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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(5): 481-490, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521875

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las opacidades pulmonares en receptores de trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos (TPH) representan un desafío diagnóstico y son una causa de morbimortalidad. Existen grandes discrepancias con respecto a la sensibilidad diagnóstica del lavado broncoalveolar (LBA), sus complicaciones, y los factores asociados a la identificación microbiológica. OBJETIVO: Conocer la utilidad del estudio microbiológico del LBA en el diagnóstico, modificación de la conducta médica y estimar las complicaciones y mortalidad asociada al procedimiento, en receptores de TPH con opacidades pulmonares. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohorte, retrospectivo, en adultos receptores de TPH a los que se les realizó una broncoscopía con LBA por presentar opacidades pulmonares, en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires entre el 01/01/2011 y el 31/12/2020. RESULTADOS: De los 189 procedimientos analizados, en 79 se logró un hallazgo microbiológico (41,8%) y 122 permitieron modificar la conducta médica (64,6%). En 11 casos se observaron complicaciones graves dentro de las 12 horas (5,8%) de efectuado el LBA. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria fue de 16,8% (N = 21/125). El valor de neutrófilos en sangre previo al LBA (p = 0,037) y la presencia de nódulos pulmonares como lesión tomográfica predominante (p = 0,029) se asociaron independientemente al hallazgo microbiològico global. CONCLUSIONES: Nuestra investigación apoya la realización del LBA como herramienta diagnóstica en pacientes que reciben un TPH y presentan opacidades pulmonares.


BACKGROUND: Lung opacities are a cause of morbimortality in bone marrow transplant patients, and represent a diagnostic challenge. There are large discrepancies regarding the diagnostic sensitivity of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), its complications, and the factors associated with microbiological detection. AIM: To know the usefulness of the microbiological study of BAL in the diagnosis, in the modification in medical behavior and to estimate the complications and associated mortality of this diagnostic procedure in patients transplanted with hematopoietic progenitor cells with pulmonary opacities. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study in bone marrow transplant adult patients who underwent bronchoscopy with BAL due to lung opacities at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires between 01/01/2011 and 12/31/2020. RESULTS: Of the 189 BAL analyzed, 79 presented a microbiological detection (41.8%) and 122 allowed to modify the medical behavior (64.6%). Severe complications were observed within 12 hours after the procedure in11 cases (5.8%). In-hospital mortality was 16,8% (N = 21/125). The value of blood neutrophils prior to bronchoalveolar lavage (p = 0.037) and the presence of pulmonary nodules as the predominant tomographic lesion (p = 0.029) were independently associated with global microbiological detection. CONCLUSION: Our research supports the performance of BAL as a diagnostic tool in bone marrow transplant patients with lung opacities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Bronchoscopy/methods , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/methods , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Viruses/isolation & purification , Multivariate Analysis , Cohort Studies , Immunocompromised Host , Transplant Recipients , Fungi/isolation & purification , Lung/microbiology
2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(4): 374-378, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521853

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Desde el inicio de la pandemia por COVID-19 se han registrado casos de infecciones de aspergilosis pulmonar asociada a esta infección, la cual tiene características diferentes a la aspergilosis pulmonar clásica y, por lo tanto, han significado un desafío diagnóstico. OBJETIVO: Validar una reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC) en tiempo real (sigla en inglés RT-PCR) comercial, como herramienta diagnóstica alternativa a la técnica de galactomanano (GM) en el diagnóstico de aspergilosis pulmonar asociada a COVID-19 (sigla en inglés CAPA). PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Se analizaron resultados de RT-PCR de Aspergillus spp y GM en lavado bronco-alveolar (LBA) de 72 pacientes, hospitalizados por COVID-19 de Clínica Dávila entre los años 2020 y 2021. De estos pacientes, 33 presentaron CAPA. RESULTADOS: La RT-PCR de Aspergillus y GM presentaron una correlación positiva (r = 0,6351, valor p < 0,0001). La técnica de RT-PCR presentó una sensibilidad (S), especificidad (E), valor predictor positivo (VPP) y valor predictor negativo (VPN) de 100, 44, 66 y 100%, respectivamente, mientras que en GM fueron de 64, 89, 84 y 73%, respectivamente para LBA. Al utilizar ambas técnicas en combinación se obtuvo una S, E, VPP y VPN de 100, 82, 88 y 100%, respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: Este estudio concluyó que usar una técnica de RT-PCR de Aspergillus y GM en conjunto en LBA mejoraron los parámetros de desempeño de ambas técnicas usadas de manera individual para diagnosticar CAPA. Se requieren más estudios para evaluar el desempeño de técnicas combinadas en otros tipos de aspergilosis.


BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been cases of pulmonary aspergillosis infections associated with this infection, which has different characteristics from classical pulmonary aspergillosis and therefore, have been diagnostic challenges. AIM: To validate a commercial real-time PCR (RT-PCR) method as an alternative diagnostic tool to the galactomannan (GM) technique in the diagnosis of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). METHODS: Results of RT-PCR of Aspergillus spp and GM in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) of 72 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 at Clínica Dávila between 2020 and 2021 were analyzed. Of these patients, 33 presented CAPA. RESULTS: The RT-PCR for Aspergillus and GM showed a positive correlation (r = 0.6351, p-value < 0.0001). The RT-PCR for Aspergillus technique presented a sensitivity (S), specificity (S), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100, 44, 66 and 100% respectively, while the GM technique presented 64, 89, 84 and 73%, respectively for BAL. Using both techniques in combination a S, E, PPV and NPV of 100, 82, 88 and 100% were obtained respectively. CONCLUSION: This study concluded that using RT-PCR and GM techniques in combination in BAL improved the performance parameters of both techniques from those used individually to diagnose CAPA. Further studies are required to evaluate the performance of combined techniques in other aspergillosis focus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , COVID-19/complications , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Chile , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Mannans/analysis
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2839-2846, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The presence of fibrosis is a criterion for subtype classification in the newly updated hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) guidelines. The present study aimed to summarize differences in clinical characteristics and prognosis of non-fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (NFHP) and fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (FHP) and explore factors associated with the presence of fibrosis.@*METHODS@#In this prospective cohort study, patients diagnosed with HP through a multidisciplinary discussion were enrolled. Collected data included demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and radiologic and histopathological features. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore factors related to the presence of fibrosis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 202 patients with HP were enrolled, including 87 (43.1%) NFHP patients and 115 (56.9%) FHP patients. Patients with FHP were older and more frequently presented with dyspnea, crackles, and digital clubbing than patients with NFHP. Serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 125, carbohydrate antigen 153, gastrin-releasing peptide precursor, squamous cell carcinoma antigen, and antigen cytokeratin 21-1, and count of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils were higher in the FHP group than in the NFHP group. BAL lymphocytosis was present in both groups, but less pronounced in the FHP group. Multivariable regression analyses revealed that older age, <20% of lymphocyte in BAL, and ≥1.75% of eosinophil in BAL were risk factors for the development of FHP. Twelve patients developed adverse outcomes, with a median survival time of 12.5 months, all of whom had FHP.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Older age, <20% of lymphocyte in BAL, and ≥1.75% of eosinophil in BAL were risk factors associated with the development of FHP. Prognosis of patients with NFHP was better than that of patients with FHP. These results may provide insights into the mechanisms of fibrosis in HP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Prospective Studies , Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic/diagnosis , Fibrosis , Carbohydrates
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1278-1290, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980923

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive lung disease characterized by progressive lung fibrogenesis and histological features of usual interstitial pneumonia. IPF has a poor prognosis and presents a spectrum of disease courses ranging from slow evolving disease to rapid deterioration; thus, a differential diagnosis remains challenging. Several biomarkers have been identified to achieve a differential diagnosis; however, comprehensive reviews are lacking. This review summarizes over 100 biomarkers which can be divided into six categories according to their functions: differentially expressed biomarkers in the IPF compared to healthy controls; biomarkers distinguishing IPF from other types of interstitial lung disease; biomarkers differentiating acute exacerbation of IPF from stable disease; biomarkers predicting disease progression; biomarkers related to disease severity; and biomarkers related to treatment. Specimen used for the diagnosis of IPF included serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung tissue, and sputum. IPF-specific biomarkers are of great clinical value for the differential diagnosis of IPF. Currently, the physiological measurements used to evaluate the occurrence of acute exacerbation, disease progression, and disease severity have limitations. Combining physiological measurements with biomarkers may increase the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnosis and disease evaluation of IPF. Most biomarkers described in this review are not routinely used in clinical practice. Future large-scale multicenter studies are required to design and validate suitable biomarker panels that have diagnostic utility for IPF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Biomarkers , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Lung , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Disease Progression , Prognosis
6.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1253-1258, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009877

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the clinical application of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in the etiological diagnosis and treatment of refractory pneumonia (RTP) in children.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on 160 children with RTP who were admitted to the Department of Pediatric Internal Medicine, Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, from January 2020 to March 2023. According to whether mNGS was performed, they were divided into two groups: mNGS (n=80) and traditional testing (n=80). All children received the tests of inflammatory markers and pathogen tests after admission. Traditional pathogenicity tests included microbial culture (sputum specimen collected by suction tube), nucleic acid detection of respiratory pathogens, and serological test (mycoplasma, tuberculosis, and fungi). For the mNGS group, BALF specimens were collected after bronchoscopy and were sent to the laboratory for mNGS and microbial culture. The two groups were analyzed and compared in terms of the detection of pathogens and treatment.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the traditional testing group, the mNGS group had a significantly higher detection rate of pathogens (92% vs 58%, P<0.05), with more types of pathogens and a higher diagnostic rate of mixed infections. Compared with the traditional testing group, the mNGS group had a significantly higher treatment response rate and a significantly lower incidence rate of complications during hospitalization (P<0.05). Treatment was adjusted for 68 children in the mNGS group according to the results of mNGS, with a treatment response rate of 96% (65/68) after adjustment.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with traditional pathogen tests, BALF mNGS can significantly improve the detection rate of pathogens and find some rare pathogens. In clinical practice, when encountering bottlenecks during the diagnosis and treatment of children with RTP, it is advisable to promptly perform the mNGS to identify the pathogens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Retrospective Studies , Pneumonia/therapy , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Bronchoscopy , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6414-6422, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008841

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the therapeutic effect of Shegan Mahuang Decoction(SGMHD) on cold-induced asthma in rats and explored its underlying mechanism. Seventy-two healthy male SD rats of specific pathogen free(SPF) grade were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group, a positive control group(dexamethasone, 0.4 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-, medium-, and high-dose SGMHD groups(3.2, 6.4, and 12.8 g·kg~(-1)). The blank group received saline, while the other groups were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin(OVA) solution. Subsequently, the rats were placed in a cold chamber adjustable to 0-2 ℃, and OVA solution was ultrasonically nebulized to induce cold-induced asthma in rats. After three weeks of treatment, the general behaviors of rats were observed. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to evaluate pathological changes in lung tissues, periodic acid-Schiff(PAS) staining assessed mucin changes, and Masson staining was performed to examine collagen deposition. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to measure the levels of the inflammatory factors interleukin-4(IL-4) and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) was employed to assess the mRNA expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1(TRPV1), nuclear respiratory factor 1(NRF-1), and mitochondrial transcription factor A(mtTFA) in lung tissues. Western blot was used to measure the protein expression levels of TRPV1, NRF-1, and mtTFA in lung tissues. Compared with the blank group, the model group exhibited signs of rapid respiration, increased frequency of defecation with looser stools, and disheveled and dull fur. Pathological results showed significant infiltration of inflammatory cells in lung tissues, narrowing of bronchial lumens, increased mucin secretion, and enhanced collagen deposition in the model group. Additionally, the levels of IL-4 and VEGF in serum and BALF were significantly elevated, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of TRPV1, NRF-1, and mtTFA in lung tissues were significantly increased. Compared with the model group, SGMHD improved the behaviors of rats, alleviated pathological changes in lung tissues, mucin production, and collagen deposition, significantly decreased the levels of IL-4 and VEGF in serum and BALF, and reduced the mRNA expression levels of TRPV1, NRF-1, and mtTFA in lung tissues, with the medium-dose SGMHD group showing the most significant effect. Moreover, the protein expression levels of TRPV1, NRF-1, and mtTFA in lung tissues were also reduced, with the medium-dose SGMHD group exhibiting the most significant effect. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that SGMHD can alleviate airway inflammation and inhibit airway remodeling in cold-induced asthma rats. These effects may be associated with the modulation of the TRPV1/NRF-1/mtTFA signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Mice , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Asthma/genetics , Lung , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Collagen/metabolism , Mucins/therapeutic use , Ovalbumin , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred BALB C , TRPV Cation Channels/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
8.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 935-940, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982366

ABSTRACT

Cryptogenic organic pneumonia (COP) refers to organic pneumonia that has not been identified a clear cause by current medical methods. A small proportion of COP can exhibit severe and progressive characteristics, while severe COP can cause systemic inflammatory storms and can be secondary to hemophilia. This article reported a case of acute severe COP secondary to hemophilia. A 67-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital due to cough, shortness of breath, and fever. At first, he was misdiagnosed as severe pneumonia, but failed to receive anti infection treatments. Sputum pathogenetic examination and Macrogene testing of alveolar lavage fluid were performed, and no etiology was found to explain the patient's condition. The condition was gradually worsened and hemophilia occurred to explain, suggesting that acute severe COP was relevant. After receiving hormone treatment, the condition gradually relieved and the absorption of lung lesions improved. Hemophilia secondary to COP is rare, and the specific mechanism needs further study.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Aged , Hemophilia A/complications , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Cough , Dyspnea/etiology
9.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 599-603, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981905

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the relationship between intestinal inflammatory group 2 innate lymphoid cells (iILC2s) and lung ILC2s and its inflammatory response in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Mouse COPD model was established by smoking method. The mice were randomly divided into normal group and COPD group. HE staining was used to detect the pathological changes in lung and intestine tissues of mice in normal group and COPD group, and the contents of natural ILC2s(nILC2s) and iILC2s cells were measured by flow cytometry. Wright-Giemsa staining was used to measure the number of immune cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice in normal group and COPD group, and the concentration of IL-13 and IL-4 was detected by ELISA. Results In COPD mice, epithelial cells of the lung and intestinal tissues exhibited pathological hyperplasia, partial atrophy or deletion, inflammatory cell infiltration, increased pathological score and significantly increased neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in BALF. Lung iILC2s, intestinal nILC2s and iILC2s were increased significantly in the COPD group. The contents of IL-13 and IL-4 in BALF were significantly increased. Conclusion The increase of iILC2s and their related cytokines in COPD lung may be related to intestinal inflammatory ILC2s.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Cytokines , Immunity, Innate , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-4 , Lymphocytes , Lung/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Disease Models, Animal , Intestines
10.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 718-725, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982018

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the value of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in the pathogen identification in children with hematological malignancies complicated with infections.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was conducted on clinical data and pathogenic test results of 43 children with hematological malignancies who underwent microbial culture and mNGS due to infections in the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University between June 2020 and July 2022. Differences in detection rates and characteristics of pathogenic microorganisms detected by mNGS and microbial culture were compared.@*RESULTS@#A total of 54 specimens were examined, and the overall detection rate of pathogen by mNGS (80%, 43/54) was significantly higher than that by microbial culture (30%, 16/54) (P<0.001). The most commonly detected infection type by mNGS was viral infection, followed by fungal infection combined viral infection, while that by microbial culture was bacterial infection, followed by fungal infection. The detection rate of fungi by mNGS (33%, 18/54) was higher than that by microbial culture (6%, 3/54) (P<0.001). The detection rate of two or more pathogenic microorganisms by mNGS was higher at 48% compared to microbial culture at 9% (P<0.05). The detection rate of two or more types of pathogenic microorganisms by mNGS was also significantly higher at 33% compared to microbial culture at 2% (P<0.05). The most commonly detected bacteria and fungi by mNGS were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida tropicalis, respectively, in peripheral blood, while Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pneumocystis jirovecii were most commonly detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment adjustments based on mNGS results were beneficial for 35% (15/43) of the cases.@*CONCLUSIONS@#mNGS has a higher detection rate than microbial culture and has obvious advantages in diagnosing mixed and fungal infections, making it a useful supplementary diagnostic method to microbial culture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Retrospective Studies , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Hospitals , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(3): 248-253, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407786

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La prueba Aspergillus galactomannan Ag Virclia® (GM-VClia) es una técnica de galactomanano monotest, auto-matizada, basada en inmunoensayo quimioluminiscente (CLIA). OBJETIVO: Evaluar el desempeño del test de GM-VClia en muestras de suero y lavado bronquioalveolar (LBA) procesadas previamente con el kit Platelia™ Aspergillus EIA (GM-Plat). MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron 56 muestras de suero y 40 de LBA, correspondientes a un total de 59 pacientes (algunos con determinación de galactomamano en ambas muestras) con enfermedades pulmonares, hematológicas, LES, Covid-19 y tumores, entre otros. Trece pacientes tuvieron aspergilosis invasora (1 probada y 12 probables). RESULTADOS: La correlación entre ambos métodos para suero y LBA fue r = 0,8861 p < 0,0001 y r = 0,6368 p < 0,001, respectivamente. Hubo una concordancia global de 67,7% (65/96), siendo de 85,7% (48/56) en sueros y 42,5,0% (14/49) en LBA. Al subir el punto de corte en LBA por GM-VClia la concordancia aumentó a 85,7%. CONCLUSIONES: Se observó una mayor correlación y concordancia en sueros que en LBA. El kit GM-VClia presentó una mayor sensibilidad y valor predictor negativo (VPN), que el kit GM-Plat. Las desventajas de GM-VClia, la constituyen la categoría "dudoso", que dificulta la interpretación y que, con los puntos de corte actuales en LBA, la correlación con GM-Plat es menor. Las ventajas son su mayor sensibilidad, facilidad de procesamiento y una mayor rapidez en los resultados.


BACKGROUND: The Aspergillus Galactomannan Ag Virclia® (GMVClia) test is a monotest and automated galactomannan technique based on chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). AIM: To evaluate the performance of the GM-VClia test in serum and bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL) samples previously processed with the Platelia ™ Aspergillus EIA kit (GM-Plat). METHODS: 56 samples of serum 40 from BAL (some of them with galactomaman determination in both samples), from patients with pulmonary diseases, hematological diseases, SLE, Covid-19 and tumors, among others, were studied. Thirteen patients had invasive aspergillosis (1 proven and 12 probable). RESULTS: The correlation between both methods for serum and BAL was r = 0.8861 p < 0.0001 and r = 0.6368 p < 0.001, respectively. There was a global concordance of 67.7% (65/96), being 85.7% (48/56) in sera and 42.5.0% (14/49) in BAL. By raising the cut-off point in LBA by GM-VClia, the agreement increased to 85.7%. CONCLUSION: A greater correlation and concordance was observed in sera than in BAL. The GM-VClia kit had a higher sensitivity and NPV than the GM-Plat kit. The disadvantages of GM-VClia are the "doubtful" category, which makes interpretation difficult and that with the current cut-off points in LBA the correlation with GM-Plat is lower. The advantages are its greater sensitivity, ease of processing and faster results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Sensitivity and Specificity , COVID-19 , Mannans
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1009-1016, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928020

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the effect of active components of Descurainia sophia on allergic asthma and explored the underlying mechanism. SD male rats were randomly divided into a normal group(NC), a model group(M), a D. sophia decoction group(DS), a D. sophia fatty oil group(FO), a D. sophia flavonoid glycoside group(FG), a D. sophia oligosaccharide group(Oli), and a positive drug dexamethasone group(Y). The allergic asthma model was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin(OVA) and aluminum hydroxide gel adjuvant(sensitization) and atomization of OVA solution(excitation). After modeling, asthma-related indicators, tracheal phenol red excretion, inflammatory cell levels in the peripheral blood, lung permeability index(LPI), and oxygenation index(OI) of rats were detected. The pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by HE staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect the content of inflammatory factors immunoglobulin E(IgE), interleukin-4(IL-4), and interferon-γ(IFN-γ) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) and the content of endothelin-1(ET-1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme(ACE) in lung tissue homogenate. The serum content of nitric oxide(NO) was detected by colorimetry. Western blot was employed to determine the protein expression of Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4), nuclear factor κB-p65(NF-κB-p65), phosphorylated NF-κB-p65(p-NF-κB-p65), myosin light chain kinase(MLCK), vascular endothelial cadherin(VE cadherin), connexin 43, and claudin 5, and the mechanism of active components of D. sophia on allergic asthma was explored. As revealed by the results, the M group showed extensive infiltration of inflammatory cells around the bronchus of the lung tissues of the allergic asthma rats, thickened bronchial wall, severely deformed alveolar structure, increased number of wheezes, the content of IgE, IL-4, ET-1, and ACE, inflammatory cells, and LPI, and reduced latency of asthma, tracheal phenol red excretion, IFN-γ, NO content, and OI. After the intervention of the active components of D. sophia, the DS, FO, FG, Oli, and Y groups showed improved asthma-related indicators, tracheal phenol red excretion, and lung tissue lesions in allergic asthma rats, and the effects in the FO and Oli groups were superior. The content of inflammatory factors in BALF was recovered in the DS, FO, and Y groups and the FG and Oli groups. The number of inflammatory cells in rats was reduced in the DS and FO groups, and the FG, Oli, and Y groups to varying degrees, and the effect in the FO group was superior. DS, FO, Oli, and Y reduced ET-1, ACE, and LPI and increased NO and OI. FG recovered NO, ET-1, ACE, LPI, and OI to improve lung epithelial damage and permeability. Further investigation of inflammation-related TLR4/NF-κB pathways, MLCK, and related skeleton protein levels showed that TLR4, NF-κB-p65, p-NF-κB-p65, and MLCK levels were increased, and VE cadherin, connexin 43, and claudin 5 were reduced in the M group. DS, FO, FG, Oli, and Y could reduce the protein expression related to the TLR4 pathway to varying degrees, and regulate the protein expression of MLCK, VE cadherin, connexin 43, and claudin 5. It is inferred that the active components of D. sophia improve lung permeability in rats with allergic asthma presumedly by regulating the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway to improve airway inflammation, mediating MLCK and connexin, and regulating epithelial damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Asthma/drug therapy , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Inflammation/metabolism , Lung , Permeability
13.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 300-303, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935797

ABSTRACT

This paper reported a case of severe Chlamydia psittaci pneumonia. The patient had a clear history of contact with sick poultry. The clinical manifestations were dry cough, fever and respiratory failure. Chest CT showed consolidation in the lower lobe of the right lung, and a small amount of exudative ground-glass opacity in the left lung. Chlamydia psittaci was detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) by metagenomic assay. After treatment with antibiotics such as nitroimidazoles and carbapenems, the patient was discharged with a better health condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Chlamydophila psittaci , Metagenomics , Pneumonia , Psittacosis/drug therapy
14.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 280-288, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928969

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Chlorogenic acid has various physiological activities such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. Studies have shown that chlorogenic acid can alleviate the inflammatory response of mice with acute lung injury (ALI), but the specific mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to investigate whether chlorogenic acid attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in mice by regulating the microRNA-223 (miR-223)/nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) axis.@*METHODS@#SPF grade BALBc male mice were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a chlorogenic acid group, a chlorogenic acid+miR-223 negative control (miR-223 NC) group, and a chlorogenic acid+miR-223 inhibitor (miR-223 antagomir) group, 10 mice in each group. Except the control group, the other groups were instilled with 4 mg/kg LPS through the airway to establish the ALI mouse model. After the modeling, the mice in the chlorogenic acid group were continuously given chlorogenic acid (100 mg/kg) by gavage for 7 d. The chlorogenic acid+miR-223 NC group and the chlorogenic acid+miR-223 antagomir group were given 100 mg/kg chlorogenic acid by gavage every day, and then were injected with 10 μL of miR-223 NC (0.5 nmol/μL) and miR-223 antagomir (0.5 nmol/μL) respectively for 7 consecutive days.The control group and the model group were replaced with normal saline. The lung tissues of mice were taken to measure the ratios of lung wet to dry weight (W/D). The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice was collected to measure the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β by ELISA kit and to count the number of eosinophils (EOS), lymphocytes, neutrophils under light microscope. After HE staining, the pathological changes of lung tissues were observed and lung injury was scored. qRT-PCR method were used to determine the expression levels of miR-223 in lung tissues. Western blotting was used to determine the expression levels of NLRP3 protein in mouse lung tissues. Luciferase reporter assay was used to analyze the targeting relationship of miR-223 to NLRP3.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the lung W/D value, the lung injury score and the level of inflammatory factors in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly increased in the model group (all P<0.05); the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lung tissue was severe; the alveolar space was significantly increased; the alveolar wall was significantly thickened; the number of EOS, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was significantly increased (all P<0.05); the expression levels of miR-223 in lung tissue were significantly decreased (P<0.05); and the protein expression levels of NLRP3 were significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the W/D value of lungs, lung injury score, and levels of inflammatory factors in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly decreased in the chlorogenic acid group, the chlorogenic acid+miR-223 NC group, and the chlorogenic acid+miR-223 antagomir group (all P<0.05); lung tissues damage was alleviated; the numbers of EOS, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly decreased (all P<0.05); the expression levels of miR-223 in lung tissues were significantly increased (P<0.05); and the expression levels of NLRP3 protein were significantly decreased (P<0.05). Compared with the chlorogenic acid group, the lung W/D value, lung injury score, and inflammatory factor levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly increased in the chlorogenic acid+miR-223 antagomir group (all P<0.05); lung tissue damage was aggravated; the number of EOS, lymphocytes and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid significantly increased (all P<0.05); the expression levels of miR-223 in lung tissues were significantly decreased (P<0.05); and the expression levels of NLRP3 protein were significantly increased (P<0.05). The results of luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-223 had a targeting relationship with NLRP3.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Chlorogenic acid may increase the level of miR-223, target the inhibition of NLRP3 expression, reduce LPS-induced inflammatory response in ALI mice, and alleviate pathological damage of lung tissues.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Acute Lung Injury/genetics , Antagomirs/metabolism , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Chlorogenic Acid/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Lung/pathology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1039-1046, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345264

ABSTRACT

The nasal strip is widely used in horses during exercise, but effects of using a nasal strip are controversial and little is known about its effect on horses undergoing endurance events. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of nasal strips influences alveolar cell population assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), tidal volume, and nasal airflow rate. Six Arabian horses were subjected to two low intensity tests on a treadmill, with and without application of a commercial external nasal strip. Tidal volumes and airflow rates were measured during the test; two hours after the test, BAL was performed to assess cytology of pulmonary secretions. The lavage fluid showed increased neutrophil count after exercise in animals with the nasal strip (P<0.05). This suggests that turbulence of airflow through the nasal cavity may have diminished with nasal strip use, thus allowing larger particles to be deposited more distally in the respiratory system, inducing a more intense neutrophilic response. No differences in tidal volumes or airflow rates were observed between groups (with or without nasal strips) during the test (P>0.05). The use of nasal strips seems to influence alveolar cell population during and after exercise in horses after low intensity exercise tests. Further studies are needed to verify whether alveolar cell population is related to poor exercise performance in horses.(AU)


A fita nasal é amplamente utilizada em equinos durante o exercício, porém seus resultados são controversos e pouco conhecidos em animais que disputam provas de resistência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se o uso da fita nasal influencia a população de células alveolares por meio de lavado broncoalveolar, volume corrente e fluxo de ar nasal. Foram utilizados seis equinos da raça Árabe, que realizaram dois testes de longa duração em esteira, sendo um teste com a fita e outro sem a fita nasal. Fluxo e volume respiratório foram mensurados durante o teste; duas horas após o término do exercício, foi realizado lavado broncoalveolar para realização de citologia da secreção pulmonar. Foi verificada maior porcentagem de neutrófilos após o exercício nos animais que se exercitaram com a fita nasal (P<0,05), indicando que o turbilhonamento na passagem do ar através da cavidade nasal pode ter diminuído, permitindo que partículas maiores se depositassem em porções mais distais do sistema respiratório, induzindo uma resposta neutrofílica mais intensa. Não houve diferenças entre os parâmetros ventilatórios analisados entre os animais quando correram com ou sem a fita nasal (P>0,05). O uso da fita nasal parece influenciar alguns parâmetros, durante e após o exercício, em animais que realizam provas de longa duração. Outros estudos devem ser realizados para verificar se essa influência pode melhorar o desempenho desses animais em exercícios predominantemente aeróbicos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Physical Functional Performance , Horses/physiology , Neutrophils , Respiration , Endurance Training/veterinary
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(3): 340-343, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388248

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La actual pandemia provocada por SARS-CoV-2 ha provocado una alta carga en la salud pública y privada. Se han descrito casos y series de aspergilosis invasora asociada a pacientes con COVID-19 en ventilación mecánica. OBJETIVO: Describir el aumento en la positividad del biomarcador galactomanano (GM) durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en la Quinta Región: Valparaíso. MATERIALES Y MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo. Se revisó la cantidad y los resultados de GM, tanto de lavado bronco-alveolar (LBA) como en suero y los cultivos de LBA enviados al laboratorio de Micología de la Universidad de Valparaíso, desde enero y hasta septiembre del año 2020; luego se compararon con los exámenes recibidos en el mismo período del año 2019. RESULTADOS: Se observó un aumento significativo de los GM realizados en LBA, concentrándose principalmente entre los meses de julio y septiembre. El 29% de las muestras del año 2020 tenía el antecedente de ser de pacientes con COVID-19. Del total de muestras positivas durante el año de la pandemia, 5/12 fueron en pacientes con COVID-19. CONCLUSIONES: Hubo un aumento significativo de los GM realizados en LBA durante la pandemia, concentrándose principalmente entre los meses de julio-septiembre.


BACKGROUND: The current pandemic due to SARS-CoV-2 has caused a high burden on health. Cases and series of invasive aspergillosis associated with COVID-19 patients (CAPA) on mechanical ventilation have been described. AIM: To describe the increase in the positivity of the galactomannan (GM) biomarker during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Fifth Region: Valparaíso. METHOD: Retrospective descriptive study. The GM results in both broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) and serum and the BAL cultures that were sent to the Mycology Laboratory of the University of Valparaíso from January to September 2020 were reviewed; then they were compared with the examinations of the same period of 2019. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in GMs carried out in LBA during the pandemic, concentrating mainly between the months of July-September. CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant increase in GM carried out in LBA during the pandemic, concentrating mainly between the months of July-September.


Subject(s)
Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19 , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Biomarkers , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pandemics , Galactose/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Mannans/blood
17.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1127-1131, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922400

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the consistency between nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in pathogen detection in children with pneumonia@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the data of pathogens detected in 533 children with pneumonia from February 2017 to March 2020. The paired McNemar's test was used to compare the difference in pathogen detection between NPA and BALF groups. The @*RESULTS@#NPA had a sensitivity of 28%, a specificity of 74%, a positive predictive value of 14%, and a negative predictive value of 91% in detecting bacteria, and a @*CONCLUSIONS@#There is poor consistency between NPA and BALF in the detection of bacteria and viruses, and clinicians should be cautious in diagnosing lower respiratory tract infection based on bacteria or viruses detected in NPA. There is moderate consistency between NPA and BALF in the detection of


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Respiratory Tract Infections , Retrospective Studies
18.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1033-1037, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922387

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical features of @*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 228 children with MPP alone and 28 children with MPP and ADV infection. The two groups were compared in terms of clinical features, laboratory results, and treatment outcome.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the MPP group, the MPP+ADV group had significantly longer duration of fever and length of hospital stay, a significantly higher proportion of patients with severe lesions (erosion and exfoliation) of the airway mucosa under bronchoscopy, a significantly higher clinical pulmonary infection score, and a significantly higher proportion of patients requiring oxygen therapy (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with children with MPP alone, children with MPP and ADV infection tend to have more severe clinical manifestations and airway mucosal lesions and are more likely to require oxygen therapy, but most of the laboratory markers lack specificity.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Adenoviridae Infections , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Retrospective Studies
19.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 707-712, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the drug resistance of @*METHODS@#BALF specimens were collected from 245 children with RMPP who were admitted to the Children's Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University from March 2016 to December 2020. A rapid cultured drug sensitivity assay was used to detect the resistance of MP isolates to nine commonly used antimicrobial drugs. The real-time PCR was used to measure MP DNA. The direct sequencing was used to detect gene mutations in MP 23SrRNA V region central ring.@*RESULTS@#Among the 245 BALF specimens, 207 tested positive for MP DNA, with a positive rate of 84.5%. The results of drug susceptibility test showed that the children with RMPP had a resistance rate of > 70% to macrolide antimicrobial drugs, with the highest resistance rate to clarithromycin, followed by roxithromycin, clindamycin, acetylspiramycin, erythromycin, and azithromycin, and these children had a resistance rate of < 5% to quinolone antimicrobial drugs. Among the 207 MP DNA-positive specimens, 41 (19.8%) had no drug-resistance gene mutations and 166 (80.2%) had drug-resistance gene mutations, among which 154 (74.4%) had an A→G mutation at 2063 locus of 23SrRNA V region central ring, 7 (3.4%) had an A→G mutation at 2064 locus, and 5 (2.4%) had mutations in both 2063 and 2064 loci. Among the 166 specimens with point mutations of the MP 23SrRNA gene, 159 (95.8%) had point mutations at 2063 locus. The A→G point mutation at 2063 locus of 23SrRNA V region central ring had a great impact on resistance to macrolide antimicrobial drugs. There was a significant difference in the distribution of alleles at 2063 locus between the children with resistance to clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, acetylspiramycin, erythromycin, and azithromycin (@*CONCLUSIONS@#MP in the BALF of children with RMPP has a relatively high resistance rate to macrolide antimicrobial drugs. Resistance to macrolide antimicrobial drugs is closely associated with the A→G point mutation in the 23SrRNA gene, and the point mutation at 2063 locus of 23SrRNA V region central ring may affect the drug-resistance mechanism of MP.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genetics , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/drug therapy
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4214-4221, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888083

ABSTRACT

As recorded, agarwood has the function of improving qi reception and relieving asthma, but the underlying mechanism is unclear and rarely reported. Therefore, this study explored the anti-asthmatic effect of the alcohol extract of agarwood produced by the whole-tree agarwood-inducing technique(Agar-Wit) in the asthma mouse model induced by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin(OVA) + Al(OH)_3 combined with intranasal administration of OVA and the mechanism, and compared the anti-asthmatic effects of agarwood induced with different methods. Firstly, the anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic effects of Agar-Wit agarwood in mice were evaluated based on the asthma frequency, lung tissue injury, and peripheral inflammatory white blood cell(WBC) count and eosinophil count. Then, the levels of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), IL-17, and IL-10 in serum of mice were detected by enzyme-linked immunoassay(ELISA) and the expression of inflammation-and apoptosis-related genes in tissues was measured by reverse transcription polyme-rase chain reaction(RT-PCR) so as to preliminarily explore the anti-asthmatic mechanism. RESULTS:: showed that the alcohol extract of Agar-Wit agarwood significantly reduced asthma frequency, relieved pathological injury, improved peripheral WBC count and eosinophil count, decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-17, elevated the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and down-regulated the mRNA expression of IL-1 R, tumor necrosis factor receptor R(TNFR), nuclear transcription factor-kappa B(NF-κB), Bax, and caspase 3, but had no significant influence on the expression of high-mobility group box 1(HMGB1) protein, caspase 8, and Bcl-2. The effect of Agar-Wit agarwood alcohol extract was better than that of wild agarwood alcohol extract and alcohol extract of agarwood induced with the burning-chisel-drilling method at the same dose. In conclusion, Agar-Wit agarwood can significantly alleviate inflammation and asthma, which is related to its anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma/drug therapy , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Disease Models, Animal , Lung , Mice, Inbred BALB C , NF-kappa B , Ovalbumin , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
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