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1.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 220-229, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364988

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Cardiotoxicity is the main complication related to cancer therapy. Studies indicate that global longitudinal strain is an early detector of subclinical dysfunction of the left ventricle, preceding the decline in ejection fraction (EF). However, the reproducibility of such methodology has not been tested outside specialized centers. Objectives To assess the frequency of subclinical cardiotoxicity and to compare global longitudinal strain and EF measurements during the clinical course of patients undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer. Methods This was an observational prospective study of 78 adult women who underwent serial echocardiograms (baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months after the beginning of chemotherapy), to evaluate biplane and 3D EF and global longitudinal strain. Cardiotoxicity and subclinical dysfunction were defined according to American Society of Echocardiography/European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging criteria. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results The mean age of the patients was 50.1 ± 11.48 years. The frequency of subclinical cardiotoxicity (defined by global longitudinal strain) was 14.9% after 30 days of chemotherapy, 16.7% after 3 months, and 19.7% after 6 months, compared to 4.5%, 3%, and 6.6%, respectively, when clinical cardiotoxicity was determined according to EF. The group that developed subclinical cardiotoxicity by 30 days (group A) had a higher frequency of clinical cardiotoxicity at 3 months (p=0.028) and a lower mean biplane EF after 30 days (p= 0.036) than the group that showed no evidence of subclinical cardiotoxicity (group B). Conclusion Subclinical cardiotoxicity was frequent and began early, being associated with a drop in EF during the clinical course.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Cardiotoxicity/etiology , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Cardiotoxicity/diagnostic imaging , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
2.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 8(2): e201, dic. 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1358026

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Existen pocas pautas para el tratamiento del cáncer de mama (CM) en pacientes añosas, lo que puede conducir al sub o sobre tratamiento. Objetivo: Conocer las características, manejo y la evolución del CM precoz en mujeres añosas. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal. Se recolectaron datos relacionados con las características clínico-patológicas y la evolución de pacientes de 70 años o más tratadas por CM en el período comprendido entre el 1/1/ 2011 y el 31/12/ 2018, asistidas en el Hospital de Clínicas. Se utilizaron herramientas de estadística descriptiva y para calcular la sobrevida global (SVG) se utilizó el método de Kaplan-Meier. Resultados: se incluyeron 31 pacientes; la edad mediana al diagnóstico fue 76,8 años; las características clínico-patológicas fueron: carcinoma ductal: 71%; GH 1-2: 74,2%; estadio I: 54,8 %; sin metástasis axilares: 80,6 %; HER2-RE/RP+ 80,6%; HER2+ 16,7%, y triple negativas 3,2%. El 29% de las pacientes fueron diagnosticadas mediante tamizaje poblacional y el 74,2% recibieron tratamiento según pautas vigentes, mientras que el 38,7% fueron subtratadas y el 16,1% sobretratadas. La mediana de SVG fue de 98,7 meses. Conclusiones: Una minoría de las pacientes fue diagnosticada mediante tamizaje poblacional, el tipo histológico más frecuente fue el ductal y la prevalencia de los tumores HER2-RE/RP+ fue mayor que en las pacientes más jóvenes. La mayoría de las pacientes recibió tratamiento estandar.


Introduction: There are few guidelines for the treatment of breast cancer (BC) in older patients, which can lead to under- or over-treatment. Objective: To understand the characteristics, management and evolution of early BC in older women. Material and methods: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Data were collected on the clinical-pathological characteristics and evolution of patients aged 70 years or older, treated for BC in the period from 1/1/ 2011 to 31/12/ 2018, at the Hospital de Clínicas. Descriptive statistical tools were used and the Kaplan-Meier method was applied to calculate the overall survival (OS) rate. Results: 31 patients were included; median age at diagnosis was 76.8 years old; the clinical-pathological characteristics were: ductal carcinoma: 71%; HG 1-2: 74.2%; stage I: 54.8%; no axillary metastases: 80.6%; HER2-ER/PR+ 80.6%; HER2+ 16.7%, and triple negative 3.2%. Of all the patients, 29% were diagnosed through screening and 74.2% were treated according to current guidelines, while 38.7% were under-treated and 16.1% over-treated. The median OS was 98.7 months. Conclusions: A minority of patients were diagnosed by screening, the most frequent histological type was ductal and the prevalence of HER2-RE/RP+ tumors was higher than in younger patients. Most patients received standard treatment.


Introdução: Existem poucas diretrizes para o tratamento do câncer de mama (CM) em pacientes idosos, o que pode levar ao sub ou excesso de tratamento. Objetivo: Conhecer as características, manejo e evolução do MC precoce em mulheres idosas. Material e métodos: estudo observacional, descritivo e transversal. Foram coletados dados relacionados às características clínico-patológicas e à evolução dos pacientes com 70 anos ou mais atendidos por CM no período de 01/01/2011 a 31/12/2018, atendidos no Hospital de Clínicas. Ferramentas de estatística descritiva foram usadas e o método de Kaplan-Meier foi usado para calcular a sobrevida global (SVG). Resultados: 31 pacientes foram incluídos; a mediana de idade ao diagnóstico foi de 76,8 anos; as características clínico-patológicas foram: carcinoma ductal: 71%; GH 1-2: 74,2%; estágio I: 54,8%; sem metástases axilares: 80,6%; HER2-RE / RP + 80,6%; HER2 + 16,7% e triplo negativo 3,2%. 29% dos pacientes foram diagnosticados por triagem populacional e 74,2% receberam tratamento de acordo com as diretrizes atuais, enquanto 38,7% foram subtratados e 16,1% supertratados. O SVG médio foi de 98,7 meses. Conclusões: A minoria dos pacientes foi diagnosticada por rastreamento populacional, o tipo histológico mais frequente foi ductal e a prevalência de tumores HER2-RE / RP + foi maior do que em pacientes mais jovens. A maioria dos pacientes recebeu tratamento padrão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Treatment Outcome , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Trastuzumab/therapeutic use
3.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 505-511, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339100

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate changes in bone density and architecture in postmenopausal women with breast cancer (BC) and use of aromatase inhibitor (AI). Subjects and methods: Thirty-four postmenopausal women with BC, without bone metastasis, renal function impairment and who were not receiving bone-active drugs were selected from a population of 523 outpatients treated for BC. According to the presence of hormonal receptors, HER2 and Ki67, seventeen had positive hormonal receptors and received anastrozole (AI group), and seventeen were triple-negative receptors (non-AI group), previously treated with chemotherapy. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) analyses were performed by DXA; vBMD and bone microarchitecture were evaluated by HR-pQCT. Fracture risk was estimated using the FRAX tool. Results: No patient referred previous low-impact fracture, and VFA detected one moderate vertebral fracture in a non-AI patient. AI patients showed lower aBMD and BMD T-scores at the hip and 33% radius and a higher proportion of osteoporosis diagnosis on DXA (47%) vs non-AI (17.6%). AI group had significantly lower values for vBMD at the entire, cortical and trabecular bone compartments, cortical and trabecular thickness and BV/TV. They also had a higher risk for major fractures and for hip fractures estimated by FRAX. Several HR-pQCT parameters evaluated at distal radius and distal tibia were significantly associated with fracture risk. Conclusion: AI is associated with alterations in bone density and microarchitecture of both the cortical and trabecular compartments. These findings explain the overall increase in fracture risk in this specific population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Osteoporosis , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Radius , Tibia , Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density , Aromatase Inhibitors/adverse effects
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(6): 845-850, June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346926

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of patients admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of breast cancer who reached pathological complete response after being operated following eight cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: Between 2015-2020, patients with pathological complete response who were operated on after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and sent to our clinic for radiotherapy were evaluated. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 51 years. The most common histological type was invasive ductal cancer. The number of pathological complete response patients was 74 (28%), and the number of non-pathological complete response patients was 188 (72%). Patients with pathological complete response had a smaller tumor diameter than the non-pathological complete response group (p=0.001). For pathological complete response, T1 stage, N1 stage, NG 3, Ki-67 >20%, negative estrogen receptor, negative progesterone receptor, positive Cerb-B2, and adding trastuzumab to chemotherapy were statistically significant (p<0.05). Before neoadjuvant chemotherapy, stage T1-T2 (p=0.036), LN0-1 (p=0.026), Cerb-B2 positivity (p=0.025), and an initial nuclear grade of three (p=0.001) were found to be the factors affecting pathological complete response. CONCLUSIONS: With neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the size of locally advanced tumors decreases, allowing breast conserving surgery. The neoadjuvant chemotherapy response can be used as an early indicator of the prognosis of patients with breast cancer. Today, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is also used for patients with early-stage, operable breast cancer because it has been shown in many studies that reaching pathological complete response is associated with positive long-term results. If we can identify patients who have reached pathological complete response before neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we think we can also determine a patient-specific treatment plan at the beginning of treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Trastuzumab/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
5.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(3): 185-189, Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251295

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The objective of the present study was to analyze the reasons that led to hormone therapies (HTs) regimen changes in women with breast cancer. Methods This was a retrospective cross-sectional study from a single-institution Brazilian cancer center with patient records diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2012 and January 2017. Results From 1,555 women who were in treatment with HT, 213 (13.7%) women had HT switched, either tamoxifen to anastrozole or vice-versa. Most women included in the present study who switched HT were > 50 years old, postmenopausal, Caucasian, and had at least one comorbidity. From the group with therapy change, 'disease progression' was reason of change in 124 (58.2%) cases, and in 65 (30.5%) patients, 'presence of side effects' was the reason. From those women who suffered with side effects, 24 (36.9%) had comorbidities. Conclusion The present study demonstrated a low rate of HT switch of tamoxifen to anastrozole. Among the reasons for changing therapy, the most common was disease progression, which includes cancer recurrence, metastasis or increased tumor. Side effects were second; furthermore, age and comorbidities are risk factors for side effects.


Resumo Objetivo O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar os motivos que levaram às mudanças no esquema hormonioterápico (HT) em mulheres com câncer de mama. Métodos Estudo transversal retrospectivo realizado no Hospital da Mulher de Campinas e consequente pesquisa de prontuários de mulheres diagnosticados com câncer de mama entre janeiro de 2012 e janeiro de 2017. Resultados De 1.555 mulheres em tratamento com HT, 213 (13,7%) mulheres tiveram HT alterado, tamoxifeno para anastrozol ou vice-versa. A maioria das mulheres incluídas no presente estudo que tiveram mudança de HT tinha > 50 anos, estava na pós-menopausa, era caucasiana e tinha pelo menos uma comorbidade. Os principais motivos de troca de HT foram devido a 'progressão da doença', ocorrendo em 124 (58,2%) casos e a 'presença de efeitos colaterais' (n = 65; 30,5%). Das mulheres que sofreram efeitos colaterais, 24 (36,9%) apresentaram comorbidades. Conclusão O presente estudo demonstrou uma baixa taxa na alteração de tamoxifeno para anastrozol. Entre as razõesmais comuns para alterar a HT estava a progressão da doença, que inclui recorrência do câncer, metástase ou aumento do tumor. Os efeitos colaterais foram a segunda causa e, além disso, a idade e as comorbidades foram fatores de risco para efeitos colaterais.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Patient Participation , Tamoxifen/administration & dosage , Tamoxifen/adverse effects , Tamoxifen/therapeutic use , Medical Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Disease Progression , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/adverse effects , Anastrozole/administration & dosage , Anastrozole/analogs & derivatives , Anastrozole/therapeutic use
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 333-340, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921271

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Pathological complete response (pCR) of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) is frequently achieved in patients with clinically node-positive breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and ALN status is an important prognostic factor for breast cancer patients. This study aims to develop a new predictive clinical model to assess the ALN pCR rate after NAC.@*METHODS@#This was a retrospective series of 467 patients who had biopsy-proven positive ALNs at diagnosis and underwent ALN dissection from 2007 to 2014 at the National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. We analyzed the clinicopathologic features of the patients and developed a nomogram to predict the probability of ALN pCR. A multivariable logistic regression stepwise model was used to construct a nomogram to predict ALN pCR in node-positive patients. The adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to quantify the ability to rank patients by risk. Internal validation was performed using the 50/50 hold-out validation method. The nomogram was externally validated with prospective cohorts of 167 patients from 2016 to 2018 at the Cancer Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and 114 patients from 2018 to 2020 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital.@*RESULTS@#In this retrospective study, 115 (24.6%) patients achieved ALN pCR after NAC. Multivariate analysis showed that clinical tumor stage (Odds ratio [OR]: 0.321, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.121-0.856; P = 0.023); primary tumor response (OR: 0.189; 95% CI: 0.123-0.292; P < 0.001), and estrogen receptor status (OR: 0.530, 95% CI: 0.304-0.925; P = 0.025) were independent predictors of ALN pCR. The nomogram was constructed based on the result of multivariate analysis. In the internal validation of performance of nomogram, the AUCs for the training and test sets were 0.719 and 0.753, respectively. The nomogram was validated in external cohorts with AUCs of 0.720, which demonstrated good discriminatory power in these data sets.@*CONCLUSION@#We developed a nomogram to predict the likelihood of axillary pCR in node-positive breast cancer patients after NAC. The predictive model performed well in multicenter prospective external validation. This practical tool could provide information to surgeons regarding whether to perform additional ALN dissection after NAC.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ChiCTR.org.cn, ChiCTR1800014968.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Nomograms , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 261-267, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921259

ABSTRACT

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) combine the high specificity of monoclonal antibodies with the high anti-tumor activity of small molecular cytotoxic payloads. The anti-tumor activity of ADCs is mainly achieved by the direct blocking of the receptor by monoclonal antibodies, direct action and bystander effect of cytotoxic drugs, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. ADCs have been used in adjuvant therapy and rescue treatment of human epidermal receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer, greatly improving the prognosis of breast cancer patients. Several ongoing clinical trials of ADC for breast cancer and other solid tumors proved the potential of ADCs will provide more promising treatment options for patients with malignant tumors. This review introduces the mechanism and latest clinical progress of ADC drugs approved for HER2-positive breast cancer to guide clinical practice and conduct research.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Immunoconjugates/therapeutic use , Receptor, ErbB-2
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2522-2533, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887818

ABSTRACT

To explore the immunomodulatory effect of adriamycin on 4T1 breast cancer. We used a tandem mass tag-based quantitative proteomic method to detect differential proteins in breast cancer tissues, and multiple bioinformatics databases to analyze the differentially expressed proteins in the proteome. Also, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect the effects of adriamycin on helper T cells 1 and 2 in breast cancer tissues, and flow cytometry to detect CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and regulatory T cells. We discovered the immunomodulatory targets of adriamycin in differential proteins. In total 170 differential proteins were significantly up-regulated, whereas 58 were markedly down-regulated. In addition, 73 proteins were involved in immune regulation. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes enriched important protein pathways related to cytokines and factor receptors, interleukin 17 pathway and cancer transcriptional regulatory pathways. These pathways and important differential proteins related to immunomodulatory functions were ultimately regulated by adriamycin on CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and regulatory T cells, thereby affecting the prognosis of breast cancer. Moreover, adriamycin significantly increased interleukin 2, CD4+ T and CD8+ T (P<0.01) and markedly reduced regulatory T cells (P<0.05). The function of adriamycin against triple-negative breast cancer was closely related to the immunoregulation process of the differential proteins Ighm, Igkc, S100A8, S100A9 and Tmsb4x. Adriamycin could regulate the content of helper T cells 1 cytokines, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes in breast cancer and reduce the number of regulatory T cells to produce immunomodulatory effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Disease Models, Animal , Doxorubicin/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Mice , Proteomics
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878976

ABSTRACT

Breast tumor has become one of the malignant tumors with the highest incidence, and is a serious threat to human health, especially to women. Chemotherapy is an important anti-breast tumor therapy, which can be used in almost every stage of breast tumor therapy alone or in the combination with surgery and radiation therapy. Alkaloids are a kind of ubiquitous natural products, and important active components of various medicinal plants. A large number of studies have shown that alkaloids could exert an anti-breast tumor effect by inhibiting proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis, resisting mitosis, promoting apoptosis and autophagy, and triggering cell cycle arrest. The extensive anti-breast tumor effect makes alkaloids an important candidate drug source. This paper reviews the anti-breast tumor mechanism of natural products of alkaloids.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Female , Humans
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 546-554, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Breast cancer (BC) is a common malignancy with highly female incidence. So far the function of notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1), the extract from Panax notoginseng, has not been clearly elucidated in BC.@*METHODS@#Optimal culture concentration and time of NGR1 were investigated by cell counting kit-8 assay. Cell proliferation ability was measured by colony formation assays. Transwell assay was used to detect the effect of NGR1 on cell migration and invasion. The apoptosis rate of cells between each group was measured by TUNEL assay.@*RESULTS@#NGR1 treatment has an inhibitory effect on proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis and a stimulating effect on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells. The 50% growth inhibitory concentration for MCF-7 cells at 24 h was 148.9 mmol/L. The proportions of MCF-7 cells arrested in the G0/G1 phase were 36.94±6.78%, 45.06±5.60%, and 59.46±5.60% in the control group, 75, and 150 mmol/L groups, respectively. Furthermore, we revealed that NGR1 treatment attenuates BC progression by targeted downregulating CCND2 and YBX3 genes. Additionally, YBX3 activates phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway by activating kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene, which is an activator of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#These results suggest that NGR1 can act as an efficacious drug candidate that targets the YBX3/PI3K/Akt axis in patients with BC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Proliferation , Cyclin D2 , Female , Ginsenosides/therapeutic use , Humans , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Rats
13.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 405-413, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877505

ABSTRACT

The introduction of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitors has revolutionized the clinical management paradigm of hormone receptor (HR) positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2 negative breast cancer. As of today, CDK 4/6 inhibitors including Palbociclib, Ribociclib, and Abemaciclib have been widely approved by regulatory agencies. Randomized clinical trials demonstrated that CDK 4/6 inhibitors in combination with an aromatase inhibitor (AI) or fulvestrant in the first-, second- or later-line setting for HR positive/HER2 negative locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer led to substantial reduction in the risk of disease progression or death. Adverse effects of treatment were manageable and as or better than expected in terms of patient satisfaction. Considering CDK4/6 inhibitors in combination with endocrine therapy being a novel approach in China clinical practice, the panel developed the consensus comprehensively describing the pharmacology properties, monitoring strategy during treatment and adverse events management, to facilitate greater understanding in Chinese oncologists of a whole new therapeutic class of drug, promote accuracy of clinical decision and help reach the ultimate goal of improving survival and quality of life of the target patient population.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , China , Consensus , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6 , Humans , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Receptor, ErbB-2
14.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 167-175, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877501

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is the most common and fatal malignant tumor in women, which causes great social burden throughout the world. At present, chemotherapy is still the most important treatment manner of advanced breast cancer, and platinum drugs are one of the commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs. Based on the substantial evidence, the expert committee deeply discusses the clinical application of platinum drugs in advanced breast cancer, gives the reasonable suggestions for its clinical usage, effectiveness and adverse effects. This consensus aims to guide physicians to use drugs reasonably and standardize the diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Consensus , Female , Humans , Platinum
15.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(4): eabc215, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358883

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: A quimioterapia para o câncer de mama está associada a complicações cardiovasculares graves, como a insuficiência cardíaca. A fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo é o principal parâmetro para avaliar a função sistólica nessas pacientes. Todavia, a ocorrência de disfunção diastólica pode preceder à disfunção sistólica. Objetivos: Avaliar as funções diastólica e sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo de portadoras de câncer de mama em tratamento quimioterápico com antraciclinas. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo observacional, longitudinal, analítico e prospectivo. Estudaram-se 62 mulheres com câncer de mama, com idades de 21 a 75 anos, que realizaram ecocardiogramas basais e após 3 meses de tratamento. Avaliaram-se parâmetros de função diastólica, e as pacientes foram classificadas em disfunção diastólica tipos:1, 2 ou 3. Definiu-se a disfunção sistólica como fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo ≤ 53%. Resultados: Decorridos 3 meses de tratamento, 35 pacientes (56,4%) apresentavam disfunção diastólica tipo 1, e apenas uma (1,6%) do tipo 2. A disfunção diastólica ocorreu em 26 pacientes já na etapa basal e surgiu em dez indivíduos no decurso do tratamento. Os parâmetros de função diastólica velocidade de onda E e relação E/A diminuíram significativamente (p < 0,05) com a quimioterapia, todavia, os demais não tiveram variação significativa. Apenas três pacientes apresentaram disfunção sistólica, porém verificou-se maior redução da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo no grupo que desenvolveu disfunção diastólica durante o tratamento comparativamente ao grupo que apresentava já disfunção diastólica no período basal (p = 0,04). Conclusão: A disfunção diastólica ocorre precocemente em portadoras de câncer de mama submetidas à quimioterapia. O surgimento de disfunção diastólica no decurso do tratamento se associa à redução significativa da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo. (AU)


Background: Chemotherapy for breast cancer is associated with serious cardiovascular complications such as heart failure. The left ventricular ejection fraction is the main parameter used to assess systolic function in these patients. However, the occurrence of diastolic dysfunction may precede that of systolic dysfunction. Objectives: To evaluate left ventricle diastolic and systolic functions in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy using anthracyclines. Methods: This observational, longitudinal, analytical, and prospective study included 62 women with breast cancer aged 21­75 years old who underwent echocardiography at baseline and after three months of treatment. Diastolic function parameters were evaluated, and the patients were classified as diastolic dysfunction type 1, 2, or 3. Systolic dysfunction was defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 53%. Results: After three months of treatment, 35 patients (56.4%) had type 1 diastolic dysfunction, while one (1.6%) had type 2. Diastolic dysfunction was identified in 26 patients at baseline and developed in 10 patients during treatment. Diastolic function parameters, E wave velocity, and E/A ratio decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with chemotherapy; however, the others showed no significant variations. Only three patients had systolic dysfunction, but there was a greater reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction in the group that developed diastolic dysfunction during treatment versus the group with diastolic dysfunction at baseline (p = 0.04). Conclusion: Diastolic dysfunction occurs early in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Its onset during the course of treatment is associated with a significantly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Cardiotoxicity/complications , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/mortality , Time Factors , Echocardiography/methods , Anthracyclines/administration & dosage , Anthracyclines/toxicity , Anthracyclines/therapeutic use
16.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5859, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286287

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To compare the effectiveness of oral progestins and injectable gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist medication in cancer fertility preservation in patients with breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional study with 40 breast cancer patients submitted to cancer fertility preservation, who were divided into two groups according to histochemical analysis of progesterone receptors to define luteinizing hormone block: if positive, use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, if negative, use of oral progestins. The mean age, medication days, antral follicle count, number of oocytes in metaphase II and the occurrence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were compared. Results A total of 20 patients both in the group using gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, and in the group with oral progestins, respectively, had a mean age of 33.9 (32-35.8) and 33.8 (32-35.6) years; days of medications of 11 (9.7-12.3) and 12.8 (11.6-13.9), p=0.037; antral follicle count of 9 (7.11-12) and 8.5 (6-11.9), p=0.370; metaphase II oocyte number of 4 (2.1-9.8) and 7.5 (3.1-10), p=0.348; and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome of 2 (10%) and 5 (25%) cases, p=0.212. Conclusion The use of oral progestins, in spite of requiring longer treatment time, is effective in relation to the protocol with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, and offers greater comfort at a lower cost in breast cancer patients with negative progesterone receptors, submitted to cancer fertility preservation.


RESUMO Objetivo Comparar a efetividade dos progestágenos orais em relação à medicação injetável antagonista de hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina na preservação da fertilidade oncológica de pacientes com câncer de mama. Métodos Estudo transversal com 40 pacientes com câncer de mama submetidas à preservação da fertilidade oncológica, que foram divididas em dois grupos, conforme análise histoquímica dos receptores de progesterona, para definir o bloqueio de hormônio luteinizante: se positivos, uso de antagonista de hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina; se negativos, uso de progestágenos orais. Comparou-se média de idade, dias de medicações, contagem de folículos antrais, número de oócitos em metáfase II e ocorrência de síndrome do hiperestímulo ovariano. Resultados Vinte pacientes, tanto no grupo com uso de antagonista de hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina, quanto no grupo com progestágenos orais, respectivamente, apresentaram média de idade de 33,9 (32-35,8) e 33,8 (32-35,6) anos; 11 (9,7-12,3) e 12,8 (11,6-13,9) de dias de medicações com p=0,037; contagem de folículos antrais de 9 (7,11-12) e 8,5 (6-11,9), com p=0,370; número de oócitos metáfase II de 4 (2,1-9,8) e 7,5 (3,1-10), com p=0,348, e síndrome do hiperestímulo ovariano de 2 casos (10%) e 5 casos (25%), com p=0,212. Conclusão O uso de progestágenos orais, apesar de necessitar de maior tempo de tratamento, é efetivo em relação ao protocolo com antagonista de hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina e oferece maior conforto com menor custo em pacientes com câncer de mama com receptores de progesterona negativos, submetidas à preservação da fertilidade oncológica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Fertility Preservation , Ovulation Induction , Progestins , Pilot Projects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
17.
Clinics ; 76: e2142, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153983

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess miRNA-195 expression in the tumor tissues from a cohort of Brazilian female breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and evaluate its correlation with various clinicopathological markers. METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to evaluate the miRNA-195 expression in tumor tissues from a cohort of female breast cancer patients undergoing NAC. This expression was then correlated with the occurrence of several distinct breast cancer molecular subtypes and other clinicopathological variables. RESULTS: A total of 55 patients were included in this study, 28 (50.9%) of whom were treated using NAC. Tumor miRNA-195 expression was suppressed in breast cancer patients, regardless of their exposure to systemic treatments, histological grade, size, nodal status, and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging. This was more pronounced in luminal and triple-negative patients, and patient's response to NAC was correlated with an increase in miRNA-195 expression. CONCLUSION: miRNA-195 is downregulated in the tumor tissues of Brazilian breast cancer patients regardless of NAC exposure; this reinforces its role as a tumor suppressor and a potential biomarker for chemotherapy response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , MicroRNAs/genetics , Prognosis , Brazil , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Staging
18.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(11): 726-730, Nov. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144176

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The objective of the present study is to observe the frequency and severity of urinary symptoms in women with breast cancer (BC) being treated with oral hormone therapy, associating them to drug adherence. Methods: The participants were interviewed once from June to October 2016. The evaluation of urinary symptoms was performed by two questionnaires: International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (ICIQ-SF) and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder Module (ICIQ-OAB). Adherence was evaluated by the Morisky-Green method. Statistical analysis was performed by the Mann-Whitney test, linear regression, and Spearman correlation. Results: Fifty-eight women were interviewed: 42 treated with tamoxifen and 16 with aromatase inhibitor. Twenty-seven women (46.5%) presented urinary incontinence symptoms and 15 (25.8%) presented stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Fourteen (24.1%) women had symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). There was no statistical difference in symptoms between both treatments and duration of treatments. Higher scores in the ICIQ-SF questionnaire were associated with low/medium adherence and advanced age. Higher scores in the ICIQ-OAB questionnaire were associated with low/medium adherence. Conclusion: The present study showed a high prevalence of urinary symptoms, such as urinary incontinence and OAB, associated with low/medium adherence and older age in women with BC being treated with oral hormone therapy. Health professionals should be alert to these symptoms since it could influence life quality and adherence to treatment.


Resumo Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi observar a frequência e a gravidade dos sintomas urinários em mulheres com câncer de mama em uso de terapia hormonal oral, associando estes com a adesão ao tratamento. Métodos: As pacientes foram entrevistadas uma única vez, entre junho e outubro de 2016. A avaliação dos sintomas urinários foi realizada por dois questionários: International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (ICIQ-SF, na sigla em inglês) e o Questionário Sobre Bexiga Hiperativa (ICIQ-OAB, na sigla em inglês). A adesão foi avaliada pelo método Morisky-Green. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo teste de Mann-Whitney, regressão linear e correlação de Spearman. Resultados: Foram entrevistadas 58 mulheres: 42 tratadas com tamoxifeno e 16 com inibidor de aromatase. Vinte e sete mulheres (46,5%) apresentaram sintomas de incontinência urinária (IU) e 15 (25,8%) apresentaram incontinência urinária por estresse (IUS). Quatorze (24,1%) das mulheres tinham sintomas de bexiga hiperativa. Não houve diferença estatística nos sintomas entre os tratamentos e a duração dos tratamentos. Os escores mais elevados no questionário ICIQ-SF estiveram associados à baixa/média adesão e à idade avançada. Os escores mais elevados no questionário da ICIQ-OAB foram associados à baixa/média adesão. Conclusão: O presente estudo mostrou alta prevalência de sintomas urinários, como IU e bexiga hiperativa, associadas à baixa/média adesão e à idade mais avançada em mulheres com câncer de mama em tratamento com hormonioterapia oral. Os profissionais de saúde devem estar atentos a esses sintomas, pois eles podem influenciar a qualidade de vida e a adesão ao tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Urinary Incontinence/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/epidemiology , Medication Adherence , Portugal/epidemiology , Tamoxifen/administration & dosage , Tamoxifen/adverse effects , Urinary Incontinence/chemically induced , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interviews as Topic , Administration, Oral , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/adverse effects , Aromatase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Aromatase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/chemically induced , Anastrozole/administration & dosage , Anastrozole/adverse effects , Middle Aged
19.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(5): 631-637, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130955

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chemotherapy-induced alopecia causes an important impact on cancer patients and its risk of persistence is currently a considerable issue in cancer survivors. Of the various interventions proposed for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia, scalp cooling has emerged as an effective and safe strategy. This paper aims to provide an overview on scalp cooling and chemotherapy-induced alopecia prevention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Hypothermia, Induced , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Scalp , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Alopecia/chemically induced , Alopecia/prevention & control
20.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(4): 326-335, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139704

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is still the most prevalent type of osteonecrosis with clinical relevance. In Brazil, bisphosphonate use is high but there is a lack of epidemiological studies on BRONJ. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical profile of BRONJ in a Brazilian population through an integrative review. DESIGN AND SETTING: Integrative review of BRONJ in a Brazilian population. METHODS: Cases and clinical research on Brazilians with BRONJ between 2010 and 2019, indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science and LILACS were reviewed. Age, sex, type and time of bisphosphonate intake, administration route, related diseases, region of the BRONJ, diagnostic criteria, staging, triggering factor and type of treatment were analyzed. RESULTS: Fifteen articles on 128 subjects were included. Most patients were women (82.03%); the mean age was 63 years. Intravenous zoledronic acid was mostly used (62.50%), for breast cancer treatment (46.87%). The main localization of BRONJ was the mandible (54.68%), associated mainly with tooth extractions (45.98%). The diagnostic criteria were clinical (100%) and radiographic (89.06%), mostly in stage II (68.08%). The surgical treatments were sequestrectomy (37.50%) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) (36.71%). Microbial control was done using chlorhexidine (93.75%) and infection control using clindamycin (53.90%). CONCLUSIONS: BRONJ had higher prevalence in Brazilian women receiving treatment for breast cancer and osteoporosis. The mandible was the region most affected with a moderate stage of BRONJ, particularly when there were histories of tooth extraction and peri-implant surgery. Sequestrectomy with additional drugs and surgical therapy was the treatment most accomplished.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Tooth Extraction , Diphosphonates/adverse effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents/adverse effects , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/surgery , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Brazil , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Dental Care , Treatment Outcome , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Diphosphonates/administration & dosage , Bone Density Conservation Agents/administration & dosage , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/etiology , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/diagnostic imaging
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