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1.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 397-402, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935879

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the molecular mechanism of cleft palate in mice induced by 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Methods: The pregnant mice were randomly divided into TCDD-treated group (n=42) and control group (n=42). TCDD-treated group was given by gavage a single dose of TCDD (64 μg/kg) at 8: 00 AM on gestation day 10 (GD10) and the control group was given by gavage the isopyknic corn oil. At GD13-GD15, the fetal mice palate development was observed by HE staining. The mouse embryonic palatal mesenchymal cell proliferation was detected by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunofluorescence. The localization and expression of maternally expressed gene3 (MEG3) in mouse embryonic palatal mesenchymal cells was detected by situ hybridization and real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The key protein expressions of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathway in mouse embryonic palatal mesenchyme were analyzed by Western blotting. The interaction of MEG3 and TGF-β receptor Ⅰ (TGF-βRⅠ) was examined by RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP). Results: At GD13 and GD14, compared with the control group, the ratio of BrdU-positive cells in the palatal mesenchyme of TCDD-treated fetuses decreased significantly (GD13, t=6.66, P=0.003; GD14, t=6.56, P=0.003). However, at GD15, the ratio of BrdU-positive cells was significantly increased (t=-5.98, P=0.004). MEG3 was mainly expressed in the nuclei of fetal mouse palatal mesenchymal cells, and the expression of MEG3 in TCDD group was significantly increased at GD13, GD14 and GD15(GD13, t=39.28, P=0.012; GD14, t=18.75, P=0.042; GD15, t=28.36, P=0.045). At GD14, TCDD decreased the levels of p-Smad2 and Smad4 in embryonic palate mesenchymal cells (p-Smad2, t=9.48, P=0.001;Smad4, t=63.10, P=0.001), whereas the expression of Smad7 was significantly increased at GD14 (t=30.77, P<0.001). The results of the RIP experiment showed that the amount of TGF-βRⅠ-bound MEG3 in mouse embryonic palatal mesenchymal cells in the TCDD group (23.940±1.301) was higher than that in the control group (8.537±1.523)(t=24.55, P<0.001). Conclusions: MEG3 is involved in the suppression of mouse embryonic palatal mesenchymal cell proliferation, functioning at least in part via interacting with the TGF-βRⅠ protein and thereby suppressing Smad signaling in the context of TCDD induced cleft palate.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cleft Palate/genetics , Female , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Palate/metabolism , Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/toxicity , Pregnancy
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Provision of optimal endometrial stromal cells is essential in uterine tissue engineering. Culture of these cells is significantly influenced by gonadotropin hormones. This investigation attempted to define the proliferation profiles of murine uterine endometrial stromal cells during in vitro culture with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH), urinary follicle stimulating hormone (uFSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). METHODS: Murine uterine endometrial stromal cells were collected from 8-week-old mice and cultured in vitro up to 72 h, with rFSH, uFSH, or hCG. Cell cycles were analyzed by BrdU assay, and cyclin D1 expression was evaluated according to dose and duration of gonadotropin treatment. RESULTS: BrdU assay showed a further inhibitory effect on murine uterine endometrial stromal cell proliferation when cultured with rFSH compared to uFSH, and a similar inhibitory proliferation profile when cultured with hCG at a specific range of concentrations. The expression of cyclin D1 of murine uterine endometrial stromal cells was down-regulated when cultured with rFSH, uFSH, or hCG, compared to control. CONCLUSIONS: FSH may inhibit the proliferation of murine uterine endometrial stromal cells during in vitro culture. rFSH may have more significant inhibitory effects on the proliferation of endometrial stromal cells than uFSH. Establishing an optimal endocrine milieu is necessary using more advanced combination of female hormones for in vitro culture of this type of cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Cycle , Chorionic Gonadotropin , Cyclin D1 , Female , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Gonadotropins , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Mice , Stromal Cells , Tissue Engineering , Uterus
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728627

ABSTRACT

The subgranular zone (SGZ) of hippocampal dentate gyrus (HDG) is a primary site of adult neurogenesis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), are involved in neural system development of Drosophila and innate immune response of mammals. TLR2 is expressed abundantly in neurogenic niches such as adult mammalian hippocampus. It regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the role of TLR2 in adult neurogenesis is not well studied in global or focal cerebral ischemia. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of TLR2 in adult neurogenesis after photochemically induced cerebral ischemia. At 7 days after photothrombotic ischemic injury, the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells was increased in both TLR2 knock-out (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. However, the increment rate of BrdU-positive cells was lower in TLR2 KO mice compared to that in WT mice. The number of doublecortin (DCX) and neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-positive cells in HDG was decreased after photothrombotic ischemia in TLR2 KO mice compared to that in WT mice. The survival rate of cells in HDG was decreased in TLR2 KO mice compared to that in WT mice. In contrast, the number of cleaved-caspase 3 (apoptotic marker) and the number of GFAP (glia marker)/BrdU double-positive cells in TLR2 KO mice were higher than that in WT mice. These results suggest that TLR2 can promote adult neurogenesis from neural stem cell of hippocampal dentate gyrus through increasing proliferation, differentiation, and survival from neural stem cells after ischemic injury of the brain.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Brain , Brain Ischemia , Bromodeoxyuridine , Dentate Gyrus , Drosophila , Hippocampus , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Ischemia , Mammals , Mice , Neural Stem Cells , Neurogenesis , Neurons , Survival Rate , Toll-Like Receptor 2 , Toll-Like Receptors
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(12): e7862, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974259

ABSTRACT

Although the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on diverse cell types have been fully studied, the functional role of LIPUS in keratinocytes remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of LIPUS on proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells as well as the regulatory mechanisms associated with signaling pathways. Human HaCaT cells were exposed or not to LIPUS, and cell proliferation and migration were measured by BrdU incorporation assay and Transwell assay, respectively. Expression of proteins associated with proliferation and migration was evaluated by western blot analysis. Expression of key kinases in the PI3K/AKT and JNK pathways was also evaluated by western blot analysis. Effects of LIPUS on the PI3K/AKT and JNK pathways, and whether LIPUS affected HaCaT cells via these two pathways were finally explored. When the parameter of LIPUS (number of cycles) was set at 300, cell viability was the highest after LIPUS stimulation. We then found that the percentage of BrdU positive cells was enhanced by LIPUS, along with up-regulation of cyclinD1, CDK6, CDK4, and VEGF. LIPUS promoted migration, as well as up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Phosphorylation levels of key kinases in the PI3K/AKT and JNK pathways were increased by LIPUS. Inhibition of either PI3K/AKT pathway or JNK pathway attenuated effects of LIPUS on HaCaT cells, and co-inhibition of these two pathways showed augmented effects. LIPUS promoted proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells through activating the PI3K/AKT and JNK pathways.


Subject(s)
Keratinocytes/radiation effects , Cell Movement/radiation effects , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/radiation effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System/radiation effects , Cell Proliferation/radiation effects , Ultrasonic Waves , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Line, Transformed , Signal Transduction/radiation effects , Keratinocytes/metabolism , Up-Regulation , Cell Survival/radiation effects , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism
5.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 103-111, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714871

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Chloride channel-3 (ClC-3) is a member of the chloride channel family and plays a critical role in a variety of cellular activities. The aim of the present study is to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor effect of silencing ClC-3 in breast cancer. METHODS: Human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 were used in the experiments. Messenger RNA and protein expression were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was measured by the bromodeoxyuridine method, and the cell cycle was evaluated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Protein interaction in cells was analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation. Tumor tissues were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and tumor burden was measured using the Metamorph software. RESULTS: Breast cancer tissues collected from patients showed an increase in ClC-3 expression. Knockdown of ClC-3 inhibited the secretion of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, cell proliferation, and G1/S transition in breast cancer cells. In the mouse xenograft model of human breast carcinoma, tumor growth was significantly slower in animals injected with ClC-3-deficient cells compared with the growth of normal human breast cancer cells. In addition, silencing of ClC-3 attenuated the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Ki-67, cyclin D1, and cyclin E, as well as the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) 1/2, both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: Together, our data suggest that upregulation of ClC-3 by IGF-1 contributes to cell proliferation and tumor growth in breast cancer, and ClC-3 deficiency suppresses cell proliferation and tumor growth via the IGF/IGF receptor/ERK pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Chloride Channels , Cyclin D1 , Cyclin E , Cyclins , Flow Cytometry , Heterografts , Humans , Immunoprecipitation , In Vitro Techniques , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Methods , Mice , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Protein Kinases , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Tumor Burden , Up-Regulation
6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 366-375, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714674

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation induced by native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) stimulation is dependent on superoxide production from activated NADPH oxidase. The present study aimed to investigate whether the novel arginase inhibitor limonin could suppress nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation and to examine related mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolated VSMCs from rat aortas were treated with nLDL, and cell proliferation was measured by WST-1 and BrdU assays. NADPH oxidase activation was evaluated by lucigenin-induced chemiluminescence, and phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) βII and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was determined by western blot analysis. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed using MitoSOX-red, and intracellular L-arginine concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the presence or absence of limonin. RESULTS: Limonin inhibited arginase I and II activity in the uncompetitive mode, and prevented nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation in a p21Waf1/Cip1-dependent manner without affecting arginase protein levels. Limonin blocked PKCβII phosphorylation, but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and translocation of p47phox to the membrane was decreased, as was superoxide production in nLDL-stimulated VSMCs. Moreover, mitochondrial ROS generation was increased by nLDL stimulation and blocked by preincubation with limonin. Mitochondrial ROS production was responsible for the phosphorylation of PKCβII. HPLC analysis showed that arginase inhibition with limonin increases intracellular L-arginine concentrations, but decreases polyamine concentrations. L-Arginine treatment prevented PKCβII phosphorylation without affecting ERK1/2 phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: Increased L-arginine levels following limonin-dependent arginase inhibition prohibited NADPH oxidase activation in a PKCβII-dependent manner, and blocked nLDL-stimulated VSMC proliferation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta , Arginase , Arginine , Blotting, Western , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Proliferation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Lipoproteins , Luminescence , Membranes , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , NADP , NADPH Oxidases , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinase C , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxides
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29645

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neurogenesis in the adult brain is important for memory and learning, and the alterations in neural stem cells (NSCs) may be an important aspect of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway has been suggested to have an important role in neuronal cell survival and is highly involved in adult neurogenesis. Candesartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used for the treatment of hypertension and several studies have reported that it also has some neuroprotective effects. We investigated whether candesartan could restore the amyloid-β(25–35) (Aβ₂₅₋₃₅) oligomer-inhibited proliferation of NSCs by focusing on the PI3K pathway. METHODS: To evaluate the effects of candesartan on the Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ oligomer-inhibited proliferation of NSCs, the NSCs were treated with several concentrations of candesartan and/or Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ oligomers, and MTT assay and trypan blue staining were performed. To evaluate the effect of candesartan on the Aβ-inhibited proliferation of NSCs, we performed a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling assay. The levels of p85α PI3K, phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) (Ser473), phosphorylated glycogen sinthase kinase-3β (pGSK-3β) (Ser9), and heat shock transcription factor-1 (HSTF-1) were analyzed by Western blotting. RESULTS: The BrdU assays demonstrated that NSC proliferation decreased with Aβ25-35 oligomer treatment; however, a combined treatment with candesartan restored it. Western blotting displayed that candesartan treatment increased the expression levels of p85α PI3K, pAkt (Ser473), pGSK-3β (Ser9), and HSTF. The NSCs were pretreated with a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002; the effects of candesartan on the proliferation of NSCs inhibited by Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ oligomers were almost completely blocked. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results suggest that candesartan restores the Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ oligomer-inhibited proliferation of NSCs by activating the PI3K pathway.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Blotting, Western , Brain , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Survival , Glycogen , Hot Temperature , Humans , Hypertension , Learning , Memory , Neural Stem Cells , Neurogenesis , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphatidylinositols , Receptors, Angiotensin , Shock , Trypan Blue
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69934

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amyloid beta (Aβ) is the main component of amyloid plaques, which are deposited in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Biochemical and animal studies support the central role of Aβ in AD pathogenesis. Despite several investigations focused on the pathogenic mechanisms of Aβ, it is still unclear how Aβ accumulates in the central nervous system and subsequently initiates the disease at the cellular level. In this study, we investigated the pathogenic mechanisms of Aβ using proteomics and antibody microarrays. METHODS: To evaluate the effect of Aβ on neural stem cells (NSCs), we treated primary cultured cortical NSCs with several doses of Aβ for 48 h. A 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, trypan blue staining, and bromodeoxyuridine cell proliferation assay were performed. We detected several intracellular proteins that may be associated with Aβ by proteomics and Western blotting analysis. RESULTS: Various viability tests showed that Aβ decreased NSCs viability and cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Aβ treatment significantly decreased lactate dehydrogenase B, high-mobility group box 1, aldolase C, Ezrin, and survival signals including phosphorylated phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that several factors determined by proteomics and Western blot hold the clue to Aβ pathogenesis. Further studies are required to investigate the role of these factors.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Animals , Blotting, Western , Brain , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Proliferation , Central Nervous System , Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase , Glycogen Synthase , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Neural Stem Cells , Plaque, Amyloid , Proteomics , Trypan Blue
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1101-1110, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15484

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Accumulating evidence has shown that dysregulation of microRNA-191 (miR-191) is closely associated with tumorigenesis and progression in a wide range of cancers. This study aimed to explore the potential role of miR-191 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: miR-191 expression was assessed in 93 ESCC tissue specimens by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and survival analysis was performed via Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide, plate colony-forming, BrdU, and Transwell assays were conducted to observe the effect of miR-191 on ESCC proliferation and invasion. Luciferase reporter and western blot assays were taken to identify target genes of miR-191. RESULTS: miR-191 was overexpressed in 93 cases of ESCC, compared with adjacent normal tissues, and miR-191 expression was significantly related to differentiation, depth of invasion, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis of tumor. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses demonstrated that overexpression of miR-191 was an independent and significant predictor of ESCC prognosis. Both gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments showed that miR-191 promoted ESCC cell proliferation and invasion activities in vitro. Early growth response 1 (EGR1), a tumor suppressor, was predicted as a direct target of miR-191. Luciferase reporter and western blot assays proved that miR-191 reduced EGR1 expression by directly binding its 3' untranslated region. Moreover, EGR1 knockdown by siRNA enhanced ESCC cell growth and invasion. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide specific biological roles of miR-191 in ESCC survival and progression. Targeting the novel miR-191/EGR1 axis represents a potential new therapeutic way to block ESCC development.


Subject(s)
3' Untranslated Regions , Blotting, Western , Bromodeoxyuridine , Carcinogenesis , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Proliferation , Epithelial Cells , In Vitro Techniques , Luciferases , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Small Interfering
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203977

ABSTRACT

Our study aims to explore the effects of lentivirus-mediated microRNA-124 (miR-124) gene-modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation on the repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. BMSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of rats. The target gene miR-124 was identified using a luciferase-reporter gene assay. Seventy-two rats were selected for construction of the SCI model, and the rats were randomly divided into the blank group, sham group, SCI group, negative control (NC) group, overexpressed miR-124 group and si-PDXK group. The mRNA expression of miR-124 and the mRNA and protein expression of pyridoxal kinase (PDXK) were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The locomotor capacity of the rats was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scale. Brdu, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), neurofilament (NF) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) were detected using immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), prostacyclin (PGI2) and gangliosides (GM) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PDXK was identified as the target gene of miR-124. The overexpressed miR-124 group exhibited higher miR-124 expression than the SCI, NC and si-PDXK groups. Compared with the SCI and NC groups, the PDXK expression was downregulated in the overexpressed miR-124 and si-PDXK groups, and the BBB scores were significantly increased 7, 21 and 35 days after transplantation. The double-labeled positive cell densities (Brdu+NSE/NF/MAP2) and the expression levels of TRH, PGI2 and GM in the overexpressed miR-124 group were significantly higher than those in the NC and SCI groups. These results indicated that miR-124 targeted PDXK to accelerate the differentiation of BMSCs into neurocytes and promote SCI repair.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Bone Marrow , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Count , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epoprostenol , Gangliosides , Immunohistochemistry , Intermediate Filaments , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Microtubule-Associated Proteins , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase , Pyridoxal Kinase , Rats , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord , Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122235

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Stress during pregnancy is a risk factor for the development of anxiety-related disorders in offspring later in life. The effects of treadmill exercise on anxiety-like behaviors and hippocampal cell proliferation were investigated using rats exposed to prenatal stress. METHODS: Exposure of pregnant rats to a hunting dog in an enclosed room was used to induce stress. Anxiety-like behaviors of offspring were evaluated using the elevated plus maze test. Immunohistochemistry for the detection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and doublecortin (DCX) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptors (5-HT(1A)) in the dorsal raphe was conducted. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) levels in the hippocampus were evaluated by western blot analysis. RESULTS: Offspring of maternal rats exposed to stress during pregnancy showed anxiety-like behaviors. Offspring also showed reduced expression of BDNF, TrkB, and DCX in the dentate gyrus, decreased cell proliferation in the hippocampus, and reduced 5-HT(1A) expression in the dorsal raphe. Postnatal treadmill exercise by offspring, but not maternal exercise during pregnancy, enhanced cell proliferation and expression of these proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Postnatal treadmill exercise ameliorated anxiety-like behaviors in offspring of stressed pregnant rats, and the alleviating effect of exercise on these behaviors is hypothesized to result from enhancement of cell proliferation through 5-HT(1A) activation in offspring rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anxiety , Blotting, Western , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Proliferation , Dentate Gyrus , Dogs , Dorsal Raphe Nucleus , Exercise Test , Hippocampus , Immunohistochemistry , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Rats , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A , Risk Factors , Serotonin
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108195

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the differential effects of the antipsychotic drugs olanzapine and haloperidol on MK-801-induced memory impairment and neurogenesis in mice. METHODS: MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) was administered 20 minutes prior to behavioral testing over 9 days. Beginning on the sixth day of MK-801 treatment, either olanzapine (0.05 mg/kg) or haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg) was administered 40 minutes prior to MK-801 for the final 4 days. Spatial memory performance was measured using a Morris water maze (MWM) test for 9 days (four trials/day). Immunohistochemistry with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to identify newborn cells labeled in tissue sections from the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. RESULTS: MK-801 administration over 9 days significantly impaired memory performance in the MWM test compared to untreated controls (p<0.05) and these deficits were blocked by treatment with olanzapine (p<0.05) but not haloperidol. The administration of MK-801 also resulted in a decrease in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus (28.6%; p<0.01), which was prevented by treatment with olanzapine (p<0.05) but not haloperidol. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that olanzapine has a protective effect against cognitive impairments induced by MK-801 in mice via the stimulating effects of neurogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antipsychotic Agents , Behavior Rating Scale , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cognition Disorders , Dentate Gyrus , Dizocilpine Maleate , Haloperidol , Hippocampus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Infant, Newborn , Memory , Mice , Neurogenesis , Spatial Memory , Water
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), a small glycoprotein, has a pivotal role in diverse biological processes such as cellular proliferation and differentiation. We previously reported that LCN2 is implicated in osteoclast formation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). In the present study, we used a knockout mouse model to further investigate the role of LCN2 in osteoclast development. METHODS: Osteoclastogenesis was assessed using primary bone marrow-derived macrophages. RANKL and M-CSF signaling was determined by immunoblotting, cell proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and apoptosis by cell death detection ELISA. Bone morphometric parameters were determined using a micro-computed tomography system. RESULTS: Our results showed that LCN2 deficiency increases tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated osteoclast formation in vitro, a finding that reflects enhanced proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast lineage cells. LCN2 deficiency promotes M-CSF-induced proliferation of bone marrow macrophages (BMMs), osteoclast precursors, without altering their survival. The accelerated proliferation of LCN2-deficient precursors is associated with enhanced expression and activation of the M-CSF receptor, c-Fms. Furthermore, LCN2 deficiency stimulates the induction of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1), key transcription factors for osteoclastogenesis, and promotes RANKL-induced inhibitor of kappa B (IkappaBalpha) phosphorylation. Interestingly, LCN2 deficiency does not affect basal osteoclast formation in vivo, suggesting that LCN2 might play a role in the enhanced osteoclast development that occurs under some pathological conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study establishes LCN2 as a negative modulator of osteoclast formation, results that are in accordance with our previous findings.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Animals , Apoptosis , Biological Phenomena , Bone Marrow , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Death , Cell Proliferation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Glycoproteins , Immunoblotting , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Macrophages , Mice , Mice, Knockout , NF-kappa B , Osteoclasts , Phosphorylation , RANK Ligand , T-Lymphocytes , Transcription Factors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727995

ABSTRACT

Adult hippocampal dentate granule neurons are generated from neural stem cells (NSCs) in the mammalian brain, and the fate specification of adult NSCs is precisely controlled by the local niches and environment, such as the subventricular zone (SVZ), dentate gyrus (DG), and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the main polyphenolic flavonoid in green tea that has neuroprotective activities, but there is no clear understanding of the role of EGCG in adult neurogenesis in the DG after neuroinflammation. Here, we investigate the effect and the mechanism of EGCG on adult neurogenesis impaired by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS-induced neuroinflammation inhibited adult neurogenesis by suppressing the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the DG, which was indicated by the decreased number of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-, Doublecortin (DCX)- and Neuronal Nuclei (NeuN)-positive cells. In addition, microglia were recruited with activatingTLR4-NF-kappaB signaling in the adult hippocampus by LPS injection. Treating LPS-injured mice with EGCG restored the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs in the DG, which were decreased by LPS, and EGCG treatment also ameliorated the apoptosis of NSCs. Moreover, pro-inflammatory cytokine production induced by LPS was attenuated by EGCG treatment through modulating the TLR4-NF-kappaB pathway. These results illustrate that EGCG has a beneficial effect on impaired adult neurogenesis caused by LPSinduced neuroinflammation, and it may be applicable as a therapeutic agent against neurodegenerative disorders caused by inflammation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Apoptosis , Brain , Bromodeoxyuridine , Dentate Gyrus , Hippocampus , Humans , Inflammation , Lipopolysaccharides , Mice , Microglia , Neural Stem Cells , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurogenesis , Neurons , Tea , Toll-Like Receptors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229530

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effects of Bushen Yisui Capsule (, BSYSC) on the oligodendrocyte lineage genes (Olig) 1 and Olig2 in C57BL/6 mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in order to explore the remyelination effect of BSYSC.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The mice were randomly divided into normal control (NC), EAE model (EAE-M), prednisone acetate (PA, 6 mg/kg), BSYSC high-dose (3.02 g/kg) and BSYSC low-dose (1.51 g/kg) groups. The mice were induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55. The neurological function scores were assessed once daily. The pathological changes in mice brains were observed with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The protein expressions of myelin basic protein (MBP), Olig1 and Olig2 in brains were measured by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA expressions of Olig1 and Olig 2 was also determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the EAE-M mice, (1) the neurological function scores were significantly decreased in BSYSC-treated mice on days 22 to 40 (P<0.01); (2) the inflammatory cells and demyelination in brains were reduced in BSYSC-treated EAE mice; (3) the protein expression of MBP was markedly increased in BSYSC-treated groups on day 18 and 40 respectively (P<0.05 or P<0.01); (4) the protein expression of Olig1 was increased in BSYSC (3.02 g/kg)-treated EAE mice on day 40 (P<0.01). Protein and mRNA expression of Olig2 was increased in BSYSC-treated EAE mice on day 18 and 40 (P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The effects of BSYSC on reducing demyelination and promoting remyelination might be associated with the increase of Olig1 and Olig2.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors , Genetics , Metabolism , Brain , Pathology , Bromodeoxyuridine , Metabolism , Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Pathology , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein , Metabolism , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Oligodendrocyte Transcription Factor 2 , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286841

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the time course of proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of rats following traumatic craniocerebral injury (TBI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty-eight SD rats were randomized into 3 groups, namely the control group without any treatment, the sham-operated group with scalp incision and preparation of a cranial window, and TBI group with craniocerebral injury induced by Feeney's method. With nestin and BrdU as two cell markers, NSE as the neuron-specific marker and GFAP as the glial cell marker, immunofluorescence assay with double labeled antibodies was performed to examine the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous NSCs in the SVZ at different time points after TBI.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>s The numbers of cells positive for nestin/NSE, nestin/GFAP, BrdU/NSE, and BrdU/GFAP in the SVZ of the rats increased significantly after TBI. The positive cells began to increase at 1 day after TBI, reached the peak level at day 3 and became normal at day 14, showing significant differences between the time points of measurement following TBI and from the cell numbers in the control group measured at the same time points. The cells positive for nestin/ GFAP showed the most distinct increase in the SVZ of the rats with TBI.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>TBI results in mobilization of the NSCs in the SVZ on the injured side to cause the proliferation and differentiation of the endogenous NSCs. The SVZ is one of the most important germinal centers of NSC proliferation and differentiation.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Bromodeoxyuridine , Metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Craniocerebral Trauma , Pathology , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Metabolism , Lateral Ventricles , Cell Biology , Nestin , Metabolism , Neural Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Neuroglia , Cell Biology , Neurons , Cell Biology , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
17.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 188-194, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81740

ABSTRACT

Molecular interactions between epithelium and mesenchyme are important for root formation. Nuclear factor I-C (Nfic) has been identified as a key regulator of root formation. However, the mechanisms of root formation and their interactions between Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) and mesenchyme remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Nfic in root patterning and growth during molar root development. The molars of Nfic knockout mice exhibited an enlarged pulp chamber and apical displacement of the pulpal floor, characteristic features of taurodontism, due to delayed furcation formation. In developing molar roots of mutant mice at P14, BrdU positive cells decreased in the apical mesenchyme of the elongation region whereas those cells increased in the dental papilla of the furcation region. Whereas cytokeratin 14 and laminin were localized in HERS cells of mutant molars, Smoothened (Smo) and Gli1 were downregulated in preodontoblasts. In contrast, cytokeratin 14 and Smo were localized in the cells of the furcation region of mutant molars. These results indicate that Nfic regulates cell proliferation in the dental mesenchyme and affects the fate of HERS cells in a site-specific manner. From the results, it is suggested that Nfic is required for root patterning and growth during root morphogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Proliferation , Dental Papilla , Dental Pulp Cavity , Epithelium , Keratin-14 , Laminin , Mesoderm , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Molar , Morphogenesis , NFI Transcription Factors , Tooth Root , Tooth
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39290

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the effect of combined various microgrooves and thermal oxidation on the titanium (Ti) and to evaluate various in vitro responses of human periodontal ligament cells (PLCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Grade II titanium disks were fabricated. Microgrooves were applied on titanium discs to have 0/0 microm, 15/3.5 microm, 30/10 microm, and 60/10 microm of respective width/depth by photolithography. Thermal oxidation was performed on the microgrooves of Ti substrata for 3 h at 700degrees C in air. The experiments were divided into 3 groups: control group (ST), thermal oxidation group (ST/TO), and combined microgrooves and thermal oxidation group (Gr15-TO, Gr30-TO, Gr60-TO). Surface characterization was performed by field-emission scanning microscopy. Cell adhesion, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralization were analyzed using the bromodeoxyurdine (BrdU), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and extracellular calcium deposition assays, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using the oneway analysis of variance and Pearson's bivariate correlation analysis (SPSS Version 17.0). RESULTS: In general, the combined microgrooves and thermal oxidation group (Gr15-TO, Gr30-TO, Gr60-TO) showed significantly higher levels compared with the control (ST) or thermal oxidation (ST-TO) groups in the BrdU expression, ALP activity, and extracellular calcium deposition. Gr60-TO group induced highest levels of cell adhesion and osteoblastic differentiation. CONCLUSION: Within the limitation of this study, we conclude that the Ti surface treatment using combined microgrooves and thermal oxidation is highly effective in inducing the cell adhesion andosteoblastic differentiation. The propose surface is also expected to be effective in inducing rapid and strong osseointegration of Ti oral implants.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Analysis of Variance , Bromodeoxyuridine , Calcium , Cell Adhesion , Humans , Microscopy , Osseointegration , Osteoblasts , Periodontal Ligament , Titanium
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65432

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of cysteamine on mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)-chemically injured keratocytes reaction (mixed lymphocyte-keratocyte reaction; MLKR). METHODS: PBMC stimulation assay was performed after keratocytes were chemically injured with 0.05 N NaOH for 60 seconds. MLKR was treated with various concentrations of cysteamine (0-10 mM). Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was measured using the oxidation-sensitive fluorescent probe, 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA). Proliferation rate of PBMCs stimulated by NaOH-treated keratocytes and secretion profiles of matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were determined using the bromodeoxyuridine proliferation assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. RESULTS: Proliferation rate of PMBCs was suppressed by cysteamine in a dose-dependent manner (p = 0.019). Fluorescence of DCF-DA decreased depending on cysteamine concentration (p < 0.001). MMP-9, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 levels were suppressed by cysteamine in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05), whereas MIF levels increased with cysteamine concentration of 0.5-10 mM (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: These study results indicate that cysteamine induced the ROS-mediated inhibition of inflammatory cytokine release and proliferation of PBMCs stimulated by chemically injured keratocytes. Thus, cysteamine can be used in the treatment of chemical corneal burns.


Subject(s)
Bromodeoxyuridine , Burns , Cysteamine , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescence , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Macrophages , Reactive Oxygen Species , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
20.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 667-675, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The number of people suffering from balding or hair thinning is increasing, despite the advances in various medical therapies. Therefore, it is highly important to develop new therapies to inhibit balding and increase hair proliferation. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of herbal extracts commonly used for improving balding in traditional medicine to identify potential agents for hair proliferation. METHODS: The expression levels of 5alpha-reductase isoforms (type I and II) were analyzed using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in the human follicular dermal papilla cells (DPCs). The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylteterazolium bromide and bromodeoxyuridine tests were used to evaluate the cell proliferation effect of herbal extracts in DPCs. The expression levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Akt, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) were measured using western blot analysis. RESULTS: The 5alpha-reductase isoform mRNAs and proteins were detected in the cultured DPCs, and the expression level of 5alpha-R2 in DPCs in the presence of the herbal extracts was gradually decreased. Herbal extracts were found to significantly increase the proliferation of human DPCs at concentrations ranging from 1.5% to 4.5%. These results show that the herbal extracts tested affected the protein expressions of ERK, Akt, cyclin D1, Cdk4, Bcl-2, and Bax in DPCs. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that herbal extracts exert positive effects on hair proliferation via ERK, Akt, cyclin D1, and Cdk4 signaling in DPCs; they also suggest that herbal extracts could be a great alternative therapy for increasing hair proliferation.


Subject(s)
bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Blotting, Western , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Proliferation , Cyclin D1 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 , Hair Follicle , Hair , Humans , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Medicine, Traditional , Phosphotransferases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Protein Isoforms , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger
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