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1.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 109(1): 59-63, ene.-abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281778

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Describir el diagnóstico y el tratamiento interdisciplinario de un caso clínico de histoplasmosis. Caso clínico: Un paciente masculino de 39 años, con antecedentes de consumo de drogas, alcohol, tabaquismo crónico y VIH+ sin adherencia al tratamiento, acudió al Servicio de Odontología por una interconsulta del Servicio de Clínica Médica para la evaluación de lesiones erosivas en paladar duro y blando, reborde alveolar anterior, dorso lingual y lesión tumoral en encía anterosuperior. El diagnóstico definitivo se obtuvo por medio del análisis de muestras de biopsia transbronquial, lavado broncoalveolar y biopsia de lesión en piel. El paciente recibió tratamiento sistémico con antimicóticos (anfotericina B e itraconazol según esquema) y tratamiento local con colutorio de clorhexidina al 0,12% y 100.000 UI de nistatina en suspensión. Al momento del alta, presentaba una considerable mejoría de su estado general y de las lesiones orales, con disminución de sintomatología dolorosa. Se indicó turno para control a los 7 días de forma ambulatoria, al cual el paciente no asistió. El abordaje interdisciplinario y el análisis de los diferentes aspectos socioeconómicos, culturales, ambientales y sistémicos del paciente facilitaron el diagnóstico temprano de la enfermedad (AU)


Aim: To describe the diagnosis and interdisciplinary treatment of a clinical case of histoplasmosis. Clinical case: 39-year-old male patient with a history of drug abuse, alcohol, and chronic smoking, HIV+ without treatment compliance, attends the dental department referred by the medical department for the diagnosis of erosive lesions in the hard and soft palate, anterior alveolar ridge, lingual dorsum and tumor lesion in the anterosuperior gingiva. The definitive diagnosis was obtained by the analysis of transbronchial biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage and skin lesion biopsy. The patient received systemic treatment with antifungals (amphotericin b, itraconazole according to protocol), and local treatment with 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash and 100,000 IU nystatin suspension. At the time of medical discharge, the patient presented a considerable improvement in his general condition and of the oral lesions with a reduced pain. A 7 days recall was prescribed, however the patient failed to attend. The interdisciplinary approach to the patient and the analysis of the different socio-economic, cultural, environmental and systemic aspects of the patient facilitates the early diagnosis of the disease (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Oral Manifestations , HIV , Dental Care for Chronically Ill , Histoplasmosis , Argentina , Biopsy , Amphotericin B , Nystatin , Immunosuppression/adverse effects , Itraconazole , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Dental Service, Hospital , Early Diagnosis , Mouth Mucosa/injuries , Antifungal Agents
2.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(1): 68-74, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289049

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar se as modificações na atenção médica em razão da aplicação dos protocolos para COVID-19 afetaram os desfechos clínicos de pacientes sem a doença durante a pandemia. Métodos: Este foi um estudo observacional de coorte retrospectiva conduzido em uma unidade de terapia intensiva clínica e cirúrgica com 38 leitos, localizada em hospital privado de alta complexidade na cidade de Buenos Aires, Argentina, e envolveu os pacientes com insuficiência respiratória admitidos à unidade de terapia intensiva no período compreendido entre março e abril de 2020 em comparação com o mesmo período no ano de 2019. Compararam-se as intervenções e os desfechos dos pacientes sem COVID-19 tratados durante a pandemia em 2020 e os pacientes admitidos em 2019. As principais variáveis avaliadas foram os cuidados respiratórios na unidade de terapia intensiva, o número de exames de tomografia computadorizada do tórax e lavados broncoalveolares, complicações na unidade de terapia intensiva e condições quando da alta hospitalar. Resultados: Observou-se, em 2020, uma redução significante do uso de cânula nasal de alto fluxo: 14 (42%), em 2019, em comparação com 1 (3%), em 2020. Além disso, em 2020, observou-se aumento significante no número de pacientes sob ventilação mecânica admitidos à unidade de terapia intensiva a partir do pronto-socorro, de 23 (69%) em comparação com 11 (31%) em 2019. Contudo, o número de pacientes com ventilação mecânica 5 dias após a admissão foi semelhante em ambos os anos: 24 (69%), em 2019, e 26 (79%) em 2020. Conclusão: Os protocolos para unidades de terapia intensiva com base em recomendações internacionais para a pandemia de COVID-19 modificaram o manejo de pacientes sem COVID-19. Observamos redução do uso da cânula nasal de alto fluxo e aumento no número de intubações traqueais no pronto-socorro. Entretanto, não se identificaram alterações na percentagem de pacientes intubados na unidade de terapia intensiva, número de dias sob ventilação mecânica ou número de dias na unidade de terapia intensiva.


Abstract Objective: To analyze whether changes in medical care due to the application of COVID-19 protocols affected clinical outcomes in patients without COVID-19 during the pandemic. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational cohort study carried out in a thirty-eight-bed surgical and medical intensive care unit of a high complexity private hospital. Patients with respiratory failure admitted to the intensive care unit during March and April 2020 and the same months in 2019 were selected. We compared interventions and outcomes of patients without COVID-19 during the pandemic with patients admitted in 2019. The main variables analyzed were intensive care unit respiratory management, number of chest tomography scans and bronchoalveolar lavages, intensive care unit complications, and status at hospital discharge. Results: In 2020, a significant reduction in the use of a high-flow nasal cannula was observed: 14 (42%) in 2019 compared to 1 (3%) in 2020. Additionally, in 2020, a significant increase was observed in the number of patients under mechanical ventilation admitted to the intensive care unit from the emergency department, 23 (69%) compared to 11 (31%) in 2019. Nevertheless, the number of patients with mechanical ventilation after 5 days of admission was similar in both years: 24 (69%) in 2019 and 26 (79%) in 2020. Conclusion: Intensive care unit protocols based on international recommendations for the COVID-19 pandemic have produced a change in non-COVID-19 patient management. We observed a reduction in the use of a high-flow nasal cannula and an increased number of tracheal intubations in the emergency department. However, no changes in the percentage of intubated patients in the intensive care unit, the number of mechanical ventilation days or the length of stay in intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Critical Illness/therapy , Disease Management , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Surveys , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880637

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease with non-specific and various clinical manifestations, often leading to misdiagnosis. This study aims to raise the awareness of this disease via summarizing the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and therapy of PAP.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 25 hospitalized cases of PAP during 2008 and 2019 in the Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine of the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University.@*RESULTS@#Cough with unkown reason and dyspnea were common clinical manifastations of PAP. Five patients had a history of occupational inhalational exposure. Sixteen patients had typical image features including ground-glass opacification of alveolar spaces and thickening of the interlobular and intralobular septa, in typical shapes called crazy-paving and geographic pattern. Fourteen patients underwent pulmonary function tests, revealing a reduction in the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. The positive rate of transbronchial biopsy was 95%. Five patients received the whole lung lavage and the symptoms and imaging fcauters significantly relieved after five-years follow-up.@*CONCLUSIONS@#PAP is characterized by radiographic pattern and pathology. Transbronchial lung biopsy is effective to make diagnosis of PAP. The whole lung lavage remains a efficient therapy.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Cough , Dyspnea , Humans , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/therapy , Retrospective Studies
4.
Med. lab ; 25(4): 675-693, 2021. ilus, tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369969

ABSTRACT

El lavado broncoalveolar (LBA) se describió hace aproximadamente 50 años, y desde ese momento se ha venido empleando cada vez con más frecuencia, llegando a ser uno de los métodos de elección para hacer el diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones respiratorias bajas, pues facilita la identificación de patógenos oportunistas y no oportunistas. Su uso se incrementó paralelamente con el número de pacientes inmunocomprometidos, sobre todo a causa del SIDA y los trasplantes, situaciones en las que con frecuencia los pacientes padecen infecciones pulmonares por gérmenes oportunistas. El LBA es un procedimiento seguro que permite obtener muestras que aportan información amplia de las características celulares y microbiológicas del tracto respiratorio inferior. Para garantizar su utilidad es fundamental que la recolección, transporte, almacenamiento y procesamiento de las muestras sean óptimos. El análisis de las muestras se hace por técnicas convencionales para identificación de microorganismos, como son las tinciones y el aislamiento en medios de cultivo, y por otros métodos tales como la inmunofluorescencia, pruebas inmunológicas para la detección de antígenos y anticuerpos, y pruebas de biología molecular. En la presente revisión, se hace una actualización sobre el procedimiento de obtención, almacenamiento y transporte de las muestras de LBA, así como de las técnicas de diagnóstico microbiológico más utilizadas para identificar los principales agentes infecciosos asociados con enfermedades del tracto respiratorio inferior


Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was described approximately 50 years ago and since then it has been used with increasing frequency, becoming one of the methods of choice for making the microbiological diagnosis of lower respiratory infections, as it facilitates the identification of opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens. Its use increased in parallel with the number of immunocompromised patients, especially due to AIDS and transplantation, situations in which patients frequently suffer from lung infections due to opportunistic germs. BAL is a safe procedure that allows obtaining samples that provide comprehensive information on the cellular and microbiological characteristics of the lower respiratory tract. Optimal collection, transport, storage and processing of samples is essential to guarantee its usefulness. Analysis of the samples is done both by conventional techniques for the identification of microorganisms, such as staining and isolation in culture media, as well as by other methods such as immunofluorescence, immunological tests for the detection of antigens and antibodies, and molecular biology assays. In this review, an update in presented on the procedure for obtaining, storing and transporting BAL samples, as well as on the most widely used microbiological diagnostic techniques to identify the main infectious agents associated with lower respiratory tract diseases


Subject(s)
Humans , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Respiratory Tract Infections , Staining and Labeling , Bacterial Infections and Mycoses , Diagnosis , Mycobacterium
5.
Med. lab ; 25(4): 671-673, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369965

ABSTRACT

Las patologías respiratorias son una de las principales causas de enfermedad y muerte. En las estimaciones hechas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) entre los años 2000 y 2019, la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y las infecciones de las vías respiratorias inferiores fueron la tercera y cuarta causa de muerte, respectivamente, y la primera cuando el análisis se hacía únicamente con las enfermedades transmisibles, tanto antes de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), como durante esta. Para modificar su impacto en la salud de la población, es importante, además de mantener y mejorar las actividades encaminadas a su prevención, establecer diagnósticos y tratamientos oportunos, certeros y eficaces


Subject(s)
Humans , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Asthma-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overlap Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(12): 1073-1076, Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1155038

ABSTRACT

Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed to obtain information on leakage of acute-phase proteins from the blood into the respiratory lumen and about local synthesis. Ceruloplasmin, transferrin, albumin, α1-antitripsin, immunoglobulin G heavy, immunoglobulin G light, immunoglobulin A, haptoglobin, acidic glycoprotein, and P23 were measured in BALF from 30 horses without inflammatory disease by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In serum, the same proteins were identified except for α1-antitrypsin. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) can be used for the determination of acute-phase proteins in BALF samples from horses. In healthy horses, the values are very low, but they can be compared with reference values to assist in the diagnosis of animals with respiratory diseases.(AU)


O líquido obtido através da lavagem broncoalveolar (LBA) foi analisado para obter informações sobre as proteínas da fase aguda. Ceruloplasmina, transferrina, albumina, α1-antitripsina, imunoglobulina G pesada, imunoglobulina G leve, imunoglobulina A, haptoglobina, glicoproteína ácida e P23 foram medidas nos LBA de 30 cavalos sem doença inflamatória por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida com dodecilsulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE). No soro, as mesmas proteínas foram identificadas, exceto a α1-antitripsina. Em conclusão, este estudo demonstra que a eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE) pode ser usada para a determinação de proteínas de fase aguda em amostras de LBA em cavalos. Em cavalos saudáveis, os valores são muito baixos, no entanto, podem ser comparados e auxiliar no diagnóstico de animais com doenças respiratórias.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers/analysis , Acute-Phase Reaction/diagnosis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/veterinary , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Horses , Ceruloplasmin , Haptoglobins , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Glycoproteins
7.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(4): e401, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1144319

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has increased exponentially in recent years and has shown to be effective in treating adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to HiNi-related pneumonia. However, evidence remains controversial. This study describes a case series of ECMO in ARDS secondary to viral pneumonia. Methods A search was conducted in the ECMO database of Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia for the 20132017 period. A case series report was written of patients diagnosed with ARDS secondary to confirmed or suspected viral pneumonia. Results Nineteen patients with ECMO support and ARDS due to viral pneumonia were included in the study. The survival rate upon discharge was 11 patients (58%) and weaning from ECMO support was successful in 13 patients (68%). Hemorrhagic complications were the most frequent: gastrointestinal bleeding, 10 patients (53%); intracranial bleeding, 2 (10%); alveolar hemorrhage, 2 (10%);' hemothorax requiring thoracostomy with chest tube drainage, 2 (10%); cannulation site bleeding, 9 patients (47%); and surgical site bleeding in 3 patients (25%) who required tracheostomy. Other complications were: pneumothorax, 1 patient (5%); sepsis, 6 patients (32%); and growth of microorganisms in bronchial lavage, 6 patients (32%). Conclusions This study supports the use of veno-venous ECMO to achieve a higher survival rate than expected in patients with severe ARDS and refractory hypoxemia secondary to viral pneumonia. Early initiation of the therapy should improve overall results.


Resumen Introducción El uso de la oxigenación por membrana extracorpórea (ECMO) ha tenido un incremento exponencial en los últimos años y ha demostrado ser efectivo en el manejo del síndrome de dificultad respiratoria del adulto (SDRA) secundario a neumonía por H1N1, si bien la evidencia sigue siendo controvertida. En este estudio describimos una serie de casos de ECMO por SDRA secundario a neumonía viral. Métodos Se realizó una búsqueda en la base de datos de ECMO de la Fundación Cardiovascular desde el año 20132017. Reportamos una serie de casos donde se incluyeron pacientes diagnosticados con SDRA secundario a neumonía viral sospechosa o confirmada. Resultados Se incluyeron en el estudio 19 pacientes con soporte de ECMO y SDRA por neumonía viral. La sobrevida al alta fue 11 pacientes (58%) y el destete del ECMO fue exitoso en 13 pacientes (68%). Las complicaciones hemorrágicas presentadas fueron: sangrado digestivo, 10 pacientes (53%), sangrado cerebral, 2 (10%), hemorragia alveolar, 2 (10%), hemotórax con requerimiento de toracostomía a drenaje cerrado, 2 (10%), sangrado activo por sitio de canulación, 9 pacientes (53%), y 3 pacientes traqueostomizados (25%) que sangraron por el sitio quirúrgico. Otras complicaciones presentadas fueron: neumotórax, 1 paciente (5%), septicemia, 6 (32%) y crecimiento de microorganismos en lavados bronquiales 6 (32%). Conclusion El presente estudio permite indicar que el uso de la ECMO VV viabiliza una sobrevida mayor a la esperada en pacientes con SDRA severo e hipoxemia refractaria secundario a neumonía viral. Su inicio tempranamente debe mejorar los resultados globales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral , Poisons , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Chest Tubes , Hemothorax , Pneumothorax , Thoracostomy , Tracheostomy , Catheterization , Survival Rate , Sepsis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
8.
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(3): 82-82, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149051

ABSTRACT

La hemorragia pulmonar por inhalación de cocaína o alguno de sus derivados (crack-cocaina) resulta en un síndrome raro conocido como "pulmón de crack", cuya presentación es aguda y potencialmente fatal. Del 25 al 60% de las personas que consumen cocaína reportan síntomas respiratorios después de la inhalación, pero menos del 5% consultan por esta causa. Los síntomas aparecen dentro de las primeras 5 horas luego del consumo y la presentación clínica puede ser variable con posibilidad de progresión. En los estudios radiograficos se pueden apreciar frecuentemente areas de afectación intersticial difusa de localización subpleural o peribronquial. El analisis del lavado broncoalveolar juega un papel importante en el diagnostico y exclusion de condiciones diferenciales. La presencia de hemosiderofagos en recuento significativo determina la hemorragia aveolar por inhalacion de cocaina. El diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno es crucial en esta entidad. Se revisó un caso de hemorragia pulmonar por inhalación de crack ­ cocaina que resolvio satisfactoriamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Hemorrhage , Syndrome , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Lung , Persons
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): e324-e328, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1117352

ABSTRACT

La proteinosis alveolar pulmonar es una enfermedad pulmonar difusa caracterizada por la acumulación anormal de surfactante y lipoproteínas en el espacio alveolar, lo cual empeora el intercambio gaseoso y lleva a un curso variable desde una presentación clínica asintomática hasta una falla respiratoria grave.Se presenta a una adolescente de 16 años con este diagnóstico que fue remitida a nuestro Hospital para la realización de un lavado pulmonar total luego de una historia de disnea progresiva, dificultad respiratoria, caída de la función pulmonar y anormalidades radiológicas. Se le realizaron estudios de función pulmonar y mediciones de laboratorio antes y después del lavado pulmonar terapéutico.Luego, la paciente presentó una inmediata mejoría tanto de los síntomas, radiografía de tórax y mediciones de estudios de función pulmonar como en el intercambio gaseoso. El lavado pulmonar total continúa siendo el estándar de oro para el tratamiento de la proteinosis alveolar pulmonar en casos graves


Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is an unusual diffuse lung disease characterized by abnormal accumulation of pulmonary surfactant and lipoproteins in the alveolar space, which impairs gas exchange with a variable clinical course, ranging from an asymptomatic clinical presentation to severely affected respiratory failure.A 16-year-old girl with diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis presented to our hospital for therapeutic lung lavage after a recent history of progressive dyspnea, respiratory distress, declining lung function measurements, and worsening radiographic abnormalities. We obtained baseline pulmonary function tests and laboratory measurements before and after therapeutic bilateral lung lavage. After the lavage, the patient demonstrated an immediate improvement in symptoms, chest radiograph appearance, pulmonary function test measurements, as well as in gas exchange. Whole lung lavage is still the gold standard for treatment of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in severe cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/diagnosis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Respiratory Insufficiency , Lung Diseases
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828633

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the influencing factors for the clinical effect of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) and atelectasis.@*METHODS@#A total of 75 children with MPP and atelectasis were divided into a good response group with 51 children and a poor response group with 24 children according to the clinical effect of BAL treatment. LASSO logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the factors influencing the clinical effect of BAL treatment. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and restricted cubic spline model analysis were used to evaluate the value of the course of the disease at the time of BAL treatment in predicting the clinical effect of BAL treatment.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the good response group, the poor response group had a significantly lower percentage of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, a significantly higher proportion of children with atelectasis of two or more lung lobes or stenosis of the bronchial cavity or opening caused by inflammation, and a significantly longer course of the disease at the time of BAL treatment and azithromycin treatment (P<0.05). The LASSO logistic regression analysis showed that a prolonged course of the disease at the time of BAL treatment (OR=1.23), atelectasis of two or more lung lobes (OR=11.99), and stenosis of the bronchial cavity or opening caused by inflammation (OR=5.31) were independent risk factors for poor clinical effect of BAL treatment (P<0.05). The ROC curve analysis showed that the course of disease of ≥11.5 days at the time of BAL treatment suggested a poor clinical effect of BAL treatment, with a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 54.9%. The restricted cubic spline model analysis showed that there was a non-linear dose-response relationship between the course of disease at the time of BAL treatment and the clinical effect of BAL treatment (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Early BAL treatment may have a good clinical effect in children with MPP and atelectasis. Atelectasis of two or more lung lobes and inflammation-induced stenosis of the bronchial cavity or opening shown under bronchoscope may indicate a poor clinical effect of BAL treatment.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Child , Humans , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Pulmonary Atelectasis
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1781-1790, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055113

ABSTRACT

As afecções do sistema respiratório são a segunda causa de queda de desempenho e afastamento dos equinos do esporte ou trabalho, as quais estão atrás somente das desordens musculoesqueléticas. A estabulação e a alimentação à base de fenos predispõem os equinos à inalação de grande número de agentes irritantes às vias aéreas. No intuito de avaliar a influência dos tipos de cama utilizados em baias, estudaram-se três grupos de cinco equinos cada, durante 45 dias. Dois grupos foram mantidos em cocheiras com forrações diferentes à base de madeira (maravalha de pínus autoclavada-MA e serragem-SE) e o terceiro grupo permaneceu no pasto. Foram realizadas avaliações quinzenais, que incluíram exame físico, hemograma, hemogasometria e lavado broncoalveolar. Ao exame físico, notou-se a presença de tosse e espirros em animais do grupo SE. No lavado broncoalveolar, a contagem de células nucleadas totais apresentou maiores valores nos animais a pasto, seguido do grupo SE e, por último, o MA. Concluiu-se que as duas camas testadas neste estudo não apresentaram diferença com relação à capacidade irritativa das vias aéreas superiores no período analisado.(AU)


Respiratory system affections in horses are the second cause of decrease in performance and removal from the sport or farm work, which are behind only the musculoskeletal disorders. Stabling and hay feeding predisposes horses' airways to inhalation of large numbers of irritating agents. To evaluate the influence of bed types used in bays, 3 groups of 5 horses each were studied for 45 days. Two groups were kept in stables with different wood beds - based rafters (autoclaved pine - MA and sawdust - SE) and the third group remained in the pasture. Biweekly evaluations with physical examination, hemogram, hemogasometry and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed. On physical examination, the presence of cough and sneezing was observed in animals of the SE group. In the bronchoalveolar lavage, the total nucleated cell count presented higher values in the animals in the pasture, followed by the SE group and finally the MA. It was concluded that the different beds used presented no difference with respect to the irritative capacity of the upper airways.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Respiratory System/pathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/veterinary , Horses/physiology , Hypersensitivity/veterinary , Housing, Animal
12.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(6): 657-661, dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058197

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La Neumonía Eosinofílica (NE) es una entidad muy poco frecuente en pediatría y se caracteriza por infiltración de eosinófilos en el intersticio pulmonar y alveolar, pudiendo ser primaria o secundaria, así como también presentar un curso agudo o crónico. OBJETIVO: Presentar dos casos clínicos de NE diagnosticados en el período 2014-2017 en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos pediátricos. CASOS CLÍNICOS: Dos lactantes mayores, ambos con antecedente de madre asmática, hospitalizados por in suficiencia respiratoria y diagnóstico de neumonía viral en Clínica Indisa, Santiago, Chile. Ambos presentaron síndrome febril, imágenes de condensación persistentes en la radiografía de tórax y eosinofilia periférica en el transcurso de su enfermedad. Uno de ellos con requerimiento de oxígeno por más de un mes, sin eosinofilia en el lavado broncoalveolar (LBA), al que se le hizo el diagnóstico de NE por biopsia pulmonar. El otro niño requirió ventilación mecánica por 28 días y se hizo diag nóstico de NE por eosinofilia mayor a 20% en LBA. Los dos casos presentaron excelente respuesta a corticoides sistémicos. CONCLUSIÓN: La NE se debe sospechar en el niño con diagnóstico de neumonía con síntomas persistentes sin respuesta al tratamiento, habiéndose descartado otras causas, sobre todo si se asocia a eosinofilia periférica. El diagnostico de NE en pediatría se confirma por eosinofilia mayor a 20% en LBA y en algunos casos es necesaria la biopsia pulmonar.


INTRODUCTION: Eosinophilic Pneumonia (EP) is a very rare disorder in Pediatrics. It is characterized by the infiltra tion of eosinophils in the pulmonary and alveolar interstitium, and may be primary or secondary as well as present an acute or chronic progress. OBJECTIVE: to present 2 pediatric EP clinical cases which were diagnosed at the pediatric intensive care unit of Clinica Indisa in Santiago, Chile between 2014 and 2017. CLINICAL CASES: Two older infants, who were hospitalized due to respiratory failure with a diagnosis of viral pneumonia. Both have asthmatic mothers. Additionally, they both had febrile syn drome, persistent condensation images in the chest x-rays, and peripheral eosinophilia throughout the course of the disease. One of the infants required oxygen for more than one month, and there was no eosinophilia in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). In this case, the diagnosis of EP was reached via pulmonary biopsy. The other infant required mechanic ventilation for 28 days, and was diagnosed due to eosinophilia greater than 25% in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Both patients had excellent res ponse to systemic corticosteroids. CONCLUSION: After ruling out other causes, EP should be suspected in children with pneumonia diagnosis, and persistent symptoms that do not respond positively to treatment, especially if associated with peripheral eosinophilia. The diagnosis of EP in pediatrics is confirmed with eosinophilia greater than 20% in BAL and, in some cases, it is necessary to perform a lung biopsy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Pulmonary Eosinophilia/diagnosis , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pulmonary Eosinophilia/pathology , Pulmonary Eosinophilia/diagnostic imaging , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Biopsy , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Lung/pathology
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(9): 723-727, Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040748

ABSTRACT

The term "equine asthma syndrome" (EAS) was recently proposed due to the resemblance of the equine disease to human asthma. Leukotrienes cause constriction of the bronchi, especially in the lower airways and increase mucus secretion in the respiratory system. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) has been discovered as a strong chemotactic factor, which plays a role in neutrophil migration. The immunologic background of EAS remains not fully elucidated despite many studies on the pathogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the LTB4 concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of horses with and without pulmonary inflammatory disease. Thirty-five mixed breed horses were studied and LTB4 was determined by using specific ELISA Kit. The horses were grouped by 2 different criteria for statistical analysis of data: 1) according to the values for BALF citology and 2) according to the detection of LTB4 in BALF. There was significant difference of effect of age on the LTB4 detection in equine BALF. Younger animals were the majority where it was possible to detect LTB4 values in LBA. In conclusion, there was an effect of age on the detection of LTB4 in equine BALF, where LTB4 levels were more easily detected in younger animals than older animals and the results of this study raise the possibility of considering future studies with the objective of establishing the real role and the best moment to detect LTB4 in BALF of the equine asthma syndrome.(AU)


Recentemente, o termo "síndrome da asma equina" (SAE) foi proposto devido à semelhança da doença equina à asma humana. Os leucotrienos causam constrição dos brônquios, especialmente nas vias aéreas posteriores e aumentam a secreção de muco no sistema respiratório. O leucotrieno B4 (LTB4) foi descoberto como um forte fator quimiotático, que desempenha um papel na migração de neutrófilos. O fundo imunológico do SAE permanece não completamente elucidado apesar de muitos estudos sobre a patogênese. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a concentração de LTB4 no lavado broncoalveolar (LBA) de equinos com e sem doença inflamatória pulmonar. Trinta e cinco cavalos de raças mistas foram estudados e o LTB4 foi determinado usando o kit ELISA específico. Os animais foram agrupados por dois critérios diferentes para análise estatística dos dados: 1) de acordo com os valores para citologia do LBA e 2) de acordo com a detecção do LTB4 no LBA. Houve diferença significativa do efeito da idade na detecção do LTB4 no LBA equino. Os animais mais jovens foram a maioria onde foi possível detectar os valores de LTB4 no LBA. Em conclusão, houve um efeito da idade na detecção de LTB4 em LBA equino, onde os níveis de LTB4 foram mais facilmente detectados em animais jovens do que em animais mais velhos e foi possível detectar a concentração de LTB4 no LBA equino e os resultados deste estudo levantam a possibilidade de considerar futuros estudos com o objetivo de estabelecer o real papel e o melhor momento para detectar LTB4 no LBA da síndrome asmática equina.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma/veterinary , Chemotactic Factors/analysis , Leukotriene B4/analysis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/veterinary , Horses
14.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 242-252, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013413

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Patients undergoing lung resection surgery are at risk of developing postoperative acute kidney injury. Determination of cytokine levels allows the detection of an early inflammatory response. We investigated any temporal relationship among perioperative inflammatory status and development of acute kidney injury after lung resection surgery. Furthermore, we evaluated the impact of acute kidney injury on outcome and analyzed the feasibility of cytokines to predict acute kidney injury. Methods: We prospectively analyzed 174 patients scheduled for elective lung resection surgery with intra-operative periods of one-lung ventilation periods. Fiberoptic broncho-alveolar lavage was performed in each lung before and after one-lung ventilation periods for cytokine analysis. As well, cytokine levels were measured from arterial blood samples at five time points. acute kidney injury was diagnosed within 48 h of surgery based on acute kidney injury criteria. We analyzed the association between acute kidney injury and cardiopulmonary complications, length of intensive care unit and hospital stays, intensive care unit re-admission, and short-term and long-term mortality. Results: The incidence of acute kidney injury in our study was 6.9% (12/174). Acute kidney injury patients showed higher plasma cytokine levels after surgery but differences in alveolar cytokines were not detected. Although no patient required renal replacement therapy, acute kidney injury patients had higher incidence of cardiopulmonary complications and increased overall mortality. Plasma interleukin-6 at 6 h was the most predictive cytokine of acute kidney injury (cut-off point at 4.89 pg.mL-1). Conclusions: Increased postoperative plasma cytokine levels are associated with acute kidney injury after lung resection surgery in our study, which worsens the prognosis. Plasma interleukin-6 may be used as an early indicator for patients at risk of developing acute kidney injury after lung resection surgery.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Os pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de ressecção pulmonar apresentam risco de desenvolver lesão renal aguda pós-operatória. A determinação dos níveis de citocinas permite detectar uma resposta inflamatória precoce. Investigamos a relação temporal entre o estado inflamatório perioperatório e o desenvolvimento de lesão renal aguda após cirurgia de ressecção pulmonar. Além disso, avaliamos o impacto da lesão renal aguda no desfecho e analisamos a viabilidade das citocinas para prever este tipo de lesão. Métodos: No total, foram analisados prospectivamente 174 pacientes agendados para cirurgia eletiva de ressecção pulmonar com períodos intraoperatórios de ventilação monopulmonar. Lavado bronco-alveolar com fibra óptica foi realizado em cada pulmão antes e após os períodos de ventilação monopulmonar para análise das citocinas. Os níveis de citocina foram medidos a partir de amostras de sangue arterial em cinco momentos. A lesão renal aguda foi diagnosticada dentro de 48 horas após a cirurgia, com base nos critérios para sua verificação. Analisamos a associação entre lesão renal aguda e complicações cardiopulmonares, tempo de internação em unidade de terapia intensiva e de internação hospitalar, reinternação em unidade de terapia intensiva e mortalidade a curto e longo prazos. Resultados: A incidência de lesão renal aguda no estudo foi de 6,9% (12/174). Os pacientes com lesão renal aguda apresentaram níveis mais altos de citocinas plasmáticas após a cirurgia, mas não foram detectadas diferenças nas citocinas alveolares. Embora nenhum paciente tenha precisado de terapia renal substitutiva, os com lesão renal aguda apresentaram maior incidência de complicações cardiopulmonares e aumento da mortalidade geral. A interleucina-6 plasmática em seis horas foi a citocina mais preditiva de lesão renal aguda (ponto de corte em 4,89 pg.mL-1). Conclusões: O aumento dos níveis plasmáticos de citocinas no pós-operatório está associado à lesão renal aguda após cirurgia de ressecção pulmonar no estudo, o que piora o prognóstico. A interleucina-6 plasmática pode ser usada como um indicador precoce para pacientes com risco de desenvolver lesão renal aguda após cirurgia de ressecção pulmonar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Pulmonary Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cytokines/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Pulmonary Surgical Procedures/methods , Incidence , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , One-Lung Ventilation , Middle Aged
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopy is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool. However, the clinical use of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in adults with acute respiratory failure for diagnostic and invasive procedures has not been well evaluated. We present our experiences of well-tolerated diagnostic bronchoscopy as well as cases of improved saturation in hypoxaemic patients after a therapeutic bronchoscopic procedure. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data of hypoxaemic patients who had undergone bronchoscopy for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes from October 2015 to February 2017. RESULTS: Ten patients (44–75 years of age) were enrolled. The clinical purposes of bronchoscopy were for diagnosis in seven patients and for intervention in three patients. For the diagnoses, we performed bronchoalveolar lavage in six patients. One patient underwent endobronchial ultrasonography with transbronchial needle aspiration of a lymph node to investigate tumour involvement. Patients who underwent bronchoscopy for therapeutic interventions had endobronchial mass or blood clot removal with cryotherapy for bleeding control. The mean saturation (SpO2) of pre-bronchoscopy in room air was 84.1%. The lowest and highest mean saturation with HFNC during the procedure was 95% and 99.4, respectively. The mean saturation in room air post-bronchoscopy was 87.4%, which was 3.3% higher than the mean room air SpO2 pre-bronchoscopy. Seven patients with diagnostic bronchoscopy had no hypoxic event. Three patients with interventional bronchoscopy showed improvement in saturation after the procedure. Bronchoscopy was well tolerated in all 10 cases. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the use of HFNC in hypoxaemic patients during diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy procedures has clinical effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Adult , Hypoxia , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Bronchoscopy , Catheters , Cryotherapy , Diagnosis , Hemorrhage , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Needles , Oxygen , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763012

ABSTRACT

Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) levels are often found to be elevated in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage, and lung tissue of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients and experimental mouse models. Although the roles of sphingosine kinase 1 and S1P receptors have been implicated in fibrosis, the underlying mechanism of fibrosis via Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1P₂) has not been fully investigated. Therefore, in this study, the roles of S1P₂ in lung inflammation and fibrosis was investigated by means of a bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis model and lung epithelial cells. Bleomycin was found to induce lung inflammation on day 7 and fibrosis on day 28 of treatment. On the 7(th) day after bleomycin administration, S1P₂ deficient mice exhibited significantly less pulmonary inflammation, including cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokine induction, than the wild type mice. On the 28(th) day after bleomycin treatment, severe inflammation and fibrosis were observed in lung tissues from wild type mice, while lung tissues from S1P₂ deficient mice showed less inflammation and fibrosis. Increase in TGF-β1-induced extracellular matrix accumulation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition were inhibited by JTE-013, a S1P₂ antagonist, in A549 lung epithelial cells. Taken together, pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic functions of S1P₂ were elucidated using a bleomycin-induced fibrosis model. Notably, S1P₂ was found to mediate epithelial-mesenchymal transition in fibrotic responses. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that S1P₂ could be a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bleomycin , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Epithelial Cells , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Extracellular Matrix , Fibrosis , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Inflammation , Lung , Mice , Phosphotransferases , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Receptors, Lysosphingolipid , Sphingosine
18.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 173-181, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741136

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease characterized by worsening lung function and dyspnea. The prognosis of IPF patients is poor, as median survival is approximately 3 years. However, recently developed IPF-specific therapies have shown improved efficacies in terms of reducing lung function decline and mortality. Therefore, the early recognition and accurate diagnosis of IPF are crucial. In 2018, new guidelines for the diagnosis of IPF were published by the Fleischner Society and by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society/Japanese Respiratory Society/Latin American Thoracic Society (ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT). Both guidelines emphasize the need for a thorough history taking and physical examination to exclude an alternative diagnosis, such as exposure-related or connective tissue disease. The most informative initial examination is high-resolution computed tomography, the results of which can indicate the need for bronchoalveolar lavage or surgical lung biopsy, based on a multidisciplinary discussion of the findings and the patient's clinical condition. A multidisciplinary discussion of the clinico-radiologic-pathologic findings is currently the gold standard in the diagnoisis of IPF and will allow the more effective and timely treatment of these patients.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Connective Tissue Diseases , Diagnosis , Dyspnea , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Lung , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Mortality , Physical Examination , Prognosis
19.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 35(3): 199-206, 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058075

ABSTRACT

El patrón llamado 'crazy paving' en tomografia computada de tórax (TAC) puede deberse a diferentes condiciones siendo una de ellas la Proteinosis Alveolar Pulmonar (PAP), rara condición que puede llevar a insuficiencia respiratoria y a menudo, a la muerte. Presentamos el caso de una mujer joven con una historia de un año de evolución de disnea progresiva y tos seca que consultó por un cuadro de aparición brusca de fiebre, calofríos, malestar general y falla respiratoria hipoxémica severa (PaO2 = 51,9 mmHg con FiO2 = 0,50) en la cual la TAC de tórax mostraba un patrón de empedrado o 'crazy paving' que significó un desafío diagnóstico resuelto finalmente con una biopsia pulmonar quirúrgica que mostró una PAP. Ante el fracaso del tratamiento tradicional de Lavado Pulmonar Total (LPT) se usó una aproximación terapéutica novedosa consistente en una serie de 4 lavados lobares con un perfluorocarbono, Perflubron (PFC) bajo anestesia local seguido por 5 sesiones de Plasmaféresis. Casi inmediatamente después de este tratamiento la paciente evidenció mejoría radiológica y funcional. La PaO2 fue de 89,9 mmHg respirando aire ambiental y la CVF y el VEF1 aumentaron alcanzado respectivamente el 77 y el 75% de sus valores normales de referencia. Dadas las características químicas y físicas del PFC, pensamos que es una alternativa válida al LPT en estos casos.


Crazy paving computed tomography pattern may be due to a number of causes, one of them being Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis, a rare condition leading to respiratory failure and often to death. We present the case of a young woman with a one-year history of progressive dyspnea and dry cough, who consulted for an acute onset of fever, chills, malaise and severe hypoxemic respiratory failure (PaO2 = 51.9 mmHg; FiO2 = 0.50) with a 'crazy paving' pattern on chest CT. This diagnostic challenge was resolved by a surgical lung biopsy that showed a pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Taking into account that the traditional treatment using whole lung lavage had already failed in this patient, a novel therapeutic approach was settled. A series of 4 lobar lavages with a perfluorocarbon (Perflubron) under local anesthesia followed by 5 plasmapheresis sessions were carried out. The patient showed radiographic and functional improvement almost immediately after this treatment. PaO2 was 89.9 mmHg breathing room air and FVC and FEV1 increased to reach 77 and 75% respectively of their normal reference values. Because of its chemical and physical properties we think this novel therapeutic approach should be a valuable alternative to saline solution for whole lung lavage in these cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/therapy , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/surgery , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Plasmapheresis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/methods , Fluorocarbons
20.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 35(3): 207-218, 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058076

ABSTRACT

La Proteinosis Alveolar Pulmonar (PAP) es una enfermedad poco frecuente, caracterizada por la acumulación de material lipoproteico derivado del surfactante pulmonar al interior de los alvéolos por una falla de depuración de este material por los macrófagos alveolares, siendo la causa más frecuente de esta disfunción la acción bloqueadora producida por anticuerpos anti factor estimulante de colonias de granulocitos y macrófagos (GM-CSF) lo que lleva a un deterioro del intercambio gaseoso. La evolución es variable abarcando desde la resolución espontánea hasta la insuficiencia respiratoria grave y la muerte. Se describen tres formas de PAP: Genética, secundaria y autoinmune (antes primaria o idiopática) siendo esta última la más frecuente en adultos. Clínicamente, se manifiesta por disnea, tos seca e hipoxemia que pueden ser progresivas. En la radiografía de tórax se encuentran opacidades bilaterales y la tomografía computarizada de tórax de alta resolución (TACAR) muestra vidrio esmerilado con sobre posición de engrosamiento septal intra e interlobulillar, patrón conocido como "crazy paving". El diagnóstico se basa en la clínica y en el lavado broncoalveolar con material PAS positivo. La biopsia quirúrgica es confirmatoria. El tratamiento clásico es el lavado pulmonar total (LPT) para remover el contenido alveolar. Otras alternativas son la administración de GM-CSF subcutáneo o inhalado, plasmaferesis y rituximab, cuyos resultados son variables. Diferentes autores han modificado la forma del LPT y combinado los diferentes métodos de tratamiento con el fin de obtener resultados más rápidos y efectivos.


Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease characterized by the accumulation of surfactant derived lipoproteinaceous material filling the alveoli, secondary to failure of its clearance by macrophages. Most of the patients are adults that have auto antibodies directed to Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF). The evolution is towards disturbed gaseous exchange with a wide spectrum of disease from spontaneous recovery to death. There are three forms of PAP: genetic, secondary and autoimmune. Symptoms are scarce and patients may present with dyspnea, dry cough and hypoxemia. Chest X ray shows bilateral opacities and thorax CT depicts ground glass opacities surrounded by septal widening, the so called "crazy paving" pattern. Diagnosis is made on clinical and radiological grounds and confirmed by PAS positive staining of bronchoalveolar lavage material or surgical lung biopsy. Accepted treatment is whole lung lavage (WLL) with saline. Alternatives are subcutaneous or inhaled GM-CSF, Plasmapheresis or Rituximab, and even modification of the method of WLL and combination of different manner of treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/therapy , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/etiology , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Plasmapheresis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Rituximab/therapeutic use
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