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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1039-1046, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345264

ABSTRACT

The nasal strip is widely used in horses during exercise, but effects of using a nasal strip are controversial and little is known about its effect on horses undergoing endurance events. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of nasal strips influences alveolar cell population assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), tidal volume, and nasal airflow rate. Six Arabian horses were subjected to two low intensity tests on a treadmill, with and without application of a commercial external nasal strip. Tidal volumes and airflow rates were measured during the test; two hours after the test, BAL was performed to assess cytology of pulmonary secretions. The lavage fluid showed increased neutrophil count after exercise in animals with the nasal strip (P<0.05). This suggests that turbulence of airflow through the nasal cavity may have diminished with nasal strip use, thus allowing larger particles to be deposited more distally in the respiratory system, inducing a more intense neutrophilic response. No differences in tidal volumes or airflow rates were observed between groups (with or without nasal strips) during the test (P>0.05). The use of nasal strips seems to influence alveolar cell population during and after exercise in horses after low intensity exercise tests. Further studies are needed to verify whether alveolar cell population is related to poor exercise performance in horses.(AU)


A fita nasal é amplamente utilizada em equinos durante o exercício, porém seus resultados são controversos e pouco conhecidos em animais que disputam provas de resistência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se o uso da fita nasal influencia a população de células alveolares por meio de lavado broncoalveolar, volume corrente e fluxo de ar nasal. Foram utilizados seis equinos da raça Árabe, que realizaram dois testes de longa duração em esteira, sendo um teste com a fita e outro sem a fita nasal. Fluxo e volume respiratório foram mensurados durante o teste; duas horas após o término do exercício, foi realizado lavado broncoalveolar para realização de citologia da secreção pulmonar. Foi verificada maior porcentagem de neutrófilos após o exercício nos animais que se exercitaram com a fita nasal (P<0,05), indicando que o turbilhonamento na passagem do ar através da cavidade nasal pode ter diminuído, permitindo que partículas maiores se depositassem em porções mais distais do sistema respiratório, induzindo uma resposta neutrofílica mais intensa. Não houve diferenças entre os parâmetros ventilatórios analisados entre os animais quando correram com ou sem a fita nasal (P>0,05). O uso da fita nasal parece influenciar alguns parâmetros, durante e após o exercício, em animais que realizam provas de longa duração. Outros estudos devem ser realizados para verificar se essa influência pode melhorar o desempenho desses animais em exercícios predominantemente aeróbicos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Physical Functional Performance , Horses/physiology , Neutrophils , Respiration , Endurance Training/veterinary
2.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(2): 300-313, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011442

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. La anatomía humana y porcina son comparables. En consecuencia, el biomodelo porcino tiene el potencial de ser implementado para entrenar al profesional quirúrgico en áreas como el trasplante de órganos sólidos. Objetivo. Describir los procedimientos y hallazgos obtenidos mediante experimentos de medicina respiratoria traslacional con biomodelos porcinos realizados en un laboratorio de experimentación animal, y hacer una revisión comparativa entre el pulmón humano y el porcino. Materiales y métodos. El experimento se llevó a cabo en nueve cerdos de raza híbrida en un laboratorio de cirugía experimental. Se estudiaron la anatomía y la histología de las vías respiratorias mediante fibrobroncoscopia, biopsia bronquial y lavado broncoalveolar. El lavado broncoalveolar se estudió con citología en base líquida y se evaluó con las coloraciones de Papanicolau y hematoxilina y eosina. Se utilizaron técnicas de patología molecular, como inmunohistoquímica, citometría de flujo y microscopía electrónica. Los cerdos se sometieron a neumonectomía izquierda con posterior implante del injerto en otro cerdo experimental. Resultados. Los estudios histopatológicos y moleculares evidenciaron un predominio de macrófagos alveolares (98 %) y linfocitos T (2 %) en el lavado broncoalveolar porcino. En los estudios del parénquima pulmonar porcino se encontró tejido linfoide hiperplásico asociado a las paredes bronquiales. La microscopía electrónica evidenció linfocitos T dentro del epitelio y el diámetro de las cilias porcinas fue similar al de las humanas. Conclusiones. El biomodelo porcino es viable en la investigación traslacional para el entendimiento de la anatomía del sistema respiratorio y el entrenamiento en trasplante pulmonar. La implementación de este modelo experimental podría fortalecer los grupos que planean implementar un programa institucional de trasplante pulmonar en humanos.


Abstract Introduction: Human and porcine anatomy are comparable. In consequence, the porcine biomodel has the potential to be implemented in the training of surgical professionals in areas such as solid organ transplantation. Objectives: We described the procedures and findings obtained in the experiments of translational respiratory medicine with the porcine biomodel, within an experimentation animal laboratory, and we present a comparative review between human and porcine lung. Materials and methods: The experiment was done in nine pigs of hybrid race within a laboratory of experimental surgery. The anatomy and histology of the respiratory tract were studied with fibrobronchoscopy, bronchial biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage. The bronchoalveolar lavage was studied with liquid-based cytology and assessed with Papanicolau and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Molecular pathology techniques such as immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and electronic microscopy were implemented. The pigs were subjected to left pneumonectomy with posterior implantation of the graft into another experimental pig. Results: Histopathologic and molecular studies evidenced predominance of alveolar macrophages (98%) and T-lymphocytes (2%) in the porcine bronchoalveolar lavage. Studies on the porcine lung parenchyma revealed hyperplasic lymphoid tissue associated with the bronchial walls. Electronic microscopy evidenced the presence of T-lymphocytes within the epithelium and the cilia diameter was similar to the human. Conclusions: The porcine biomodel is a viable tool in translational research applied to the understanding of the respiratory system anatomy and the training in lung transplantation. The implementation of this experimental model has the potential to strength the groups who plan to implement an institutional program of lung transplantation in humans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Swine , Lung Transplantation , Models, Animal , Translational Research, Biomedical/methods , Pneumonectomy/methods , Species Specificity , Biopsy , Bone Marrow/ultrastructure , Bronchoscopy , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Lung Transplantation/methods , Tissue and Organ Harvesting/methods , Lung/blood supply , Lung/ultrastructure
3.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(4): eRC4505, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975087

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a potentially fatal disease that results from episodes of alveolar hemorrhage of unknown origin. The clinical spectrum is varied, and anemia may constitute the only manifestation of illness, preceding other signs and symptoms by several months. We present the case of a 4 year-old child presenting with fever, vomiting and prostration, associated with pallor. He had microcytic and hypochromic anemia refractory to iron therapy. Gastrointestinal bleeding was ruled out after negative extensive etiological investigation. Subsequently, pulmonary infiltrates suggestive of alveolar hemorrhage were observed in the chest radiography. The cytological exam of the bronchoalveolar lavage showed hemosiderin-laden macrophages. After the etiological study, the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was made by exclusion. He was initiated on corticosteroid therapy, later associated to an immunosuppressive agent, with subsequent correction of anemia and of the radiological pattern. The patient is currently asymptomatic.


RESUMO A hemossiderose pulmonar idiopática é uma doença potencialmente fatal que cursa com episódios de hemorragia alveolar de etiologia desconhecida. As manifestações clínicas são variadas, e a anemia pode constituir o único sinal de doença, precedendo em vários meses os outros sinais e sintomas. Apresenta-se o caso de criança de 4 anos, com febre, vômitos e prostração, associados à palidez. Apresentava anemia microcítica e hipocrômica, refratária à terapêutica com ferro. A hipótese diagnóstica de sangramento gastrintestinal foi excluída, após investigação etiológica extensa, inconclusiva. Posteriormente, em radiografia torácica, foram observados infiltrados sugestivos de hemorragia alveolar. O exame citológico do lavado broncoalveolar mostrou macrófagos com depósitos de hemossiderina. Após estudo etiológico, assumiu-se, por exclusão, o diagnóstico de hemossiderose pulmonar idiopática. Foi iniciada terapêutica com corticoides, associada posteriormente a imunossupressor, com correção subsequente da anemia e do padrão radiológico, encontrando-se, atualmente, assintomático.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/etiology , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemosiderosis/complications , Lung Diseases/complications , Hemoglobins/analysis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Macrophages, Alveolar/cytology , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/blood , Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Hemosiderosis/blood , Lung Diseases/blood
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(6): 382-388, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785018

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the regulatory roles of neutrophil elastase (NE) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. METHODS: To construct LPS-induced ALI mouse models, wild-type C57BL/6 mice were administered 5.0 mg/kg of LPS through endotracheal, and/or 1.0 mg/kg of ONO-5046, and/or 20.0 mg/kg of chemically modified tetracycline-3 (CMT-3) by gavage. The levels of MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1, interleukin (IL)-6 were detected by real time RT-PCR at 6 h, 24 h and 48 h, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), lung wet-dry weight ratio, white blood cell (WBC) count and polymorphonuclear (PMN) count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were tested at 48 h after administration. The 5-day survival analysis of the ALI mice was also performed. RESULTS: Both ONO-5046 and CMT-3, regardless of being used individually or combined, significantly reduced the levels of MMP-9, IL-6, and TNF in lung tissue as well as in BALF, and the WBC and PMN count in BALF. Combined treatment with ONO-5046 and CMT-3 remarkably improved the survival rate of ALI mice. CONCLUSION: Neutrophil elastase synergizes with matrix metalloproteinase-9 to promote and regulate the release of inflammatory mediators and the infiltration of inflammatory cells, consequently affecting the survival of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Tetracyclines/administration & dosage , Leukocyte Elastase/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/enzymology , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Time Factors , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Survival Analysis , Lipopolysaccharides , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Leukocyte Elastase/drug effects , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factors/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/blood , Glycine/administration & dosage , Leukocyte Count , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutrophils
6.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 220-225, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diffuse interstitial lung diseases (DILDs) form a part of a heterogeneous group of respiratory diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) analysis has been used for differential diagnosis of DILDs, but their clinical usefulness is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of BAL cellular analysis with lymphocyte subsets for the differential diagnosis of DILDs. METHODS: A total of 69 patients diagnosed with DILDs were enrolled. Basic demographic data, BAL cellular analysis with lymphocyte subsets, histology, and high resolution computed tomogram (HRCT) findings were analyzed and compared as per disease subgroup. RESULTS: Significant differences were found between groups in the proportion of neutrophils (P=0.0178), eosinophils (P=0.0003), T cells (P=0.0305), CD4 cells (P=0.0002), CD8 cells (P<0.0001), and CD4/CD8 ratio (P<0.0001). These findings were characteristic features of eosinophilic pneumonia and sarcoidosis. Other parameters were not significantly different between groups. At the cut-off value of 2.16 for sarcoidosis, CD4/CD8 ratio showed sensitivity of 91.7% (95% CI, 61.5-98.6%) and specificity of 84.2% (95% CI, 72.1-92.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Routine analysis of BAL lymphocyte subset may not provide any additional benefit for differential diagnosis of DILDs, except for conditions where BAL is specifically indicated, such as eosinophilic pneumonia or sarcoidosis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Area Under Curve , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Demography , Eosinophils/cytology , Immunophenotyping , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , Neutrophils/cytology , ROC Curve , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(10): 990-995, out. 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-730545

ABSTRACT

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a procedure that retrieves cells and other elements from the lungs for evaluation, which helps in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to perform this procedure for cellular analysis of BAL fluid alterations during experimental infection with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats. Fourteen cats were individually inoculated with 800 third stage larvae of A. abstrusus and five non-infected cats lined as a control group. The BAL procedure was performed through the use of an endotracheal tube on the nineteen cats with a mean age of 18 months, on 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 270 days after infection. Absolute cell counts in the infected cats revealed that alveolar macrophages and eosinophils were the predominant cells following infection. This study shows that the technique allows us to retrieve cells and first stage larvae what provides information about the inflammatory process caused by aelurostrongylosis.


O lavado broncoalveolar (LBA) é um procedimento que permite a recuperação de células e outros elementos pulmonares para avaliação, auxiliando no diagnóstico de doenças pulmonares. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar este procedimento para avaliação das células presentes no fluido broncoalveolar na infecção experimental por Aelurostrongylus abstrusus em gatos. Quatorze animais foram individualmente inoculados com 800 larvas de terceiro estádio de A. abstrusus, enquanto cinco animais não infectados foram mantidos como grupo controle. O LBA foi realizado com uso de um tubo endotraqueal em todos os 19 animais com média de idade de 18 meses, nos dias nos dias 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 e 270 após infecção. A contagem absoluta de células dos animais infectados revelou que macrófagos alveolares e eosinófilos constituíram os tipos celulares predominantes durante todo o período de infecção. Os resultados deste trabalho demonstram que a técnica permite recuperar células e larvas de primeiro estádio de A. abstrusus, fornecendo informações importantes sobre o processo inflamatório causado na aelurostrongilose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Cats/immunology , Cats/parasitology , Nematode Infections/veterinary , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Nematoda/isolation & purification , Pneumonia
10.
J. bras. pneumol ; 39(1): 39-47, jan.-fev. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-668055

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos agudos da administração endovenosa de extrato da fumaça do cigarro (EFC) em parâmetros funcionais respiratórios, inflamatórios e histológicos em ratos e comparar esse potencial modelo de lesão pulmonar aguda (LPA) com aquele com o uso de ácido oleico (AO). MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 72 ratos Wistar machos divididos em quatro grupos: tratados somente com soro fisiológico (SF; grupo controle); tratados com EFC e SF (grupo EFC); tratados com SF e AO (grupo AO); e tratados com EFC e AO (grupo EFC/AO). RESULTADOS: As médias de complacência foram significantemente menores nos grupos AO e EFC/AO (2,12 ± 1,13 mL/cmH2O e 1,82 ± 0,77 mL/cmH2O, respectivamente) do que no controle (3,67 ± 1,38 mL/cmH2O). A proporção de neutrófilos e a atividade das metaloproteinases 2 e 9 em lavado broncoalveolar foram significantemente maiores nos grupos AO e EFC/AO que no controle. O acometimento pulmonar avaliado por morfometria foi significantemente maior nos grupos AO e EFC/AO (72,9 ± 13,8% e 77,6 ± 18,0%, respectivamente) do que nos grupos controle e EFC (8,7 ± 4,1% e 32,7 ± 13,1%, respectivamente), e esse acometimento foi significantemente maior no grupo EFC que no grupo controle. CONCLUSÕES: A administração endovenosa de EFC, nas doses e tempos deste estudo, associou-se à LPA mínima. O EFC não potencializou a LPA induzida por AO. Estudos adicionais são necessários para esclarecer o papel potencial desse modelo como método de estudo dos mecanismos de agressão pulmonar pelo tabaco.


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acute effects of intravenous administration of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on histological, inflammatory, and respiratory function parameters in rats, as well as to compare this potential acute lung injury (ALI) model with that with the use of oleic acid (OA). METHODS: We studied 72 Wistar rats, divided into four groups: control (those injected intravenously with saline); CSE (those injected intravenously with CSE and saline); OA (those injected intravenously with saline and OA); and CSE/OA (those injected intravenously with CSE and OA). RESULTS: Mean lung compliance was significantly lower in the OA and CSE/OA groups (2.12 ± 1.13 mL/cmH2O and 1.82 ± 0.77 mL/cmH2O, respectively) than in the control group (3.67 ± 1.38 mL/cmH2O). In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the proportion of neutrophils was significantly higher in the OA and CSE/OA groups than in the control group, as was the activity of metalloproteinases 2 and 9. Pulmonary involvement, as assessed by morphometry, was significantly more severe in the OA and CSE/OA groups (72.9 ± 13.8% and 77.6 ± 18.0%, respectively) than in the control and CSE groups (8.7 ± 4.1% and 32.7 ± 13.1%, respectively), and that involvement was significantly more severe in the CSE group than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The intravenous administration of CSE, at the doses and timing employed in this study, was associated with minimal ALI. The use of CSE did not potentiate OA-induced ALI. Additional studies are needed in order to clarify the potential role of this model as a method for studying the mechanisms of smoking-induced lung injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Smoke/adverse effects , Nicotiana/toxicity , Analysis of Variance , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Administration, Intravenous/methods , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Disease Models, Animal , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , /metabolism , Neutrophils/enzymology , Oleic Acid/administration & dosage , Oleic Acid/toxicity , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1435-1442, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-212608

ABSTRACT

Neuropilin 1 (NP1) is a part of essential receptor complexes mediating both semaphorin3A (SEMA3A) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which is one of important mediators involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. Therefore, it is possible that SEMA3A plays a role in the pathogenesis of asthma through attenuation of VEGF-mediated effects. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate expression levels of SEMA3A and NP1 using induced sputum of asthmatics and a murine model of asthma. Firstly, SEMA3A and NP1 expressions in induced sputum of asthmatics and SEMA3A and NP1 expression on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and lung homogenates of asthmatic mice were determined. Then we evaluated the immunolocalization of VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1), VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), and NP1 expressions on asthmatic mice lung tissue and their subcellular distributions using fibroblast and BEAS2B cell lines. Sputum SEMA3A and NP1 expressions were significantly higher in asthmatics than controls. Similarly, SEMA3A and NP1 expressions on BAL cells and lung homogenates were significantly elevated in asthmatic mice compared to control mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and NP1 expressions were also uniformly increased in asthmatic mice. Our observations suggest that SEMA3A and NP1 may play important roles in the pathogenesis of asthma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Asthma/metabolism , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Cell Line , Disease Models, Animal , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Semaphorin-3A/genetics , Sputum/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/metabolism
12.
J. bras. pneumol ; 38(5): 595-604, set.-out. 2012. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-656011

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar se um protocolo curto de sensibilização com ovalbumina subcutânea, sem adjuvante, induziria uma resposta pulmonar eosinofílica em pulmões de camundongos similar àquela encontrada em protocolos previamente estabelecidos. MÉTODOS: Fêmeas adultas de camundongos BALB/c foram randomizadas e divididas em grupos de acordo com o número de sensibilizações com ovalbumina e o número/dosagem de provocação intranasal. O protocolo curto (10 dias) consistiu de uma sensibilização e três provocações com ovalbumina (100 µg). A contagem total e diferencial de células no lavado broncoalveolar, o nível de peroxidase eosinofílica no tecido pulmonar e o exame histopatológico dos pulmões foram realizados 24 h após a última provocação. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos em relação às variáveis estudadas. O protocolo curto, assim como os outros protocolos estudados, induziu uma resposta eosinofílica pulmonar semelhante àquela do grupo controle positivo. CONCLUSÕES: A sensibilização por ovalbumina subcutânea sem o uso de adjuvante resultou em uma significativa resposta pulmonar alérgica em ratos, mesmo no grupo de protocolo curto. Nossos achados sugerem que esse protocolo curto pode ser utilizado como teste pré-clínico de primeira linha para a pesquisa de novos fármacos, reduzindo custos e o tempo de observação.


OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a short-term protocol using subcutaneous sensitization with ovalbumin, without the use of adjuvants, would induce an eosinophilic response in the lungs of mice similar to that observed in previous, well-established protocols. METHODS: Adult female BALB/c mice were randomized and divided into groups according to the number of sensitizations with ovalbumin and the number/dosage of intranasal ovalbumin challenges. The short-term protocol (10 days) consisted of one sensitization with ovalbumin and three ovalbumin challenges (100 µg). Total and differential cell counts in BAL fluid, levels of eosinophil peroxidase in lung tissue, and histopathological examination of the lungs were performed 24 h after the last ovalbumin challenge. RESULTS: No significant differences were found among the groups regarding the variables studied. The short-term protocol, as well as the other protocols studied, induced an eosinophilic response similar to that obtained in the positive control. CONCLUSIONS: Subcutaneous sensitization with ovalbumin and without the use of adjuvants resulted in a significant allergic response in the lungs of mice, even in the short-term protocol group. Our findings suggest that this short-term protocol can be used as a first-line pre-clinical test for the study of new medications, reducing the costs and observation periods.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Asthma/pathology , Bronchial Hyperreactivity/pathology , Eosinophil Peroxidase/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Ovalbumin , Pulmonary Eosinophilia/immunology , Acute Disease , Asthma/enzymology , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Bronchial Hyperreactivity/enzymology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/enzymology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pulmonary Eosinophilia/pathology , Random Allocation
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(3): 267-270, Mar. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-624121

ABSTRACT

O período neonatal dos bezerros é um momento crítico para adaptação do recém-nascido à vida extra uterina e o sistema respiratório, um dos mais exigidos funcionalmente, é frequentemente afetado por enfermidades, redundando no prejuízo direto da sua função e acarretando perdas econômicas importantes na pecuária. O ponto básico para reduzir estas perdas, é representado pela adequada avaliação clínica dos neonatos, todavia o diagnóstico baseado exclusivamente no exame físico é muito difícil de ser estabelecido. O uso de exames complementares como a citologia do trato respiratório torna-se uma ferramenta diagnóstica importante nestes casos, porém faz-se necessário, padronizar seus achados frente às diferentes técnicas empregadas para a sua obtenção. Assim, o presente estudo propôs-se acompanhar as variações dos constituintes celulares da região traqueobrônquica e broncoalveolar obtidos por lavados respiratórios pelos métodos de traqueocentese e por colheita nasotraqueal respectivamente, durante o primeiro mês de vida de bezerros sadios. Observou-se alteração no quadro citológico ao longo do tempo, quando a região traqueobrônquica foi lavada, expresso por diminuição da porcentagem de macrófagos alveolares, com aumento de neutrófilos, possivelmente, por maior irritação local provocada pela técnica, que se repetiu sequencialmente e/ou por maior estimulo de microorganismos inalados depositados nesta região. Na região broncoalveolar, não encontraram-se variações nos constituintes celulares em função do tempo. Os resultados permitiram a conclusão que a população celular da região traqueobrônquica modificou-se ao longo das semanas de vida dos bezerros, possivelmente pela técnica empregada e/ou fisiologia normal da região, sendo representadas por maiores magnitudes de neutrófilos. De modo diverso, na região broncolaveolar, as células evidenciaram um comportamento estável durante o primeiro mês de vida dos bezerros neonatos, apresentando predomínio numérico dos macrófagos alveolares.


The neonatal calf is a critical moment for adaptation of the newborn to extra uterine life. The respiratory tract is functionally very demanded and often affected by disease, resulting in direct loss of their function and causing serious economic losses in livestock. The basic point to reduce these losses is appropriate clinical evaluation of neonates; but the diagnosis based solely in physical examination is very difficult to establish. The use of complementary analysis such cytology of the respiratory tract becomes an important diagnostic tool; however their findings must be standardized in the face of different techniques employed. This research studied the dynamics of the cellularity of the bronchoalveolar and tracheobronchial region obtained through lung lavage harvested by nasotracheal catheterization technique and tracheocenthesis respectively, during the first month of life of healthy calves. The tracheobronchial cytology was influenced by the time, showing decreased number of alveolar macrophages and greater number of neutrophils, possibly increased by local irritation caused by the technique, which was repeated sequentially, and/or through greater stimulation of inhaled microorganisms deposited in this region. In the bronchoalveolar region no variation in the cellular constituents in function of time was found. The results allowed the conclusion the cell population of the tracheobronchial region has changed over the week-old calves, possibly due to the technique used and/or to the normal region physiology, represented by higher magnitudes of neutrophils. Otherwise, the cells of the broncholaveolar region showed a stable behavior during the first month of life of newborn calves, presenting numerical predominance of alveolar macrophages.


Subject(s)
Animals , Infant, Newborn , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Macrophages, Alveolar/cytology , Neutrophils/cytology , Lung/cytology , Trachea/cytology , Microscopy/veterinary , Respiratory System/cytology
14.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 197-204, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187633

ABSTRACT

To determine the impact of IL-23 knockdown by RNA interference on the development and severity of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic inflammation, and the potential mechanisms in mice, the IL-23-specific RNAi-expressing pSRZsi-IL-23p19 plasmid was constructed and inhaled into OVA-sensitized mice before each challenge, as compared with that of control mice treated with alum or budesonide. Inhalation of the pSRZsi-IL-23p19, significantly reduced the levels of OVA-challenge induced IL-23 in the lung tissues by nearly 75%, determined by RT-PCR. In addition, knockdown of IL-23 expression dramatically reduced the numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils in BALF and mitigated inflammation in the lungs of asthmatic mice. Furthermore, knockdown of IL-23 expression significantly decreased the levels of serum IgE, IL-23, IL-17, and IL-4, but not IFNgamma, and its anti-inflammatory effects were similar to or better than that of treatment with budesonide in asthmatic mice. Our data support the notion that IL-23 and associated Th17 responses contribute to the pathogenic process of bronchial asthma. Knockdown of IL-23 by RNAi effectively inhibits asthmatic inflammation, which is associated with mitigating the production of IL-17 and IL-4 in asthmatic mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Asthma/chemically induced , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophils , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-23/genetics , Leukocyte Count , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neutrophils , Ovalbumin/pharmacology , Plasmids/genetics , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Th17 Cells/immunology
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135545

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Exposure to ozone and asthma are both associated with increased oxidative stress. Exposure to ozone therefore, may potentiate the airway response to allergens. We undertook this study to investigate the effect of ozone exposure on airway response to ovalbumin in sensitized guinea pigs and its modulation by dietary supplementation with antioxidant vitamins C and E. Methods: After in vivo measurements of specific airways conductance (SGaw) and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to inhaled histamine, guinea pigs were sensitized to ovalbumin and divided into three groups: (i) sensitized; (ii) sensitized and exposed daily to ozone; and (iii) sensitized, exposed daily to ozone and given dietary supplementation with vitamin C, 2 mg/kg body wt and E, 7 IU/kg body wt. A control group of nonsensitized animals was included. After 4 wk, AHR was measured again and animals were challenged with inhaled ovalbumin. Changes in SGaw were followed for early and late airway bronchoconstrictive responses. The following measurements were obtained: (i) parameters of oxidative stress - plasma malonaldehyde (MDA) as marker of lipid peroxidation and superoxide anion generation by leukocytes and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells; (ii) antioxidant status: red cell superoxide dismutase (SOD); and (iii) glutathione peroxidase (GPx). BAL cytology was studied. Results: Ozone exposure resulted in an increase in AHR and early and late bronchoconstrictive responses after ovalbumin challenge, greater superoxide anion generation in BAL cells, higher plasma MDA levels and decrease in red cell SOD activity. Dietary supplementation with vitamin C and E prevented or ameliorated these responses. Interpretation & conclusions: Exposure to ozone at concentrations of 0.12 ppm for 2 h daily for 4 wk enhances the airway response to allergens in sensitized guinea pigs. Dietary supplementation with antioxidant vitamins E and C, affords variable degree of protection against this enhancement.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/toxicity , Analysis of Variance , Animals , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Case-Control Studies , Guinea Pigs , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Ovalbumin/toxicity , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Ozone/toxicity , Respiratory Hypersensitivity/chemically induced , Respiratory Hypersensitivity/metabolism , Respiratory Hypersensitivity/prevention & control , Statistics, Nonparametric , Superoxides/metabolism , Vitamin E/pharmacology
16.
J. bras. pneumol ; 36(3): 372-385, maio-jun. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-551125

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve como objetivo rever a literatura existente sobre a celularidade do LBA em crianças e adolescentes saudáveis, bem como sobre sua utilização como método propedêutico e de acompanhamento nas afecções pulmonares neste grupo etário. Para tanto, utilizamos o banco de dados médico Medline com a seleção de artigos publicados entre 1989 e 2009 utilizando os seguintes descritores MeSH com operadores boolianos: bronchoalveolar lavage AND cytology OR cell AND child. Em crianças saudáveis, a celularidade é composta por macrófagos alveolares (> 80 por cento), linfócitos (cerca de 10 por cento), neutrófilos (cerca de 2 por cento) e eosinófilos (< 1 por cento). O perfil celular sofre alterações de acordo com a doença estudada. Ocorre uma elevação no número de neutrófilos em sibilantes, especialmente os não atópicos, bem como em indivíduos com quadros infecciosos e inflamatórios pulmonares, incluindo fibrose cística e doenças intersticiais pulmonares. Os eosinófilos se elevam em crianças/adolescentes com asma e podem atingir níveis acentuados na aspergilose broncopulmonar alérgica e nas síndromes hipereosinofílicas. A elevação dos linfócitos pode ocorrer em um grupo heterogêneo de doenças. Conclui-se que a celularidade do líquido de LBA, juntamente com dados clínicos e de imagem, tem se mostrado um instrumento essencial de investigação de diversas afecções pulmonares. O LBA possui uma grande utilidade clínica e é menos invasivo que a biópsia pulmonar transbrônquica e a céu aberto. Estudos sobre a celularidade normal do líquido de LBA utilizando-se protocolos internacionalmente padronizados e em diversas faixas etárias para a verificação de valores de referência são necessários para a interpretação mais acurada de resultados em crianças e adolescentes com pneumopatias.


The objective of this study was to review the literature on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell profiles in healthy children and adolescents, as well as on the use of BAL as a diagnostic and follow-up tool for lung disease patients in this age bracket. To that end, we used the Medline database, compiling studies published between 1989 and 2009 employing the following MeSH descriptors (with Boolean operators) as search terms: bronchoalveolar lavage AND cytology OR cell AND child. In healthy children, the cell profile includes alveolar macrophages (> 80 percent), lymphocytes (approximately 10 percent), neutrophils (approximately 2 percent) and eosinophils (< 1 percent). The profile varies depending on the disease under study. The number of neutrophils is greater in wheezing children, especially in non-atopic children, as well as in those with pulmonary infectious and inflammatory profiles, including cystic fibrosis and interstitial lung disease. Eosinophil counts are elevated in children/adolescents with asthma and can reach high levels in those with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or eosinophilic syndromes. In a heterogenous group of diseases, the number of lymphocytes can increase. Evaluation of the BAL fluid cell profile, when used in conjunction with clinical and imaging findings, has proven to be an essential tool in the investigation of various lung diseases. Less invasive than transbronchial and open lung biopsies, BAL has great clinical value. Further studies adopting standard international protocols should be carried out. Such studies should involve various age groups and settings in order to obtain reference values for BAL fluid cell profiles, which are necessary for a more accurate interpretation of findings in children and adolescents with lung diseases.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Cytodiagnosis/standards , Lung Diseases/classification
18.
J. bras. pneumol ; 35(4): 343-350, abr. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-513866

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analisar o lavado broncoalveolar (LBA) de vítimas de queimaduras que inalaram fumaça a fim de identificar alterações que possam estar associadas à morte ou à sobrevida. MÉTODOS: Dezoito vítimas de queimaduras faciais foram submetidas a LBA até 24 h após o evento, sendo realizadas a análise do conteúdo celular e proteico, incluindo TNF-α, HLA-DR, CD14, CD68 e iNOS. RESULTADOS: Dos 18 pacientes submetidos à broncoscopia, 8 (44,4 por cento) morreram durante o seguimento. A média de idade dos pacientes que morreram foi significativamente maior (44,7 vs. 31,5 anos). A superfície corporal queimada foi em média de 60,1 por cento nos pacientes que morreram e de 26,1 por cento nos sobreviventes (p < 0,0001). Entre os 18 pacientes submetidos à broncoscopia, 11 (61,1 por cento) apresentaram sinais endoscópicos de lesão por inalação de fumaça, e 4 (36,4 por cento) destes faleceram. Dos 7 pacientes sem sinais de lesão por inalação de fumaça, 4 (57,1 por cento) faleceram. A média do número de células epiteliais ciliadas no LBA dos pacientes que morreram foi significativamente maior daquela dos sobreviventes (6,6 por cento vs. 1,4 por cento; p = 0,03). Os demais parâmetros analisados não mostraram diferença entre os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: A superfície corporal queimada mostrou ser um fator preditivo de mortalidade. O aumento do número de células epiteliais ciliadas no LBA, denotando descamação epitelial brônquica, esteve associado à maior mortalidade de pacientes com queimaduras faciais.


OBJECTIVE: To analyze bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens of burn victims who inhaled smoke, in order to identify alterations associated with mortality or survival. METHODS: Eighteen victims of facial burns were submitted to BAL up to 24 h after the event. We investigated cell and protein content, including TNF-α, HLA-DR, CD14, CD68 and iNOS. RESULTS: Of the 18 patients submitted to bronchoscopy, 8 (44.4 percent) died during the follow-up period. The mean age of patients who died was significantly higher (44.7 vs. 31.5 years). On average, the patients who died had burns covering 60.1 percent of the total body surface area, compared with 26.1 percent in the survivors (p < 0.0001). Of the 18 patients submitted to bronchoscopy, 11 (61.1 percent) showed endoscopic signs of smoke inhalation injury, and 4 (36.4 percent) of those 11 died. Of the 7 patients with no signs of smoke inhalation injury, 4 (57.1 percent) died. The mean number of ciliated epithelial cells in the BAL fluid was significantly higher in the patients who died than in the survivors (6.6 percent vs. 1.4 percent; p = 0.03). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of any of the other parameters evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The total body surface area burned was a predictive factor for mortality. Increased numbers of ciliated epithelial cells in the BAL fluid, denoting bronchial epithelial desquamation, were associated with higher mortality in patients with facial burns.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Burns/mortality , Facial Injuries/mortality , Smoke Inhalation Injury/mortality , /analysis , Bronchoscopy , Biomarkers/analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , Burns/pathology , Facial Injuries/pathology , HLA-DR Antigens/analysis , Pilot Projects , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Smoke Inhalation Injury/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 68-77, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83529

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. To understand the role of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in pulmonary fibrosis, we evaluated the sequential dynamic change and different cellular sources of the 2 MMPs along the time course and their differential expression in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and in the lung parenchyma of the bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis models in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The level of MMPs in BAL fluid of 54 bleomycin-treated rats was assessed by zymography from 1 to 28 days after intratracheal bleomycin instillation. The level of MMPs in lung parenchyma was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: MMP-2 and MMP-9 were markedly increased in both the BAL fluid and in the lung parenchyma of the bleomycin-treated rats, especially in the early phase with the peak on the 4th day. The levels of both MMPs in the BAL fluid correlated generally well to those in lung parenchyma, although the level of MMP-9 in BAL fluid was higher than MMP-2. In the lung parenchyma, the 2 MMPs, in early stage, were predominantly expressed in the inflammatory cells. In late stage, type II pneumocytes and alveolar epithelial cells at the periphery of the fibrotic foci retained MMP expression, which was more prominent in the cells showing features of cellular injury and/or repair. CONCLUSION: In bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, MMP-2 and MMP-9 may play important roles, especially in the early phase. In the late stage, the MMP-2 and MMP-9 may play a role in the process of repair.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/toxicity , Bleomycin/toxicity , Bronchioles/enzymology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme Activation , Gelatin , Immunohistochemistry , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Neutrophils/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
20.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 461-476, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153290

ABSTRACT

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) performs a pivotal function as a signaling mediator in receptor-mediated signaling. However, the sources of ROS in this signaling have yet to be determined, but may include lipoxygenases (LOXs) and NADPH oxidase. The stimulation of lymphoid cells with TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and LPS resulted in significant ROS production and NF-kappaB activation. Intriguingly, these responses were markedly abolished via treatment with the LOXs inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA). We further examined in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of NDGA in allergic airway inflammation. Both intraperitoneal and intravenous NDGA administration attenuated ovalbumin (OVA)-induced influx into the lungs of total leukocytes, as well as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and TNF-alpha levels. NDGA also significantly reduced serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and suppressed OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine. The results of our histological studies and flow cytometric analyses showed that NDGA inhibits OVA-induced lung inflammation and the infiltration of CD11b+ macrophages into the lung. Collectively, our findings indicate that LOXs performs an essential function in pro-inflammatory signaling via the regulation of ROS regulation, and also that the inhibition of LOXs activity may have therapeutic potential with regard to the treatment of allergic airway inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Antioxidants/metabolism , Asthma/complications , Bronchial Hyperreactivity/drug therapy , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Cells, Cultured , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Inflammation/etiology , Jurkat Cells , Lipoxygenase/physiology , Lipoxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Masoprocol/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/adverse effects
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