobacco protein plant cadmium resistance 8 gene to decrease the cadmium content of tobacco and benefit the health of humans in the future.


Cádmio (Cd) oriundo do fumo é um poluente que é extremamente tóxico a saúde humana. Um gene encontrado na planta de fumo que codifica uma proteína para resistência (gene 8) tem sido caracterizado para aumentar a resistência do fumo na absorção do elemento Cádmio (Cd).No experimento realizado a seqüência do mRNA de fumo que codifica uma proteína foi amplificada usando métodos de amplificação de CDNAs. A proteína completa codificada pelo gene 8 apresenta um mRNA com 887 pb com uma fita de leitura de 555 pb, a qual codifica 184 aminoácidos. A análise de BLAST demonstrou uma homologia de 81 % com o gene 8 da batateira, de 80 % com o tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), 60 % para Eutrema salsugineum , 58 % para Capsella rubella e 57 % para o agrião. A proteína expressada pelo gene 8 para resistência do fumo a absorção do Cádmio também apresenta um forte relacionamento genético com a proteína expressa pelo gene 8 do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum). Os perfis da expressão protéica para a proteína oriunda do gene 8 do fumo foi de grande magnitude em raiz, moderadamente expressa no caule e de difícil expressão nas flores e nas folhas. Estes resultados obtidos fundamentam o uso deste gene 8 de fumo para resistência ao Cádmio com o propósito de reduzir o teor de cádmio na planta de fumo e com reflexos benéficos para a saúde humana no futuro.


Subject(s)
Tobacco , Cadmium , Lycopersicon esculentum , Brassicaceae , Capsella
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(2,supl): 57-62, May 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755020

ABSTRACT

In the present study, leachate toxicity of a municipal solid waste landfill located in the Sinos River Valley region (southern Brazil) was evaluated using plant bioassays. Leachate toxicity was assessed by analysis of seed germination and root elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rocket plant (Eruca sativa Mill.) and root elongation of onions (Allium cepa L.). Bioassays were performed by exposing the seeds of L. sativa and E. sativa and the roots of A. cepa to raw leachate, treated leachate (biological treatment) and negative control (tap water). The levels of metals detected in both samples of leachate were low, and raw leachate showed high values for ammoniacal nitrogen and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. There is a reduction in the values of several physicochemical parameters, which demonstrates the efficiency of the treatment. Both L. sativa and A. cepashowed a phytotoxic response to landfill leachate, showing reduced root elongation. However, the responses of these two plant species were different. Root elongation was significantly lower in A. cepa exposed to treated leachate, when compared to negative control, but did not show any difference when compared to raw leachate. In L. sativa, seeds exposed to the raw leachate showed significant reduction in root elongation, when compared to treated leachate and negative control. Seed germination showed no difference across the treatments. The results of the study show that plant species respond differently and that municipal solid waste landfill leachate show phytotoxicity, even after biological treatment.

.

No presente trabalho, a toxicidade do lixiviado (chorume) de um aterro sanitário municipal, localizado na região do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, foi avaliada utilizando bioensaios em plantas. A toxicidade do chorume foi analisada pelo teste de germinação e crescimento radicular de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) e rúcula (Eruca sativa Mill.) e pelo teste de crescimento radicular em cebola (Allium cepa L.). Os bioensaios foram realizados com a exposição de sementes de L. sativa e E. sativa e raízes de A. cepa a amostras de chorume bruto, tratado por processo biológico e controle negativo (água de abastecimento público). Os níveis de metais detectados nas amostras de chorume foram baixos, e o chorume bruto apresentou valores elevados de nitrogênio amoniacal e nitrogênio Kjeldahl total. Ocorreu redução nos valores de vários parâmetros físico-químicos, demonstrando a eficiência do tratamento biológico. Os resultados indicam fitotoxicidade do chorume em L. sativa e A. cepa, evidenciada pela redução do crescimento radicular. Entretanto, as respostas destas duas espécies diferiram. O crescimento radicular foi significativamente inferior em A. cepa exposta ao chorume tratado quando comparado ao controle negativo, mas não apresentou diferença quando comparado ao chorume bruto. Em L. sativa, a exposição das sementes ao chorume bruto causou redução no crescimento radicular quando comparado com o chorume tratado e controle negativo. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os tratamentos para o parâmetro germinação de sementes. Os resultados deste trabalho indicam que as espécies de plantas estudadas são diferentes em suas respostas e que o chorume apresenta toxicidade, mesmo após o tratamento biológico.

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Subject(s)
Brassicaceae/drug effects , Lettuce/drug effects , Onions/drug effects , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Brazil , Waste Disposal Facilities , Waste Disposal, Fluid
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(2): 273-278, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749699

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the effect of crude extracts of the microcystin-producing (MC+) cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa on seed germination and initial development of lettuce and arugula, at concentrations between 0.5 μg.L–1 and 100 μg.L–1 of MC-LR equivalent, and compared it to crude extracts of the same species without the toxin (MC–). Crude extracts of the cyanobacteria with MC (+) and without MC (–) caused different effects on seed germination and initial development of the salad green seedlings, lettuce being more sensitive to both extracts when compared to arugula. Crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC+) caused more evident effects on seed germination and initial development of both species of salad greens than MC–. Concentrations of 75 μg.L–1 and 100 μg.L–1 of MC–LR equivalent induced a greater occurrence of abnormal seedlings in lettuce, due to necrosis of the radicle and shortening of this organ in normal seedlings, as well as the reduction in total chlorophyll content and increase in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POD). The MC– extract caused no harmful effects to seed germination and initial development of seedlings of arugula. However, in lettuce, it caused elevation of POD enzyme activity, decrease in seed germination at concentrations of 75 μg.L–1 (MC-75) and 100 μg.L–1 (MC-100), and shortening of the radicle length, suggesting that other compounds present in the cyanobacteria extracts contributed to this result. Crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC–) may contain other compounds, besides the cyanotoxins, capable of causing inhibitory or stimulatory effects on seed germination and initial development of salad green seedlings. Arugula was more sensitive to the crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC+) and (MC–) and to other possible compounds produced by the cyanobacteria.


Analisamos os efeitos de extratos brutos da cianobactéria M. aeruginosa, produtora de microcistinas (MC+), na germinação de sementes e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface e rúcula, em concentrações de 0,5 a 100 μg.L–1de MC–LR equivalente e comparamos com extrato brutos da mesma espécie sem a toxina (MC–). Extratos brutos de cianobactérias com MC (+) e sem MC (–) causaram efeitos diferentes na germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento de plântulas de hortaliças, sendo que a alface apresentou maior sensibilidade a ambos os extratos comparando-se com a rúcula. Extratos brutos de M. aeruginosa (MC+) causaram efeitos mais evidentes sobre a germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento de plântulas de hortaliças do que os (MC–). Concentrações de 75 e 100 μg.L–1 de MC–LR equivalente induziram maior ocorrência de plântulas anormais na alface devido ao aparecimento de necrose na radícula e seu encurtamento nas plântulas normais, bem como a redução no teor de clorofila total e aumento na atividade da enzima antioxidante peroxidase (POD). O extrato (MC–) não provocou efeitos inibitórios na germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento de plântulas para a rúcula, no entanto, provocou elevação da atividade da enzima POD, redução na germinação de sementes nas concentrações de 75 e 100 μg.L–1, e no comprimento da radícula na alface, sugerindo a ação de outros compostos presentes nos extratos da cianobactéria. Extratos brutos de M. aeruginosa (MC–) podem conter outros compostos além de cianotoxinas capazes de provocar efeitos inibitórios ou estimulatórios na germinação de sementes e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de hortaliças. A rúcula apresentou menor sensibilidade aos extratos brutos de M. aeruginosa (MC+) e (MC–) e outros possíveis compostos produzidos por estas cianobactérias.


Subject(s)
Brassicaceae/drug effects , Complex Mixtures/toxicity , Cyanobacteria/chemistry , Lettuce/drug effects , Brassicaceae/growth & development , Lettuce/growth & development
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237717

ABSTRACT

Professor LU Zhi-zheng, one of the first traditional Chinese medicine masters, is good at using tenuifoliain clinical practice, which often brings unexpected surprises. Lu said, tenuifolia is a mild herbal medicine with the nature of upward dispersion and outward penetration but not dryness. Tenuifolia has the following functions: making people conscious, relieving sore throat, diverging incubated diseases, regulating functional activities of qi, sending up Yang, dispelling wind evil and eliminating dampness, and activating collaterals to relieve pain. When well used, it will not only enhance the effect of monarch drug, but also restrict the impetuosity nature in a prescription, achieving better efficacy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brassicaceae , Chemistry , Dizziness , Drug Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Humans , Male , Phytotherapy , Rhinitis, Allergic , Drug Therapy , Stomach Diseases , Drug Therapy
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305309

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To discriminate Descurainiae Semen and Pantagirus Semen.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to establish the fingerprint of Descurainiae Semen, and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to study HPLC fingerprinting and chemical recognition.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>There exists large difference of chromatographic peaks and its relative peak area of HPLC fingerprints between Descurainiae Semen and Pantagirus Semen, and after conducting statistical analysis, the result demonstrated that all samples were classified into three categories: Descurainiae Semen, Pantagirus Semen and their mixtures.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The developed HPLC fingerprint combined with chemometrics can be utilized to discriminate between Descurainiae Semen and Pantagirus Semen, which was quick, simple, accurate and reliable an can provide the basis for the characterization and quality assess of Descurainiae Semen and Pantagirus Semen.</p>


Subject(s)
Brassicaceae , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Cluster Analysis , Least-Squares Analysis , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry
18.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Dec; 52(12): 1201-1205
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153812

ABSTRACT

Wild crucifers namely Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica fruticulosa, B. rugosa, B. spinescens, B. tournefortii, Camelina sativa, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Crambe abysinnica, Cronopus didymus, Diplotaxis assurgens, D. gomez-campoi, D. muralis, D. siettiana, D. tenuisiliqua, Enatharocarpus lyratus, Lepidium sativum and Sinapis alba along with five cultivated Brassica species including B. rapa (BSH-1), B. juncea (Rohini), B. napus (GSC-6), B. carinata (DLSC-2) and Eruca sativa (T-27) were screened against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) with a standardized technique under definite level of aphid pressure developed using specially designed cages. Observations have revealed that B. fruticulosa, B. spinescens, Camelina sativa, Crambe abysinnica and Lepidium sativum were resistant to mustard aphid L. erysimi with aphid infestation index (AII) ≤1. Capsella bursa-pastoris was highly susceptible to bean aphid, Aphis fabae during its vegetative stage (with 100% mortality). Other genotypes were found in the range of ‘susceptible’ to ‘highly susceptible’ with AII ranging 3-5.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aphids/physiology , Brassicaceae/classification , Brassicaceae/growth & development , Brassicaceae/parasitology , Disease Resistance , Host-Parasite Interactions , Plant Diseases/parasitology , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/parasitology , Species Specificity
19.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 81(3): 264-271, July-Sept. 2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1009424

ABSTRACT

A estimativa da área foliar, em função da sua redução causada pelo consumo por insetos filófagos, é uma metodologia básica em várias áreas da Entomologia, como, por exemplo, em estudos sobre resistência de plantas, entomologia econômica e ecologia nutricional. Um dos fatores que pode interferir na quantidade de área foliar consumida pelo fitófago é a presença de certos químicos nas folhas, como a sinigrina em brassicáceas. Dessa forma, foram aplicadas em folhas de couve e brócolis diversas concentrações de sinigrina (0,2, 0,4, 0,8, 1,6, e 3,2 mg/mL em solução a 5% de Tween20(r)), medindo-se o consumo da área foliar por lagartas de P. xylostella, o qual foi aferido pela porcentagem de redução da área, diferença de peso e escala visual de notas. Os resultados mostraram que as concentrações 0,2, 0,4 e 3,2 mg/mL de sinigrina aumentam o consumo em folhas de couve e diminuem em folhas de brócolis por lagartas de P. xylostella. As metodologias utilizadas proporcionam resultados similares, sendo as estimativas de peso fresco e nota visual mais práticas.(AU)


Leaf area estimation, based on their reduction due to consumption by phytophagous insects, is a basic methodology in several areas of Entomology, for instance, in studies about plant resistance, economic entomology and nutritional ecology. One of the factors that can affect the amount of leaf area consumed by insects is the presence of certain chemicals in the leaves, such as sinigrin in Brassicaceae. Thus, several concentrations of sinigrin were applied on the leaves of cabbage and broccoli (0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, and 3.2 mg/mL in 5% Tween20(r) solution) in order to measure leaf area consumption by larvae of P. xylostella, estimated by the percentage of area reduction, weight loss and visual scale of notes. The results show that the concentrations of 0.2, 0.4 and 3.2 mg/mL of sinigrin increase larvae consumption of P. xylostella on kale leaves and decrease it on broccoli leaves. The methodologies used provide similar results, and fresh weight measurements and visual grades are more practical.(AU)


Subject(s)
Brassicaceae , Insecta , Pest Control
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341830

ABSTRACT

"Tinglizi", the ripe seed of Descurainia sophia and Lepidium apetalum, is a member of Brassicaceae (Cruciferae). Traditionally, the former is called "Nantinglizi" (Descurainiae Semen) while the latter is called "Beitinglizi" (Lepidii Semen). In the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, it has the power to purge lung-fire, relieve dyspnea, promote diuresis and reduce edema, and it is mainly indicated in a case with phlegm-fluid accumulation, cough with excessive sputum, dyspnea with being unable to lie, and general swelling. In view of its wide-spread application in clinic, a comprehensive review of Lepidii Semen and Descurainiae Semen was conducted from the following aspects: herbalogical study, variety identification, historical evolution of processing, chemical constituents, pharmacological effects, quantitative determination and toxicity which could provide reference for further research and development of "Tinglizi".


Subject(s)
Brassicaceae , Chemistry , Diuresis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Dyspnea , Drug Therapy , Edema , Drug Therapy , Humans , Lepidium , Chemistry , Lung , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Structure , Plant Components, Aerial , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Seeds , Chemistry
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