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1.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e018320, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138144

ABSTRACT

Abstract The genus Cotylophoron belongs to the Paramphistomidae family and its definitive hosts are ruminants in general. This work describes the presence of a new species of the gender, a parasite in the rumen and reticulum of Bubalus bubalis, on Marajó Island in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon, using of light microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy and molecular biology techniques. One hundred and ten animals were analyzed, of which 4.54% were parasitized by flukes in their adult forms. The helminths were found fixed to the ruminal mucosa and present Liorchis-type pharynx, Cotylophoron-type genital sucker, oblique testicles larger than the ovary, uterus in rings full of eggs and Cotylophoron-type acetabulum. These morphologic characters do not fit into any previously described species. Thus, it is proposed that this is a new species in the genus Cotylophoron. The present work expands the record of parasitism by helminths in Bubalus bubalis, this being the first record of trematoda from the genus Cotylophoron for this host in the Brazilian Amazon.


Resumo O gênero Cotylophoron pertence à família Paramphistomidae e possui como hospedeiros definitivos ruminantes em geral. Este trabalho descreve a presença de uma espécie nova do gênero, parasito do rúmen e retículo de Bubalus bubalis, na Ilha de Marajó, Amazônia oriental brasileira, a partir das técnicas de microscopia de luz, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e biologia molecular. Foram analisados 110 animais, dos quais 4,54% estavam parasitados por trematódeos na sua forma adulta. Os helmintos foram encontrados fixados à mucosa ruminal, apresentando faringe do tipo Liorchis, ventosa genital do tipo Cotylophoron, testículos oblíquos maiores que o ovário, útero em alças repleto de ovos, e acetábulo do tipo Cotylophoron. Estes caracteres morfológicos não se enquadram em nenhuma espécie previamente descrita. Assim, propõe-se uma nova espécie ao gênero Cotylophoron. O presente trabalho amplia o registro do parasitismo por helmintos em Bubalus bubalis, sendo este o primeiro registro de trematódeos do gênero Cotylophoron nesse hospedeiro para a Amazônia brasileira.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Paramphistomatidae/classification , Paramphistomatidae/genetics , Paramphistomatidae/ultrastructure , Trematode Infections/parasitology , Trematode Infections/veterinary , Trematode Infections/epidemiology , Buffaloes/parasitology , Species Specificity , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Helminth/genetics
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 410-415, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042534

ABSTRACT

Abstract In South America, fascioliasis caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica is an anthropozoonosis disease associated with significant economic losses and poor animal welfare. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of F. hepatica in the liver of buffaloes slaughtered from 2003 to 2017 in Brazil, and to perform a forecast analysis of the disease for the next five years using the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. Data analysis revealed an incidence of 7,187 cases out of 226,561 individuals. The disease presented a considerable interannual variation (p<0.005). Fasciola hepatica was more prevalent in the southern states of Brazil; Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Catarina, presenting 11.9, 7.7, and 3.2% of infected livers, respectively. The high frequency of liver condemnation in Paraná was influenced by weather conditions. The ARIMA models calculated a constant trend of the disease, depicting an average of its future prevalence. The models also described a worse-case and a positive-case scenario, calculating the effects of intervention measurements. In reality, there is an urgent need for regular diagnostic in the animals (fecal and immune diagnose) and in the environment (intermediate host), in order to avoid the high rates of infection.


Resumo Na América do Sul, a fasciolose causada pelo Trematoda Fasciola hepatica é uma antropozoonose associada a perdas econômicas significativas e baixo grau de bem-estar animal. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de F. hepatica no fígado de búfalos abatidos entre 2003 a 2017 e realizar uma análise de previsão da doença para os próximos cinco anos, utilizando o modelo Auto-Regressivo Integrado de Médias Móveis (ARIMA). A análise dos dados revelou uma incidência total de 7.187 casos em 226.561 indivíduos. Houve um acentuado grau de variação interanual nas taxas de prevalência (p<0,005). Fasciola hepatica foi mais prevalente nos estados do sul do Brasil; Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, com 11,9; 7,7; e 3,2% de fígados condenados, respectivamente. A alta incidência de condenação de fígado no Paraná foi influenciada pelo fator climático. Os modelos ARIMA indicaram uma tendência constante na ocorrência da doença, destacando um padrão futuro da doença. Os modelos também descreveram cenários de piora e de possível melhoria, calculando os efeitos de medidas de intervenção. Assim, existe a urgência de realizar diagnóstico constante nos animais (coprológico e diagnóstico imunológico) e no ambiente, para que se evite os altos índices de infecção.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Buffaloes/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Fascioliasis/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Incidence , Prevalence , Fascioliasis/diagnosis , Fascioliasis/epidemiology
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 314-319, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042509

ABSTRACT

Abstract Nematophagous fungi from the feces of water buffalo and soil from southeastern Mexico were isolated, and their in vitro predatory activity against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3) (HcL3) was assessed. The fungi were isolated by sprinkling soil or feces on water agar plates. Six series of 10 Petri dishes containing a 7-day-old culture of each fungus and a series without fungi as the control were prepared. Five hundred HcL3 were added to each plate. The plates were incubated at room temperature. The average of recovered HcL3 was considered to estimate the larval reduction rate. Four nematophagous fungi isolates corresponding to Arthrobotrys oligospora, var microspora (strains 4-276, 269 and 50-80) and one identified as A. oligospora,var. oligospora (isolates 48-80) were obtained from water buffalo feces. From the soil, five isolates were isolated; three corresponded to A. musiformis (Bajío, Yumca and Macuspana isolates), and two isolates were identified as A. oligospora (Comalcalco and Jalapa de Méndez isolates). The predatory activity of isolates from water buffalo feces ranged between 85.9 and 100%. Meanwhile, the fungi from the soil ranged between 55.5 and 100% (p≤0.05). The nematophagous fungi obtained could have important implications in the control of parasites of importance in the livestock industry.


Resumo Fungos nematófagos das fezes de búfalo de água e do solo no sudeste do México foram isolados, e a atividade predatória in vitro contra larvas infectantes de Haemonchus contortus (L3) (HcL3) foi avaliada.Os fungos foram isolados por aspersão de solo e de fezes em placas de agar água. Foram preparadas seis séries de 10 placas de Petri contendo uma cultura de 7 dias de idade de cada fungo e uma série sem fungos como controle. Quinhentos HcL3 foram adicionadas a cada placa. As placas foram incubadas à temperatura ambiente. O número médio de HcL3 recuperadas foi considerado para estimar a taxa de redução larval. Quatro isolados de fungos nematófagos corresponderam a Arthrobotrys oligospora, var microspora (estirpes 4-276, 269 e 50-80) e um isolado identificado como A. oligospora, var. oligospora (isolados 48-80 de fezes de búfalo de água. Do solo, dos cinco isolados três corresponderam a A. musiformis (Bajío, Yumca e Macuspana isolados), e dois isolados foram identificados como A. oligospora (isolados de Comalcalco e Jalapa de Méndez). A atividade predatória de isolados de fezes de búfalo de água variou entre 85,9 e 100%. Enquanto isso, os fungos do solo variaram entre 55,5 e 100% (p≤0,05). Os fungos nematófagos obtidos podem ter importantes implicações nesse controle de parasitos de importância na indústria pecuária.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Soil/parasitology , Buffaloes/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Haemonchus/physiology , Haemonchus/isolation & purification , Haemonchus/classification , Mexico
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 593-596, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042487

ABSTRACT

Abstract Anaplasma marginale and piroplasm species are widespread among Brazilian cattle herds. Both of these tick-borne pathogens hamper livestock production and cause a significant economic impact. Although buffaloes have demonstrated a high level of adaptability, data on tick-borne pathogens are scarcely reported in Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to screen water buffaloes from the state of Maranhão for piroplasm and A. marginale occurrence using PCR assays. All samples were negative for A. marginale. One of the 287 (0.35%) water buffaloes tested was positive for Theileria sp. Sequencing of the 18S rDNA fragment (356 bp) showed that the Theileria sp. identified was closely related to the T. buffeli /orientalis group. Future studies on the clinical signs of infection and the main vector in this country are needed.


Resumo Anaplasma marginale e espécies de piroplasma são amplamente distribuídas no rebanho bovino brasileiro. Ambos os patógenos transmitidos por carrapatos dificultam a produção pecuária e causam um impacto econômico significativo. Embora os búfalos tenham demonstrado um alto nível de adaptabilidade, dados sobre patógenos transmitidos por carrapatos são raramente relatados no Brasil. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar búfalos do estado do Maranhão para piroplasmas e A. marginale utilizando-se a técnica da PCR. Todas as amostras foram negativas para A. marginale . Um dos 287 (0,35%) búfalos testados foi positivo para Theileria sp. O sequenciamento de um fragmento do gene 18S rDNA (356 pb) demonstrou que Theileria sp. identificado estava relacionada ao grupo T. buffeli/orientalis . Estudos futuros sobre os sinais clínicos de infecção e o principal vetor neste país são necessários.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Theileriasis/diagnosis , Buffaloes/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Theileria/genetics , Phylogeny , Brazil , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/genetics
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 439-445, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977922

ABSTRACT

Abstract Neosporosis is one of the major parasitic diseases that causes reproductive problems, making it a limitation for optimal efficiency in livestock. The aim of the present study was to conduct a seroepidemiological survey for bubaline neosporosis and to analyse associated factors associated with N. caninum infection in female water buffaloes in the State of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil. The prevalence of N. caninum infection in the bubaline herds examined was 35.4% (122/345; 95% CI: 30.4%-40.7%), at least 1 Neospora-positive animal was found in each farm. Associated factors for N. caninum infection identified in this study were exclusive pasture feeding (OR: 5.91, p <0.001) and purchase of animals of free fair and from reputable sellers (OR: 1.85; p =0.045). In this survey, we document the occurrence of neosporosis in female water buffaloes. Associated factors should be controlled in order to reduce the risk of N. caninum infection in these herds.


Resumo A neosporose é uma das principais doenças parasitárias que causa problemas reprodutivos, torna-se possível limitar para a máxima eficiência na pecuária. Objetivou-se com este estudo realizar um inquérito soroepidemiológico e analisar os fatores associados à infecção por N. caninum em fêmeas bubalinas no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Observou-se uma prevalência de 35,4% (122/345; IC 95%: 30,4%-40,7%) para infecção por N. caninum e 100% das propriedades possuíam ao menos um animal positivo. Os fatores associados à infecção por N. caninum neste estudo foram alimentação exclusiva a pasto (OR: 5,91; p<0,001) e aquisição de animais de feiras livres e criadores conhecidos (OR: 1,85; p=0,045). Registra-se a ocorrência da infecção por N. caninum em fêmeas bubalinas e os fatores associados que precisam ser corrigidos para reduzir o risco de infecção nesses rebanhos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Buffaloes/parasitology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Neospora/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Coccidiosis/diagnosis , Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Farms
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130566

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate the life history, morphology, and maturation of larval stages and adult worms of Fasciola gigantica in experimental mice. Lymnaea auricularia rubiginosa was used as the intermediate host, and Oryza sativa was used for encystment of the metacercariae, while Mus musculus was used as the definitive host for maturation study. Fresh eggs from the gall bladder of water buffaloes fully developed into embryonated ones and hatched out at days 11-12 after incubation at about 29masculineC. Free-swimming miracidia rapidly penetrated into the snail host, and gradually developed into the next larval stages; sporocyst, redia, and daughter redia with cercariae. Fully-developed cercariae were separated from the redia and shed from the snails on day 39 post-infection (PI). Free-swimming cercariae were immediately allowed to adhere to rice plants, and capsules were constructed to protect metacercariae on rice plants. Juvenile worms were detected in intestines of mice at days 3 and 6 PI, but they were found in the bile duct from day 9 PI. Juvenile and adult flukes were recovered from 16 mice experimentally infected with metacercariae, with the average recovery rate of 35.8%. Sexually mature adult flukes were recovered from day 42 PI. It could be confirmed that experimentally encysted metacercariae could infect and develop to maturity in the experimental host. The present study reports for the first time the complete life history of F. gigantica by an experimental study in Thailand. The obtained information can be used as a guide for prevention, elimination, and treatment of F. gigantica at environment and in other hosts.


Subject(s)
Acanthaceae/parasitology , Animals , Buffaloes/parasitology , Fasciola/anatomy & histology , Gallbladder/parasitology , Larva/anatomy & histology , Life Cycle Stages , Mice , Microscopy , Oryza/parasitology , Time Factors
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130559

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate the life history, morphology, and maturation of larval stages and adult worms of Fasciola gigantica in experimental mice. Lymnaea auricularia rubiginosa was used as the intermediate host, and Oryza sativa was used for encystment of the metacercariae, while Mus musculus was used as the definitive host for maturation study. Fresh eggs from the gall bladder of water buffaloes fully developed into embryonated ones and hatched out at days 11-12 after incubation at about 29masculineC. Free-swimming miracidia rapidly penetrated into the snail host, and gradually developed into the next larval stages; sporocyst, redia, and daughter redia with cercariae. Fully-developed cercariae were separated from the redia and shed from the snails on day 39 post-infection (PI). Free-swimming cercariae were immediately allowed to adhere to rice plants, and capsules were constructed to protect metacercariae on rice plants. Juvenile worms were detected in intestines of mice at days 3 and 6 PI, but they were found in the bile duct from day 9 PI. Juvenile and adult flukes were recovered from 16 mice experimentally infected with metacercariae, with the average recovery rate of 35.8%. Sexually mature adult flukes were recovered from day 42 PI. It could be confirmed that experimentally encysted metacercariae could infect and develop to maturity in the experimental host. The present study reports for the first time the complete life history of F. gigantica by an experimental study in Thailand. The obtained information can be used as a guide for prevention, elimination, and treatment of F. gigantica at environment and in other hosts.


Subject(s)
Acanthaceae/parasitology , Animals , Buffaloes/parasitology , Fasciola/anatomy & histology , Gallbladder/parasitology , Larva/anatomy & histology , Life Cycle Stages , Mice , Microscopy , Oryza/parasitology , Time Factors
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(4): 548-553, Oct.-Dec. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-698003

ABSTRACT

Anthelmintic resistance is an increasing problem that threatens livestock production worldwide. Understanding of the genetic basis of benzimidazole resistance recently allowed the development of promising molecular diagnostic tools. In this study, isolates of Haemonchus contortus obtained from goats, sheep and buffaloes raised in Brazil were screened for presence of the polymorphism Phe200Tyr in the β-tubulin 1 gene, which confers resistance to benzimidazole. The allelic frequency of the mutation conferring resistance ranged from 7% to 43%, and indicated that resistance to benzimidazole could be found in nematodes isolated from all the ruminant species surveyed. Although significant variation in the frequency of the F200Y mutation was observed between different herds or host species, no significant variation could be found in populations isolated from animals within the same herd. These findings suggest that screening of samples from a few animals has the potential to provide information about the benzimidazole resistance status of the entire herd, which would enable a considerable reduction in the costs of diagnosis for the producer. Molecular diagnosis has practical advantages, since it can guide the choice of anthelmintic drug that will be used, before its application in the herd, thus reducing the economic losses driven by anthelmintic resistance.


A resistência aos anti-helmínticos é um problema crescente que ameaça a produção pecuária em todo o mundo. A compreensão da base genética da resistência ao benzimidazol permitiu, recentemente, o desenvolvimento de métodos diagnósticos moleculares promissores. Neste estudo, isolados de Haemonchus contortus obtidos a partir de rebanhos de caprinos, ovinos e bubalinos criados no Brasil foram avaliados quanto à presença do polimorfismo F200Y no gene da β-tubulina1, o qual confere resistência ao benzimidazol. A frequência alélica da mutação variou de 7% a 43%, indicando que a resistência ao benzimidazol pode ser encontrada em nematoides isolados a partir de todas as espécies de ruminantes pesquisadas. Embora tenha sido observada variação significativa das frequências de mutação F200Y entre rebanhos/espécies hospedeiros distintos, não foi encontrada variação significativa entre populações isoladas de animais dentro de um mesmo rebanho. Estes achados sugerem que a avaliação de amostras de alguns poucos animais tem o potencial de fornecer informações sobre o nível de resistência ao benzimidazol de todo o rebanho, possibilitando uma redução considerável dos custos de diagnóstico para o produtor. O diagnóstico molecular apresenta vantagens práticas, uma vez que pode guiar a escolha da base anti-helmíntica a ser utilizada antes da sua aplicação no rebanho, reduzindo, portanto, as perdas ocasionadas pela resistência aos fármacos anti-helmínticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , Benzimidazoles/therapeutic use , Buffaloes/parasitology , Goat Diseases/drug therapy , Goats/parasitology , Haemonchiasis/veterinary , Haemonchus/drug effects , Sheep Diseases/drug therapy , Sheep/parasitology , Drug Resistance/genetics , Goat Diseases/parasitology , Haemonchiasis/drug therapy , Haemonchiasis/parasitology , Haemonchus/genetics , Mutation , Sheep Diseases/parasitology
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(7): 847-850, jul. 2013. mapas, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-683225

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in water buffaloes of the Marajó Island, State of Pará, Brazil. We used an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA), with total antigen containing proteins outer surface, and polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), involving the use of SYBR Green based on amplification of a small fragment of the cytochrome b gene. The prevalence of positive animals in iELISA to B. bovis B. bigemina and mixed infection was 24.87% (199/800), 20.75% (166/800) and 18.75% (150/800), respectively. Using the PCR, the presence of B. bovis was detected in 15% (18/199) and B. bigemina in 16% (19/199) of animals, and of these, 58% (11/19) presented co-infected by the two agents. The results show a low prevalence of antibodies anti-B. bovis and anti-B. bigemina in water buffaloes from Marajó Island. However, it was observed that the agents of bovine babesiosis circulate in buffaloes, and these may act as reservoirs.


O objetivo do estudo foi testar a prevalência sorológica e molecular de Babesia bovis e Babesia bigemina em búfalos da Ilha de Marajó, Pará. Foi utilizado ensaio de imunoadsorção enzimático indireto (iELISA) com antígeno total contendo proteínas de superfície externa e reação em cadeia da polimerase (qPCR), envolvendo o uso de SYBR Green com base na amplificação de um pequeno fragmento de gene do citocromo b. A prevalência de animais positivos no ELISA para B. bovis, B. bigemina e para infecção mista foi de 24.87% (199/800), 20.75% (166/800) e 18.75% (150/800), respectivamente. Na PCR foi detectado a presença de B. bovis em 15% (18/199) e de B. bigemina em 16% (19/199) dos animais, sendo que destes, 58% (11/19) apresentavam-se co-infectados pelos dois agentes. Os resultados mostram uma baixa prevalência de anticorpos anti-B. bovis e anti-B. bigemina em búfalos da Ilha do Marajó. Porém, observou-se que os agentes da babesiose bovina circulam em búfalos, podendo estes atuar como reservatórios.


Subject(s)
Animals , Babesia bovis , Buffaloes/parasitology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Prevalence , Immunosorbent Techniques
10.
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2011; 41 (1): 55-64
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-110691

ABSTRACT

In the present study, 560 buffaloes from a private animal farm in Giza Governorate were examined over one year for scabies infestation. The results showed that 466 Buffaloes [83.2%] were infested with two mange mites; Psoroptes natalensis and Sarcoptes scabiei. The highest prevalence rate of infestation was during winter [90.4%], and lowest was in summer [71.4%]. The infestation on females was 90.4%, while on males was 80.8%. The mites were predominant on the withers, lumber, back, croup and the external angle of ilium. Buffaloes more than five years old were highly infested than smaller ones, but no mite's infestation were detected in those less than one year


Subject(s)
Animals , Mite Infestations/complications , Buffaloes/parasitology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222441

ABSTRACT

We report 2 cases of Thelazia rhodesii infection in the African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, in Zambia. African buffalo calves were captured from the livestock and wildlife interface area of the Kafue basin in the dry season of August 2005 for the purpose to translocate to game ranches. At capture, calves (n=48) were examined for the presence of eye infections by gently manipulating the orbital membranes to check for eye-worms in the conjunctival sacs and corneal surfaces. Two (4.3%) were infected and the mean infection burden per infected eye was 5.3 worms (n=3). The mean length of the worms was 16.4 mm (95% CI; 14.7-18.2 mm) and the diameter 0.41 mm (95% CI; 0.38-0.45 mm). The surface cuticle was made of transverse striations which gave the worms a characteristic serrated appearance. Although the calves showed signs of kerato-conjunctivitis, the major pathological change observed was corneal opacity. The calves were kept in quarantine and were examined thrice at 30 days interval. At each interval, they were treated with 200 microg/kg ivermectin, and then translocated to game ranches. Given that the disease has been reported in cattle and Kafue lechwe (Kobus lechwe kafuensis) in the area, there is a need for a comprehensive study which aims at determining the disease dynamics and transmission patterns of thelaziasis between wildlife and livestock in the Kafue basin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Buffaloes/parasitology , Eye Diseases/drug therapy , Spirurida Infections/drug therapy , Thelazioidea/isolation & purification , Zambia
12.
Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2009; 19 (71): 60-69
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-111960

ABSTRACT

India and Iran are an important endemic focus of cystic hydatid disease [CHD], where several species of intermediate host are commonly infected with Echinococcus granulosus. Strain characterization of E. granulosus is significant for the development of an effective control programme and to asses the infectivity. In present study, genetic variations in tapeworms causing cystic echinococcosis in the North of India and Iran were investigated and compared. Isolates of E. granulosus were collected from buffalo [India] and sheep, cattle, and camel isolates from Iran. PCR linked RFLP approach of ITS1 region of rDNA. Repeat was used in the present study to characterize buffalo isolates from sheep, cattle and camel. 17 pooled samples of protoscoleces from various animals were used for DNA extraction and PCR-RFLP analysis respectively. The PCR products of each isolates were digested separately with 5 restrictive endonucleases enzymes [AluI, HhaI, MspI, TaqI and EcoRI]. Based on the PCR-ITS1 method, the buffalo [liver and lungs] isolates have shown different genotypes and the sheep, cattle and camel isolates appeared to have the same genotype. The RFLP patterns of buffalo lung isolates differed from liver isolates with Taq1 and Hha1, however, showed a similarity with Msp1, EcoR1 and Alu1. Furthermore, differences in numbers and sizes of bands were also observed between buffalo, sheep and camel isolates with Taq1 and Msp1. The sheep and camel isolates differ in the number and sizes of fragments with Msp1 and Taq1. The buffalo lung isolate were quite different from other isolates, with the liver isolate showing a similarity with the sheep isolate. RFLP pattern of isolates from sheep and camel origin was identical, along with the same patterns. Moreover, the existence of buffalo strains [G1 and G3] and sheep strain [G1] were confirmed and our results support the previous studies in Northern India and Iran. These results are relevant for the possibility of transmission of G1 and G3 genotype, between livestock, animals and humans. It can be speculated that buffalo lung isolates represent G3 genotype and liver isolate as G1 genotype. Further, the existence of sheep [G1] strain was also confirmed in Iran by this study. However, more molecular studies, particularly, mitochondrial gene and amino acid sequencing are required, which can provide valuable data for a better understanding of the differences between different cysts localization


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation , Sheep/parasitology , Cattle/parasitology , Camelus/parasitology , Buffaloes/parasitology , Genotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2009; 38 (4): 132-135
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-93592

ABSTRACT

Fasciolosis is a well known parasitic disease of animals with public health importance. In Rasht and Bandar- Anzali, in Gilan Province, where experienced two large human fasciolosis outbreaks, no update information is available on animal fasciolosis. Paucity of information on animal fasciolosis in these regions and its possible impacts on human fasciolosis called us for carrying out this study. During 2005, coprologic surveys using flotation method were applied to fecal samples of 156 stray cattle, 171 calves, 178 sheep, 85 buffaloes, 79 horses and 10 samples from 10 different preserved animal manure collections to detect Fasciola egg. Fecal samples of 32% of sheep, 32.1% of cattle, 0% of calves, 17% of buffaloes, 50% of horses and 100% of animal manure samples harbored Fasciola egg. The mean intensity of Fasciola egg per gram of feces [EPG] was low [0-13]. Fasciolosis was very prevalent among animals in studied regions. Because sheep breeding is not a common practice in Rasht and Bandar -Anzali and horse population is low, cattle and to a lesser extent buffalo were the predominant reservoir hosts of infection. Regular treatment of all animals with an effective flukicide and sanitation of animal manure through its preservation for two month should be applied in order to reduce the level of infection in animals, water, wild and cultivated vegetables and consequently human beings


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Parasitic Diseases , Disease Outbreaks , Buffaloes/parasitology , Cattle/parasitology , Manure
14.
Journal of Veterinary Research. 2009; 64 (3): 249-251
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-93804

ABSTRACT

The infection of food animals to hydatid cyst is a concern from economic and public health stand points. In this survey, the prevalence of hydatid cysts was studied in 547 buffaloes slaughtered at the slaughterhouse in Urmia. Samples from 58 cases [10.6%] were infected to hydatid cysts. The infection rates of lung and liver were 45 cases [77.5%] and 37 cases [63.7%], respectively, while each heart and kidney samples, 1 case [1.7%] was found infected. Also, 24 buffaloes [41.3%] were infected both in lung and liver. However, none of the buffaloes studied had the spleen infected to hydatid cyst. The maximum cysts in the infected lungs and livers were 52 and 81, respectively. The minimum cysts in lungs and livers was 1. The average numbers cysts in the infected lungs and livers were number of 5.11 and 3.87, respectively In the only case, related to heart and kidney, there were 1 and 2 cysts respectively. Considering the prevalence rate, the results obtained from the statistical analysis did not show any significant difference between male and female sexes, whereas a significant statistical relation was observed between the age of buffaloes and the prevalence rate [p<0.05]. The age group above 5 years showed the highest level of infection. In this survey, there was no significant difference in the intensity of infection to hydatid cysts in males comparing to that of females. But a significant difference was found between the intensity of infection in age groups below 2.5 years and the ones above 5 years [p<0.05]. In conclusion, the results revealed high infection to hydatid cyst in Iranian buffaloes, so more attention of related control organizations seems to be needed


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Animals , Buffaloes/parasitology , Abattoirs , Severity of Illness Index , Prevalence , Echinococcus
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-32123

ABSTRACT

Linguatula serrata Frohlich, 1789 is an aberrant endoparasite of occasional zoonotic importance in humans. We report the prevalence of encapsulated nymphal stages of L. serrata in domestic ruminants surveyed in Wayanad, located in Kerala State, South India. Large and small intestine mesentery were examined from 100 goats, cattle and buffaloes each revealing an infection prevalence of 21, 19, and 8%, respectively. The prevalence of L. serrata infection among ruminants is higher than previous reports from India and indicates a strong focus of infection in herbivorous domesticated mammals of South India. The potential importance of these findings to human health is discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Domestic , Arthropods , Buffaloes/parasitology , Cattle/parasitology , Goats/parasitology , India/epidemiology , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/parasitology , Prevalence
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 59(6): 1589-1592, dez. 2007. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-476138

ABSTRACT

The species of microhimenopterous in pupae of Diptera present in buffalo dung, collected in the municipality of Itumbiara, GO, from May 2003 to June 2004 were determined. The dipterous pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergence of the dipterous and/or their parasitoids. The overall percentage of parasitism was 5.0 percent. The more frequent species were: Spalangia drosophilae Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) with 21.5 percent and Paraganaspis egeria Díaz & Gallardo (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) with 16.3 percent


Subject(s)
Animals , Buffaloes/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Myiasis/prevention & control , Myiasis/veterinary
17.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2007 Oct; 44(5): 379-85
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-26744

ABSTRACT

Filariasis is a major health problem, affecting millions of people in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The isolation and characterization of parasite-specific enzyme targets is essential for developing effective control measures against filariasis. Acetylcholinesterase (AchE, E.C. 3.1.1.7), an important enzyme of neuromuscular transmission is found in a number of helminths including filarial parasites and may be playing a role in host-parasite interactions. Earlier, we demonstrated the presence of two isozymes of AchE, different from the host enzyme in the human (Brugia malayi) and bovine (Setaria cervi) filarial parasites. In the present study, two isozymes of AchE (pAchE1 and pAchE2) were isolated from S. cervi adults and characterized biochemically and immunochemically. The AchE was partially purified on Con-A Sepharose column and then subjected to preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for separation of the isozymes. The AchE activity was localized by the staining of gel and the isozymes were isolated from the PAGE strips by electroelution. Both isozymes preferentially utilized acetylcholine iodide as substrate and were strongly inhibited by the true AchE inhibitor (BW284c51), suggesting that they were true AchE. The polyclonal antibodies produced against the isozymes showed significant cross-reactivity with B. malayi AchE, but not against the host enzyme. These findings suggested that both the isozymes were biochemically (in terms of their substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity) and immunochemically similar, but different from the host enzyme.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/chemistry , Animals , Buffaloes/parasitology , Enzyme Activation , Enzyme Stability , Female , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Isoenzymes/chemistry , Male , Setaria Nematode/enzymology , Substrate Specificity
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 57(supl.2): 273-274, set. 2005.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-432026

ABSTRACT

This study is the first report of the occurrence of Paraganaspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae) as parasitoid of Archisepsis scabra (Loew) (Diptera: Sepsidae) in buffalo dung in Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil. The samples were collected and taken to the laboratory for pupa extraction by water flotation technique. The pupae were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adults flies or their parasitoids. The parasitism percentage was 3.4.


Subject(s)
Animals , Buffaloes/parasitology , Parasitic Diseases/epidemiology , Feces/parasitology , Pest Control, Biological , Parasites/isolation & purification
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-35839

ABSTRACT

We have shown previously that anti-fecundity immunity can be induced experimentally against recombinant 26 kDa glutathione S-transferase (reSjc26GST) in Chinese water buffaloes (Bos buffelus), important reservoir hosts for Schistosoma japonicum in China. In the field study described here, we immunized buffaloes with reSjc26GST to induce protective immunity against S. japonicum and to evaluate its effectiveness in controlling schistosomiasis japonica. We selected two villages as test and control groups in inside-embankment areas endemic for schistosomiasis japonica. The buffaloes in the test village were vaccinated with reSjc26GST, whereas those in the control village were not. The indicators of the effect of the vaccine included the generation of specific IgG antibodies in the vaccinated buffaloes, changes in the prevalence and infection intensity in buffaloes and village children, changes in the density of infected snails, and changes in the infectivity of water bodies (assessed by sentinel mice) in transmission areas adjacent to both villages. Twenty months after vaccination, the infection rate of buffaloes in the test village was decreased by 60.4% (from an initial prevalence of 13.5% to 5.4%), and 67.9% when compared with that in the control village (initial prevalence of 16.7%). However, the infection rate in village children remained unchanged. The density of infected snails decreased by 71.4%, from 0.0049/0.11 m2 to 0.0014/0.11m2 in the high transmission area outside the embankment in the test village. There was no change in the infectivity of the water body transmission areas between the test and control villages. The levels of specific antibodies to reSjc26GST showed a continuous increase after vaccination. These results indicate that protective immunity was induced and maintained in buffaloes after vaccination with reSjc26GST. The vaccine could thus play a significant role in reducing S. japonicum transmission caused by water buffaloes in the Lake region of China.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Helminth/blood , Antigens, Helminth/immunology , Buffaloes/parasitology , China/epidemiology , Disease Reservoirs , Fertility/immunology , Glutathione Transferase/immunology , Humans , Prevalence , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Schistosoma japonicum/immunology , Schistosomiasis japonica/epidemiology , Snails/parasitology , Vaccination/veterinary , Vaccines, Synthetic , Water/parasitology
20.
Parasitol. latinoam ; 58(3/4): 169-172, jul. 2003.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-383498

ABSTRACT

We examined 482 livers, 377 from cattle and 105 from buffaloes slaughtered at a meat packing plant between April 1999 and November 1999, in Viamão, a town in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil. The cattle slaughtered at the meat packing plant belonged to eleven towns: Cachoeira do Sul, Cachoeirinha, Capivari do Sul, Charqueadas, Encruzilhada do Sul, Ibiraiaras, Palmares do Sul, Pantâno Grande, Rio Pardo, Tupanciretã and Viamão. The buffaloes belonged to the following towns: Encruzilhada do Sul, Ibiraiaras, Parobé, Santo Antônio da Patrulha, and Uruguaiana. The occurrence rate of Fasciola hepatica was 10.34 per cent for cattle in seven of the eleven towns included in the study (63.6 per cent) and 20 per cent for buffaloes in four of the five towns (80 per cent). In terms of age, the occurrence rate was 81 per cent for buffaloes with up to two years of life and 19 per cent for buffaloes older than two years. The livestock from Cachoeira do Sul, Capivari do Sul, Ibiraiaras and Tupanciretã were not infected with bovine fascioliasis, and the buffaloes from Uruguaiana were not infected either. The studied areas may represent important endemic regions to fasciolosis, showing that zoonotic areas should be investigated.


Subject(s)
Cattle , Buffaloes/parasitology , Fasciola hepatica , Fascioliasis , Brazil , Feces
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