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2.
Rev. cuba. med ; 61(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408984

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El bronquio cardíaco es una anomalía congénita poco frecuente, con una incidencia de aproximadamente 0,1 por ciento. Consiste en un bronquio supernumerario que nace de la pared medial del bronquio principal derecho o del bronquio intermediario, opuesto al origen del bronquio para el lóbulo superior derecho y proximal al bronquio del segmento apical del lóbulo inferior derecho. Objetivo: Presentar el caso de un bronquio cardíaco diagnosticado por estudio endoscópico. Presentación del caso: Se presenta el caso de un paciente que ingresa en el servicio de Neumología del Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Hermanos Ameijeiras por presentar tos, expectoración blanca, disnea a los grandes esfuerzos y una radiografía de tórax con una radiopacidad en el lóbulo superior izquierdo y que como hallazgo incidental durante la realización de la broncoscopia se detecta un bronquio cardíaco o supernumerario. Conclusiones: El bronquio cardíaco es una malformación congénita infrecuente que puede cursar de manera asintomática, cuyo diagnóstico definitivo es por broncoscopia(AU)


Introduction: The cardiac bronchus is a rare congenital anomaly, with an incidence of approximately 0.1 percent. It consists of a supernumerary bronchus that arises from the medial wall of the right main bronchus or the bronchus intermediary, opposite the origin of the bronchus for the right upper lobe and proximal to the bronchus of the apical segment of the right lower lobe. Objective: To report the case of a cardiac bronchus diagnosed by endoscopic study. Case report: We report the case of a patient who was admitted to the Pneumology service at Hermanos Ameijeiras Surgical Clinical Hospital due to cough, white expectoration, dyspnea on exertion and a chest X-ray with radiopacity in the upper lobe, and that as an incidental finding during the bronchoscopy, a cardiac or supernumerary bronchus was detected. Conclusions: Bronchus is an infrequent congenital malformation that can be asymptomatic, whose definitive diagnosis is by bronchoscopy(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Bronchi/abnormalities , Bronchoscopy/methods
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): e29-e33, feb 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353754

ABSTRACT

La purpurina es un pigmento en polvo de cobre, que se utiliza con frecuencia en actividades artesanales y manualidades escolares. La ingestión o inhalación de esta sustancia provoca un cuadro de intoxicación por cobre potencialmente fatal en niños. Se describe el caso de un niño de 15 meses con intoxicación por cobre, que se presenta con dificultad respiratoria aguda, alteración del sensorio y anemia hemolítica. El inicio temprano del tratamiento mediante broncoscopia y lavado bronquial con posterior intubación endotraqueal y ventilación mecánica, lograron la remisión completa del cuadro respiratorio sin secuelas. Ante una ingestión y/o inhalación de purpurina, debe indicarse de inmediato la broncoscopia con lavado bronquial, aún en ausencia de síntomas respiratorios.


Glitter is a powdered copper pigment frequently used in craft and decorative activities especially in schools and kindergartens.Ingestion or inhalation of this substance can cause acute, potentially fatal copper poisoning in children. We describe a case of a 15-month-old child with copper poisoning, presenting with acute respiratory distress, neurological impairment, and hemolytic anemia. Early onset of treatment by bronchoscopy and bronchial lavage with subsequent endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, achieved complete remission of the respiratory symptoms without sequelae. In presence of glitter ingestion or inhalation, bronchoscopy with bronchial lavage should be indicated early even in the absence of respiratory symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Poisoning , Powders , Respiration, Artificial , Bronchoscopy , Copper , Eating
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 990-994, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405262

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Neuroendocrine lung tumours are a group of different tumours that have similar morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics, and represents 1-2 % of all malignant lung tumours. Tumorlet carcinoids represent the nodular proliferation of hyperplastic neuroendocrine cells that is smaller than 5 mm in size. In this study, we reported the unusual finding of tumour carcinoid and endobronchial hamartoma in the same bronchus. A 49-year-old male patient with symptoms of prolonged severe cough and fever, and was treated for pneumonia. Since he did not adequately respond to antibiotic therapy lung CT scan was performed which showed middle lobe bronchus obstruction. Bronchoscopy revealed a lobulated whitish tumour which was biopsied and histopathological diagnosis was hamartoma. Tumour could not be completely removed during bronchoscopy, it was decided to surgically remove it. On serial section, during gross examination in the same bronchus, an oval yellowish area with a diameter of 3 mm was found along the bronchial wall. According to gross and histomorphological characteristics and immunophenotype of tumour cells, the diagnosis of tumour carcinoid was set. Diagnosis of carcinoids of the tumorlet type is usually an accidental finding and it can be seen on CT in the form of subcentimeter, single or multiple, nodular changes. Considering that the clinical picture is nonspecific, they should always be kept in mind as a possible differential diagnosis.


RESUMEN: Los tumores neuroendocrinos de pulmón son un grupo de tumores de diferentes características morfológicas, inmunohistoquímicas y moleculares similares, y representan el 1- 2 % de todos los tumores malignos de pulmón. Los carcinoides tumorales representan la proliferación nodular de células neuroendocrinas hiperplásicas de tamaño inferior a 5 mm. En este estudio reportamos el hallazgo inusual de tumor carcinoide y hamartoma endobronquial en el mismo bronquio. Un paciente varón de 49 años con síntomas de tos severa prolongada y fiebre fue tratado por neumonía. Al no responder adecuadamente a la terapia con antibióticos, se realizó una tomografía computarizada de pulmón que mostró obstrucción del bronquio del lóbulo medio. La broncoscopia reveló una tumoración blanquecina lobulada de la cual se tomó biopsia y el diagnóstico histopatológico fue hamartoma. No fue posible extirpar el tumor por completo durante la broncoscopia y se decidió extirparlo quirúrgicamente. En la sección seriada, durante el examen macroscópico en el mismo bronquio, se encontró un área amarillenta ovalada de 3 mm de diámetro a lo largo de la pared bronquial. De acuerdo a las características macroscópicas e histomorfológicas y de inmunofenotipo de las células tumorales, se estableció el diagnóstico de tumor carcinoide. El diagnóstico de carcinoides de tipo tumorlet suele ser un hallazgo accidental y se observan en la TC en forma de cambios nodulares subcentimétricos, únicos o múltiples. En consideración de que el cuadro clínico es inespecífico, siempre debe tenerse en cuenta como posible diagnóstico diferencial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bronchial Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoid Tumor/pathology , Hamartoma/pathology , Bronchial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Bronchoscopy , Carcinoid Tumor/diagnosis , Hamartoma/diagnosis
6.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.70-74, tab, graf.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349347
7.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 49: e20223202, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365382

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Percutaneous tracheostomy has been considered the standard method today, the bronchoscopy-guided technique being the most frequently performed. A safe alternative is ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy, which can be carried out by the surgeon, avoiding the logistical difficulties of having a specialist in bronchoscopy. Studies prove that the efficacy and safety of the ultrasound-guided technique are similar when compared to the bronchoscopy-guided one. Thus, it is of paramount importance that surgeons have ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy as a viable and beneficial alternative to the open procedure. In this article, we describe eight main steps in performing ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy, highlighting essential technical points that can reduce the risk of complications from the procedure. Furthermore, we detail some precautions that one must observe to reduce the risk of aerosolization and contamination of the team when percutaneous tracheostomy is indicated in patients with COVID-19.


RESUMO A traqueostomia percutânea tem sido considerada o método padrão atualmente, sendo a técnica guiada por broncoscopia a mais realizada. Uma alternativa segura é a traqueostomia percutânea guiada por ultrassonografia, que pode ser feita pelo próprio cirurgião, evitando-se as dificuldades logísticas de disponibilidade de um especialista em broncoscopia. Estudos comprovam que a eficácia e a segurança da técnica guiada por ultrassonografia, comparada à guiada por broncoscopia, são semelhantes. Assim, é de suma importância que os cirurgiões tenham a traqueostomia percutânea guiada por ultrassonografia como alternativa viável e benéfica em relação ao procedimento aberto. Neste artigo, descrevemos oito passos principais da realização da traqueostomia percutânea ecoguiada, destacando pontos técnicos essenciais que podem reduzir o risco de complicações do procedimento. Ainda, detalhamos alguns cuidados que devem ser observados, com o intuito de reduzir o risco de aerolização e contaminação da equipe, quando a traqueostomia percutânea é indicada no paciente com COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tracheostomy/methods , COVID-19 , Bronchoscopy/methods , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods
8.
Med. lab ; 26(1): 81-89, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370963

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de pulmón es la principal causa de muerte en el mundo por cáncer, y en Colombia es la segunda. Su pronóstico es pobre cuando se ha documentado enfermedad metastásica en el sistema nervioso central. El diagnóstico se basa en el resultado definitivo de patología. Aunque los hallazgos imagenológicos pueden ser muy sugestivos de malignidad, hay reportes de otras enfermedades que pueden imitar cáncer, tales como infecciones o tumores benignos, los cuales pueden llevar a adoptar conductas terapéuticas inapropiadas. Las infecciones fúngicas como las producidas por Criptococcus neoformans, son capaces de generar lesiones que pueden imitar neoplasias. El objetivo de esta publicación es reportar el caso de un hombre a quien inicialmente se le sospechó un carcinoma pulmonar metastásico al sistema nervioso central, y finalmente se le diagnosticó una criptococosis diseminada posterior a su fallecimiento


Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer in the world and the second in Colombia, its prognosis is bad when the diagnosis of metastatic disease in the central nervous system is documented. The diagnosis is based on the definitive pathologic result. Although the imaging findings can be highly suggestive of malignancy, there are reports of other conditions that can mimic lung cancer, such as infections or benign tumors, which can lead to inappropriate treatment. Fungal infections such as those caused by Criptococcus neoformans are capable of generating lesions that can mimic neoplasms. The objective of this article is to report the case of a man who was initially diagnosed with metastatic lung carcinoma to the central nervous system, and was finally diagnosed with disseminated cryptococcosis after his death


Subject(s)
Humans , Cryptococcosis , Biopsy , Bronchoscopy , Central Nervous System , Cryptococcus neoformans , Lung Diseases , Lung Neoplasms
9.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 498-503, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935626

ABSTRACT

With the popularization of health screening and the widespread use of low-dose computed tomography, the detection rate of lung nodules has increased year after year. However, the false positive rates testified by surgery of these lung nodules are still high. Therefore, it is vital in clinical practice to avoid overtreatment or undertreatment. But a series of problems on how to make an accurate diagnosis, how to reduce the psychological pressure of patients and follow up with regular imaging, how to clarify the indications for surgery and adopt the most minimally invasive diagnosis and treatment methods, etc. remain unsolved. Over the past decade, the diagnostic techniques for pulmonary nodules have improved significantly, including imaging progress such as the optimization of traditional imaging techniques (CT, MRI) and the emergence of new technologies (radiomics, artificial intelligence). In addition, histological improvements including percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy, bronchoscopy, and minimally invasive surgical biopsy, etc. have brought more reliable and precise options for characterization of pulmonary nodules.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Biopsy, Needle/methods , Bronchoscopy , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 197-200, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935202

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical manifestation, pathological type, treatment and prognosis of primary lung tumors in children. Methods: We collected and retrospectively analyzed the clinical manifestation, pathological type, therapeutic method and prognosis of 56 primary lung tumors patients who diagnosed from 2009 to 2019 in Guangzhou Women and Children Medical Center. Results: There were 56 patients identified as the primary lung tumors, including pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB, n=28), pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor(IMT, n=20), mucoepidermoid carcinoma(n=6), infantile hemangioma (n=1), pulmonary sclerosing hermangioma(n=1). Respiratory symptoms were the most manifestation at the time of diagnosis including 26 patients with cough, 3 with hemoptysis, and 17 with dyspnea. Others included 15 with fever, 3 with chest pain, and 2 with epigastiric pain. The primary tumor of 18 cases were located in the lower lobe of left lung, 11 cases in the lower lobe of right lung, 10 cases in the upper lobe of left lung, 7 cases in the upper lobe of right lung, 6 cases in the middle lobe of right lung, and 4 cases in pulmonary hilum. Among the 56 patients, 41 patients underwent thoracotomy, 13 thoracoscopy, and 2 fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Five patients with type Ⅰ PPB were still alive at the end of follow-up without chemotherapy. Among 5 patients with type Ⅱ PPB, 2 patients without chemotherapy died after recurrence, 3 patients suffered postoperative chemotherapy were still alive at the end of follow-up. All of the 18 patients with type Ⅲ PPB underwent postoperative chemotherapy with IVADo regimen. Recurrence occurred in 6 cases, distant metastasis occurred in 3 cases, and cancer-related deaths occurred in 8 cases. For 20 patients with IMT, recurrence occurred in 5 of 13 patients experienced wedge resection, 1 of 6 patients experienced lobectomy and 1 of 6 underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy, respectively. For 6 mucoepidermoid carcinoma patients, lobectomy was carried on 5 patients, wedge resection on 1 patient, all of them were still alive at the end of follow-up. One hermangioma patient underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy and other 1 sclerosing hermangioma patient underwent wedge resection, both of them were still alive at the end of follow-up. Conclusions: The clinical manifestations of the primary lung tumors in children are nonspecific. Complete resection and achieving negative marginattribute to the excellent outcome. Adjunctive treatment such as chemotherapy is necessary for patients with type Ⅱ and type Ⅲ PPB.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy , Child , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Pulmonary Blastoma/surgery , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928915

ABSTRACT

Lung volume reduction loop uses bronchoscopic lung volume reduction(BLVR) technology to compress and collapse the necrotic emphysema tissue and exhaust the internal gas to achieve the purpose of lung volume reduction to treat emphysema. After the lung volume reduction loop is implanted into the human body, the compressed part of the lung tissue tends to expand with breathing, which makes the lung volume reduction loop expand into a linear trend periodically. Fatigue resistance is one of the most important performance indexes of the lung volume reduction loop. In the paper, Z-direction vibration fatigue machine was used to simulate the changes of human respiratory cycle movement to test the fatigue performance of lung volume reduction loop, which can provide some reference for the test method of in vitro fatigue performance of lung volume reduction related products in the future.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/methods , Emphysema/surgery , Humans , Lung , Pneumonectomy/methods , Pulmonary Emphysema/surgery , Treatment Outcome
12.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 118-123, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928788

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer ranks the first cancer-related morbidity and mortality in China. With the development and penetration of imaging technology, increasing small pulmonary peripheral Nodules (SPPNs) have been detected. However, precise location and diagnosis of SPPNs is still a tough problem for clinical diagnosis and treatment in department of thoracic surgery. With the development of electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB), it provides a novel minimally invasive method for the diagnosis and treatment of SPPNs. In this review, we summarized the application and progress of ENB in preoperative positioning, diagnosis, and local treatment, then, discussed the clinical application of ENB in the hybrid operating room.
.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/methods , Electromagnetic Phenomena , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Multiple Pulmonary Nodules/diagnosis , Thoracic Surgery
13.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(3): e718, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1351987

ABSTRACT

La oxigenación apnéica consiste en la administración de flujos altos de oxígeno a través de algún dispositivo supraglótico mientras el paciente se mantiene en apnea. Se explica por qué el alveolo desnitrogenizado con una composición en su mayor parte de oxígeno, permite la difusión alveolo capilar y genera una presión subatmosférica capaz de arrastrar el flujo de oxigeno existente en el árbol traqueobronquial hasta el mismo alveolo, siempre y cuando no hubiera obstrucción mecánica de la vía aérea. El tiempo aumenta considerablemente hasta que la saturación de oxígeno disminuya, lo que se conoce como tiempo de apnea segura. Se presenta la experiencia de emplear esta técnica en un escolar de 5 años sin antecedentes patológicos, que ingirió un cuerpo extraño (semilla de girasol), la cual se localizaba en vía aérea bronquio principal derecho. Este se extrajo por fibrobroncoscopía bajo anestesia total intravenosa, priorizando la ventilación espontánea hasta localizarlo, y luego, debido a la dificultad que presentó su extracción, se empleó relajación muscular y apnea para optimizar las condiciones de la extracción. Durante este periodo, se empleó la técnica de oxigenación apnéica, la cual se mantuvo durante 12 min. La saturación pulsátil de oxigeno fue mayor al 92 por ciento, tiempo suficiente para culminar la extracción con éxito y sin complicaciones(AU)


Apneic oxygenation consists in the administration of high flows of oxygen through a supraglottic device while the patient remains in apnea. It is explained because the alveolus with low nitrogen concertation/accumulation, with a composition mostly of oxygen, allows capillary alveolus to diffuse, as well as it generates a subatmospheric pressure capable of dragging the oxygen flow existing in the tracheobronchial tree to the alveolus itself, as long as there is no mechanical airway obstruction. The time increases considerably until oxygen saturation decreases, which is known as the safe apnea time. The experience of using this technique is presented is it was used with a five-year-old boy with no pathological history and who swallowed a foreign body (sunflower seed), which was located in the airway, specifically the right main bronchus. The foreign body was extracted by fiberoptic bronchoscopy under total intravenous anesthesia, prioritizing spontaneous ventilation until it was located; and then, due to the difficulty for its extraction, muscle relaxation and apnea were used to optimize the extraction conditions. During this period, the apneic oxygenation technique was used and maintained for twelve minutes. Pulsatile oxygen saturation was greater than 92 percent, enough time to complete the extraction successfully and without complications(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Ventilation , Bronchoscopy , Airway Obstruction , Foreign Bodies , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Muscle Relaxation
14.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(2): 89-93, 30 Diciembre 2021. ilus, tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368391

ABSTRACT

La aspiración de cuerpos extraños es una de las principales causas de ingreso a urgencias y de morbi-mortalidad en Ecuador en pacientes pediátricos. El diagnóstico suele ser tardío, por falta de interés de los cuidadores, o por errores en la valoración. Es importante detectar el cuadro a tiempo, para evitar complicaciones. OBJETIVO. Demostrar la necesidad de un diagnóstico acertado ante la alta sospecha en un cuadro dudoso de aspiración de cuerpo extraño. SERIE DE CASOS. Evaluación de cuatro pacientes de ambos sexos, de entre 11 meses a 15 años de edad con antecedente de ingesta de cuerpo extraño, atendidos en la Unidad Técnica de Cirugía Pediátrica, del Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín, durante el periodo 2019-2020. Se realizó la extracción exitosa mediante broncoscopia rígida en tres de ellos. DISCUSIÓN. La mayoría de pacientes con aspiración de cuerpo extraño suelen ser menores de 5 años de edad, en contraste con éste estudio, donde sólo un paciente estuvo dentro de este rango, y el resto fueron escolares y adolescentes. El cuerpo extraño más común es de origen orgánico; el 50% de los casos observados fue de origen inorgánico. CONCLUSIÓN. El diagnóstico de aspiración de cuerpo extraño se condiciona a la obtención completa de datos sobre la Historia Clínica; requiere una valoración rápida y manejo adecuado por emergencias.


INTRODUCTION. Foreign body aspiration is one of the main causes of emergency room admissions and morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients in Ecuador. Diagnosis is usually late, due to lack of interest of caregivers, or due to errors in the assessment. It is important to detect the condition in time to avoid complications. OBJECTIVE. To demonstrate the need for an accurate diagnosis in the presence of high suspicion in a doubtful picture of foreign body aspiration. CASE SERIES. Evaluation of four patients of both sexes, between 11 months and 15 years of age with a history of foreign body ingestion, attended at the Pediatric Surgery Technical Unit of the Carlos Andrade Marin Specialties Hospital, during 2019-2020 period. Successful extraction by rigid bronchoscopy was performed in three of them. DISCUSSION. Most patients with foreign body aspiration are usually under 5 years of age, in contrast to this study, where only one patient was within this range, and the rest were schoolchildren and adolescents. The most common foreign body is of organic origin; 50% of the cases observed were of inorganic origin. CONCLUSION. The diagnosis of foreign body aspiration is conditioned to the complete collection of data on the Clinical History; it requires a rapid assessment and appropriate emergency management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Trachea , Airway Obstruction/diagnostic imaging , Delayed Diagnosis , Foreign Bodies/diagnostic imaging , Lung , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Bronchoscopy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cough/diagnostic imaging , Airway Obstruction/surgery
15.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(3): 180-176, jul. 29, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1283009

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El diagnóstico temprano de tuberculosis permite el control de la enfermedad y su transmisibilidad. Objetivo. Describir la validez diagnóstica del GeneXpert MTB/RIF para Mycobacterium tuberculosis en muestra bronquial, utilizando como referencia el cultivo Löwenstein Jensen. Metodología. Estudio transversal analítico, mediante revisión de 942 registros de la Unidad de Broncoscopía durante el año 2014 al 2018, de las cuales 320 cumplieron criterios de inclusión. Estos datos fueron exportados a un formato compatible con Epi Info versión 7 y analizados con parámetros estadísticos de sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo, valor predictivo negativo, prueba de concordancia e índice Kappa Epidat 4,2. Resultados. De los 320 pacientes sometidos a fibrobroncoscopía diagnóstica para tuberculosis con GeneXpert MTB/RIF, los resultados negativos fueron 79 % (252) y positivo 21 % (68); el 1 % mostró resistencia a rifampicina. Se reportó una fuerte concordancia de GeneXpert MTB/RIF con el cultivo bacilo ácido alcohol resistente, que se determinó con un índice de kappa de 0,88 +/- (0,81-0,94) IC 95 %, una sensibilidad del 98 %, especificidad del 96 %, valor predictivo positivo 83 % (IC 95 %), valor predictivo negativo 99,6 % (CI 95 %). Conclusión. La prueba GeneXpert MTB/RIF tiene una capacidad altamente sensible y específica para el diagnóstico de tuberculosis en muestras obtenidas por fibrobroncoscopía


Introduction. The early diagnosis of tuberculosis allows the control of the disease and its transmissibility. Objective. Describe the diagnostic validity of GeneXpert MTB / RIF for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bronchial sample using the Löwenstein Jensen culture as reference. Methodology. Analytical cross-sectional study, through a review of 942 records of the Bronchoscopy Unit during the year 2014 to 2018, of which 320 met inclusion criteria. These data were exported to a format compatible with Epi Info version 7, analyzed with statistical parameters of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, concordance test, and Kappa Epidat index 4,2. Results. Of the 320 patients who underwent diagnostic bronchoscopy for tuberculosis with GeneXpert MTB / RIF, the negative results were 79 % (252), and positive 21 % (68), 1 % showed genetic resistance to rifampicin. A strong concordance of GeneXpert MTB / RIF was reported with the acid-alcohol-resistant bacillus culture determined with a kappa index of 0,88 +/- (0,81-0,94) 95 % CI, a sensitivity of 98 %, specificity 96 %, positive predictive value 83 % (95 % CI), negative predictive value 99,6 % (95 % CI). Conclusions. The GeneXpert MTB / RIF Test has a highly sensitive and specific capacity for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in samples obtained by bronchoscopy


Subject(s)
Rifampin , Tuberculosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Bronchoscopy
16.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(2): e1402, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280357

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El melanoma maligno es un tumor de etiología multifactorial, cuando afecta al sistema respiratorio su origen es casi siempre metastásico, y como tumor primario es muy infrecuente, constituye el 0,07 por ciento de los tumores pulmonares malignos. Objetivo: Presentar un caso clínico con diagnóstico de melanoma maligno primario de pulmón. Presentación del caso: Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 64 años de edad, exfumadora, sin antecedentes de melanoma, que presenta tos seca asociada a disnea, los esfuerzos físicos y dolor torácico. Además de astenia y pérdida de peso. Se le realizó biopsia pulmonar mediante broncoscopia y se le diagnosticó melanoma. Conclusiones: El melanoma primario pulmonar es uno de los más raros del tipo de melanoma visceral, es una entidad neumológica infrecuente y el diagnóstico preciso requiere una investigación detallada y el cumplimiento de criterios clínicos y anatomopatológicos específicos(AU)


Introduction: Malignant melanoma is a tumor of multifactorial etiology, when it affects the respiratory system its origin is almost always metastatic, and as a primary tumor it is very infrequent, it constitutes 0.07 por ciento of malignant lung tumors. Objective: To report a clinical case with a diagnosis of primary malignant melanoma of the lung. Case report: We report the case of a 64-year-old woman, former smoker, with no history of melanoma, who had dry cough associated with dyspnea with physical exertion and chest pain. In addition to asthenia and weight loss, she had a lung biopsy by bronchoscopy and was diagnosed with melanoma. Conclusions: Primary pulmonary melanoma is one of the rarest of the visceral melanoma type, this is an infrequent pneumological entity and the precise diagnosis requires detailed investigation and the fulfillment of specific clinical and pathological criteria(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Bronchoscopy/methods , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Melanoma/diagnosis
17.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(2): e500, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251502

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a potentially fatal paediatric emergency. Our objective was to highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to difficult/doubtful diagnosis. Case report 34-month-old girl referred for urgent rigid bronchoscopy after suspected metallic blade ingestion (found chewing on it). She had a previous recurrent history of wheezing. The physical examination revealed face/lip wounds, traces of powder on her teeth but no breathing difficulty. The plain X-Ray revealed radiopaque images of the upper pulmonary field and gastric chamber. In the absence of FBA clinical signs but considering a previous history of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, a direct digital radiographic study was performed. There were no images compatible with foreign bodies: the results were interpreted as artefacts and no bronchoscopy was performed. Conclusions A careful pre-anaesthetic evaluation, a high level of suspicion and excellent multidisciplinary communication led to the recognition of false radiologic findings. A conservative approach was followed and invasive procedures in a remote location, with high anaesthetic risk for the paediatric population were avoided.


Resumen Introducción La aspiración de cuerpo extraño (ACE) es una emergencia pediátrica potencialmente fatal. La intención del presente artículo es resaltar la importancia de un abordaje multidisciplinario en caso de un diagnóstico difícil/dudoso. Reporte de caso Se trata de una paciente de 4 meses de edad remitida para broncoscopia rígida de urgencia, luego de la sospecha de ingestión de una hojilla metálica (se encontró a la bebé mordiéndola). La paciente tenía antecedentes de sibilancia. Al examen físico se encontraron heridas en la cara y los labios, rastros de polvo en los dientes, pero no había dificultad respiratoria. El examen de rayos-x mostraba imágenes radio opacas en el cuadrante superior derecho del pulmón y en la cámara gástrica. En virtud de la ausencia de signos clínicos de ACE en una paciente con antecedentes de hiperresponsividad bronquial, se realizó un estudio radiográfico digital. No hubo imágenes compatibles con cuerpos extraños: los resultados se interpretaron como artefactos y no se realizó la broncoscopia. Conclusiones Un cuidadoso examen pre-anestesia, el alto grado de sospecha y una excelente comunicación multidisciplinaria, permitieron el reconocimiento de hallazgos radiológicos falsos. Se siguió un abordaje conservador, evitando así procedimientos invasivos en lugares remotos con alto grado de riesgo para la población pediátrica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Respiration , Respiratory Sounds , Eating , Emergencies , Foreign Bodies , Wounds and Injuries , X-Rays , Bronchoscopy , Risk , Artifacts , Absenteeism , Lung , Mastication
18.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(1): e1399, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156554

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El ultrasonido endobronquial lineal con aspiración transbronquial por aguja fina es una técnica novedosa para el diagnóstico de tumores y ganglios mediastínicos e hiliares. Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia diagnóstica de ultrasonido endobronquial lineal con aspiración transbronquial por aguja fina como método de estudio de lesiones hiliares y mediastinales. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo con carácter prospectivo en 49 pacientes a los que se le realizó ultrasonido endobronquial lineal con aspiración transbronquial por aguja fina. Resultados: El diagnóstico se obtuvo mediante la histología y resultaron positivos 48 pacientes, de ellos 45 fueron positivos por el ultrasonido endobronquial lineal con aspiración transbronquial por aguja fina y 4 negativos por este estudio. El resultado global de la investigación mostró una sensibilidad de 93,8 %, especificidad 100 %, valor predictivo positivo de 100 % y predictivo negativo 25 %. De esta manera, el índice de validez de ultrasonido endobronquial lineal con aspiración transbronquial por aguja fina fue de 93,8 %. El número de complicaciones fue mínimo. Conclusiones: El ultrasonido endobronquial lineal con aspiración transbronquial por aguja fina constituye un método diagnóstico eficaz y seguro en el estudio de pacientes que presentan lesiones hiliares y mediastinales con alta sospecha de cáncer de pulmón y a su vez, una alternativa de acceder al mediastino de manera no cruenta para la estadificación ganglionar.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Linear endobronchial ultrasound with transbronchial fine needle aspiration is a novel technique for the diagnosis of tumors and mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of linear endobronchial ultrasound with transbronchial fine needle aspiration as a method of studying hila and mediastinal lesions. Methods: A prospective descriptive study was carried out in 49 patients who underwent linear endobronchial ultrasound with transbronchial fine needle aspiration. Results: The diagnosis was obtained by histology and 48 patients were positive, 45 of them resulted positive by linear endobronchial ultrasound with transbronchial fine needle aspiration and 4 resulted negative by this study. The overall result of the investigation showed a sensitivity of 93.8%, specificity 100%, a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 25%. Thus, the validity index of linear endobronchial ultrasound with transbronchial fine needle aspiration was 93.8%. The number of complications was minimal. Conclusions: Linear endobronchial ultrasound with transbronchial fine needle aspiration is an effective and safe diagnostic method in the study of patients with hilar and mediastinal lesions with high suspicion of lung cancer and, consecutively, it is an alternative to access the mediastinum in a non- invasive approach for lymph node staging.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Ultrasonics/methods , Bronchoscopy/methods , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies
19.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(3): 119-125, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344097

ABSTRACT

La traqueomalacia (TM) consiste en una excesiva colapsabilidad traqueal debida a una anomalía estructural del cartílago y/o de la pared membranosa posterior. Cuando se extiende a uno o ambos bronquios principales se denomina traqueobroncomalacia (TBM). Considerando diferentes clasificaciones, la mayoría de las TM son adquiridas, localizadas e intratorácicas. El diagnóstico clínico es difícil porque los síntomas son inespecíficos y se superponen con los de otras enfermedades respiratorias crónicas. Los síntomas más frecuentes incluyen estridor espiratorio, tos perruna e infecciones respiratorias recurrentes, en los casos más graves se presentan episodios de dificultad respiratoria severa, cianosis e incluso muerte súbita. La fibrobroncoscopía sigue siendo el método diagnóstico estándar de oro, complementándose con la tomografía computarizada que es esencial en la visualización de las estructuras adyacentes a la vía aérea. En los casos leves el tratamiento es conservador, considerando la resolución espontánea de la mayoría de los casos hacia los 2 años de edad. En los pacientes más sintomáticos la estrategia terapéutica se debe evaluar caso a caso, siendo la presión positiva contínua en vía aérea (no invasiva o invasiva por traqueostomía) el tratamiento más utilizado. En las TM-TBM más severas, entre posibles tratamientos que incluyen cirugía traqueal y prótesis en la vía aérea, lo más usado es aortoarteriopexia y traqueopexia, a la espera de resultados promisorios de mallas endoluminales biodegradables y prótesis reabsorbibles personalizadas impresas en 3D.


Tracheomalacia (TM) is defined as an increased collapsibility of the trachea due to structural anomalies of the cartilaginous rings and/or the posterior membrane. When the main bronchi is also affected this condition is termed as tracheobronchomalacia (TBM). According classifications TM is mostly acquired, localized and intrathoracic. Diagnosing TM is challenging because symptoms are nonspecific and overlap with those of other chronic respiratory disorders. The most common symptoms include expiratory stridor, barking cough and recurrent respiratory tract infections, in severe cases, severe respiratory distress episodes and acute life threatening events can occur. While flexible bronchoscopy is still considered as the gold standard diagnostic method, computed tomography is essential in assessing the surrounding structures. Conservative therapy is preferred in milder cases since the outcome is usually favorable within the first 2 years of life. Treatment of more symptomatic children should be discussed on an individual basis, continuous positive airway pressure (non invasive o invasive via tracheostomy) being the most widely used therapy. For more severe TM-TBM, amongst possible treatments including tracheal surgery and airway stenting, aortoarteriopexy and tracheopexy are mostly used, nevertheless absorbable stent and 3D printed customed prosthesis are being developed with promising results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Tracheomalacia/diagnosis , Tracheomalacia/therapy , Signs and Symptoms , Bronchoscopy , Tracheomalacia/classification
20.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(4): 172-176, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362265

ABSTRACT

El sarcoma sinovial primario de pulmón (SSPP) localizado en bronquio, es una entidad no reportada en la edad pediátrica. Se presenta el caso de un niño de siete años con antecedente de aparentes neumonías recurrentes derechas de siete meses de evolución; en la evaluación por neumología pediátrica se destaca en las radiografías de tórax, la presencia de atelectasias recurrentes en lóbulo medio e inferior derecho, por lo que se realiza broncoscopia, donde se observa una masa obstruyendo el 100% de la luz del bronquio fuente derecho y se sospecha tumor carcinoide. Se realiza extirpación de masa endobronquial con fines diagnósticos y terapéuticos, incluyendo resección segmentaria bronquial y anastomosis término-terminal. El respectivo análisis inmunohistoquímico muestra hallazgos sugestivos de sarcoma sinovial monofásico. Se descarta compromiso tumoral extrapulmonar, por lo que se diagnostica como tumor primario de bronquio. Se administraron 7 ciclos de quimioterapia y 31 sesiones de radioterapia. Actualmente en control, sin evidencia de metástasis, tumores residuales o recidivas.


Primary Synovial Sarcoma of Lung (PSSL) located in the bronchus is an unreported entity in pediatric age. We present the case of a 7-year-old child with a history of apparent recurrent right pneumonia of 7 months of evolution; in the evaluation by pediatric pulmonology, the presence of recurrent atelectasis in the middle and lower right lobe is highlighted on chest X-rays, so bronchoscopy is performed, where a mass is observed obstructing 100% of the right bronchus lumen and carcinoid tumor is suspected. Endobronchial mass resection is performed for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, including bronchial segmental resection and termino-terminal anastomosis. The respective immunohistochemical analysis shows suggestive findings of monophasic synovial sarcoma. Extrapulmonary tumor involvement is ruled out, so it is diagnosed as a primary bronchial tumor. 7 cycles of chemotherapy and 31 sessions of radiation therapy are given. Currently in control, with no evidence of metastasis, residual tumors, or recurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Sarcoma, Synovial/surgery , Sarcoma, Synovial/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Bronchoscopy , Radiography, Thoracic , Sarcoma, Synovial/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology
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