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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929046


Radiotherapy uses high-energy X-rays or other particles to destroy cancer cells and medical practitioners have used this approach extensively for cancer treatment (Hachadorian et al., 2020). However, it is accompanied by risks because it seriously harms normal cells while killing cancer cells. The side effects can lower cancer patients' quality of life and are very unpredictable due to individual differences (Bentzen, 2006). Therefore, it is essential to assess a patient's body damage after radiotherapy to formulate an individualized recovery treatment plan. Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be changed by radiotherapy and thus used for medical diagnosis (Vaks et al., 2012). During treatment, high-energy X-rays can induce apoptosis; meanwhile, cell membranes are damaged due to lipid peroxidation, converting unsaturated fatty acids into volatile metabolites (Losada-Barreiro and Bravo-Díaz, 2017). At the same time, radiotherapy oxidizes water, resulting in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can increase the epithelial permeability of pulmonary alveoli, enabling the respiratory system to exhale volatile metabolites (Davidovich et al., 2013; Popa et al., 2020). These exhaled VOCs can be used to monitor body damage caused by radiotherapy.

Breath Tests/methods , Exhalation , Humans , Quality of Life , Respiratory System/chemistry , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057205


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the association between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and weight and height impairment in children and adolescents with gastroenterology diseases. Methods: Observational and retrospective study. All 162 patients aged less than 19 years old who underwent breath test in search of SIBO between 2011 and 2016 were studied. Breath test was collected after the intake of 10 grams of lactulose. The concentration of hydrogen and methane was measured for 180 minutes after the beginning of the test by 12i QuinTronMicroLyzer device. Results: SIBO was identified in 51 (31.5%) patients. There was no difference between the age of those with (mean=8.7y.o; 25th and 75th percentile: 4.6 and 11.3) and without (mean=7.9y.o 25th and 75th percentile: 4.8 and 12.2) SIBO (p=0.910). There was no association between gender and SIBO (male 26.3% vs. female 36.3%, p=1.00). A lower median of height-for-age Z score (mean=-1.32; 25th and 75th percentile: -2.12 and -0.08 vs. mean=-0.59; 25th and 75th percentile: -1.57 and 0.22; p=0.04) was demonstrated in children with SIBO when compared with children without it. There was no difference between the BMI-for-age Z score of patients with (mean=-0.48) and without SIBO (mean=-0.06) (p=0.106). The BMI of patients with SIBO (median=15.39) was lower than of those without it (median=16.06); however, the statistical analysis was not significant (p=0.052). The weight-for-age Z score was lower in patients with SIBO (mean=-0.96) than in those without SIBO (mean=-0.22) (p=0.02) Conclusions: Children and adolescents with SBIO associated with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract have lower weight and height values.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a existência de associação entre sobrecrescimento bacteriano no intestino delgado (SBID) e comprometimento de peso e estatura em crianças e adolescentes com doenças do aparelho digestivo. Métodos: Estudo observacional e retrospectivo em ambulatório de gastroenterologia pediátrica. Foram incluídos todos os 162 pacientes com idade inferior a 19 anos que realizaram teste respiratório para pesquisa de SBID entre 2011 e 2016. O teste respiratório foi realizado após ingestão de dez gramas de lactulose. Foram determinadas as concentrações de hidrogênio e metano em aparelho 12i QuinTron MicroLyzer até 180 minutos após o início do teste respiratório. Resultados: SBID foi caracterizado em 51 (31,5%) dos 162 pacientes. Não houve diferença na idade das crianças com (mediana=8,7 anos; percentil 25-75: 4,6-11,3) e sem (mediana=7,9 anos; percentil 25-75: 4,8-12,2) SBID (p=0,910). Não se observou associação entre SBID e sexo (masculino 27,4% e feminino 36,6%; p=0,283). O escore Z da estatura-idade nos pacientes com SBID (mediana=-1,32; percentil 25-75: -2,12—0,08) foi menor (p=0,040) do que naqueles sem SBID (mediana=-0,59; percentil 25-75: -1,57-0,22). Na comparação do escore Z de índice de massa corpórea-idade não foi observada diferença entre os grupos com (média=-0,489±1,528) e sem (média=-0,067±1,532) SBID (p=0,106). Nos pacientes com menos de 10 anos de idade, o escore Z de peso-idade foi menor nos pacientes com SBID (média=-0,968±1,359) do que nos sem SBID (média=-0,223±1,584) (p=0,026). Conclusões: Crianças e adolescentes com SBID associado a doenças do trato gastrintestinal apresentam menores valores de peso e estatura.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Bacterial Infections/complications , Child Development/physiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/microbiology , Intestine, Small/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Agents/administration & dosage , Brazil/epidemiology , Breath Tests/methods , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hydrogen/analysis , Lactulose/administration & dosage , Methane/analysis
Clinics ; 75: e1764, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133445


OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the accuracy of the Breath-Alert™ portable breath meter (BA) for the detection of halitosis in children and adolescents, considering the organoleptic test (OT) as the gold standard in this assessment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 children (aged 6-12 years). OT was performed by three independent examiners on a single occasion, obtaining three scores of 0-5 points on the Rosenberg's organoleptic scale. The median of the three evaluations for each child was used for analysis. BA was used according to the manufacturer's instructions, with breath odor scored from 0-5 points. Scores ≥2 on both tests were considered indicative of halitosis. RESULTS: A total of 26 (17.3%) and 23 (15.3%) children were detected with halitosis on the OT and BA tests, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the BA scores for the detection of halitosis were 80.76% and 98.38%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for BA were 91.3% and 96.06%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In the present study involving children, who require fast, practical examinations, BA proved to be an auxiliary tool to OT for the detection of halitosis in the practice of pediatric dentistry, demonstrating high sensitivity and specificity.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Breath Tests/methods , Halitosis/diagnosis , Sulfur Compounds/analysis , Breath Tests/instrumentation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Halitosis/metabolism
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(2): 197-201, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019459


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: 13C-urea breath test (UBT) is the gold-standard, noninvasive method for H. pylori diagnosis. However, there is no uniform standardization of the test. This situation can be unpractical for laboratories running with two or more devices. OBJECTIVE: To perform a prospective comparison validation study of UBT employing one validated protocol for two different devices: BreathID Hp Lab System® (Exalenz Bioscience Ltd, Israel), here called device A and IRIS-Doc2® (Wagner Analysen-Technik, Germany, now Mayoly Spindler Group, France), here called device B, in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. METHODS: A total of 518 consecutive patients (365 females, 153 males, mean age 53 years) referred for UBT were included. All patients received device A protocol as follow: after at least one hour fasting, patients filled two bags prior to the test, then ingested an aqueous solution containing 75 mg of 13C-urea with a 4.0 g citric acid powder and filled another two bags 15 min after ingesting the test solution. One pair of breath sample bags (before and after ingestion) was analyzed by the two different devices. A delta over baseline (DOB) ≥5‰ indicated H. pylori infection. Statistics: Wilcoxon test, kappa coefficient with 95% CI, Wilson's method. RESULTS: Considering the device A protocol as the gold standard, its comparison with device B showed a sensitivity of 99.3% (95% CI: 96.3-99.9) and a specificity of 98.9% (95% CI: 97.3-99.6). Kappa coefficient was 0.976 (95% IC: 0.956-0.997). CONCLUSION: Correlation between the two devices was excellent and supports a uniform standardization of UBT.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: O teste respiratório com ureia-marcada com carbono-13 (TR-13C) é o método padrão-ouro para o diagnóstico não invasivo da infecção por H. pylori. Apesar disto, não existe uma uniformização de protocolos para a sua realização, trazendo dificuldades operacionais para laboratórios ou clínicas que operam com equipamentos de fabricantes diferentes. OBJETIVO: Estudo prospectivo e comparativo para validação do TR-13C para o diagnóstico de infecção por H. pylori, com emprego de protocolo único para dois equipamentos diferentes, a saber: BreathID Hp Lab System® (Exalenz Bioscience Ltd, Israel), aqui denominado equipamento A e IRIS-Doc2® (Wagner Analysen-Technik, Alemanha, agora Mayoly Spindler Group, França), aqui denominado equipamento B. MÉTODOS: Um total de 518 pacientes (365 mulheres e 153 homens, idade média de 53 anos) consecutivamente encaminhados para a realização do TR-13C foram incluídos no estudo. Todos os participantes realizaram TR-13C, que foi processado e analisado simultaneamente pelos dois equipamentos. Embora os dois equipamentos possuam protocolos independentes previamente validados, foi optado, por sua maior praticidade, pela utilização de um único protocolo, conforme recomendado pelo fabricante do equipamento A, e assim resumido: após jejum mínimo de 1h, foram amostras de ar expirado coletadas em dois pequenos sacos coletores (120 mL), correspondendo ao tempo-zero (amostra-1, controle). Em seguida, os pacientes ingeriram, em até 2 min, uma solução aquosa (200 mL) contendo 75 mg de 13C-ureia e 4,0 gramas de ácido cítrico em pó, adicionado com edulcorante. Uma segunda coleta de ar expirado era realizada 15 min após a ingestão do substrato em dois novos pequenos sacos coletores, correspondendo à amostra-2. Foram considerados positivos para a presença da infecção por H. pylori quando apresentavam um delta over baseline (DOB) igual ou maior que 5‰. Análise estatística foi realizada com o teste de Wilcoxon, coeficiente kappa com IC 95% e método de Wilson. RESULTADOS: Considerando o protocolo do equipamento A como o padrão-ouro, sua comparação com o equipamento B mostrou sensibilidade de 99,3% (IC 95%: 96,3-99,9) e especificidade de 98,9% (IC 95%: 97,3-99,6). O coeficiente kappa observado foi de 0,976 (IC 95%: 0,956-0,997). CONCLUSÃO: A correlação entre os dois equipamentos foi excelente e contribui para uma uniformização de protocolos para TR-13C.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Urea/analysis , Breath Tests/instrumentation , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Prospective Payment System , Breath Tests/methods , Clinical Protocols , Sensitivity and Specificity , Middle Aged
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(9): 861-868, Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976854


SUMMARY Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a fast, low cost, portable, and sensitive technique that separates ions in a drift tube under the influence of an electric field according to their size and shape. IMS represents a non-invasive and reliable instrumental alternative for the diagnosis of different diseases through the analysis of volatile metabolites in biological samples. IMS has applications in medicine in the study of volatile compounds for the non-invasive diagnose of bronchial carcinoma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other diseases analysing breath, urine, blood, faeces, and other biological samples. This technique has been used to study complex mixtures such as proteomes, metabolomes, complete organisms like bacteria and viruses, monitor anaesthetic agents, determine drugs, pharmaceuticals, and volatile compounds in human body fluids, and others. Pharmaceutical applications include analysis of over-the-counter-drugs, quality assessment, and cleaning verification. Medical practice needs non-invasive, robust, secure, fast, real-time, and low-cost methods with high sensitivity and compact size instruments to diagnose different diseases and IMS is the diagnostic tool that meets all these requirements of the Medicine of the future.

RESUMO A espectrometria de mobilidade iônica (IMS) é uma técnica rápida, de baixo custo, portátil e sensível que separa íons em um tubo de deriva sob a influência de um campo elétrico de acordo com seu tamanho e forma. A IMS representa uma alternativa instrumental não invasiva e confiável para o diagnóstico de diferentes doenças por meio da análise de metabólitos voláteis em amostras biológicas. A IMS possui aplicações em medicina no estudo de compostos voláteis para o diagnóstico não invasivo de carcinoma brônquico, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica e outras doenças que analisam respiração, urina, sangue, fezes e outras amostras biológicas. A IMS tem sido usada para estudar misturas complexas, como proteomas, metabólitos, organismos completos como bactérias e vírus, monitorar agentes anestésicos, determinar drogas, produtos farmacêuticos e compostos voláteis em fluidos corporais e outros fluidos. As aplicações farmacêuticas incluem análises de medicamentos sem receita, avaliação de qualidade e verificação de limpeza. A prática médica precisa de métodos não invasivos, robustos, seguros, rápidos, em tempo real e de baixo custo com instrumentos de alta sensibilidade e tamanho compacto para diagnosticar diferentes doenças e a IMS é a ferramenta de diagnóstico que atende a todos esses requisitos da medicina do futuro.

Humans , Ion Mobility Spectrometry/methods , Breath Tests/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Ion Mobility Spectrometry/trends , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Medical Illustration
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(1): 52-54, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040268


ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to assess short-term repeatability of measurements of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and its correlates in children in the 6- to 9-year age bracket participating in a respiratory epidemiological survey. FENO was measured in two sessions one week apart in 101 children. Participants were divided into three groups: asymptomatic (n = 76); symptomatic (n = 14); and asthma (n = 11). Absolute and relative differences between the measurements, as well as concordance correlation coefficients, were used in order to assess repeatability. The two FENO measurements were strongly correlated (0.98). Although intragroup comparisons of the two measurements were not significantly different (p = 0.2), intergroup comparisons were. FENO measurements are reproducible in children in epidemiological settings.

RESUMO O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a repetibilidade em curto prazo de medidas da fração de óxido nítrico exalado (FENO) e seus correlatos em crianças de 6-9 anos participantes de uma pesquisa epidemiológica respiratória. A FENO foi medida em duas sessões, com uma semana de intervalo, em 101 crianças. Os participantes foram divididos em três grupos: assintomático (n = 76), sintomático (n = 14) e asma (n = 11). A repetibilidade foi avaliada por meio de diferenças absolutas e relativas entre as medidas, bem como por coeficientes de correlação de concordância. As duas medidas da FENO correlacionaram-se fortemente (0,98). Embora as comparações entre as duas medidas em um mesmo grupo não tenham sido significativamente diferentes (p = 0,2), as comparações entre os grupos o foram. Medidas da FENO são reprodutíveis em crianças em cenários epidemiológicos.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Asthma/diagnosis , Exhalation/physiology , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Reference Standards , Respiratory Function Tests , Asthma/physiopathology , Breath Tests/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric
Motriz (Online) ; 24(4): e101841, 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976260


Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of linear and undulating strength-power training scheme on the repeated sprint ability (RSA) and lower body strength of soccer players. Method: Twenty soccer players (under-20 category) were split into 2 groups: the linear load (LL, n=10) and the undulating load (UL, n=10). In the commencement and at the end of the 6-week pre-season period, the RSA test (6 x 35m) and the 1RM parallel squat test (1RMsquat) were conducted. The LL and UL performed the same type and number of sessions. The training stimulus in the strength training was different between LL (Weeks 1 and 2 = Muscular Endurance; Weeks 3 and 4 = Strength; Weeks 5 and 6 = Power) and UL (daily load variation in the same week). Results: A improvement in RSAmean and 1RMsquat was detected in LL and in UL. No significant difference was noted between LL vs UL for all variables. Conclusion: Both groups improved maximal muscle strength in parallel back squat and RSA. UL induced a greater gain in RSA.(AU)

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Soccer/physiology , Athletic Performance/physiology , /methods , Running/physiology , Breath Tests/methods , Anthropometry/methods , Muscle Strength/physiology
Clinics ; 73: e16553, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952792


OBJECTIVE: The 13C-urea breath test is the main non-invasive test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. The availability of this test throughout the country is limited, mainly due to the difficulty in obtaining the labeled isotope from abroad. Recently, researchers from the Nuclear Energy Center in Agriculture at the University of São Paulo (CENA/USP) succeeded in synthesizing 13C-enriched urea for Helicobacter pylori diagnosis. The aim of the study was to compare the performance of the 13C-urea breath test using 13C-urea acquired abroad with that of a test using 13C-urea synthesized in Brazil. METHOD: Sixty-four dyspeptic patients participated in the study (24 men and 40 women). Initially, the patients performed the 13C-urea breath test using the imported substrate (Euriso-Top, France). Seven to fourteen days later, all the patients repeated the test using the Brazilian substrate. The samples from both examinations were processed in an infrared isotope analyzer (IRIS, Wagner Analisen Technik, Germany), and all delta over baseline (DOB) [%] values above four were considered positive results. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients (42%) exhibited negative results for Helicobacter pylori infection, and thirty-seven patients (58%) exhibited positive results when tested using the foreign substrate (gold standard). There was a 100% concordance regarding the presence or absence of infection when the gold standard results were compared with those obtained using the Brazilian substrate. CONCLUSIONS: Similar performance in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection was demonstrated when using the 13C-urea breath test with the Brazilian 13C-urea substrate and the test with the substrate produced abroad. This validation represents an important step toward increasing the availability of the 13C-urea breath test throughout the country, which will have a positive influence on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Urea/analysis , Urea/chemical synthesis , Carbon Isotopes/analysis , Carbon Isotopes/chemical synthesis , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Reference Values , Time Factors , Brazil , Breath Tests/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Statistics, Nonparametric
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(2): 91-95, Apr.-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838835


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Small intestine bacterial overgrowth is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by an increase in the number and/or the presence of atypical microbiota in the small intestine. The symptoms of small intestine bacterial overgrowth are unspecific, encompassing abdominal pain/distension, diarrhea and flatulence. Due to the increased cost and complexity for carrying out the jejunal aspirate, the gold standard for diagnosis of the syndrome, routinely the hydrogen (H 2 ) breath test has been used, utilizing glucose or lactulose as substrate, which is able to determine, in the exhaled air, the H 2 concentration produced from the intestinal bacterial metabolism. However, due to a number of individuals presenting a methanogenic microbiota, which does not produce H 2 , the testing on devices capable of detecting, concurrently, the concentration of exhaled H 2 and methane (CH 4 ) is justified. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to determine the prevalence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth in patients with digestive symptoms, through a comparative analysis of breath tests of H 2 or H 2 and CH 4 associated, using glucose as substrate . METHODS A total of 200 patients of both sexes without age limitation were evaluated, being directed to a Breath Test Laboratory for performing the H 2 test (100 patients) and of exhaled H 2 and CH 4 (100 patients) due to gastrointestinal complaints, most of them patients with gastrointestinal functional disorders. RESULTS The results indicated a significant prevalence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth in the H 2 test and in the test of exhaled H 2 and CH 4 (56% and 64% respectively) in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, and higher prevalence in females. It found further that methane gas was alone responsible for positivity in 18% of patients. CONCLUSION The data found in this study is consistent with the findings of the current literature and underscores the need for using devices capable of capturing the two gases (exhaled H 2 and CH 4 ) to improve the sensitivity and hence the accuracy of small intestine bacterial overgrowth diagnosis in daily medical practice.

RESUMO CONTEXTO O supercrescimento bacteriano do intestino delgado é uma síndrome heterogênea, caracterizada pelo aumento no número e/ou presença de uma microbiota atípica no intestino delgado. Os sintomas do supercrescimento bacteriano do intestino delgado são inespecíficos englobando quadro de dor/distensão abdominal, diarreia e flatulência. Devido ao maior custo e complexidade para a realização do aspirado jejunal, padrão ouro para o diagnóstico da síndrome, tem sido utilizado rotineiramente o teste do hidrogênio (H 2 ) expirado, utilizando glicose ou lactulose como substrato, que é capaz de determinar, no ar expirado, a concentração de H 2 produzida a partir do metabolismo bacteriano intestinal. Entretanto, em decorrência de uma parcela de indivíduos apresentar uma microbiota metanogênica, não produtora de H 2 , justifica-se a realização do teste em aparelhos capazes de detectar, concomitantemente, a concentração de H 2 e metano (CH 4 ) expirados. OBJETIVO O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência de supercrescimento bacteriano do intestino delgado em pacientes com sintomas digestivos, através de uma análise comparativa dos testes respiratórios empregando H 2 ou H 2 e CH 4 associados, utilizando a glicose como substrato. MÉTODOS Foram avaliados 200 pacientes de ambos os sexos, sem limitação de idade, encaminhados a um Laboratório de Teste Respiratório para realização do teste de H 2 (100 pacientes) e de H 2 e CH 4 expirados (100 pacientes) devido a queixas gastrointestinais, a maioria deles portadores de distúrbios funcionais gastrointestinais. RESULTADOS Os resultados obtidos indicaram uma significativa prevalência do supercrescimento bacteriano do intestino delgado no teste do H 2 e no teste do H 2 e CH 4 expirados (56% e 64%, respectivamente) em pacientes com sintomas gastrointestinais, além de maior predominância no sexo feminino. Constatou-se ainda, que o gás metano foi isoladamente responsável pela positividade em 18% do total de pacientes. CONCLUSÃO Os dados encontrados no presente estudo demonstram condizentes com os achados da literatura atual e reforçam a necessidade da utilização de aparelhos capazes de captar os dois gases (H 2 e CH 4 expirados) para melhorar a sensibilidade e, consequentemente, a acurácia do diagnóstico de supercrescimento bacteriano do intestino delgado na prática médica diária.

Humans , Male , Female , Blind Loop Syndrome/diagnosis , Breath Tests/methods , Intestine, Small/microbiology , Retrospective Studies , Cost-Benefit Analysis
Motriz rev. educ. fís. (Impr.) ; 22(3): 124-132, July-Sept. 2016. tab, Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789100


The respiratory system has been described as a limiting factor in the performance of athletes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the respiratory muscle strength (RMS) and aerobic performance of wheelchair basketball players (WCBPs). We evaluated 19 male WCBPs who were divided into two groups: trunk control group (TCG) and without trunk control group (WTCG). All participants underwent a pulmonary function test, evaluation of maximal inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressures, and an aerobic performance test. The MIP of both groups and the MEP values of TCG exceeded the predicted values for age and gender. No differences were observed in the MIP and aerobic performance between the groups although a difference was observed in the MEP values. Positive correlations were observed between MIP/MEP and the aerobic performance for both groups. These results suggested that the overall RMS of this group of WCBPs fell within or above the predicted values. Hence, the study concluded that RMS can positively influence the aerobic performance of WCBP

Humans , Male , Adult , Wheelchairs/statistics & numerical data , Basketball , Respiratory Muscles , Disabled Persons , Athletic Performance , Sports for Persons with Disabilities , Breath Tests/methods
J. bras. pneumol ; 41(6): 530-535, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-769777


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The use of the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) is recommended in ICUs, where it is used as a predictor of mechanical ventilation (MV) weaning success. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the RSBI calculated by the traditional method (described in 1991) with that of the RSBI calculated directly from MV parameters. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study involving patients who had been on MV for more than 24 h and were candidates for weaning. The RSBI was obtained by the same examiner using the two different methods (employing a spirometer and the parameters from the ventilator display) at random. In comparing the values obtained with the two methods, we used the Mann-Whitney test, Pearson's linear correlation test, and Bland-Altman plots. The performance of the methods was compared by evaluation of the areas under the ROC curves. RESULTS: Of the 109 selected patients (60 males; mean age, 62 ± 20 years), 65 were successfully weaned, and 36 died. There were statistically significant differences between the two methods for respiratory rate, tidal volume, and RSBI (p < 0.001 for all). However, when the two methods were compared, the concordance and the intra-observer variation coefficient were 0.94 (0.92-0.96) and 11.16%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was similar for both methods (0.81 ± 0.04 vs. 0.82 ± 0.04; p = 0.935), which is relevant in the context of this study. CONCLUSIONS: The satisfactory performance of the RSBI as a predictor of weaning success, regardless of the method employed, demonstrates the utility of the method using the mechanical ventilator.

RESUMO OBJETIVO: O uso do índice de respiração rápida e superficial (IRRS) é recomendado em UTIs como um preditor de sucesso de desmame da ventilação mecânica (VM). O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o desempenho do IRRS quando calculado pelo método tradicional (descrito em 1991) com o do IRRS medido diretamente dos parâmetros de VM. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional prospectivo com pacientes em VM por mais de 24 h e candidatos ao desmame. O IRRS foi randomicamente obtido pelo mesmo examinador pelos dois métodos (com um ventilômetro e a partir dos parâmetros da tela do ventilador). Na comparação dos valores obtidos com os dois métodos, utilizamos o teste de Mann-Whitney, o teste de correlação linear de Pearson e a disposição gráfica de Bland-Altman. O desempenho dos métodos foi comparado através das áreas sob as curvas ROC. RESULTADOS: Dos 109 pacientes selecionados (60 homens; média de idade de 62 ± 20 anos), o desmame foi bem-sucedido em 65, e 36 foram a óbito. Entre os dois métodos, a frequência respiratória, o volume corrente e o IRRS apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,001). Entretanto, quando os dois métodos foram comparados, a concordância e o coeficiente de variação intraobservador foram de, respectivamente, 0,94 (0,92-0,96) e 11,16%. Para o propósito do estudo, foi relevante o fato de que as áreas sob as curvas ROC dos dois métodos foram semelhantes (0,81 ± 0,04 vs. 0,82 ± 0,04; p = 0,935). CONCLUSÕES: O desempenho satisfatório do IRRS como um previsor do sucesso do desmame, independentemente do método utilizado, demonstra a utilidade do método com o ventilador mecânico.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Breath Tests/methods , Ventilator Weaning , Intensive Care Units , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spirometry
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 78(4): 229-231, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759261


ABSTRACTPurpose:To investigate the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection by evaluating for the presence of H. pylori infection in patients with glaucoma using the 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT).Methods:Using 14C-UBT, H. pylori infection positivity was compared between a group of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and a control group with normal intraocular pressure and a normal optic disc or normal perimetry.Results:The 14C-UBT was positive in 18 (51.42%) out of 35 patients in the glaucoma group and in 15 (42.85%) out of 35 patients in the control group. H. pylori infection positivity rates were similar between the glaucoma and control groups (p>0.05).Conclusion:According to the 14C-UBT, there is no association between primary open-angle glaucoma and H. pylori infection.

RESUMOObjetivo:Investigar a associação entre glaucoma e infecção por H. pyloripor meio do teste para a presença de infecção por H. pylori em pacientes com glaucoma usando o teste de respiração da ureia 14C (14C-UBT).Métodos:Foi feita uma comparação em relação a positividade H. pyloriutilizando 14C-UBT entre um grupo de pacientes com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto e um grupo controle com pressão intraocular normal e sem verificação de disco óptico glaucomatosa.Resultados:O 14C-UBT foi positivo em 18 (51,42%) dos 35 pacientes no grupo de glaucoma e em 15 (42,85%) dos 35 pacientes no grupo de controle. As taxas de positividade foram semelhantes entre os grupos de glaucoma e de controle e não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos (p>0,05).Conclusão:De acordo com o 14C-UBT, não há associação entre o glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto e H. pylori.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carbon Radioisotopes , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/microbiology , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Urea/analysis , Breath Tests/methods , Case-Control Studies
Rev. bras. ciênc. saúde ; 19(1): 31-34, 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-780426


O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar os valoresobtidos com os valores preditos da pressão inspiratóriamáxima e pressão expiratória máxima em estudantesuniversitários saudáveis. Material e Métodos: Pesquisa dotipo quantitativa, transversal e comparativa, na qual fizeramparte 12 estudantes com idades entre 20 e 39 anos,sedentários e com índice de massa corporal entre 18 e 29,9.A avaliação da força muscular respiratória foi realizada pormeio do aparelho manovacuômetro e de acordo comprotocolos já estabelecidos na literatura. As variáveiscategóricas foram analisadas por meio da estatísticadescritiva em frequência simples. Para verificar a normalidadedos dados aplicou-se o teste de Shapiro-Wilk e em seguidao teste Wilcoxon para ambos os sexos separadamente. Ostestes foram considerados estatisticamente significativosquando p<0,05. Resultados: Dos 12 universitários oito(66,7%) eram do gênero masculino, que apresentarammaiores médias para peso (74,04), altura (1,75) e IMC (23,82)em relação às mulheres. Os valores de Pressão InspiratóriaMáxima (p<0,109 mulheres; p<0,351) e Pressão ExpiratóriaMáxima (p<0,109 mulheres; p<0,463 homens) obtidosmostraram-se inferiores aos preditos em ambos os sexos.Conclusão: Constatou-se que os resultados nãoapresentaram significância estatística, porém os valoresobtidos foram inferiores aos valores preditos em estudantesuniversitários...

This study aimed to perform a comparativeanalysis of obtained and predicted values of maximalinspiratory and expiratory pressure in healthy universitystudents. Material and Methods: This was a quantitative,cross-sectional and comparative study including 12 studentsaged between 20 and 39 years, sedentary, and with bodymass index between 18 and 29.9. The evaluation ofrespiratory muscle strength was performed using themanometer apparatus according to protocols established inthe literature. Categorical variables were analyzed usingdescriptive statistics in single frequency. Data normality waschecked by Shapiro-Wilk test and then Wilcoxon test wasapplied for both sexes separately. The findings wereconsidered statistically significant at p<0.05. Results: Of the12 university students, 8 (66.7%) were male and presentedhigher means for weight (74.04), height (1.75) and BMI(23.82) compared to females. The maximum inspiratorypressure values (p<0.109 female; p <0.351 male) andmaximum expiratory pressure values (p <0.109 women; p<0.463 men) obtained were found to be lower than thepredicted ones in both sexes. Conclusion: Although with nostatistical significance, the values obtained were found tobe lower than the predicted ones in university students...

Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Respiratory Muscles , Breath Tests/methods
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146122


Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can partly explain irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and rifaximin has been observed to improve abdominal symptoms in nonconstipated IBS patients. However, there are few reports on the association of the rifaximin treatment periods with the results of a lactulose breath test (LBT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective review of patient charts to investigate the relation between the rifaximin treatment periods with LBT results in nonconstipated IBS patients. We also evaluated the time to achieve a symptomatic improvement in the IBS patients as compared to the changes in the LBT. We reviewed the charts for patients who showed IBS symptoms with documented positive results for LBT during their initial visit and who had a follow-up LBT after treatment with rifaximin. The LBT values were compared to the subjects' symptom scores. A total of 102 subjects had a follow-up LBT to assess LBT normalization. The subjects were divided into groups according to treatment periods of 4 weeks (n = 36), 8 weeks (n = 43), and 12 weeks (n = 23). The groups with a longer treatment exhibited an increase in the hydrogen gas value at 90 min and its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT. There were significant differences in hydrogen gas value at 90 min and in its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT between the groups treated for 4 and 12 weeks. The most significant treatment response was observed during the first 4 weeks for all treatment groups. Symptomatic improvement occurred earlier than LBT normalization in the treatment period over 4 weeks. The results indicate that different rifaximin treatment periods are needed in accordance with LBT levels to effectively eradicate SIBO.

Biomarkers/analysis , Breath Tests/methods , Constipation , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Gastrointestinal Agents/administration & dosage , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/diagnosis , Lactulose/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Rifamycins/administration & dosage , Sensitivity and Specificity , Treatment Outcome
Arq. gastroenterol ; 51(2): 133-138, Apr-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-713581


Context One of the limitations of 13C-urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori infection diagnosis in Brazil is the substrate acquisition in capsule presentation. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate a capsule-based 13C-urea, manipulated by the Pharmacy Division, for the clinical practice. Methods Fifty patients underwent the conventional and the capsule breath test. Samples were collected at the baseline and after 10, 20 and 30 minutes of 13C-urea ingestion. Urease and histology were used as gold standard in 83 patients. Results In a total of 50 patients, 17 were positive with the conventional 13C-urea (75 mg) breath test at 10, 20 and 30 minutes. When these patients repeated breath test with capsule (50 mg), 17 were positive at 20 minutes and 15 at 10 and 30 minutes. The relative sensitivity of 13C-urea with capsule was 100% at 20 minutes and 88.24% at 10 and at 30 minutes. The relative specificity was 100% at all time intervals. Among 83 patients that underwent capsule breath test and endoscopy the capsule breath test presented 100% of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions Capsule based breath test with 50 mg 13C-urea at twenty minutes was found highly sensitive and specific for the clinical setting. HEADINGS- Helicobacter pylori. Breath Test. Urea, analysis. .

Contexto Uma das limitações para o teste respiratório com 13C-uréia ser incorporado na prática clínica no Brasil para diagnóstico de infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) é a aquisição do substrato em apresentação de cápsula. Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a utilidade de 13C-uréia em cápsula, manipulada pela Divisão de Farmácia de um Hospital terciário para a prática clínica. Métodos Cinquenta pacientes foram submetidos ao teste respiratório convencional com 75mg de 13C-uréia e ao teste com cápsula de 50 mg de 13C-uréia. Amostras de ar expirado foram coletadas no basal e após 10, 20 e 30 minutos da ingestão de 13C-uréia para definição do melhor tempo de coleta. A urease e a histologia foram usadas como padrão ouro em 83 pacientes que se submeteram ao teste respiratório com único ponto de coleta. Resultados Num total de 50 pacientes, 17 foram positivos com teste respiratório convencional com 75 mg de 13C-uréia aos 10, 20 e 30 minutos. Quando esses pacientes repetiram o teste respiratório com 13C-uréia em cápsulas de 50 mg, 17 foram positivos aos 20 minutos (Índice Kappa 1,0; P<0,05) e 15 aos 10 e 30 minutos (Índice Kappa 0,90; P<0,05). A sensibilidade relativa da 13C-uréia em cápsulas de 50 mg foi 100% aos 20 minutos e 88,24% aos 10 e 30 minutos. A especificidade relativa foi de 100% em todos os intervalos de tempo. Entre 83 pacientes que se submeteram ao teste respiratório com cápsula e endoscopia, aqueles que eram H. pylori positivos tiveram teste respiratório positivo e aqueles H. pylori negativo tiveram teste respiratório negativo, mostrando sensibilidade e especificidade de 100%. Conclusões O teste respiratório com cápsula de 50 mg de 13C-uréia ...

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Breath Tests/methods , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Stomach Diseases/microbiology , Urea , Urease , Capsules , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Sensitivity and Specificity , Stomach Diseases/diagnosis
Arq. gastroenterol ; 51(1): 16-20, Jan-Mar/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-707005


Context There is a relative lack of studies about exhaled nitrite (NO2-) concentrations in cirrhotic and transplanted patients. Objective Verify possible differences and correlations between the levels of NO2-, measured in plasma and exhaled breath condensate collected from patients with cirrhosis and liver transplant. Method Sixty adult male patients, aged between 27 and 67 years, were subdivided into three groups: a control group comprised of 15 healthy volunteers, a cirrhosis group composed of 15 volunteers, and a transplant group comprised of 30 volunteers. The NO2- concentrations were measured by chemiluminescence. Results 1) The analysis of plasma NO2- held among the three groups showed no statistical significance. 2) The comparison between cirrhotic and control groups, control and transplanted and cirrhotic and transplanted was not statistically significant. 3) The measurements performed on of NO2- exhaled breath condensate among the three groups showed no statistical difference. 4) When comparing the control group samples and cirrhotic, control and transplanted and cirrhotic and transplanted, there was no significant changes in the concentrations of NO2-. Conclusion No correlations were found between plasma and exhaled NO2-, suggesting that the exhaled NO2- is more reflective of local respiratory NO release than the systemic circulation. .

Contexto Observa-se relativa falta de estudos sobre nitrito (NO2-) exalado como biomarcador de lesão, após transplante de fígado. Objetivo Verificar possíveis diferenças e correlações entre os níveis de nitrito (NO2-), medido no plasma e condensado do exalado pulmonar de pacientes com cirrose e transplante de fígado. Método Sessenta pacientes adultos, masculinos, idades entre 27 e 67 anos, foram divididos em três grupos: grupo controle composto por 15 voluntários saudáveis, grupo cirrose, composto por 15 voluntários e, grupo de transplante, composto por 30 voluntários. As dosagens plasmáticas e do condensado do exalado pulmonar foram realizadas por quimioluminescência. Resultados A análise os valores de NO2- plasmático não mostrou diferença entre os grupos. As comparações entre grupos cirrose e controle, controle e transplantados e cirrose e transplante não foram significativas. As medidas em amostras de condensado do exalado pulmonar entre os três grupos não evidenciaram diferenças estatísticas. Ao comparar as amostras dos grupos controle e cirrótico, controle e transplantado e cirróticos e transplantados, não houve alterações significativas nas concentrações de NO2-. Conclusão Não foram encontradas correlações entre plasma e condensado do exalado pulmonar, sugerindo que o NO exalado reflete mais as condições respiratórias locais de liberação de NO do que a circulação sistêmica. .

Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Breath Tests/methods , Liver Transplantation , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitrites/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Exhalation , Nitrites/blood
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 25(4): 257-263, 2014. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-766592


Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is the most severe intestinal motility disorder. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is frequently associated to dysmotility. In spite of this association, there is scare data on the relation between CIP and SIBO. To establish occurrence of CIP in SIBO patients in inter-crisis periods. To compare clinical and manometric characteristics of SIBO and non-SIBO patients. Retrospective analysis of 40 CIP patients (average age: 41 years; range: 18-76 years; 75 percent women). The following elements were registered: symptoms (such as pain, distention, vomit, constipation, diarrhea and weight loss); findings of the intestinal manometry (neuropathic, miopatic and mix pattern; intestinal motility index); and SIBO using lactulose H2 breath test, defined as an increase > 20 ppm in 2 or more figures in the first 60 minutes. Statistical analysis: t-test y and comparison of two ratios. SIBO was observed in 60 percent of the patients with CIP. Three or more symptoms were observed in 70.8 percent of the patients with SIBO 50 percentwithout SIBO (p = NS). In patients with SIBO, the most frequent symptom was abdominal pain (70.8 percent p= 0.032). There were no differences between SIBO patients and the different motility patterns, however, the intestinal motility index was lower for the SIBO group (9.7 +/- 44 12.3 +/-7; p < 0.001). : There is a high prevalence of SIBO in CIP patients. This is associated to a major compromise of intestinal motility assessed by the intestinal motility index...

Introducción: La pseudoobstrucción intestinal crónica (POIC) es el trastorno más grave de la motilidad intestinal. El sobrecrecimiento bacteriano intestinal (SBI) se asocia frecuentemente a estados de dismotilidad. A pesar de esta asociación existen escasos datos sobre la relación entre POIC y SBI. Objetivo: Determinar SBI en pacientes con POIC en período inter-crisis. Comparar características clínicas y manométricas de pacientes con y sin SBI. Material y Método: Análisis retrospectivo de 40 pacientes con POIC (edad promedio: 41 años, rango: 18-76 años; 75 por ciento mujeres). Se registraron síntomas (dolor, distensión, vómitos, constipación, diarrea, baja de peso), hallazgos en manometría intestinal (patrón neuropático, miopático o mixto, índice de motilidad intestinal (IMI)) y SBI con test de H2 con lactulosa, definido como la elevación > 20 ppm en 2 o más cifras en los primeros 60 min. Análisis estadístico: t-test y comparación de 2 proporciones. Resultados: Se observó SBI en 60 por ciento de los pacientes con POIC. Tres o más síntomas se presentaron en 70,8 por ciento de los pacientes con SBI vs 50 por ciento en POIC sin SBI (p = NS). El síntoma dolor abdominal fue más frecuente en pacientes con SBI (70,8 por ciento vs 31,2 por ciento, p = 0,032). No hubo diferencias entre pacientes con SBI y los distintos patrones de motilidad, sin embargo, el IMI fue menor para el grupo con SBI (9,7 +/- 1,44 vs 12,3 +/- 1,7, p < 0,001). Conclusiones: Existe una alta prevalencia de SBI en pacientes con POIC. Esto se relaciona con mayor compromiso de la motilidad intestinal evaluado por el IMI.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Bacteria/growth & development , Intestine, Small/microbiology , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Gastrointestinal Motility , Hydrogen/analysis , Lactulose , Manometry , Breath Tests/methods , Retrospective Studies , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction/diagnosis , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction/microbiology
J. bras. pneumol ; 39(6): 675-685, Nov-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697774


OBJECTIVE: To compare TLC and RV values obtained by the single-breath helium dilution (SBHD) method with those obtained by whole-body plethysmography (WBP) in patients with normal lung function, patients with obstructive lung disease (OLD), and patients with restrictive lung disease (RLD), varying in severity, and to devise equations to estimate the SBHD results. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study involving 169 individuals, of whom 93 and 49 presented with OLD and RLD, respectively, the remaining 27 having normal lung function. All patients underwent spirometry and lung volume measurement by both methods. RESULTS: TLC and RV were higher by WBP than by SBHD. The discrepancy between the methods was more pronounced in the OLD group, correlating with the severity of airflow obstruction. In the OLD group, the correlation coefficient of the comparison between the two methods was 0.57 and 0.56 for TLC and RV, respectively (p < 0.001 for both). We used regression equations, adjusted for the groups studied, in order to predict the WBP values of TLC and RV, using the corresponding SBHD values. It was possible to create regression equations to predict differences in TLC and RV between the two methods only for the OLD group. The TLC and RV equations were, respectively, ∆TLCWBP-SBHD in L = 5.264 − 0.060 × FEV1/FVC (r2 = 0.33; adjusted r2 = 0.32) and ∆RVWBP-SBHD in L = 4.862 − 0.055 × FEV1/FVC (r2 = 0.31; adjusted r2 = 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: The correction of TLC and RV results obtained by SBHD can improve the accuracy of this method for assessing lung volumes in patients with OLD. However, additional studies are needed in order to validate these equations. .

OBJETIVO: Comparar resultados de CPT e VR obtidos pelo método de diluição de hélio em respiração única (DHRU) com aqueles obtidos por pletismografia de corpo inteiro (PCI) em indivíduos com função pulmonar normal, portadores de distúrbio ventilatório obstrutivo (DVO) e portadores de distúrbio ventilatório restritivo (DVR) com diferentes níveis de gravidade e elaborar equações para estimar CPT e VR por DHRU. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal retrospectivo com 169 indivíduos, dos quais, respectivamente, 93, 49 e 27 apresentavam DVO, DVR e espirometria normal. Todos realizaram espirometria e determinação de volumes pulmonares pelos dois métodos. RESULTADOS: Os valores de CPT e VR foram maiores por PCI que por DHRU. A discrepância entre os métodos foi mais acentuada no grupo com DVO e se relacionou com a gravidade da obstrução ao fluxo aéreo. No grupo com DVO, o coeficiente de correlação da comparação entre os dois métodos foi de 0,57 e 0,56 para CPT e VR, respectivamente (p < 0,001 para ambos). Para predizer os valores de CPT e VR por PCI utilizando os respectivos valores por DHRU foram utilizadas equações de regressão, corrigidas de acordo com os grupos estudados. Somente foi possível criar equações de regressão para predizer as diferenças de CPT e VR entre os dois métodos para pacientes com DVO. Essas equações foram, respectivamente, ∆CPTPCI-DHRU em L = 5,264 − 0,060 × VEF1/CVF (r2 = 0,33; r2 ajustado = 0,32) e ∆VRPCI-DHRU em L = 4,862 − 0,055 × VEF1/CVF (r2 = 0,31; r2 ajustado = 0,30). CONCLUSÕES: A correção de CPT e VR obtidos por DHRU pode melhorar a acurácia desse método para avaliar os volumes pulmonares em pacientes com DVO. Entretanto, estudos adicionais ...

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Helium , Lung Diseases, Obstructive/diagnosis , Body Mass Index , Breath Tests/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Linear Models , Lung Diseases, Obstructive/physiopathology , Lung Volume Measurements/methods , Plethysmography, Whole Body , Retrospective Studies , Residual Volume/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Spirometry