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1.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul. (En línea) ; 27(1): e007117, 2024. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1552325

ABSTRACT

Así como planteamos en la primera entrega de esta serie de artículos de actualización sobre la obesidad, resulta urgente revisar el abordaje tradicional que la comunidad médica le ofrece a las personas con cuerpos gordos. En este segundo artículo desarrollaremos en profundidad diferentes alternativas terapéuticas para los pacientes que desean bajar de peso:plan alimentario, actividad física, tratamiento farmacológico y cirugía metabólica. (AU)


As we proposed in the first issue of this series of articles, it is urgent to review the traditional approach that the medical community offers to people with fat bodies. This second article will develop different therapeutic alternatives for patients who want to lose weight: eating plans, physical activity, pharmacological treatment, and metabolic surgery. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Exercise , Bupropion/administration & dosage , Diet , Overweight/therapy , Bariatric Surgery , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Naltrexone/administration & dosage , Obesity/therapy , Body Mass Index , Bupropion/adverse effects , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/administration & dosage , Healthy Lifestyle , Weight Prejudice , Food, Processed , Naltrexone/adverse effects
2.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1359809

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: Duloxetina e outros antidepressivos disponíveis no Sistema Único de Saúde (amitriptilina, nortriptilina, clomipramina, fluoxetina e bupropiona). Indicação: Tratamento do primeiro episódio depressivo no transtorno de depressão maior em adultos. Pergunta: A duloxetina é mais eficaz e tolerável que a amitriptilina, nortriptilina, clomipramina, fluoxetina e bupropiona para o tratamento do primeiro episódio de depressão maior em adultos? Métodos: Revisão rápida de evidências (overview) de revisões sistemáticas, com levantamento bibliográfico realizado na base de dados PUBMED, utilizando estratégia estruturada de busca. A qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas foi avaliada com AMSTAR-2 (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews). Resultados: Foi selecionada 1 revisão sistemática, que atendia aos critérios de inclusão. Conclusão: Os antidepressivos, comparados ao placebo, tinham maior taxa de resposta, taxa de remissão e taxa de descontinuação devido a efeitos colaterais, no tratamento de curto prazo. Duloxetina tinha taxa de resposta similar a amitriptilina, clomipramina, fluoxetina e bupropiona. Duloxetina e amitriptilina tinham maior taxa de remissão que fluoxetina. Comparando-se as taxas de abandono de tratamento devido a efeitos colaterais, clomipramina era menos seguro, amitriptilina, bupropiona e duloxetina eram parecidos entre si, e fluoxetina era o antidepressivo mais seguro


Technology: Duloxetine and other antidepressants available in the Brazilian Public Health System (amitriptyline, nortriptyline, clomipramine, fluoxetine and bupropion). Indication: Treatment of the first depressive episode in adult major depressive disorder. Question: Is duloxetine more effective and tolerable than amitriptyline, nortriptyline, clomipramine, fluoxetine and bupropion for the treatment of first episode of major depression in adults? Methods: Rapid response review of evidence (overview) from systematic reviews, with a bibliographic search in the PUBMED database, using a structured strategy. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed with AMSTAR-2 (Methodological Quality Assessment of Systematic Reviews). Results: One systematic review was selected, which met the inclusion criteria. Conclusion: In short-term treatment, antidepressants, compared to placebo, had a higher rate of response, rate of remission and rate drop-out due to side effects. Duloxetine had a similar response rate to amitriptyline, clomipramine, fluoxetine and bupropion. Duloxetine and amitriptyline had higher remission rates than fluoxetine. Comparing rates of dropout due to side effects, clomipramine had the worst rates, amitriptyline, bupropion, and duloxetine were similar to each other, and fluoxetine had the better rates


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Duloxetine Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents , Unified Health System , Fluoxetine/therapeutic use , Bupropion/therapeutic use , Clomipramine/therapeutic use , Amitriptyline/therapeutic use , Nortriptyline/therapeutic use
3.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1367185

ABSTRACT

Lisdexanfetamina e drogas disponíveis no SUS (metilfenidato, bupropiona, amitriptilina, clomipramina, nortriptilina). Indicação: Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade (TDAH) em crianças e adolescentes. Pergunta: Lisdexanfetamina é eficaz e segura para melhoria de sintomática, comparada ao placebo e medicações disponíveis no SUS, no tratamento de crianças e adolescentes com TDAH? Métodos: Revisão rápida de evidências (overview) de revisões sistemáticas, com levantamento bibliográfico realizado na base de dados PUBMED, utilizando estratégia estruturada de busca. A qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas foi avaliada com AMSTAR-2 (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews). Resultados: Foram selecionadas 3 revisões sistemáticas, que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. Conclusão: Lisdexanfetamina e metilfenidato são mais eficazes que placebo, e similares entre si, para reduzir sintomas em escalas de avaliação. Lisdexanfetamina e metilfenidato têm risco similar ao placebo de abandono do tratamento devido a efeitos adversos. Bupropiona não é mais eficaz que placebo para alívio sintomático. Lisdexanfetamina tem efeitos adversos de redução do apetite e insônia/ dificuldades do sono. Não foram encontradas evidências na literatura sobre os efeitos terapêuticos de amitriptilina, clomipramina e nortriptilina no tratamento de crianças e adolescentes com TDAH


Lisdexamfetamine and drugs available in the Brazilian Public Health System (BPHS) (methylphenidate, bupropion, amitriptyline, clomipramine, nortriptyline, bupropion). Indication: Children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Question: Lisdexamfetamine is effective and safe for symptomatic improvement, compared to placebo and drugs available in the BPHS, for treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD? Methods: Rapid response review of evidence (overview) of systematic reviews, with bibliographic search in the PUBMED database, using a structured strategy. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed with AMSTAR-2 (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews). Results: 3 systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria and were selected. Conclusion: Lisdexamfetamine and methylphenidate are more effective than placebo, and similar to each other, to reduce symptoms on rating scales. Lisdexamfetamine and methylphenidate are not different from placebo in the risk of treatment discontinuation due to adverse effects. Bupropion is no more effective than placebo for symptomatic relief. Lisdexamfetamine has adverse effects of decreased appetite and insomnia/sleep troubles. No evidence was found in the literature about therapeutic effects of amitriptyline, clomipramine and nortriptyline for treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Bupropion/therapeutic use , Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate/therapeutic use , Methylphenidate/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Placebos , Clomipramine/therapeutic use , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Amitriptyline/therapeutic use , Nortriptyline/therapeutic use
4.
Med. UIS ; 33(2): 117-121, mayo-ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346453

ABSTRACT

Resumen En Colombia las intoxicaciones autoinfligidas vienen en aumento en los últimos años, la principal causa son los medicamentos y dentro de éstos, los psicofármacos. El bupropión es un antidepresivo, inhibidor débil de la recaptación de dopamina y noradrenalina; está aprobado para el tratamiento del trastorno depresivo mayor y se ha utilizado en otras indicaciones como: depresión bipolar, abandono del cigarrillo, trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH), obesidad y disfunción sexual. Sus principales efectos adversos son cardiovasculares y neurológicos. Esta serie de casos busca evidenciar las complicaciones asociadas a su toxicidad y resaltar algunos aspectos en el manejo de estas intoxicaciones; tales como el uso de la irrigación gastrointestinal y el uso de emulsiones lipídicas. MÉD. UIS. 2020;33(2):117-121.


Abstract In Colombia, self-inflicted drug poisonings have been increasing in recent years, and within these, psychotropic drugs. The vast majority of psychoactive drug poisonings are explained by SSRI tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsants. Bupropion is an antidepressant, dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder and used in other indications such as: bipolar depression, smoking cessation, attention deficit disorder the importance of this series of cases is to sensitize health personnel about the increase in prescription and therefore more Toxicity risks associated with this medicine. There is little literature on the management of bupropion toxicity, understanding these and it is important to highlight its amphetamine-like structure that explains neurological risks such as seizures and cardiovascular events as arrhythmias, although it is true that there is no consensus on the management, it is worth highlighting the usefulness of lipid emulsions This series of cases, being the first in Colombia, seeks to highlight the complications associated with its toxicity and highlight some aspects in the management of this poisoning; such as the use of gastrointestinal irrigation and the use of lipid emulsions. MÉD.UIS. 2020;33(2):117-121.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Toxicity , Psychiatry , Psychotropic Drugs , Seizures , Bupropion
5.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 44(2): 24-37, 20200813.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363994

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desta pesquisa é avaliar o desempenho do Programa de Controle do Tabagismo em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde (UBS). Realizou-se um estudo caso-controle, do tipo coorte retrospectivo, com 170 fumantes do Programa Municipal de Controle do Tabagismo da Unidade Básica de Saúde Candeal Pequeno, em Salvador, Bahia, de fevereiro de 2015 a junho de 2017. Usou-se a técnica de regressão logística binária. A taxa de incidência cumulativa para cessação após 12 semanas (57,1%) e a taxa de abandono do programa (26,4%) não se associaram significantemente a faixa etária, sexo, dependência de nicotina, hipertensão arterial e diabetes mellitus. Após quatro semanas, o não uso da bupropiona associou-se (P<0,007) à cessação do tabagismo. Em 29 meses, o programa atendeu 60,3% do público elegível. Ele apresentou taxas satisfatórias de cessação, abandono do hábito de fumar e de cobertura, considerando o período estudado e a população elegível. Estudos bem desenhados e de abrangência nacional são necessários para melhor avaliar a efetividade do Programa Nacional de Controle do Tabagismo no nível da atenção primária à saúde.


This study sought to evaluate the performance of the Tobacco Cessation Program in a Primary Health Care Unit. A retrospective case-control cohort research was carried out with 170 smokers enrolled in the Municipal Tobacco Control Program at the Candeal Pequeno Primary Health Care Unit, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, from February 2015 to June 2017. Data was analyzed using binary logistic regression. The cumulative incidence rate for cessation after 12 weeks (57.1%) and the dropout rate (26.4%) were not significantly associated to age, gender, nicotine dependence, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. After four weeks in the program, not using bupropion was associated with smoking cessation (P<0.007). In 29 months, the Program reached 60.3% of the eligible target public. The Program showed satisfactory rates of tobacco use cessation and coverage, considering the period studied and the eligible population. Well-designed, nationwide studies are needed to better evaluate the effectiveness of the National Tobacco Cessation Program in primary health care.


El objetivo de esta investigación es evaluar el desempeño del Programa de Control del Tabaquismo en una Unidad Básica de Salud (UBS). Este es un estudio caso-control, de tipo cohorte retrospectivo, realizado con 170 fumadores del Programa Municipal de Control del Tabaquismo de la Unidad Básica de Salud Candeal Pequeno, en Salvador, Brasil, en el período de febrero de 2015 a junio de 2017. Se utilizó la técnica de regresión logística binaria. La tasa de incidencia acumulativa para cesación después de 12 semanas (57,1%) y la tasa de abandono del Programa (26,4%) no se asociaron significativamente a edad, sexo, dependencia de nicotina, hipertensión arterial y diabetes mellitus. Después de cuatro semanas, el no uso de bupropiona se asoció (P<0,007) a la cesación del tabaquismo. En 29 meses, el Programa atendió al 60,3% del público elegible. Y presentó tasas satisfactorias de cesación, abandono del hábito de fumar y de cobertura, considerando el período de tiempo estudiado y el público. Estudios bien diseñados y de alcance nacional son necesarios para mejor evaluar la efectividad del Programa Nacional de Control del Tabaquismo en la atención primaria de la salud.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Tobacco Use Disorder , Smoking Cessation , Bupropion
7.
Rev. invest. clín ; 71(1): 7-16, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289665

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Smoking is considered an epidemic, indeed, one of the most important public health problems worldwide. It is also the most significant preventable cause of death, of a high number of premature deaths, and avoidable chronic diseases. It is considered an enormous economic burden for the world. Objective To provide an overview of smoking-cessation treatments, including pharmacological and psychological options, and to gather current scientific evidence available on them. Methods Research included reviewing publications from 2007-2018 in four databases using algorithms related to bupropion, varenicline, nicotine replacement therapy, smoking cessation, psychological treatment, motivational interview, cognitive-behavioral therapy and clinical guidelines for smoking treatment. Meta-analyses or systematic reviews and randomized or quasi-randomized trials were selected. We also included clinical guidelines for smoking treatment from Mexico and other countries. Results After refining the search, 37 articles met the criteria and were included in the review. The results were grouped by type of intervention. Conclusions It is necessary to conduct research on combinations of both kinds of treatment with an integral, multidisciplinary vision. Current standard for smoking cessation is a combined psychological and pharmacological treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Smoking Cessation/methods , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Smoking Cessation/psychology , Bupropion/administration & dosage , Motivational Interviewing/methods , Varenicline/administration & dosage , Smoking Cessation Agents/administration & dosage , Mexico
8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(2): 563-572, Feb. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-984193

ABSTRACT

Resumo O hábito de fumar, ou tabagismo, preocupação da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS), é um grave problema de saúde pública e a principal causa de morte evitável no mundo. A relevância de ações, cujo foco seja facilitar a cessação deste vício, motiva a discussão de estudos que apresentam diferentes abordagens para tal enfrentamento visando contribuir para a formação dos profissionais da APS. Utilizou-se as bases de dados Lilacs, Medline e Web of Science considerando as produções científicas recentes (2010 a 2015). Os descritores foram combinados a operadores boleanos e, após análise dos artigos encontrados, 75 são discutidos nesta revisão por apresentarem estratégias de maior prevalência na APS. Conclui-se que a abordagem individual breve ou intensa a partir do método dos 5A's (Modelo Transteórico) é a mais adotada, assim como os fármacos adesivos de Nicotina e Bupropiona. O uso crescente de tecnologia dura necessita de novos estudos que averiguem os seus impactos no tratamento a tabagistas. Evidenciou-se a necessidade de o profissional de saúde ser mais bem preparado para abordar o tema com os usuários, além de carecer do estímulo e das condições próprias para atuar na equipe de APS refletindo diretamente os avanços científicos em sua prática clínica.


Abstract The habit of tobacco use/smoking, which is a major concern of Primary Health Care (PHC), is a serious public health problem and the main avoidable cause of death in the world. The relevance of actions, whose focus is to facilitate the cessation of this habit, motivates the discussion of studies that have different approaches to tackle this issue by seeking to train PHC professionals accordingly. A search was conducted in the Lilacs, MEDLINE and Web of Science databases for recent scientific publications (2010-2015). The key words were combined with Boolean operators and, after analysis of the articles found, 75 are discussed in this article since they have strategies with a higher prevalence in PHC. The conclusion drawn is that the brief or intense individual approach using the 5A method (Transtheoretical Model) is the most widely adopted, as well as bupropion and nicotine replacement patches. The increasing use of hard technology requires new studies that examine their impact on the treatment of smokers. It was clearly revealed that there is a need for health professionals to be better prepared to address the issue with the users, in addition to a lack of stimulus and proper conditions to work in the PHC team directly reflecting scientific advances in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care/methods , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices , Smoking/epidemiology , Prevalence , Bupropion/administration & dosage , Tobacco Use/prevention & control , Smoking Cessation Agents/administration & dosage
9.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 63-71, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738872

ABSTRACT

The Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety has approved three anti-obesity drugs for long-term management in the past decade. In addition, since 2019, bariatric surgery has been financially supported by National Health Insurance Service in Korea. In this review, the mechanisms of action and the clinical implications of the recently approved anti-obesity drugs, lorcaserin, naltrexone/bupropion, and liraglutide are explained. Lorcaserin stimulates proopiomelanocortin (POMC)/cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons and inhibits neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons, which results in the activation of melanocortin 3/4 receptors. Naltrexone/bupropion stimulates POMC neurons through bupropion; this stimulation is augmented by blocking the autoinhibitory mechanism of POMC with naltrexone. The hypophagic effect of liraglutide is mediated through the direct activation of POMC/CART neurons and the indirect suppression of NPY/AgRP neurons through γ-aminobutyric acid-dependent signaling, with adjunctive suppression of the mesolimbic dopamine reward system. In addition to liraglutide, another glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, semaglutide, is expected to be added to the list of anti-obesity drugs in the near future. In patients with obesity and high cardiovascular risk, lorcaserin was considered neutral and liraglutide was considered favorable, whereas inconclusive results were obtained for naltrexone/bupropion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Obesity Agents , Bariatric Surgery , Bupropion , Dopamine , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Korea , Liraglutide , Naltrexone , National Health Programs , Neurons , Neuropeptide Y , Obesity , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Reward
10.
Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine ; (4): 84-88, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785586

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS) toxicity, including tachydysrhythmia, agitation, and seizures, may arise from cocaine or bupropion use. We report acute toxicity from the concomitant use of cocaine and bupropion in a 25-year-old female. She arrived agitated and uncooperative, with a history of possible antecedent cocaine use. Her electrocardiogram demonstrated tachycardia at 130 beats/min, with a corrected QT interval of 579 ms. Two doses of 5 mg intravenous metoprolol were administered, which resolved the agitation, tachydysrhythmia, and corrected QT interval prolongation. Her comprehensive toxicology screen returned positive for both cocaine and bupropion. We believe clinicians should be aware of the potential for synergistic cardiovascular and CNS toxicity from concomitant cocaine and bupropion use. Metoprolol may represent an effective initial treatment. Unlike benzodiazepines, metoprolol directly counters the pharmacologic effects of stimulants without respiratory depression, sedation, or paradoxical agitation. A lipophilic beta-blocker, metoprolol has good penetration of the CNS and can counter stimulant-induced agitation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Benzodiazepines , Bupropion , Central Nervous System , Cocaine , Dihydroergotamine , Electrocardiography , Metoprolol , Respiratory Insufficiency , Seizures , Tachycardia , Toxicology
11.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 1036-1046, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785481

ABSTRACT

Antidepressant drugs can be advantageous in treating psychiatric and non-psychiatric illnesses, including spinal disorders. However, spine surgeons remain unfamiliar with the advantages and disadvantages of the use of antidepressant drugs as a part of the medical management of diseases of the spine. Our review article describes a systematic method using the PubMed/Medline database with a specific set of keywords to identify such benefits and drawbacks based on 17 original relevant articles published between January 2000 and February 2018; this provides the community of spine surgeons with available cumulative evidence contained within two tables illustrating both observational (10 studies; three cross-sectional, three case-control, and four cohort studies) and interventional (seven randomized clinical trials) studies. While tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline) and duloxetine can be effective in the treatment of neuropathic pain caused by root compression, venlafaxine may be more appropriate for patients with spinal cord injury presenting with depression and/or nociceptive pain. Despite the potential associated consequences of a prolonged hospital stay, higher cost, and controversial reports regarding the lowering of bone mineral density in the elderly, antidepressants may improve patient satisfaction and quality of life following surgery, and reduce postoperative pain and risk of delirium. The preoperative treatment of preexisting psychiatric diseases, such as anxiety and depression, can improve outcomes for patients with spinal cord injury-related disabilities; however, a preoperative platelet function assay is advocated prior to major spine surgical procedures to protect against significant intraoperative blood loss, as serotonergic antidepressants (e.g., selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and bupropion can increase the likelihood of bleeding intraoperatively due to drug-induced platelet dysfunction. This comprehensive review of this evolving topic can assist spine surgeons in better understanding the benefits and risks of antidepressant drugs to optimize outcomes and avoid potential hazards in a spine surgical setting.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Antidepressive Agents , Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic , Anxiety , Blood Platelets , Bone Density , Bupropion , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Delirium , Depression , Duloxetine Hydrochloride , Hemorrhage , Length of Stay , Methods , Neuralgia , Nociceptive Pain , Pain, Postoperative , Patient Satisfaction , Quality of Life , Risk Assessment , Serotonin , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spine , Surgeons , Venlafaxine Hydrochloride
12.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 1-5, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719623

ABSTRACT

Quitting smoking helps smokers maintain their health and extend their lifespan by 10 or more years. Treatment strategies for smoking cessation should be tailored to individual smokers with special needs based on their specific circumstances. It is recommended that pregnant women adopt smoking cessation through counseling and behavioral interventions because the safety of medications has yet to be established. Counseling is the main strategy for smoking cessation in adolescents and nicotine replacement therapy can be used with caution in individuals with serious nicotine dependence. It is important for smokers with psychiatric diseases to quit smoking following accurate assessment of their depression status. Nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, and bupropion can be used for smoking cessation in smokers with psychiatric disorders. The incidence of cardiovascular disease decreased according to the smoking status and the duration of smoking cessation. In smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who used a combination of counseling and pharmacotherapy the quitting rate was more than twice as high as subjects who used behavioral interventions alone. Varenicline can be used as the most effective anti-smoking drug by most smokers including those with psychiatric disorders, cardiovascular disease, and COPD.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Bupropion , Cardiovascular Diseases , Counseling , Depression , Drug Therapy , Incidence , Nicotine , Pregnant Women , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Smoke , Smoking Cessation , Smoking , Tobacco Use Disorder , Varenicline
13.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 537-541, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of bupropion extended-release for the treatment of depressive disorder in children and adolescents. METHODS: This was a 12-week, retrospective chart review of bupropion, which included 127 youth (age, 15.3 ± 2.3 years; 66 boys) with depressive disorders (105 with major depressive disorder, 14 with dysthymia, 11 with adjustment disorder with depressed mood, and seven with depressive disorder not otherwise specified). Illness severity at baseline and at the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks was retrospectively scored using the Clinical Global Impressions-Depression-Severity (CGI-Depression-S) and/or Clinical Global Impressions-Depression-Improvement (CGI-Depression-I). RESULTS: The mean dose of bupropion was 180.0 ± 52.6 (range, 75–300) mg/day and the mean duration 33.9 ± 53.1 (range, 7–295) weeks. The CGI-Depression-S scores were significantly decreased over 12 weeks (F = 132.125, p < 0.001, partial η² = 0.508). Fifty-eight subjects (45.7%) were determined to be responders at 12 weeks (defined by a CGI-Depression-I score ≤ 2). Forty-six patients (36.2%) discontinued bupropion before the 12 weeks (19 due to adverse events, 15 due to poor effectiveness, three due to referral to other clinics, and nine due to follow-up loss for unknown reasons). Overall, bupropion was well tolerated. The most common adverse event was irritability (n = 12, 9.4%), which resolved spontaneously in eight subjects or after drug discontinuation in four subjects. CONCLUSION: Our results provide preliminary evidence of the effectiveness and safety of bupropion in children and adolescents with depressive episodes. Large, prospective, placebo-controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Adjustment Disorders , Bupropion , Depressive Disorder , Depressive Disorder, Major , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Follow-Up Studies , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
14.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 602-611, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763786

ABSTRACT

Synaptic dopamine (DA) is mainly regulated by the presynaptic DA transporter (DAT). Single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) with the DAT radiotracer [¹²³I]FP-CIT assesses changes in synaptic DA availability when endogenous DA displaces [¹²³I]FP-CIT or competes for DAT. Here, we investigated the effects of haloperidol (HAL) and clozapine (CLZ) on [¹²³I]FP-CIT binding in the rat striatum and midbrain to assess the utility of [¹²³I]FP-CIT SPECT to quantify changes in synaptic DA availability. Rats underwent [¹²³I]FP-CIT SPECT after intraperitoneal administration of normal saline (vehicle), HAL (1 and 7 mg/kg), CLZ (10 and 54 mg/kg) and bupropion (BUP, a DAT blocker, 20 and 100 mg/kg). In the striatum and midbrain, percent differences in the nondisplaceable binding potential (BP(ND)) of [¹²³I]FP-CIT compared to the vehicle were calculated for the various drugs and doses. In another experiment, changes in endogenous striatal DA concentration were measured by in vivo microdialysis under the conditions used in the SPECT study. BUP dose-dependently occupied DAT at considerable levels. Compared to the vehicle, HAL decreased [¹²³I]FP-CIT BP(ND) in the striatum (−25.29% and −2.27% for 1 and 7 mg/kg, respectively) and to a greater degree in the midbrain (−58.74% and −49.64% for 1 and 7 mg/kg, respectively), whereas the CLZ-treated group showed a decrease in the midbrain (−38.60% and −40.38% for 10 and 54 mg/kg, respectively) but an increase in the striatum (18.85% and 38.64% for 10 and 54 mg/kg, respectively). Antipsychotic-induced changes in endogenous striatal DA concentrations varied across drugs and doses. The data demonstrate that [¹²³I]FP-CIT SPECT may be a useful preclinical technique for detecting increases in synaptic DA availability in the midbrain and striatum in response to HAL, with results comparable to those of in vivo microdialysis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Bupropion , Clozapine , Dopamine , Haloperidol , Mesencephalon , Microdialysis , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
15.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Therapies in Psychiatry ; (3): 138-151, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787404

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare aripiprazole versus bupropion augmentation therapy in older adult patients with major depressive disorder unresponsive to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs).METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of a 6-week, randomized prospective open-label multi-center study in thirty older adult patients with major depressive disorder. Participants were randomized to receive aripiprazole(N=16, 2.5–10mg/day) or bupropion(N=14, 150–300mg/day) for 6 weeks. Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating scale(HAM-D17), Iowa Fatigue Scale, Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale, Psychotropic-Related Sexual Dysfunction Questionnaire scores, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) were obtained at baseline and after one, two, four, and six weeks. Changes on individual items of HAM-D17 were assessed as well as on composite scales(anxiety, insomnia and drive), and on four core subscales that capture core depression symptoms.RESULTS: There was a significantly greater decrease in MADRS scores in aripiprazole group compared to bupropion group at 4(p<0.05) and 6(p<0.05) weeks. There were significantly higher response rate at week 4(p<0.05) and 6(p<0.05) and remission rate at week 6 in aripiprazole group compared to bupropion group. Individual HAM-D17 items showing significantly greater change with adjunctive aripiprazole than bupropion: insomnia, late(ES=0.81 vs. −0.24, p=0.043), psychomotor retardation(ES=1.30 vs. 0.66, p=0.024), general somatic symptoms(ES=1.24 vs. 0.00, p=0.01). On three composite scales, adjunctive aripiprazole was significantly more effective than bupropion with respect to mean change for drive(p=0.005).CONCLUSION: Results of this study suggested that aripiprazole augmentation have superior efficacy in treating general and core symptoms of depression in older adult patients. Aripiprazole augmentation is associated with greater improvement in specific symptoms of depression such as psychomotor retardation, general somatic symptoms and drive.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Aripiprazole , Bupropion , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Fatigue , Iowa , Prospective Studies , Serotonin , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Weights and Measures
16.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 384-388, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775897

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical efficacy of acupoint catgut embedding and bupropion hydrochloride sustained-release tablets in the treatment of tobacco dependence.@*METHODS@#A total of 100 patients with tobacco dependence who met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into an acupoint catgut embedding group and a drug group, 50 cases in each group. In the acupoint catgut embedding group, acupoint catgut embedding was applied at Xinshu (BL 15), Shenmen (HT 7), Tianmei (Extra), Taichong (LR 3), the treatment was given once every 2 weeks for 4 times; The bupropion hydrochloride sustained-release tablets was orally administered in the drug group for 7 weeks, 150 mg each time, once a day for the first 3 days, twice daily from day 4 to day 7, and once a day after day 8. The Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) score before and after treatment, the 4th and 8th week smoking cessation rate, the continuous smoking cessation rate and efficacy, compliance rate and adverse reaction rate were compared in the two groups.@*RESULTS@#A total of 100 patients were enrolled, and 97 patients completed the study (loss rate was 3%), including 49 cases in the acupoint catgut embedding group and 48 cases in the drug group. The FTND scores in the two groups were lower than those before treatment (both 0.05). At the 4th and the 8th week, the smoking cessation rate in the acupoint catgut embedding group was 40.8% (20/49) and 79.6% (39/49) respectively, the smoking cessation rate in the drug group was 41.7% (20/48) and 83.3% (40/48) respectively, the two groups were equally effective (both >0.05). The continuous smoking cessation rate in the acupoint embedding group was 40.8% (20/49), which was equivalent to 41.7% (20/48) in the drug group (>0.05). The rate of complete compliance in the acupoint embedding group was 61.2% (30/49), which was significantly better than 37.5% (18/48) in the drug group (<0.05). The adverse reaction rate in the acupoint catgut embedding group was 12.2% (6/49), which was significantly lower than 29.2% (16/48) in the drug group (<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Acupoint catgut embedding can effectively improve the symptoms of tobacco dependence after smoking cessation. Its curative effect is close to that of bupropion hydrochloride sustained-release tablets, and it has good clinical compliance and less adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Points , Bupropion , Therapeutic Uses , Catgut , Delayed-Action Preparations , Tablets , Tobacco Use Disorder , Therapeutics
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(5): 665-669, mayo 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961444

ABSTRACT

Upgaze or sustained elevation of the eyes, is an alteration of ocular motility initially described in hypoxic coma. We report a 65-year-old woman admitted with hypotension and alteration of sensorium due to the ingestion of 9.5 g of Bupropion. She presented two seizures of short duration, without epileptic activity on the EEG. She had a persistent asynchronous myoclonus in extremities, tachycardia and prolonged Q-t. She suffered a cardiac arrest caused by asystole, which recovered quickly in five minutes. At that moment, upgaze appeared, associated with a persistent ocular opening, which persisted for days, but finally disappeared, without remission of coma. A magnetic resonance imaging done at the eighth day, showed hyperintensity of the oval center and corpus callosum which disappeared in a new imaging study done 30 days later, where images of hypoxia in the basal nuclei and cortex appeared. The patient died forty seven days after admission. Up-gaze is an ominous oculomotor alteration linked to an important but incomplete damage in the cerebral cortex, a condition that perverts some sequences of the ocular opening, reversing the Bell phenomenon and producing eyelid retraction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Ocular Motility Disorders/chemically induced , Hypoxia, Brain/chemically induced , Bupropion/adverse effects , Coma/chemically induced , Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation/adverse effects , Drug Overdose/complications , Personality Disorders/drug therapy , Suicide , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Fatal Outcome
18.
Korean Journal of Schizophrenia Research ; : 21-27, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738903

ABSTRACT

Schizophrenia is a major chronic mental illness with various symptoms that is often accompanied by substance use disorders. Patients with schizophrenia have a higher smoking rate than the general population and a lower smoking cessation success rate. Further, their motivation for smoking cessation is often low. Individuals with schizophrenia that are past or present cigarette smokers are more difficult to treat in terms of psychotic symptoms, are more likely to have physical illnesses, and have higher mortality rates. A variety of treatments, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological, are used to aid smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia. Among these, bupropion, varenicline, and nicotine replacement therapy can be safely used in patients with schizophrenia, and several studies have demonstrated their effects. Cigarette smoking is an important health problem. The study of smoking cessation in individuals with schizophrenia may help improve their ability to function and their quality of life through active evaluation and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bupropion , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Motivation , Nicotine , Quality of Life , Schizophrenia , Smoke , Smoking Cessation , Smoking , Substance-Related Disorders , Tobacco Products , Varenicline
19.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 101-112, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714749

ABSTRACT

Randomized trials have shown that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) have better safety profiles than classical tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). However, an increasing number of studies, including meta-analyses, naturalistic studies, and longer-term studies suggested that SSRIs and SNRIs are no less safe than TCAs. We focused on comparing the common side effects of TCAs with those of newer generation antidepressants including SSRIs, SNRIs, mirtazapine, and bupropion. The main purpose was to investigate safety profile differences among drug classes rather than the individual antidepressants, so studies containing comparison data on drug groups were prioritized. In terms of safety after overdose, the common belief on newer generation antidepressants having fewer side effects than TCAs appears to be true. TCAs were also associated with higher drop-out rates, lower tolerability, and higher cardiac side-effects. However, evidence regarding side effects including dry mouth, gastrointestinal side effects, hepatotoxicity, seizure, and weight has been inconsistent, some studies demonstrated the superiority of SSRIs and SNRIs over TCAs, while others found the opposite. Some other side effects such as sexual dysfunction, bleeding, and hyponatremia were more prominent with either SSRIs or SNRIs.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents , Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic , Bupropion , Depressive Disorder , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Hemorrhage , Hyponatremia , Mouth , Seizures , Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e290-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of antidepressants (ADs) in bipolar disorder is long-standing controversial issue in psychiatry. Many clinicians have used ADs as a treatment for bipolar depression, and the selection of therapeutic agents is very diverse and inconsistent. This study aimed to examine recent AD prescription patterns for patients with bipolar disorder in Korea, using the nationwide, population-based data. METHODS: This study utilized the Korean nationwide, whole population-based registry data of the year 2010, 2011, and 2013. All prescription data of the ADs, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers of the sampled patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (n = 2,022 [in 2010]; 2,038 [in 2011]; 2,626 [in 2013]) were analyzed for each year. RESULTS: Annual prescription rate of ADs was 27.3%–33.6% in bipolar disorder, which was gradually increasing over the 3-year period. The combination pattern of ADs and antipsychotic drugs tended to increase over 3 years. The proportion of females and the prevalence of comorbid anxiety disorder were significantly higher in AD user group in all three years. Among individual ADs, escitalopram was prescribed most frequently, and fluoxetine and bupropion were prescribed to the next many patients. The mean duration of bipolar depressive episodes was 135.90–152.53 days, of which ADs were prescribed for 115.60–121.98 days. CONCLUSION: Our results show prescription rate of ADs in bipolar disorder was maintained at substantial level and increased in recent 3 years. More empirical data and evidence are needed to establish practical treatment consensuses.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Antidepressive Agents , Antipsychotic Agents , Anxiety Disorders , Bipolar Disorder , Bupropion , Citalopram , Consensus , Fluoxetine , Korea , Prescriptions , Prevalence
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