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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888184


Indolealkylamines(IAAs) are the main hydrophilic substances in toad skin, mainly including free N-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, bufotenine, bufotenidine, dehydrobufotenine, and binding bufothionine. In this study, the LPS-activated neutrophils were used to investigate the structure-activity relationship and anti-inflammatory mechanism of the above-mentioned five monomers from the toad skin in vitro. The neutrophils were divided into the control group, model group(1 μg·mL~(-1) LPS), positive drug group(100 μg·mL~(-1) indometacin), as well as the low-(50 μg·mL~(-1)), medium-(100 μg·mL~(-1)) and high-dose(200 μg·mL~(-1)) free N-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, bufotenine, bufotenidine, dehydrobufotenine, and binding bufothionine groups. The levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β in the neutrophil supernatant of each group was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) after LPS stimulation, followed by the detection of apoptosis in each group after Annexin V/PI staining. The protein expression levels of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, beclin1, LC3-I, and LC3-Ⅱ were assayed by Western blot. The results showed that IAAs reduced the excessive secretion of inflammatory cytokines caused by LPS compared with the model group. Besides, the activity of each free IAAs(N-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, bufotenine, bufotenidine and dehydrobufotenine), especially bufotenine, was stronger than that of the binding bufothionine. As revealed by Annexin V/PI staining, LPS delayed the early apoptosis of neutrophils compared with the control group, while bufotenine promoted the apoptosis of neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner, which might be related to the elevated expression of apoptosis-related protein Bax/Bcl-2. In addition, LPS activated the autophagy pathways in neutrophils. This study confirmed the efficacy of IAAs in reducing the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in neutrophils induced by LPS for the first time. For instance, bufotenine exerts the anti-inflammatory effect possibly by inducing the apoptosis of neutrophils.

Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Bufonidae , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Neutrophils , Skin
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888004


Bufonis Venenum,the dried secretion of Bufo bufo gargarizans or B. melanostictus,is toxic and hard with the efficacy of removing toxicity for detumescence and relieving pain. The processing of Bufonis Venenum dates back to the Song dynasty. In addition to the wine-processing,milk-processing and talcum powder-processing,there were some other kinds of processing methods in ancient times,such as baking,calcining,water-soaking and vinegar-processing. Modern studies have shown that the Bufonis Venenum has the main chemical components of bufadienolides,indole alkaloids sterols,and other compounds. It has the pharmacological effects of antitumor,cardiac,antibacterial,and analgesic activities,local anesthesia,and so on. This paper reviews the processing evolution,chemical components and pharmacological effects of Bufonis Venenum,providing references for its special processing and modern research as well as the theoretical basis for the research on its processing mechanism and quality control.

Animals , Bufanolides/pharmacology , Bufonidae , Quality Control
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200073, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1154769


he resistance against antimalarial drugs represents a global challenge in the fight and control of malaria. The Brazilian biodiversity can be an important tool for research and development of new medicinal products. In this context, toxinology is a multidisciplinary approach on the development of new drugs, including the isolation, purification, and evaluation of the pharmacological activities of natural toxins. The present study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity, as well as the antimalarial activity in silico and in vitro of four compounds isolated from Rhinella marina venom as potential oral drug prototypes. Methods: Four compounds were challenged against 35 target proteins from P. falciparum and screened to evaluate their physicochemical properties using docking assay in Brazilian Malaria Molecular Targets (BraMMT) software and in silico assay in OCTOPUS® software. The in vitro antimalarial activity of the compounds against the 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum clones were assessed using the SYBR Green I based assay (IC50). For the cytotoxic tests, the LD50 was determined in human pulmonary fibroblast cell line using the [3(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay. Results: All compounds presented a ligand-receptor interaction with ten Plasmodium falciparum-related protein targets, as well as antimalarial activity against chloroquine resistant strain (IC50 = 3.44 µM to 19.11 µM). Three of them (dehydrobufotenine, marinobufagin, and bufalin) showed adequate conditions for oral drug prototypes, with satisfactory prediction of absorption, permeability, and absence of toxicity. In the cell viability assay, only dehydrobufotenin was selective for the parasite. Conclusions: Dehydrobufotenin revealed to be a potential oral drug prototype presenting adequate antimalarial activity and absence of cytotoxicity, therefore should be subjected to further studies.(AU)

Bufanolides/administration & dosage , Bufonidae , Biodiversity , Malaria/immunology , Antimalarials , In Vitro Techniques , Computer Simulation
Acta amaz ; 49(2): 145-151, abr. - jun. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1119166


The skin secretion from toads of the Bufonidae family has great potential in the search for new active compounds to be used as drug candidates in treating some diseases, among them cancer. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic activity of the parotoid gland secretion extracts of Rhinella marina and Rhaebo guttatus, as well as biochemically analyze transaminases and serum creatinine for liver and renal damage, respectively. Cytotoxicity was performed by the colorimetric method based on MTT (3- [4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) with different concentrations of the extracts in Walker or splenic tumor cell cultures from rats and mice. The micronucleus test was performed with male Swiss mice treated orally with the extracts for 15 days, and then intraperitoneally with N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea (50 mg kg-1). Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) were evaluated in bone marrow. The extracts showed cytotoxic activity in the evaluated cells. There was a significant reduction in the frequency of MNPCE (R. marina = 56% and R. guttatus = 75%, p < 0.001), indicating antimutagenic potential of the extracts. The groups treated only with extract showed an increase in MNPCE frequency, evidencing mutagenic potential. Biochemical analyzes showed no significant difference between treatments. Thus, under our experimental conditions, the extracts of R. marina and R. guttatus skin secretions presented chemopreventive potential for cancer. (AU)

A secreção cutânea de anuros da família Bufonidae tem grande potencial na busca de novos compostos ativos para utilização como fármacos candidatos no tratamento de algumas doenças, entre elas o câncer. Neste contexto, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade citotóxica e antimutagênica dos extratos da secreção da glândula parótida de Rhinella marina e Rhaebo guttatus, bem como a análise bioquímica de transaminases e creatinina séricas, para avaliar dano hepático e renal, respectivamente. A avaliação de citotoxicidade foi realizada pelo método colorimétrico baseado no MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide), com diferentes concentrações dos extratos em culturas de células do Tumor de Walker ou células esplênicas de rato e camundongo. O teste do micronúcleo foi realizado com camundongos Swiss machos que receberam tratamento oral com os extratos durante 15 dias, seguido de tratamento intraperitoneal com N-etil-N-nitrosuréia (50 mg kg-1). A frequência de eritrócitos policromáticos micronucleados (PCEMN) foi determinada em medula óssea. Os extratos apresentaram ação citotóxica nas células avaliadas. Houve uma redução significativa na frequência de PCEMN (R. marina = 56% e R. guttatus = 75%, p < 0,001), observando-se um potencial antimutagênico dos extratos. Os grupos tratados somente com os extratos apresentaram um aumento na frequência de PCEMNs, evidenciando um potencial mutagênico. As análises bioquímicas não apresentaram diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Assim, nas condições experimentais testadas, as secreções cutâneas de R. marina e R. guttatus apresentaram potencial quimiopreventivo para câncer.(AU)

Animals , Mice , Bufonidae/physiology , Antimutagenic Agents/analysis , Cytotoxins/analysis , Parotid Gland/chemistry , Chemoprevention/veterinary , Bioprospecting
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 25: e20190029, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1020025


Bufonid parotoid macrogland secretion contains several low molecular mass molecules, such as alkaloids and steroids. Nevertheless, its protein content is poorly understood. Herein, we applied a sample preparation methodology that allows the analysis of viscous matrices in order to examine its proteins. Methods: Duttaphrynus melanostictus parotoid macrogland secretion was submitted to ion-exchange batch sample preparation, yielding two fractions: salt-displaced fraction and acid-displaced fraction. Each sample was then fractionated by anionic-exchange chromatography, followed by in-solution proteomic analysis. Results: Forty-two proteins could be identified, such as acyl-CoA-binding protein, alcohol dehydrogenase, calmodulin, galectin and histone. Moreover, de novo analyses yielded 153 peptides, whereas BLAST analyses corroborated some of the proteomic-identified proteins. Furthermore, the de novo peptide analyses indicate the presence of proteins related to apoptosis, cellular structure, catalysis and transport processes. Conclusions: Proper sample preparation allowed the proteomic and de novo identification of different proteins in the D. melanostictus parotoid macrogland secretion. These results may increase the knowledge about the universe of molecules that compose amphibian skin secretion, as well as to understand their biological/physiological role in the granular gland.(AU)

Animals , Steroids , Bufonidae/parasitology , Proteomics , Alkaloids
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(3): 390-395, July-Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042480


Abstract Although a group of soft ticks (Argasidae) associated with amphibians was recently discovered in Brazilian rainforests, parasitism by these ticks on cold-blooded animals remains less common than on mammal and bird species. In this study, we identified ticks that were collected from toads that had been caught in December 2016 and January 2017, at Itinguçú waterfall (22°54'05" S; 43°53'30" W) in the municipality of Itaguaí, state of Rio de Janeiro. Tick specimens were identified using a morphological and molecular approach. In total, twelve larvae of Ornithodoros ticks were collected from three individuals of Rhinella ornata and were identified as Ornithodoros faccinii. Our results include a longer 16S rRNA mitochondrial sequence for O. faccinii that supports its phylogenetic relatedness to Ornithodoros saraivai, and we report this tick species parasitizing Rhinella toads for the first time in Brazil.

Resumo Embora um grupo de carrapatos moles (Argasidae) associado a anfíbios tenha sido recentemente descoberto nas florestas brasileiras, o parasitismo por esses carrapatos em animais de sangue frio permanece menos comum do que nas espécies de mamíferos e aves. Neste estudo, identificamos carrapatos que foram coletados de sapos capturados em dezembro de 2016 e janeiro de 2017, na cachoeira de Itinguçú (22°54'05" S; 43°53'30" W) no município de Itaguaí, estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os espécimes de carrapatos foram identificados usando uma abordagem morfológica e molecular. No total, doze larvas de carrapatos Ornithodoros foram coletadas de três indivíduos de Rhinella ornata e foram identificadas como Ornithodoros faccinii. Nossos resultados incluem uma maior seqüência mitocondrial 16S rRNA para O. faccinii que suporta sua relação filogenética com Ornithodoros saraivai e relatamos esta espécie de carrapato parasitando sapos Rhinella pela primeira vez no Brasil.

Animals , Tick Infestations/parasitology , Bufonidae/parasitology , Ornithodoros/genetics , Phylogeny , Brazil , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Ornithodoros/anatomy & histology , Ornithodoros/classification
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(6): 579-582, June 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766187


We sampled ticks from specimens of the rococo toad Rhinella schneideriby flannel dragging on two Islands located in the São Francisco River near the Três Marias hydroelectric dam, southeastern Brazil. A total of 120 toads was examined, of which 63 (52.5%) were parasitized only by Amblyomma rotundatumtotaling 96 larvae, 163 nymphs and 134 females. The burden of parasitism ranged from one to 43 ticks, with a mean intensity of infestation of 6.2±5.5 ticks per host. The tick A. rotundatumexhibited highly aggregated distribution. Peak abundance of larvae and nymphs occurred in the dry season (May to September), whereas peak abundance of females occurred in the wet season (October to April). We collected most ticks near the head and hind limbs of R. schneideri. The finding of two engorged A. rotundatumnymphs in the same resting places of two toads and the absence of this species in the dragged areas suggest a nidicolous behavior at the studied site.

Sapos da espécie Rhinella schneideri foram capturados e examinados para coleta das fases parasitárias, assim como arrasto de flanela para coleta das fases de vida livres de carrapatos em duas ilhas localizadas no rio São Francisco , próximas à represa Três Marias, região sudeste do Brasil. No total, 120 indivíduos foram examinados, dos quais 63 (52,5%) estavam parasitados por Amblyomma rotundatum totalizando 96 larvas, 163 ninfas e 134 fêmeas. A abundância do parasitismo variou de 1 a 43 carrapatos, com uma intensidade média de infestação de 6,2±5,5 carrapatos/hospedeiro. A infestação por A. rotundatumapresentou uma distribuição altamente agregada. O pico de abundância de larvas e ninfas ocorreu na estação seca (maio a setembro), enquanto o pico de abundância de fêmeas ocorreu na estação chuvosa (outubro a abril). A maioria dos carrapatos foi coletada na região da cabeça e membros posteriores. A presença de duas ninfas ingurgitadas de A. rotundatum nos mesmos lugares de descanso de dois sapos e a ausência desta espécie na coleta por arrasto de flanela sugere um comportamento nidicola no local estudado.

Animals , Bufonidae/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Parasite Load/veterinary , Parasitic Diseases/parasitology , Hemorrhage/veterinary , Weight Loss
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320806


Toad venom is the Bufo bufo gargarizans or B. melanostictus after the ears of the gland secretion, used in the treatment of various cancers in recent years. Research shows that the main anti-tumor components in bufadienolide. Bufadienolide have free type structure and conjunct type structure. To identify and clarify the difference between bufogenin and bufotoxin contained in Bufonis Venenum, which was from B. bufo gargarizans, an UPLC-TQ-MS method has been established. UPLC-TQ-MS method was used to identify and quantify the major bufadienolides in Bufonis Venenum. UPLC-TQ-MS assay with positive ion mode was performed on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C, (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.7 µm) with the mobile phase consisting of 0. 1% aqueous formic and acidacetonitrile in gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL · min⁻¹ and the column temperature was set at 35 °C. By comparing their retention time and high resolution mass data of Bufonis Venenum extracts, 37 effective components were primarily identified by MS/MS analysis in positive ion mode. Twenty-six of them were free-type bufadienolides (bufogenin), 11 of them were conjugated bufadienolides. There were significant differences in the main composition between fresh and processed Bufonis Venenum. The study found that the chemical composition of toad venom through great changes after processing, conjunct type content is much less, free type content as well change.

Amphibian Venoms , Chemistry , Metabolism , Animals , Bufonidae , Classification , Metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Molecular Structure , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Methods
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 21: 25, 31/03/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-954750


Background The skin secretions of toads of the family Bufonidae contain biogenic amines, alkaloids, steroids (bufotoxins), bufodienolides (bufogenin), peptides and proteins. The poison of Rhinella schneideri, formerly classified as Bufo paracnemis, presents components that act on different biological systems, including the complement system. The aim of this study was to isolate and examine the activity ofRhinella schneideri poison (RsP) components on the complement system.Methods The components active on the complement system were purified in three chromatographic steps, using a combination of cation-exchange, anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The resulting fractions were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and screened for their activity in the hemolytic assay of the classical/lectin complement pathways. Fractions active on the complement system were also assessed for their ability to generate C3 fragments evaluated by two dimensional immunoelectrophoresis assay, C3a and C5a by neutrophil chemotaxis assay and SC5b-9 complex by ELISA assay.Results The fractionation protocol was able to isolate the component S5 from theRsP, as demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and the RP-FPLC profile. S5 is a protein of about 6000 Da, while S2 presents components of higher molecular mass (40,000 to 50,000 Da). Fractions S2 and S5 attenuated the hemolytic activity of the classical/lectin pathways after preincubation with normal human serum. Both components stimulated complement-dependent neutrophil chemotaxis and the production of C3 fragments, as shown by two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis. S2 showed a higher capacity to generate the SC5b- 9 complex than the other fractions. This action was observed after the exposure of normal human serum to the fractions.Conclusions This is the first study to examine the activity of RsP components on the complement system. Fractions S2 and S5 reduced the complement hemolytic activity, stimulated complement-dependent neutrophil chemotaxis and stimulated the production of C3 fragments, indicating that they were able to activate the complement cascade. Furthermore, fraction S2 was also able to generate the SC5b-9 complex. These components may be useful tools for studying dysfunction of the complement cascade.(AU)

Animals , Poisons , Biological Products , Bufonidae , Chemotaxis
Braz. j. biol ; 74(2): 438-443, 5/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719226


Life tables and survival curves of tadpoles from Rhinella icterica species were studied in the laboratory, under abiotic conditions controlled by a purification filter, a timer and a chiller. The survival curve for larval stage confirms a great mortality trend in the initial stages, which decreases when reaching the mature morphological condition (r = –0.94). Stages 37, 38, 39, 40 and 41 showed gradual values for their age structures, while stages 42, 43 and 44 presented high variations. Based on the results under laboratory conditions, it can be concluded that the maturity of R. icterica tadpoles development between 37 and 44 stages has a negative correlation and their predicted life expectancy is a logarithmic growth curve (y=–761.96Ln(x)+5298.5).

Tabelas de vida e curvas de sobrevivência em estágios larvais de girinos da espécie Rhinella icterica foram estudadas em laboratório, sob condições abióticas controladas com uso de filtro de depuração, timer e chiller. A curva de sobrevivência por estágio larval confirma a tendência de maior mortalidade para os estágios iniciais e menor mortalidade para o avanço da condição morfológica madura (r = –0,94). Os estágios 37, 38, 39, 40 e 41 apresentaram valores gradativos para sua estrutura etária, enquanto nos estágios 42, 43 e 44 ocorreram variações acentuadas. Com base nos resultados obtidos, nas condições de laboratório, pode-se concluir que a maturidade de desenvolvimento de girinos de R. icterica entre os estágios 37 e 44, apresenta correlação negativa e a predição de esperança de vida a uma curva logarítmica de crescimento (y=–761,96Ln(x)+5298,5).

Animals , Bufonidae/physiology , Longevity/physiology , Bufonidae/classification , Bufonidae/growth & development , Laboratories , Models, Biological
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1446-1450, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299113


To identify the active components in Bufo melanostictus Schneider and clarify the difference between fresh and dried Venenum Bufonis, a UPLC-Orbitrap MS method has been established. The separation was performed with gradient elution of acetonitrile and water (with 0.1% formic acid) as mobile phase. By comparing their retention time and high resolution mass data of Venenum Bufonis extracts, 39 effective components were primarily identified by MS/MS analysis in positive ion mode. Twenty-six of them were bufadienolides. There were significant differences in the main composition between fresh and dried Venenum Bufonis. There are fewer bufadienolides in fresh toad venom.

Amphibian Venoms , Chemistry , Animals , Bufanolides , Chemistry , Bufonidae , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Int. j. morphol ; 31(2): 681-686, jun. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-687124


Morphometry structure of Sicilian green toad from the Nature Reserve "Monte Pellegrino" (north-western Sicily) was studied. A total of 666 individuals (354 males and 312 females) were captured in 2003 during reproduction period. Meaningful differences have statistically emerged among the two sexes and the body weight is the best parameter (up to 92 percent correct classification), followed by the length of the body (up to 90 percent correct classification). The simultaneous use of all the examined characters only increases of 1percent the probability for correct discrimination of the sex. In comparison to the dimension of other green toad populations studied by other authors, the body size of this sicilian population results elevated, similar to that of Corsica and of Sardinia. It is possible that the high dimension of the Sicilian population is the result of low competition with other amphibians species and/or to the absence of a winter latency.

Se realizó un estudio morfométrico de la estructura del sapo verde siciliano de la Reserva Natural "Monte Pellegrino" (norte-oeste de Sicilia). Un total de 666 individuos (354 machos y 312 hembras) fueron capturados desde el año 2003 durante la época de reproducción. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los dos sexos, donde el peso corporal fue el mejor parámetro (hasta 92 por ciento de clasificación correcta), seguido por la longitud corporal (hasta 90 por ciento de clasificación correcta). El uso simultáneo de todos los caracteres examinados solo aumentó un 1 por ciento la probabilidad de una correcta discriminación del sexo. En comparación con la dimensión de otras poblaciones de sapos verdes estudiados por otros autores, el tamaño del cuerpo de esta población siciliana resulta elevado, similar a las poblaciones de Córcega y Cerdeña. Es posible que la gran dimensión de la población siciliana pueda deberse al bajo nivel de competencia con anfibios otras especies y/o a la ausencia de una latencia de invierno.

Humans , Male , Female , Biometry , Bufonidae/anatomy & histology , Italy
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 250-254, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-235676


To study the bioactive polypeptides included in Bufo skin and its secretions the plasmid skin cDNA library of adult Japanese toad Bufo japonicus formosus was prepared. The pSD64TR has been used as the vector and the cloning sites are Xho I and EcoR I. To screen cDNAs encoding bioactive components, the plasmid cDNA library was transformed into E. coli DH5 competent cells, and positive colonies were screened by colony PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The suspension of a single colony in LB medium was used as the template, SP6 (the upstream primer of the plasmid cDNA library) and a primer with Xho I site and polyT were used as the primers. As the result, 465 positive colonies out of 1 344 were obtained and their plasmid were collected and sequenced. By homologous analysis, it was found that one of the cDNAs encoding a peptide with high homolog with transgelin-2, which was registered in GenBank (accession number: JX197456), and it was indicated as a partial cDNA sequence with a deletion at the 5' end. The transcript is 997 bp consisting of 31 bp 5', 618 bp 3' untranslated region (UTR) and an open reading frame (ORF) of 348 bp encoding a polypeptide of 115 amino acids. In the putative protein product, there is a calponin homology domain, two cysteine residues for a disulfide bond and three a-helix domains, and five potential phosphorylation sites. The homologous analysis indicates 90% similarity with Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis and 89% with Xenopus laevis, and 71%-85% with other species.

Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Base Sequence , Bufonidae , Genetics , Metabolism , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Library , Microfilament Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Muscle Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Open Reading Frames , Phosphorylation , Phylogeny , Plasmids , Genetics , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Skin , Metabolism , Xenopus , Genetics
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1602-1610, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-298037


The aim of this study is to prepare self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) of the mixture of paeonol (Pae) and borneol (Bor). Solubility test, ternary phase diagrams and simplex lattice method were employed to screen and optimize the formulation of the mixture of Pae and Bor-loaded SMEDDS. After formed into microemulsions, the particle diameter (PD) was determined and a TEM was employed to observe the microemulsions' morphology. The contents of Pae and Bor were determined by gas chromatography. As a result, while ethyl oleate (EO) as the oil phase, cremophor EL35 (EL35) as surfactant and Transcutol HP (HP) as cosurfactant, the range of the microemulsion on the ternary phase diagram was larger than other combinations. And at a ratio of 20:45:35, the microemulsions' PD was about 34 nm and the polydispersity index (PI) was about 0.2. There were 16% of Pae, 2% of Bor, 16% of EO, 37% of EL35 and 29% of HP in the prepared SMEDDS. The preparation process of the Pae and Bor-loaded SMEDDS based on Xingbi Fang is simple and feasible. This study provides a reference for the researches on the related traditional Chinese medicine and the related components.

Acetophenones , Toxicity , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Camphanes , Toxicity , Bufonidae , Cilia , Drug Combinations , Drug Delivery Systems , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Toxicity , Emulsions , Ethylene Glycols , Chemistry , Female , Male , Nasal Mucosa , Oleic Acids , Chemistry , Particle Size , Polyethylene Glycols , Chemistry , Solubility , Surface-Active Agents , Chemistry
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1624-1628, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-298034


MCL-1 is encoded by myeloid cell leukemia-1 gene (mcl-1), which is one of the anti-apoptotic members of bcl-2 cell apoptotic gene superfamily. ChanSu is made of dorsal secretions of several Bufo species, commonly used in the prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine for treating many diseases including cancer. To clarify if mcl-1 is expressed in the dorsal skin of B. gargarizans, the PCR (polymerase chain reaction) was performed with its dorsal skin first strand cDNA as the template and a pair of specific primers of mcl-1, and PCR products were cloned into the pGM-T vector. DNA sequencing indicated that the ORF length was 639 bp encoding 212 amino acid residues, and the homology of 44%-95% with the MCL-1 of several other animals. For the further studies on MCL-1 biological functions during the oncogenesis and preparation of its antibody, the prokaryotic expression construct of pET-28b-mcl-1 was prepared which was confirmed by DNA sequencing, and its recombinant protein expression (0.02% wet weight) in E. coli BL21 (DE3) strain was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting.

Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Bufonidae , Classification , Genetics , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Complementary , Genetics , Escherichia coli , Metabolism , Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein , Genetics , Metabolism , Open Reading Frames , Genetics , Phylogeny , Recombinant Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology , Skin , Metabolism
Braz. j. biol ; 72(3): 623-629, Aug. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649354


The plasticity of the anurans' development is probably related to their great ecological and geographic diversity. Therefore, the understanding of environmental occupation by tadpoles is related to their morphological peculiarities. We evaluated the morphologic development of the larval phases 23, 25, 30, 37, 39 and 42 of Rhinella icterica with the aim of establishing the ratio of growth, the increase in corporal mass in relation to growth and the isometry of the corporal variables for each evaluated stage. We submitted the corporal variables to the Multivariate Allometry and the relation between these variables was evaluated using the Principal Components Analysis. We verified the isometric growth and correlation between the different variables, evaluated the growth according to the body mass and established the proportionality ratio between the corporal regions. Each corporal region evaluated presented a fixed proportionality ratio, regardless of the stage, and the size of this portion was found when its proportionality index was multiplied by the tadpole's total length. This study demonstrates that the larval phase of R. icterica presents an isometric growth with proportional development of the corporal parts regardless of the evaluated stage.

A plasticidade do desenvolvimento dos anuros é em razão, provavelmente, da sua grande diversidade ecológica e geográfica, além de que a compreensão da ocupação do ambiente por suas larvas está relacionada às suas peculiaridades morfológicas intra e interespecíficas. Avaliamos aqui o desenvolvimento morfológico das fases larvais 23, 25, 30, 37, 39 e 42 de Rhinella icterica, objetivando estabelecer as suas razões de crescimento, o aumento da massa em relação ao crescimento e a isometria de desenvolvimento corporal para cada estágio avaliado. Para tal, submetemos as variáveis corpóreas à Alometria Multivariada, sendo o relacionamento entre essas variáveis avaliado pela análise dos Componentes Principais. Verificamos a isometria do crescimento e a correlação entre as diversas variáveis, além de avaliarmos o crescimento em função da massa corpórea e estabelecermos a razão de proporcionalidade entre as regiões corpóreas. Cada região corpórea avaliada apresentou uma razão de proporcionalidade fixa, independente do estágio, sendo o tamanho dessa região encontrada quando seu índice de proporcionalidade era multiplicado pelo comprimento total. Este estudo demonstra que a fase larvar de R. icterica apresenta crescimento isométrico com desenvolvimento proporcional das regiões corpóreas independentemente do estágio avaliado.

Animals , Bufonidae/anatomy & histology , Bufonidae/growth & development , Larva/anatomy & histology , Larva/growth & development , Species Specificity
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 822-826, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-276237


Cinobufacini is an aqueous extract of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor dried skin, which has been widely used for cancer therapy in China. So far, its active components are still not very clear. In previous reports, bufadienolides with low-concentration were usually studied because of their anticancer effects. However, the high polarity constituents in cinobufacini are less investigated. The present study found that more than 50% contents of cinobufacini were water-soluble peptides. Then, in vitro anticancer experiments were carried out, including human stomach cancer cell lines BGC823 and MCG803, human colon cancer cell lines DLD-1 and HT-29, and human pancreatic cancer cell line MIAPACA-2. The IC50 for these cell lines model were ranged from 25-123 microgmL(-1). The results indicated that these peptides showed similar activity with cinobufacini injection. As a conclusion, this study provides a new and further understanding of anticancer components in cinobufacini injection.

Amphibian Venoms , Chemistry , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Bufonidae , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , HT29 Cells , Humans , Injections , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Peptides , Pharmacology , Skin , Chemistry
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-338067


Chemical constituents in ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of ethanol extracts from Acorus tatarinowii were separated by column chromatography. Bufo skeletal muscle fatigue model was established to study the anti-fatigue activity of separated compounds. Five compounds were separated and identified by spectroscopic analysis as acoramone(1),cycloartenone(2),2,4,5-trimethoxyl-2'-butoxy-1,2-phenyl propandiol(3),5-hydroxymethyl furfural(4), and 5-butoxymethyl furfural(5). Compound 3 was a new compound, and compounds 2 and 5 were separated from this plant for the first time. Compound 4 exhibited a notable anti-fatigue activity.

Acorus , Chemistry , Animals , Bufonidae , Fatigue , Drug Therapy , Muscle, Skeletal , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology