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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1348-1356, oct. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521029

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is highly expressed in various types of cancers including breast cancer. However, the role of AhR with its endogenous ligand 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) on the progression of breast cancer remains poorly understood. We aimed to investigate cell proliferation and migration states in breast cancer after activating AhR with the endogenous ligand ITE. Breast cancer tissue was evaluated by cell lines, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, cell proliferation, flow cytometry, migration assays and western blot techniques. We found that AhR was widely expressed in breast cancer tissues and metastasis lymph node tissues, but not in normal tissues. The expression AhR was independent between the age, grades and TNM classifications for breast cancer tissues. ITE treatment significantly induced the activation of AhR in a time-dependent manner in both MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines. Meanwhile, ITE did not affect the cell migration but significantly suppressed the cell proliferation in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) MCF-7 andT47D cells, which probably attribute to the induction of cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and shortened S phase. Further mechanism study showed that ERK1/2 and AKT signaling were required for the activation of AhR in MCF-7 cells. These data suggest that AhR is a potential new target for treating patients with breast cancer. ITE may be more potentially used for therapeutic intervention for breast cancer with the kind of ER(+).


El receptor de hidrocarburo de arilo (AhR) es un factor de transcripción activado por ligando que se expresa en gran medida en varios tipos de cáncer, incluido el cáncer de mama. Sin embargo, el papel de AhR con su ligando endógeno 2- (1'H-indol-3'-carbonil)-tiazol-4-ácido carboxílico metil éster (ITE) en la progresión del cáncer de mama sigue siendo poco conocido. Nuestro objetivo fue investigar la proliferación celular y los estados de migración en el cáncer de mama después de activar AhR con el ligando endógeno ITE. El tejido de cáncer de mama se evaluó mediante líneas celulares, inmunohistoquímica, reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa, proliferación celular, citometría de flujo, ensayos de migración y técnicas de transferencia Western. Descubrimos que AhR se expresó ampliamente en tejidos de cáncer de mama y en linfonodos con metástasis, pero no en tejidos normales. La expresión AhR fue independiente entre la edad, grados y clasificaciones TNM para tejidos de cáncer de mama. El tratamiento con ITE indujo significativamente la activación de AhR de manera dependiente del tiempo en las líneas celulares de cancer de mama MCF-7 y T47D. Mientras tanto, ITE no afectó la migración celular, pero suprimió significativamente la proliferación celular en células MCF-7 y T47D con receptor de estrógeno positivo (ER+), lo que probablemente se atribuye a la inducción de la detención del ciclo celular en la fase G1 y la fase S acortada. Un estudio adicional del mecanismo mostró que las señales de ERK1/2 y AKT eran necesarias para la activación de AhR en las células MCF-7. Estos datos sugieren que AhR es un nuevo objetivo potencial para el tratamiento de pacientes con cáncer de mama. ITE puede ser utilizado más potencialmente en la intervención terapéutica para el cáncer de mama con el tipo de ER (+).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/drug effects , Indoles/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Receptors, Estrogen , Blotting, Western , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Migration Assays , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1/genetics , Flow Cytometry , Indoles/pharmacology
2.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(2): 170-176, feb. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522080

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The success of breast cancer (BC) treatment depends largely on the clinical-histological characteristics of the patient. Immunohistochemical (IHC) Breast Cancer Subtypes are crucial for therapeutic purposes. AIM: To determine the relevance and prevalence of the histopathological parameters and molecular subtypes of BC among women attending public health services. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out in 199 female patients with histopathological diagnosis of breast cancer, treated at a Guayaquil city hospital in Ecuador, from January 2014 to December 2017. RESULTS: Luminal A carcinoma was the most prevalent tumor in the studied women (54%). Thirty seven percent of patients did not have nodal involvement, 40% had one to three lymph nodes involved and 2% had 10 or more nodes involved. Most patients had a tumor size > 2 and ≤ 5 cm (72%) and moderately differentiated specifications (57%). CONCLUSIONS: The study allowed the characterization of breast cancer according to the prevalence of molecular subtypes and clinical and histological characteristics. These factors determine therapeutic behaviors that optimize the use of the limited resources of the Public Health System.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Carcinoma , Prognosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Ecuador/epidemiology
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 25-29, feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430513

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Digit ratio established in utero is positivelly correlated with intrauterine level of estrogen. Since the breast cancer is related to excessive and prolonged exposure to estrogen, digit ratio might be considered as useful marker in breast cancer risk assessment. The aim of the present study was to compare digit ratios in breast cancer patients and healthy controls. The study group consisted of 98 breast cancer patients aged between 29 to 84 years while the control group included 141 healthy women aged between 21 and 67 years. After collecting anamnestic data concerning menopausal status, the length of second and fourth fingers were measured and the digit ratios were calculated for both hands, as well as the difference between right and left digit ratio. Digit ratio was significantly higher on right hand in breast cancer patients compaired to healthy controls (1.003±0.05 vs. 0.990±0.03). Right digit ratio showed better predictive capacity for the breast cancer development then the left (AUC:0.609 vs. 0.541). Negative statistically significant correlation between right digit ratio and the age of breast cancer diagnosis was observed (r=-0.271). Higher values of right digit ratio in women with breast cancer when compared to healthy women suggest their higher prenatal estrogen exposure that confirms the importance of digit ratio determination in breast cancer risk assessment.


La proporción de dígitos establecida en el útero, se correlaciona positivamente con el nivel intrauterino de estrógeno. Dado que el cáncer de mama está relacionado con una exposición excesiva y prolongada a los estrógenos, la proporción de dígitos podría considerarse un marcador útil en la evaluación del riesgo de cáncer de mama. El objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar proporciones de dígitos en pacientes con cáncer de mama y controles sanos. El grupo de estudio consistió en 98 pacientes con cáncer de mama con edades comprendidas entre los 29 y los 84 años, mientras que el grupo de control incluyó a 141 mujeres sanas con edades comprendidas entre los 21 y los 67 años. Después de recopilar datos anamnésticos sobre el estado menopáusico, se midió la longitud de los dedos segundo y anular y se calcularon las proporciones de los dedos para ambas manos, así como la diferencia entre la proporción de los dedos derecho e izquierdo. La proporción de dígitos fue significativamente mayor en la mano derecha en pacientes con cáncer de mama en comparación con controles sanos (1,003 ± 0,05 frente a 0,990 ± 0,03). La proporción del dígito derecho mostró una mejor capacidad predictiva para el desarrollo de cáncer de mama que el izquierdo (AUC: 0.609 vs. 0.541). Se observó una correlación estadísticamente significativa negativa entre la proporción de dígitos derechos y la edad del diagnóstico de cáncer de mama (r=-0,271). Los valores más altos de la proporción de dígitos derechos en mujeres con cáncer de mama en comparación con mujeres sanas sugieren una mayor exposición prenatal a estrógenos que confirma la importancia de la determinación de la proporción de dígitos en la evaluación del riesgo de cáncer de mama.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Fingers/anatomy & histology , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Age Factors , Digit Ratios
4.
Mastology (Online) ; 33: e2023002, 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1517539

ABSTRACT

This is a comment on a study recently published about peritumoral infiltration of local anesthetic before surgery in early breast cancer. Previously, animal models and a randomized study for stage IV breast cancer patients inferred that the removal of the primary tumor resulted in increased growth factors and worse distant disease control. Therefore, breast cancer surgery might not be a strictly local intervention. In this new randomized study, the intervention was a peritumoral infiltration of local anesthetic ­ lidocaine 0.5% in the six tumor margins, as an attempt to limit the systemic repercussions of surgery. Although the adjuvant treatment available for the study seems outdated, leading us to question the external validation, limited resources may have increased the power of surgery. Unknown mechanisms during surgery can change the patient's journey, and it is our duty to look at surgical studies with due seriousness


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Mastectomy , Neoplasm Invasiveness
5.
Biol. Res ; 56: 1-1, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420299

ABSTRACT

Cell cycle is one of the main cellular mechanisms involved in tumor progression. Almost all of the active molecular pathways in tumor cells directly or indirectly target the cell cycle progression. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the molecular mechanisms involved in cell cycle regulation in tumor cells. Since, early diagnosis has pivotal role in better cancer management and treatment, it is required to introduce the non-invasive diagnostic markers. Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have higher stability in body fluids in comparison with mRNAs. Therefore, they can be used as efficient non-invasive markers for the early detection of breast cancer (BCa). In the present review we have summarized all of the reported lncRNAs involved in cell cycle regulation in BCa. It has been reported that lncRNAs mainly affect the cell cycle in G1/S transition through the CCND1/CDK4-6 complex. Present review paves the way of introducing the cell cycle related lncRNAs as efficient markers for the early detection of BCa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Cell Cycle/genetics , Cell Division , Cell Cycle Checkpoints
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2419-2425, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981318

ABSTRACT

This study combined the herbal pair Platycodonis Radix-Curcumae Rhizoma(PR-CR) possessing an inhibitory effect on tumor cell proliferation and metastasis with the active component of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) silibinin-loaded nanoparticles(NPs) with a regulatory effect on tumor microenvironment based on the joint effect on tumor cells and tumor microenvironment to inhi-bit cell metastasis. The effects of PR-CR on the cellular uptake of NPs and in vitro inhibition against breast cancer proliferation and metastasis were investigated to provide an experimental basis for improving nanoparticle absorption and enhancing therapeutic effects. Silibinin-loaded lipid-polymer nanoparticles(LPNs) were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The NPs were spherical or quasi-spherical in shape with obvious core-shell structure. The mean particle size was 107.4 nm, Zeta potential was-27.53 mV. The cellular uptake assay was performed by in vitro Caco-2/E12 coculture cell model and confocal laser scanning microscopy(CLSM), and the results indicated that PR-CR could promote the uptake of NPs. Further, in situ intestinal absorption assay by the CLSM vertical scanning approach showed that PR-CR could promote the absorption of NPs in the enterocytes of mice. The inhibitory effect of NPs on the proliferation and migration of 4T1 cells was analyzed using 4T1 breast cancer cells and co-cultured 4T1/WML2 cells, respectively. The results of the CCK8 assay showed that PR-CR-containing NPs could enhance the inhibition against the proliferation of 4T1 breast cancer cells. The wound healing assay indicated that PR-CR-containing NPs enhanced the inhibition against the migration of 4T1 breast cancer cells. This study enriches the research on oral absorption of TCM NPs and also provides a new idea for utilizing the advantages of TCM to inhibit breast cancer metastasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mice , Animals , Female , Silymarin/therapeutic use , Caco-2 Cells , Polymers/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment
7.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 902-906, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012332

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of benign apocrine cystic papillary hyperplasia of the breast with loss of myoepithelial cell layer. Methods: The clinical data, histopathological features and immunohistochemical profile of patients with benign apocrine cystic papillary hyperplasia of breast with loss of myoepithelial cell layer from January 2016 to December 2021 were examined, in which six patients were identified. Results: All six patients were female, aged 36-61 years (median 46 years), who presented with a breast mass; three cases were from the left breast and three cases were from the right breast. Microscopic examination of all cases showed breast hyperplasia with apocrine cysts, accompanied by different degrees of micropapillary and papillary hyperplasia of apocrine cells. One case was associated with lobular carcinoma in situ, and one case was associated with apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ with intraductal dissemination in adenosis. Immunohistochemical staining of CK5/6, p63, SMA, SMMHC, Calponin and CD10 showed complete absence of myoepithelial cell layer surrounding ducts in apocrine cystic papillary hyperplasia. Conclusions: The myoepithelial cells of apocrine cystic papillary hyperplasia of the breast may undergo abnormal changes and may even be completely lost. The diagnosis should be comprehensively considered along with cytomorphological and histological features to avoid overdiagnosis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Hyperplasia/pathology , Papilloma/pathology , Mammary Glands, Human/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Lobular/complications , Carcinoma, Ductal/complications
8.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 832-837, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012316

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the expression of MSI1 and HER2 in mammary Paget's disease, and the correlation between the expression levels of MSI1 and HER2 and the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of the patients. Methods: Clinical data and paraffin-embedded specimens of 34 pairs of mammary Paget's disease and underlying breast cancer were collected at the Department of Pathology, Affiliated Lianyungang Oriental Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University from March 2011 to December 2019. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of MSI1 and HER2 in mammary Paget's disease and the accompanying breast cancer, and to analyze the correlation between the expression levels of MSI1 and HER2 and their clinicopathologic features, as well as their influence on prognosis. Results: In mammary Paget's disease, the positive rate of MSI1 was 91.2% (31/34) and the positive rate of HER2 was 88.2% (30/34); the expression of MSI1 and HER2 was positively correlated (P=0.001, r=0.530). The expression of MSI1 was positively correlated with menopausal status (r=0.372, P=0.030) and lymph node metastasis (r=0.450, P=0.008). HER2 expression was positively correlated with menopausal status (r=0.436, P=0.010), and negatively correlated with ER expression (r=-0.365, P=0.034). The co-expression of MSI1 and HER2 was positively correlated with age (r=0.347, P=0.044) and menopausal status (r=0.496, P=0.003), and negatively correlated with ER expression (r=-0.461, P=0.006). Conclusions: MSI1 and HER2 are highly expressed in mammary Paget's disease and their expression levels are positively correlated. The correlation analysis between clinicopathological features and prognosis suggests that both of them may be involved in the occurrence and development of mammary Paget's disease and are potential therapeutic targets for mammary Paget's disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Paget's Disease, Mammary/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Lymphatic Metastasis , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins
9.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 985-997, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010577

ABSTRACT

Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are the first station of lymph nodes that extend from the breast tumor to the axillary lymphatic drainage. The pathological status of these LNs can predict that of the entire axillary lymph node. Therefore, the accurate identification of SLNs is necessary for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) to replace axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). The quality of life and prognosis of breast cancer patients are related to proper surgical treatment after the precise identification of SLNs. Some of the SLN tracers that have been identified include radioisotope, nano-carbon, indocyanine green (ICG), and methylene blue (MB). However, these tracers have certain limitations, such as pigmentation, radiation dangers, and the requirement for costly detection equipment. Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have good specificity and sensitivity, and thus can compensate for some shortcomings of the mentioned tracers. This technique is also being applied to SLNB in patients with breast cancer, and can even provide an initial judgment on SLN status. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has the advantages of high distinguishability, simple operation, no radiation harm, low cost, and accurate localization; therefore, it is expected to replace the traditional biopsy methods. In addition, it can significantly enhance the accuracy of SLN localization and shorten the operation time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Sentinel Lymph Node/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Quality of Life , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy/methods , Ultrasonography/methods , Lymph Nodes/surgery
10.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 1018-1031, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007384

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor in women around the world, and it is also a common cause of death in female patients with malignant tumors in China, which seriously harms women's health. At present, with the application of comprehensive treatment approaches, breast cancer has become one of the most effective solid tumors. Platinum drugs are widely used in malignant tumors, and they are also commonly used as effective chemotherapeutic drugs for breast cancer. To regulate the application of platinum drugs in breast cancer, the experts from Breast Cancer Group, Branch of Oncologist, Chinese Medical Doctor Association, discuss and approve the "Guidelines for clinical application of platinum drugs in breast cancer (2023 edition)" . This guideline is developed from the "Expert consensus on the clinical application of platinums in advanced breast cancer (2020 version)" , which is updated from the latest evidence based on breast cancer at home and abroad, for platinum drugs in breast cancer clinical use, application scheme, efficacy analysis and treatment of adverse effects. This guideline aims to guide clinicians to use drugs rationally, and to further standardize the diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Platinum/therapeutic use , Consensus , China
11.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 1003-1017, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007383

ABSTRACT

Cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors have led transformative breakthrough of clinical therapy for hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-negative breast cancer patients. CDK4/6 inhibitors that have been marketed in China include Ribociclib, Palbociclib, Abemaciclib and Dalpiciclib. For HR-positive HER-2-negative locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer, CDK4/6 inhibitors combined with endocrine therapy have become standard regimen, which can prolong the survival of patients. In the adjuvant treatment stage of early breast cancer, CDK4/6 inhibitors have also achieved positive results and been approved for indications. At present, CDK4/6 inhibitors have been widely used in clinical practice in China. In order to further improve the standardized application of CDK4/6 inhibitors in China, the Breast Cancer Expert Committee of the National Center for Cancer Quality Control and the Professional Committee of Clinical Research of Cancer Drugs of the Chinese Anti-Cancer Association organized the related expert to update the consensus based on the "CDK4/6 inhibitor consensus on clinical application of in the treatment of hormone receptor positive human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative advanced breast cancer (2021 edition)" . The updated consensus systematically introduces the pharmacological characteristics, drug monitoring and adverse event management, etc., of CDK4/6 inhibitors to promote the accuracy of clinical decision-making with the ultimate goal to prolong the overall survival of patients and improve the quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Quality of Life , Consensus , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Receptor, ErbB-2/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4/metabolism
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e18705, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505839

ABSTRACT

Abstract Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most effective drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer. Nonetheless, the appearance of MDR1 (multidrug resistance 1) in tumor cells has become a significant hindrance for efficacious chemotherapy. In this study, we show that the expression level of Egr-1 (early growth response gene-1) in cancer tissues (from paclitaxel chemotherapy failure patients) and MCF-7/PTX cells (the breast cancer cell line that was resistant to paclitaxel) was increased. Cell proliferation assay and apoptosis assay revealed that Egr-1 could promote cell growth and inhibit apoptosis in MCF-7/PTX. Mechanistic studies indicated that Egr-1 could bind to the proximal MDR1 promoter and enhance MDR1 transcription. These findings indicate that paclitaxel induced Egr-1 accumulation and upregulated the expression of MDR1, thereby inducing the drug resistance in MCF-7/PTX. Our results suggest a novel pathway by which paclitaxel induces MDR1 expression, possibly illuminating a potential target pathway for the prevention of MDR1-mediated drug resistance.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Drug Resistance , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22540, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439522

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to investigate the activities of novel 20(R)-3,20-dihydroxy-19-norpregn-1,3,5(10)-trienes (kuz7 and kuz8b) of natural 13ß- and epimeric 13α-series against triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. High antiproliferative activity of synthesized compounds kuz8b and kuz7 against MDA-MB-231 triple-negative cancer cells was revealed. The steroid kuz7 of natural 13ß-configuration was more active against MDA-MB-231 cells than the 13α-steroid kuz8b. Cell cycle analysis revealed common patterns for the action of both tested compounds. The number of cells in the subG1 phase increased in a dose-dependent manner, indicating induction of apoptosis, which was also verified by PARP cleavage. In contrast, the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase decreases with increasing compound concentration. Steroid kuz7 at micromolar concentrations reduced the expression of GLUT1, a glucose transporter. High efficacy of the combination of kuz7 with biguanide metformin was shown, and synergistic effects on MDA-MB-231 cell growth and expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were revealed. According to the obtained results, including the high activity of kuz7 against triple-negative cancer cells, the detected induction of apoptosis, and the decrease in GLUT1 expression, 13ß-steroid kuz7 is of interest for further preclinical studies both alone and in combination with the metabolic drug metformin


Subject(s)
Steroids/agonists , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Glucose Transporter Type 1/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Apoptosis , Metformin/administration & dosage
14.
Med. lab ; 27(1): 25-32, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412746

ABSTRACT

Las lesiones metastásicas representan hasta un 3 % de los tumores malignos de la glándula tiroides. La mayoría de los casos se originan de tumores de células renales y de pulmón. El abordaje diagnóstico implica una alta sospecha clínica en pacientes con primarios conocidos, sin embargo, puede ser la manifestación inicial de una enfermedad maligna extensa no diagnosticada hasta en un 20 % a 40 % de los pacientes. La biopsia por aguja fina ha demostrado buen rendimiento para el diagnóstico de los nódulos metastásicos. El pronóstico y la opción del tratamiento quirúrgico dependen del control local del primario y del estado de la enfermedad sistémica asociada, por lo tanto, debe ser individualizado. Por lo general, hasta un 80 % de los pacientes con compromiso de la tiroides tienen enfermedad metastásica multiorgánica, y la intención del tratamiento quirúrgico es con fines paliativos para prevenir las complicaciones derivadas de la extensión local de la enfermedad a las estructuras del tracto aerodigestivo superior en el cuello. Se presenta a continuación, una serie de seis casos de pacientes con lesiones metastásicas a glándula tiroides con primarios en riñón, mama y de melanomas


Metastatic lesions represent up to 3% of malignant tumors of the thyroid gland. Most cases originate from lung and renal cell tumors. The diagnostic approach implies a high clinical suspicion in patients with known primaries, however, it can be the initial manifestation of an extensive undiagnosed malignant disease in up to 20% to 40% of patients. Fine-needle biopsy has shown good performance for the diagnosis of metastatic nodules. The prognosis and the option of surgical treatment depend on the local control of the primary condition and the state of the associated systemic disease, therefore it must be individualized. In general, up to 80% of patients with thyroid involvement have multi-organ metastatic disease and surgical treatment is intended to be palliative to prevent complications resulting from local extension of the disease to structures of the upper aerodigestive tract in the neck. A case series of six patients with metastatic lesions to the thyroid gland with primaries in the kidney, breast and melanomas is presented below


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/secondary , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Facial Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology , Upper Extremity/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Melanoma/pathology
15.
Mastology (Online) ; 332023. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1433829

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is associated with high frequency and mortality in Brazilian women. There have been limited studies portraying the characteristics of breast cancer cases in the countryside of the state of Minas Gerais for a long period of time, a fact that will allow us to better understand the epidemiology of these tumors. This descriptive study aims to analyze the epidemiology and clinical features of patients with breast cancer treated at a public health service facility in Lavras, MG. Methods: This is a transversal study with 299 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 2002 and 2022, based on data collection from medical records and subsequent descriptive analysis. Results: There were a total of 317 cases, and 299 were eligible for the study. The mean age at diagnosis was 54.2 years, and 36.1% of the patients were under 50 years old at diagnosis. Positive family history was found in 17.0% of the patients. The diagnosis was made by clinical alteration detected on physical examination in 71.5% of cases, and lump was the most frequent type of lesion (89.0%). Invasive carcinoma was 93.1% of the cases, and the mean tumor size was 28.6 mm. The average time between first medical appointment and diagnosis was 63.2 days, and between diagnosis and beginning of treatment was 39.6 days. Conclusions: This study showed that a significant number of cases occurred in women outside the recommended age for screening in Brazil. Diagnosis was predominantly performed by clinical examination, with delays in obtaining the histological diagnosis, and the stage at diagnosis was high, and these facts were associated with the health system limitations (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
16.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 153-159, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970150

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the pathological features and the clinicopathological significance of TERT detection in those tumors that were difficult to diagnosis. Methods: A total of 93 cases of fibroepithelial tumors without definite diagnosis were collected from the Affiliated Hospital of Qigndao University between 2013 and 2021. The clinical details such as patients' age and tumor size were collected. All slides were re-reviewed and the pathologic parameters, including stromal cellularity, stromal cell atypia, stromal cell mitoses, and stromal overgrowth were re-interpreted. Sanger sequencing was used to detect TERT promoter status, and immunohistochemistry was performed to detect TERT protein expression. The relationship between TERT promoter mutation as well as protein expression levels and the clinicopathological parameters were also analyzed. Results: The patients' ages ranged from 30 to 71 years (mean of 46 years); the tumor size ranged from 1.2 to 8.0 cm (mean 3.8 cm). These tumors showed the following morphologic features: leafy structures in the background of fibroadenoma, or moderately to severely abundant stromal cells. The interpretations of tumor border status were ambiguous in some cases. The incidence of TERT promoter mutation was high in patients of age≥50 years, tumor size≥4 cm, and stromal overgrowth at ×4 or ×10 objective, and these clinicopathologic features were in favor of diagnosis of phyllodes tumors. TERT protein expression levels was not associated with the above clinicopathologic parameters and its promoter mutation status. Conclusions: The diagnostic difficulty for the breast fibroepithelial tumors is due to the difficulty in recognition of the leafy structures or in those cases with abundant stromal cells. A comprehensive evaluation combined with morphologic characteristics and molecular parameters such as TERT promoter may be helpful for the correct diagnosis and better evaluating recurrence risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial/pathology , Phyllodes Tumor/genetics , Stromal Cells , Fibroadenoma/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Telomerase/genetics
17.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 410-414, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984737

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the differences of immune microenvironment between stage T1N3 and stage T3N0 breast cancer patients and explore the relationship between M1 macrophage infiltration and lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. Methods: Clinical information and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) expression data of stage T1N3 (n=9) and stage T3N0 (n=11) breast cancer patients were extracted from Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC) databases. Using CIBERSORT, the proportions of 22 types of immune cells were calculated, and then the differences of immune cell infiltration between stage T1N3 and T3N0 patients were compared. From 2011 to 2022, pathologic specimens were collected from breast cancer patients who underwent curative resection at the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, including 77 at stage T1N3 and 58 at stage T3N0.The METABRIC database analysis results were verified by examining the density of M1 macrophages in tissues using dual-staining immunohistochemistry. Results: METABRIC data analysis showed M1 macrophage was the highest proportion, 15.85% in stage T1N3 breast cancer; M2 macrophage was the highest proportion, 13.07% in stage T3N0 breast cancer.M1 macrophage proportions were statistically different between patients with stage T1N3 and stage T3N0 (P=0.010). The dual-staining immunohistochemistry analysis of breast cancer tissues showed M1 macrophage density (median) of 62.0 and 38.0 cells/mm(2) for stage T1N3 and T3N0, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.002). Conclusion: The density of M1 macrophages is notably higher in stage T1N3 patients and is associated with lymph node metastasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Macrophages/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
18.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 348-357, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984729

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the clinical use of palbociclib and evaluate its efficacy and safety in hormone-receptor (HR)-positive advanced breast cancer patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 66 HR-positive metastatic breast cancer patients treated with palbociclib and endocrine therapy at the Department of Oncology in the First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University between 2018 and 2020. We evaluated the factors affecting the efficacy of palbociclib using Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank test for survival analysis and Cox regressions for multivariate analysis. Nomogram model was built for predicting prognosis among HR-positive breast cancer patients who received palbociclib. Concordance index (C-index) and calibration curve were used for internal validation to assess the predictive ability and conformity of the model. Results: Of the 66 patients treated with palbociclib, 33.3%(22), 42.4%(28) and 24.2%(16) patients were treated without endocrine therapy, first-line endocrine therapy, second-line or above endocrine therapy after recurrence, respectively. 36.4%(24) patients had hepatic metastasis, 16.7% (11) patients were sensitive to previous endocrine therapy, 27.3%(18/66) patients had primary resistance to endocrine therapy, while 56.1% (37) patients had secondary resistance to endocrine therapy. The overall response rate was 14.3% (95% CI: 6.7%, 25.4%) and clinical benefit rate was 58.7% (95% CI: 45.6%, 71.0%). Better clinical outcomes were associated with non-hepatic metastasis (P=0.001), sensitive/secondary resistant to previous endocrine therapy (P=0.004), no or only one line of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer (P=0.004), recent pathological confirmation of immunohistochemical analysis (P=0.025). Hepatic metastasis (P=0.005) and primary resistance to endocrine therapy (P=0.016) were the independent risk factors of progression free survival. The C-index of predictive probability for the nomogram constructed from the patient clinical characteristics (whether liver metastasis, whether primary endocrine resistance, lines of chemotherapy after metastasis, lines of endocrine therapy, number of metastatic sites, and time to last immunohistochemistry) to predict the progression-free survival at 6 and 12 months for patients was 69.7% and 72.1%, respectively. The most common adverse events were hematologic toxicities. Conclusions: Our report indicates that palbociclib combined with endocrine therapy for HR-positive recurrent metastatic breast cancer is effective and safe; patients with hepatic metastases and primary resistance to endocrine therapy have worse prognoses and are independent risk factors for progression after palbociclib therapy. The constructed nomogram could help predict the survival and guide the use of palbociclib.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Receptor, ErbB-2/analysis
19.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 165-169, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969820

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the clinical pathology features, and immune microenvironment of HER-2 intratumoral heterogeneity breast cancer. Methods: Thirty cases of HER-2 intratumoral heterogeneous breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from November 2017 to June 2020. HER-2 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry and verified by dual color silver-enhanced in-situ hybridization (D-SISH). HER-2 intratumoral positive and negative regions were divided. The pathological characteristics, subtype, and the level of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and the expression of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) were evaluated respectively. Results: The proportion of HER-2 positive cells of the breast cancer ranged from 10% to 90%. The pathological type was mainly invasive non-special typecarcinoma. Six cases presented different pathological types between HER-2 positive and negative regions. The HER-2-positive areas included 2 cases of carcinoma with apocrine differentiation, and the negative areas included 2 cases of invasive micropapillary carcinoma, 1 case of invasive papillary carcinoma, and 1 case of carcinoma with apocrine differentiation. In HER-2 positive regions, 17 cases were Luminal B and 13 cases were HER-2 overexpressed types. There were 22 cases of Luminal B and 8 cases of triple negative tumors in the HER-2 negative areas. The levels of TILs in HER-2 positive and negative areas accounted for 53.3% (16/30) and 26.7% (8/30), respectively, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.035). The positive expression of PD-L1 in HER-2 positive area and HER-2 negative area were 6 cases and 9 cases, respectively. Among 8 cases with HER-2 negative regions containing triple negative components, 4 cases were positive for PD-L1 expression. Conclusions: In the case of HER-2 intratumoral heterogeneity, it is necessary to pay attention to both HER-2 positive and negative regions, and evaluate subtype separately as far as possible. For HER-2 intratumoral heterogeneous breast cancer containing triple negative components, the treatment mode can be optimized by refining the intratumoral expression of PD-L1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/pathology , Carcinoma , Tumor Microenvironment , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 227-233, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365336

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The stroma surrounding the tumor cells is important in tumor progression and treatment resistance, besides the properties of tumor cells. Studies on the tumor stroma characteristics will contribute to the knowledge for new treatment approaches. METHODS: A total of 363 breast cancer patients were evaluated for the tumor-stroma ratio. The percentage of stroma was visually assessed on hematoxylin-eosin stained slides. The cases of tumor-stroma ratio more than 50% were categorized as tumor-stroma ratio high, and those less than 50% and below were categorized as tumor-stroma ratio low. RESULTS: Tumor-stroma ratio-high tumors had shorter overall survival (p=0.002). Disease-free survival tended to be shorter in tumor-stroma ratio-high tumors (p=0.082) compared with tumor-stroma ratio-low tumors. Tumor-stroma ratio was an independent prognostic parameter for the total group of patients (p=0.003) and also axillary lymph node metastasis and tumor-stroma ratio was statistically associated (p=0.004). Also, tumor-stroma ratio was an independent prognostic parameter in node-positive Luminal A and B subgroups for overall survival (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Tumor-stroma ratio is an independent prognostic parameter that can be evaluated quite easily in all molecular subtypes of all breast cancers and does not require extra cost and time to evaluate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Stromal Cells/pathology , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Disease-Free Survival , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology
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